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 Table of Contents
 Boll rot and hard lock cotton
 Alfalfa in Florida
 Florida 99 Alfalfa
 Peanut marketing
 Saving peanut seed
 Assigning the peanut base
 Effective production of peanut...
 Peanut acreage in various...
 Tobacco rotation and nematode...
 Tobacco planting dates and nematode...
 Tobacco marketing
 The 2002 tobacco crop
 Destroy tobacco roots
 Dove hunting
 Soil and nematode sampling after...
 Pesticide registration updates
 August crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00026
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: September 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00026

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Boll rot and hard lock cotton
        Page 2
    Alfalfa in Florida
        Page 2
    Florida 99 Alfalfa
        Page 2
    Peanut marketing
        Page 3
    Saving peanut seed
        Page 3
    Assigning the peanut base
        Page 3
    Effective production of peanuts
        Page 3
    Peanut acreage in various states
        Page 3
    Tobacco rotation and nematode control
        Page 4
    Tobacco planting dates and nematode life cycles
        Page 4
    Tobacco marketing
        Page 4
    The 2002 tobacco crop
        Page 4
    Destroy tobacco roots
        Page 5
    Dove hunting
        Page 5
    Soil and nematode sampling after crop harvest
        Page 5
    Pesticide registration updates
        Page 5
    August crop report
        Page 6
Full Text






AGRONOMY


,.:, UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
EXTENSION
I r ...i. I Ar... ,rrA 1-11.1-1 S.1


NOTES


C~nt~mh~r inn)


IN THIS ISSUE


PAGE


COTTON
B oll R ot and H ard Lock C otton .............................................. ............................................... 2

FORAGE
A lfalfa in F lorid a .................................................................. .................................. ............ 2
F lo rida 99 A lfalfa ..................................................................................... .............................. 2

PEANUT
P eanu t M ark etin g ..................................................................................... .............................. 3
Sav ing P eanut S eed ............................................................. .................................... ............ 3
A signing the P eanut B ase ................................................... .................................................. 3
Efficient Production of Peanuts ............................................ ........................................... 3
Peanut A create in Various States .......................................... ........................................... 3

TOBACCO
Tobacco Rotation and Nematode Control .............................. ................................................ 4
Tobacco Planting Dates and Nematode Life Cycles ........................................ ................ 4
T ob acco M ark etin g ................................................................................... .............................. 4
T he 2002 T tobacco C rop ...................................................... .................................... ............ 4
D destroy T ob acco R oots ........................................................ .................................... ............ 5

MISCELLANEOUS
D ove H hunting ..... .................................................................................... 5
Soil and Nematode Sampling After Crop Harvest ........................... .................................... 5
Pesticide R registration U updates ............................................... ................................................ 5
A ugu st C rop R report ............................................................. .................................. ............ 6


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.


DATES TO REMEMBER

September 26 Row Crops Field Day Quincy REC
October 15-17 Sunbelt Agricultural Expo Moultrie, GA








BOLL ROT AND HARD LOCK COTTON

The exact cause of boll rot and hard lock in cotton has never
been determined. However, we know that high humidity,
high moisture environments in conjunction with rank growth
and high nitrogen rates or high fertility seem to set the cot-
tonplant up for this problem. The microorganisms that cause
hard lock and boll rot in cotton are present in the soil and
many spores are airborne that can infect the bolls. There
are several microorganisms that have been associated with
hard lock and boll rot including Fusarium spp., Diplodia
spp., Xanthomonas spp. and others. Studies are underway
at NFREC to better identify management practices that may
reduce hard lock and boll rot. The focus of these studies
includes Fusarium spp., fertility, tillage, and use of fungi-
cides. Finding management practices that can reduce hard
lock and boll rot could make a major impact on the cotton
industry since 30-50% of the cotton crop is lost in some
years when conditions are favorable for the problem in the
humid areas of the cotton belt.

DLW

ALFALFA IN FLORIDA

Alfalfa can be utilized as hay, silage, green chop or pasture
(including creep grazing for calves). All uses should be
kept in mind by producers planning to grow alfalfa. Exces-
sive rainfall and high humidity during the summer months
makes haying difficult. When weather conditions are not
suitable for making hay, the alfalfa crop might be sold to a
neighbor who has silage making equipment, or the alfalfa
fields might be utilized by cattle that need a high rate of
gain. Other alternatives that have been used with some suc-
cess are hay preservatives, to put up high moisture hay (20-
22%), and roll bale silage.

Alfalfa should be grown on our best soils those that are
fertile, have high moisture-holding capacity (or irrigated),
and are deep and well-drained (sandy loams). Fields that
have been cropped in the past may be a good choice since
they have been fertilized and limed. Fields that already have
a pH of 6.5 to 7.0 will save the cost of liming. Alfalfa re-
quires a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. Lime should be added 3 to 6
months before planting to raise the pH if needed. Phospho-
rus and potash should be applied prior to planting accord-
ing to soil test recommendations. Also, apply 15 to 30
pounds of elemental sulfur and 3 pounds of elemental bo-
ron per acre.

Alfalfa should be planted around Oct. 15 or early enough in
the fall to ensure establishment of the stand before the first


frost. On the other hand, planting too early, i.e., during hot
humid weather, may result in seedling damping-off.

Seedbed preparation should start 4 to 5 weeks before the
expected planting date. If rainfall has not compacted the
seedbed, then a cultipacker or roller should be used before
seeding to firm the seedbed.

The seed may be broadcast, but the preferred method is to
use a cultipacker-seeder or a grain drill with small seed at-
tachment. The seed should be covered with only 1/4 to1/2
inch of soil. Use freshly inoculated seed. Seed 20 pounds
per acre if broadcasting or 12 pounds per acre if precision
planting equipment is used.

The recommended alfalfa variety for Florida is FL 99. One
or two other varieties such as the Amerigraze 702 also may
be suitable for Northwest Florida.

Weeds can be controlled with herbicides. Some are preplant
incorporated. Thus, a weed control program should be
planned before planting. Also, determine what insect pests
might be a problem and budget for insect control.

Finally, work up a complete budget for cost of establishment
as well as a production budget. Compare costs to expected
returns. Producers have tried growing alfalfa in Florida in
the past, and many have been successful, but none have con-
tinued on a long term basis.

CGC

FLORIDA 99 ALFALFA

This new variety is available for fall planting this year.
Florida 99Alfalfa is an excellent high yielding, persistent
alfalfa variety bred by the Agronomy Department, Univer-
sity of Florida. This cultivar is adapted to the entire state of
Florida and all other areas where dormancy #9 alfalfa is
grown. Florida 99 is what is called a non-dormant type al-
falfa. This means that it will continue to grow during short
days and cool nights, whereas more northerly adapted vari-
eties will not. Florida 99 is an improvement of the older
variety known as Florida 77. Yields at Jay and at Gainesville
were significantly higher than other non-dormant varieties,
averaging 5 to 6 tons of dry matter per acre per year over a
2- to 3-year period. If you cannot obtain seed through your
local seed dealer, you may want to contact Cal/West seeds in
Woodland, Ca. Their phone number is 800-824-8585. This
company grows and processes the seed.

CGC








BOLL ROT AND HARD LOCK COTTON

The exact cause of boll rot and hard lock in cotton has never
been determined. However, we know that high humidity,
high moisture environments in conjunction with rank growth
and high nitrogen rates or high fertility seem to set the cot-
tonplant up for this problem. The microorganisms that cause
hard lock and boll rot in cotton are present in the soil and
many spores are airborne that can infect the bolls. There
are several microorganisms that have been associated with
hard lock and boll rot including Fusarium spp., Diplodia
spp., Xanthomonas spp. and others. Studies are underway
at NFREC to better identify management practices that may
reduce hard lock and boll rot. The focus of these studies
includes Fusarium spp., fertility, tillage, and use of fungi-
cides. Finding management practices that can reduce hard
lock and boll rot could make a major impact on the cotton
industry since 30-50% of the cotton crop is lost in some
years when conditions are favorable for the problem in the
humid areas of the cotton belt.

DLW

ALFALFA IN FLORIDA

Alfalfa can be utilized as hay, silage, green chop or pasture
(including creep grazing for calves). All uses should be
kept in mind by producers planning to grow alfalfa. Exces-
sive rainfall and high humidity during the summer months
makes haying difficult. When weather conditions are not
suitable for making hay, the alfalfa crop might be sold to a
neighbor who has silage making equipment, or the alfalfa
fields might be utilized by cattle that need a high rate of
gain. Other alternatives that have been used with some suc-
cess are hay preservatives, to put up high moisture hay (20-
22%), and roll bale silage.

Alfalfa should be grown on our best soils those that are
fertile, have high moisture-holding capacity (or irrigated),
and are deep and well-drained (sandy loams). Fields that
have been cropped in the past may be a good choice since
they have been fertilized and limed. Fields that already have
a pH of 6.5 to 7.0 will save the cost of liming. Alfalfa re-
quires a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. Lime should be added 3 to 6
months before planting to raise the pH if needed. Phospho-
rus and potash should be applied prior to planting accord-
ing to soil test recommendations. Also, apply 15 to 30
pounds of elemental sulfur and 3 pounds of elemental bo-
ron per acre.

Alfalfa should be planted around Oct. 15 or early enough in
the fall to ensure establishment of the stand before the first


frost. On the other hand, planting too early, i.e., during hot
humid weather, may result in seedling damping-off.

Seedbed preparation should start 4 to 5 weeks before the
expected planting date. If rainfall has not compacted the
seedbed, then a cultipacker or roller should be used before
seeding to firm the seedbed.

The seed may be broadcast, but the preferred method is to
use a cultipacker-seeder or a grain drill with small seed at-
tachment. The seed should be covered with only 1/4 to1/2
inch of soil. Use freshly inoculated seed. Seed 20 pounds
per acre if broadcasting or 12 pounds per acre if precision
planting equipment is used.

The recommended alfalfa variety for Florida is FL 99. One
or two other varieties such as the Amerigraze 702 also may
be suitable for Northwest Florida.

Weeds can be controlled with herbicides. Some are preplant
incorporated. Thus, a weed control program should be
planned before planting. Also, determine what insect pests
might be a problem and budget for insect control.

Finally, work up a complete budget for cost of establishment
as well as a production budget. Compare costs to expected
returns. Producers have tried growing alfalfa in Florida in
the past, and many have been successful, but none have con-
tinued on a long term basis.

CGC

FLORIDA 99 ALFALFA

This new variety is available for fall planting this year.
Florida 99Alfalfa is an excellent high yielding, persistent
alfalfa variety bred by the Agronomy Department, Univer-
sity of Florida. This cultivar is adapted to the entire state of
Florida and all other areas where dormancy #9 alfalfa is
grown. Florida 99 is what is called a non-dormant type al-
falfa. This means that it will continue to grow during short
days and cool nights, whereas more northerly adapted vari-
eties will not. Florida 99 is an improvement of the older
variety known as Florida 77. Yields at Jay and at Gainesville
were significantly higher than other non-dormant varieties,
averaging 5 to 6 tons of dry matter per acre per year over a
2- to 3-year period. If you cannot obtain seed through your
local seed dealer, you may want to contact Cal/West seeds in
Woodland, Ca. Their phone number is 800-824-8585. This
company grows and processes the seed.

CGC








BOLL ROT AND HARD LOCK COTTON

The exact cause of boll rot and hard lock in cotton has never
been determined. However, we know that high humidity,
high moisture environments in conjunction with rank growth
and high nitrogen rates or high fertility seem to set the cot-
tonplant up for this problem. The microorganisms that cause
hard lock and boll rot in cotton are present in the soil and
many spores are airborne that can infect the bolls. There
are several microorganisms that have been associated with
hard lock and boll rot including Fusarium spp., Diplodia
spp., Xanthomonas spp. and others. Studies are underway
at NFREC to better identify management practices that may
reduce hard lock and boll rot. The focus of these studies
includes Fusarium spp., fertility, tillage, and use of fungi-
cides. Finding management practices that can reduce hard
lock and boll rot could make a major impact on the cotton
industry since 30-50% of the cotton crop is lost in some
years when conditions are favorable for the problem in the
humid areas of the cotton belt.

DLW

ALFALFA IN FLORIDA

Alfalfa can be utilized as hay, silage, green chop or pasture
(including creep grazing for calves). All uses should be
kept in mind by producers planning to grow alfalfa. Exces-
sive rainfall and high humidity during the summer months
makes haying difficult. When weather conditions are not
suitable for making hay, the alfalfa crop might be sold to a
neighbor who has silage making equipment, or the alfalfa
fields might be utilized by cattle that need a high rate of
gain. Other alternatives that have been used with some suc-
cess are hay preservatives, to put up high moisture hay (20-
22%), and roll bale silage.

Alfalfa should be grown on our best soils those that are
fertile, have high moisture-holding capacity (or irrigated),
and are deep and well-drained (sandy loams). Fields that
have been cropped in the past may be a good choice since
they have been fertilized and limed. Fields that already have
a pH of 6.5 to 7.0 will save the cost of liming. Alfalfa re-
quires a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. Lime should be added 3 to 6
months before planting to raise the pH if needed. Phospho-
rus and potash should be applied prior to planting accord-
ing to soil test recommendations. Also, apply 15 to 30
pounds of elemental sulfur and 3 pounds of elemental bo-
ron per acre.

Alfalfa should be planted around Oct. 15 or early enough in
the fall to ensure establishment of the stand before the first


frost. On the other hand, planting too early, i.e., during hot
humid weather, may result in seedling damping-off.

Seedbed preparation should start 4 to 5 weeks before the
expected planting date. If rainfall has not compacted the
seedbed, then a cultipacker or roller should be used before
seeding to firm the seedbed.

The seed may be broadcast, but the preferred method is to
use a cultipacker-seeder or a grain drill with small seed at-
tachment. The seed should be covered with only 1/4 to1/2
inch of soil. Use freshly inoculated seed. Seed 20 pounds
per acre if broadcasting or 12 pounds per acre if precision
planting equipment is used.

The recommended alfalfa variety for Florida is FL 99. One
or two other varieties such as the Amerigraze 702 also may
be suitable for Northwest Florida.

Weeds can be controlled with herbicides. Some are preplant
incorporated. Thus, a weed control program should be
planned before planting. Also, determine what insect pests
might be a problem and budget for insect control.

Finally, work up a complete budget for cost of establishment
as well as a production budget. Compare costs to expected
returns. Producers have tried growing alfalfa in Florida in
the past, and many have been successful, but none have con-
tinued on a long term basis.

CGC

FLORIDA 99 ALFALFA

This new variety is available for fall planting this year.
Florida 99Alfalfa is an excellent high yielding, persistent
alfalfa variety bred by the Agronomy Department, Univer-
sity of Florida. This cultivar is adapted to the entire state of
Florida and all other areas where dormancy #9 alfalfa is
grown. Florida 99 is what is called a non-dormant type al-
falfa. This means that it will continue to grow during short
days and cool nights, whereas more northerly adapted vari-
eties will not. Florida 99 is an improvement of the older
variety known as Florida 77. Yields at Jay and at Gainesville
were significantly higher than other non-dormant varieties,
averaging 5 to 6 tons of dry matter per acre per year over a
2- to 3-year period. If you cannot obtain seed through your
local seed dealer, you may want to contact Cal/West seeds in
Woodland, Ca. Their phone number is 800-824-8585. This
company grows and processes the seed.

CGC








PEANUT MARKETING

With the new farm program in effect, peanut marketing may
be changed greatly from the price support system of past
years where farmers could either sell their peanuts to the
sheller or put them under loan at the price support level.
Either method resulted in the farmer receiving the same pay-
ment on the day that he delivered the peanuts. An exception
was the additional payments that were received the follow-
ing year when profits made on the sale of loan peanuts were
disbursed. Marketing procedures under the new program
may be more complex than in the past, with some of the
government payments not being distributed until the follow-
ing year. Over the next few weeks, information should be
made available that will help clarify the new system and al-
low growers to decide how to best market their peanuts. Keep
in mind that the buying segment of the peanut industry may
have considerable influence on how the marketing system
develops. It is possible that financing the 2003 crop may be
more difficult if all payments for the 2002 crop have not
been received at planting time. Quota reimbursements may
be an important, but temporary, source of financing the 2003
crop.

EBW

SAVING PEANUT SEED

Farmers may want to 'save' some of their 2002 peanuts to
plant the 2003 crop in an effort to reduce production costs.
However, this practice could be costly if the 'saved' seed are
of varieties that are covered by patents or not of good qual-
ity. Royalties must be paid to the patent holder before plant-
ing the high oleic varieties. There are other restrictions on
the sale of varieties covered by the plant variety protection
laws. There are quality risks in planting seed that was not
grown, harvested, stored, and processed to maintain purity,
germination, and vigor. To maintain the purity of a variety,
those practices required of growers of certified seed must be
followed. These practices include having proof that the origi-
nal seed met purity requirements. The next requirement is
that there be a 2-year period since peanuts of another variety
were grown on the field where the seed peanuts are to be
planted, followed by an inspection of the field and removal
of any 'off-type' plants that do not have the standard visual
characteristics of the planted variety. At harvest, the com-
bine must be cleaned of any other peanuts before the seed
peanuts are combined, and the wagons and storage facility
must also be cleaned. Failure to maintain the purity of vari-
ety can result in variety mixtures that could be objectionable
to buyers, and could only be corrected by starting over again
with a pure lot of seed.

Those practices that lead to good germination and vigor of
seed should be followed. This includes application of gyp-
sum, use of irrigation as needed, and other practices. Timely


and careful harvest, followed by application of insecticides
to the stored peanuts, and storing them in a facility where
moisture content can be controlled are essential. Shelling,
processing, and handling the peanuts to protect the germina-
tion and vigor are necessary. If a grower is not willing to
follow those practices needed for producing quality seed, he
would be better off to buy ones that have been properly pro-
duced. A stand failure may be just as costly under the new
program as it was under the old program. Growers should
not think of 'saving' seed, but rather they should think of
'growing' them.

EBW

ASSIGNING THE PEANUT BASE

Another feature of the new peanut program is that growers
will have to assign their peanut 'base' to a farm before the
2003 crop is planted. The 'base' is an acreage that will be
calculated from the grower's production history, and will be
eligible for certain payments under the new program. Pea-
nuts produced over the 'base' would not be eligible for such
payments. When assigning the base to a farm, the grower
should keep in mind the need for crop rotations, availability
of irrigation, suitability of the land for peanuts, soil pest prob-
lems that may be present or are likely, and other potential
problems that may surface. Financial considerations must
also be taken into account, because the base assignment may
affect land values, rental costs, and other input costs. While
most farmers may want to assign their base to their home
farm, there may be reasons to assign it elsewhere.

EBW

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PEANUTS

When all payments for peanuts are finally received, they will
probably total less than they did under the old price support
program. Quota payments should not be considered as pro-
duction payments, but rather as reimbursement for costs as-
sociated with obtaining and maintaining the quota. Conse-
quently, farmers should try to increase their efficiency of
production where possible. Selecting varieties, pesticides,
fertilizers, equipment, and production practices that can re-
turn the most benefits for their cost are essential for efficient
production. These selections can vary from one field or farm
to another even in the same area.

EBW

PEANUT ACREAGE IN VARIOUS STATES

The estimated harvested acreage of peanuts changed among
several of the producing states in 2002 from that harvested
in 2001. There were increases in Texas, Georgia, and Florida,
but decreases in North Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma.








PEANUT MARKETING

With the new farm program in effect, peanut marketing may
be changed greatly from the price support system of past
years where farmers could either sell their peanuts to the
sheller or put them under loan at the price support level.
Either method resulted in the farmer receiving the same pay-
ment on the day that he delivered the peanuts. An exception
was the additional payments that were received the follow-
ing year when profits made on the sale of loan peanuts were
disbursed. Marketing procedures under the new program
may be more complex than in the past, with some of the
government payments not being distributed until the follow-
ing year. Over the next few weeks, information should be
made available that will help clarify the new system and al-
low growers to decide how to best market their peanuts. Keep
in mind that the buying segment of the peanut industry may
have considerable influence on how the marketing system
develops. It is possible that financing the 2003 crop may be
more difficult if all payments for the 2002 crop have not
been received at planting time. Quota reimbursements may
be an important, but temporary, source of financing the 2003
crop.

EBW

SAVING PEANUT SEED

Farmers may want to 'save' some of their 2002 peanuts to
plant the 2003 crop in an effort to reduce production costs.
However, this practice could be costly if the 'saved' seed are
of varieties that are covered by patents or not of good qual-
ity. Royalties must be paid to the patent holder before plant-
ing the high oleic varieties. There are other restrictions on
the sale of varieties covered by the plant variety protection
laws. There are quality risks in planting seed that was not
grown, harvested, stored, and processed to maintain purity,
germination, and vigor. To maintain the purity of a variety,
those practices required of growers of certified seed must be
followed. These practices include having proof that the origi-
nal seed met purity requirements. The next requirement is
that there be a 2-year period since peanuts of another variety
were grown on the field where the seed peanuts are to be
planted, followed by an inspection of the field and removal
of any 'off-type' plants that do not have the standard visual
characteristics of the planted variety. At harvest, the com-
bine must be cleaned of any other peanuts before the seed
peanuts are combined, and the wagons and storage facility
must also be cleaned. Failure to maintain the purity of vari-
ety can result in variety mixtures that could be objectionable
to buyers, and could only be corrected by starting over again
with a pure lot of seed.

Those practices that lead to good germination and vigor of
seed should be followed. This includes application of gyp-
sum, use of irrigation as needed, and other practices. Timely


and careful harvest, followed by application of insecticides
to the stored peanuts, and storing them in a facility where
moisture content can be controlled are essential. Shelling,
processing, and handling the peanuts to protect the germina-
tion and vigor are necessary. If a grower is not willing to
follow those practices needed for producing quality seed, he
would be better off to buy ones that have been properly pro-
duced. A stand failure may be just as costly under the new
program as it was under the old program. Growers should
not think of 'saving' seed, but rather they should think of
'growing' them.

EBW

ASSIGNING THE PEANUT BASE

Another feature of the new peanut program is that growers
will have to assign their peanut 'base' to a farm before the
2003 crop is planted. The 'base' is an acreage that will be
calculated from the grower's production history, and will be
eligible for certain payments under the new program. Pea-
nuts produced over the 'base' would not be eligible for such
payments. When assigning the base to a farm, the grower
should keep in mind the need for crop rotations, availability
of irrigation, suitability of the land for peanuts, soil pest prob-
lems that may be present or are likely, and other potential
problems that may surface. Financial considerations must
also be taken into account, because the base assignment may
affect land values, rental costs, and other input costs. While
most farmers may want to assign their base to their home
farm, there may be reasons to assign it elsewhere.

EBW

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PEANUTS

When all payments for peanuts are finally received, they will
probably total less than they did under the old price support
program. Quota payments should not be considered as pro-
duction payments, but rather as reimbursement for costs as-
sociated with obtaining and maintaining the quota. Conse-
quently, farmers should try to increase their efficiency of
production where possible. Selecting varieties, pesticides,
fertilizers, equipment, and production practices that can re-
turn the most benefits for their cost are essential for efficient
production. These selections can vary from one field or farm
to another even in the same area.

EBW

PEANUT ACREAGE IN VARIOUS STATES

The estimated harvested acreage of peanuts changed among
several of the producing states in 2002 from that harvested
in 2001. There were increases in Texas, Georgia, and Florida,
but decreases in North Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma.








PEANUT MARKETING

With the new farm program in effect, peanut marketing may
be changed greatly from the price support system of past
years where farmers could either sell their peanuts to the
sheller or put them under loan at the price support level.
Either method resulted in the farmer receiving the same pay-
ment on the day that he delivered the peanuts. An exception
was the additional payments that were received the follow-
ing year when profits made on the sale of loan peanuts were
disbursed. Marketing procedures under the new program
may be more complex than in the past, with some of the
government payments not being distributed until the follow-
ing year. Over the next few weeks, information should be
made available that will help clarify the new system and al-
low growers to decide how to best market their peanuts. Keep
in mind that the buying segment of the peanut industry may
have considerable influence on how the marketing system
develops. It is possible that financing the 2003 crop may be
more difficult if all payments for the 2002 crop have not
been received at planting time. Quota reimbursements may
be an important, but temporary, source of financing the 2003
crop.

EBW

SAVING PEANUT SEED

Farmers may want to 'save' some of their 2002 peanuts to
plant the 2003 crop in an effort to reduce production costs.
However, this practice could be costly if the 'saved' seed are
of varieties that are covered by patents or not of good qual-
ity. Royalties must be paid to the patent holder before plant-
ing the high oleic varieties. There are other restrictions on
the sale of varieties covered by the plant variety protection
laws. There are quality risks in planting seed that was not
grown, harvested, stored, and processed to maintain purity,
germination, and vigor. To maintain the purity of a variety,
those practices required of growers of certified seed must be
followed. These practices include having proof that the origi-
nal seed met purity requirements. The next requirement is
that there be a 2-year period since peanuts of another variety
were grown on the field where the seed peanuts are to be
planted, followed by an inspection of the field and removal
of any 'off-type' plants that do not have the standard visual
characteristics of the planted variety. At harvest, the com-
bine must be cleaned of any other peanuts before the seed
peanuts are combined, and the wagons and storage facility
must also be cleaned. Failure to maintain the purity of vari-
ety can result in variety mixtures that could be objectionable
to buyers, and could only be corrected by starting over again
with a pure lot of seed.

Those practices that lead to good germination and vigor of
seed should be followed. This includes application of gyp-
sum, use of irrigation as needed, and other practices. Timely


and careful harvest, followed by application of insecticides
to the stored peanuts, and storing them in a facility where
moisture content can be controlled are essential. Shelling,
processing, and handling the peanuts to protect the germina-
tion and vigor are necessary. If a grower is not willing to
follow those practices needed for producing quality seed, he
would be better off to buy ones that have been properly pro-
duced. A stand failure may be just as costly under the new
program as it was under the old program. Growers should
not think of 'saving' seed, but rather they should think of
'growing' them.

EBW

ASSIGNING THE PEANUT BASE

Another feature of the new peanut program is that growers
will have to assign their peanut 'base' to a farm before the
2003 crop is planted. The 'base' is an acreage that will be
calculated from the grower's production history, and will be
eligible for certain payments under the new program. Pea-
nuts produced over the 'base' would not be eligible for such
payments. When assigning the base to a farm, the grower
should keep in mind the need for crop rotations, availability
of irrigation, suitability of the land for peanuts, soil pest prob-
lems that may be present or are likely, and other potential
problems that may surface. Financial considerations must
also be taken into account, because the base assignment may
affect land values, rental costs, and other input costs. While
most farmers may want to assign their base to their home
farm, there may be reasons to assign it elsewhere.

EBW

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PEANUTS

When all payments for peanuts are finally received, they will
probably total less than they did under the old price support
program. Quota payments should not be considered as pro-
duction payments, but rather as reimbursement for costs as-
sociated with obtaining and maintaining the quota. Conse-
quently, farmers should try to increase their efficiency of
production where possible. Selecting varieties, pesticides,
fertilizers, equipment, and production practices that can re-
turn the most benefits for their cost are essential for efficient
production. These selections can vary from one field or farm
to another even in the same area.

EBW

PEANUT ACREAGE IN VARIOUS STATES

The estimated harvested acreage of peanuts changed among
several of the producing states in 2002 from that harvested
in 2001. There were increases in Texas, Georgia, and Florida,
but decreases in North Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma.








PEANUT MARKETING

With the new farm program in effect, peanut marketing may
be changed greatly from the price support system of past
years where farmers could either sell their peanuts to the
sheller or put them under loan at the price support level.
Either method resulted in the farmer receiving the same pay-
ment on the day that he delivered the peanuts. An exception
was the additional payments that were received the follow-
ing year when profits made on the sale of loan peanuts were
disbursed. Marketing procedures under the new program
may be more complex than in the past, with some of the
government payments not being distributed until the follow-
ing year. Over the next few weeks, information should be
made available that will help clarify the new system and al-
low growers to decide how to best market their peanuts. Keep
in mind that the buying segment of the peanut industry may
have considerable influence on how the marketing system
develops. It is possible that financing the 2003 crop may be
more difficult if all payments for the 2002 crop have not
been received at planting time. Quota reimbursements may
be an important, but temporary, source of financing the 2003
crop.

EBW

SAVING PEANUT SEED

Farmers may want to 'save' some of their 2002 peanuts to
plant the 2003 crop in an effort to reduce production costs.
However, this practice could be costly if the 'saved' seed are
of varieties that are covered by patents or not of good qual-
ity. Royalties must be paid to the patent holder before plant-
ing the high oleic varieties. There are other restrictions on
the sale of varieties covered by the plant variety protection
laws. There are quality risks in planting seed that was not
grown, harvested, stored, and processed to maintain purity,
germination, and vigor. To maintain the purity of a variety,
those practices required of growers of certified seed must be
followed. These practices include having proof that the origi-
nal seed met purity requirements. The next requirement is
that there be a 2-year period since peanuts of another variety
were grown on the field where the seed peanuts are to be
planted, followed by an inspection of the field and removal
of any 'off-type' plants that do not have the standard visual
characteristics of the planted variety. At harvest, the com-
bine must be cleaned of any other peanuts before the seed
peanuts are combined, and the wagons and storage facility
must also be cleaned. Failure to maintain the purity of vari-
ety can result in variety mixtures that could be objectionable
to buyers, and could only be corrected by starting over again
with a pure lot of seed.

Those practices that lead to good germination and vigor of
seed should be followed. This includes application of gyp-
sum, use of irrigation as needed, and other practices. Timely


and careful harvest, followed by application of insecticides
to the stored peanuts, and storing them in a facility where
moisture content can be controlled are essential. Shelling,
processing, and handling the peanuts to protect the germina-
tion and vigor are necessary. If a grower is not willing to
follow those practices needed for producing quality seed, he
would be better off to buy ones that have been properly pro-
duced. A stand failure may be just as costly under the new
program as it was under the old program. Growers should
not think of 'saving' seed, but rather they should think of
'growing' them.

EBW

ASSIGNING THE PEANUT BASE

Another feature of the new peanut program is that growers
will have to assign their peanut 'base' to a farm before the
2003 crop is planted. The 'base' is an acreage that will be
calculated from the grower's production history, and will be
eligible for certain payments under the new program. Pea-
nuts produced over the 'base' would not be eligible for such
payments. When assigning the base to a farm, the grower
should keep in mind the need for crop rotations, availability
of irrigation, suitability of the land for peanuts, soil pest prob-
lems that may be present or are likely, and other potential
problems that may surface. Financial considerations must
also be taken into account, because the base assignment may
affect land values, rental costs, and other input costs. While
most farmers may want to assign their base to their home
farm, there may be reasons to assign it elsewhere.

EBW

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PEANUTS

When all payments for peanuts are finally received, they will
probably total less than they did under the old price support
program. Quota payments should not be considered as pro-
duction payments, but rather as reimbursement for costs as-
sociated with obtaining and maintaining the quota. Conse-
quently, farmers should try to increase their efficiency of
production where possible. Selecting varieties, pesticides,
fertilizers, equipment, and production practices that can re-
turn the most benefits for their cost are essential for efficient
production. These selections can vary from one field or farm
to another even in the same area.

EBW

PEANUT ACREAGE IN VARIOUS STATES

The estimated harvested acreage of peanuts changed among
several of the producing states in 2002 from that harvested
in 2001. There were increases in Texas, Georgia, and Florida,
but decreases in North Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma.








PEANUT MARKETING

With the new farm program in effect, peanut marketing may
be changed greatly from the price support system of past
years where farmers could either sell their peanuts to the
sheller or put them under loan at the price support level.
Either method resulted in the farmer receiving the same pay-
ment on the day that he delivered the peanuts. An exception
was the additional payments that were received the follow-
ing year when profits made on the sale of loan peanuts were
disbursed. Marketing procedures under the new program
may be more complex than in the past, with some of the
government payments not being distributed until the follow-
ing year. Over the next few weeks, information should be
made available that will help clarify the new system and al-
low growers to decide how to best market their peanuts. Keep
in mind that the buying segment of the peanut industry may
have considerable influence on how the marketing system
develops. It is possible that financing the 2003 crop may be
more difficult if all payments for the 2002 crop have not
been received at planting time. Quota reimbursements may
be an important, but temporary, source of financing the 2003
crop.

EBW

SAVING PEANUT SEED

Farmers may want to 'save' some of their 2002 peanuts to
plant the 2003 crop in an effort to reduce production costs.
However, this practice could be costly if the 'saved' seed are
of varieties that are covered by patents or not of good qual-
ity. Royalties must be paid to the patent holder before plant-
ing the high oleic varieties. There are other restrictions on
the sale of varieties covered by the plant variety protection
laws. There are quality risks in planting seed that was not
grown, harvested, stored, and processed to maintain purity,
germination, and vigor. To maintain the purity of a variety,
those practices required of growers of certified seed must be
followed. These practices include having proof that the origi-
nal seed met purity requirements. The next requirement is
that there be a 2-year period since peanuts of another variety
were grown on the field where the seed peanuts are to be
planted, followed by an inspection of the field and removal
of any 'off-type' plants that do not have the standard visual
characteristics of the planted variety. At harvest, the com-
bine must be cleaned of any other peanuts before the seed
peanuts are combined, and the wagons and storage facility
must also be cleaned. Failure to maintain the purity of vari-
ety can result in variety mixtures that could be objectionable
to buyers, and could only be corrected by starting over again
with a pure lot of seed.

Those practices that lead to good germination and vigor of
seed should be followed. This includes application of gyp-
sum, use of irrigation as needed, and other practices. Timely


and careful harvest, followed by application of insecticides
to the stored peanuts, and storing them in a facility where
moisture content can be controlled are essential. Shelling,
processing, and handling the peanuts to protect the germina-
tion and vigor are necessary. If a grower is not willing to
follow those practices needed for producing quality seed, he
would be better off to buy ones that have been properly pro-
duced. A stand failure may be just as costly under the new
program as it was under the old program. Growers should
not think of 'saving' seed, but rather they should think of
'growing' them.

EBW

ASSIGNING THE PEANUT BASE

Another feature of the new peanut program is that growers
will have to assign their peanut 'base' to a farm before the
2003 crop is planted. The 'base' is an acreage that will be
calculated from the grower's production history, and will be
eligible for certain payments under the new program. Pea-
nuts produced over the 'base' would not be eligible for such
payments. When assigning the base to a farm, the grower
should keep in mind the need for crop rotations, availability
of irrigation, suitability of the land for peanuts, soil pest prob-
lems that may be present or are likely, and other potential
problems that may surface. Financial considerations must
also be taken into account, because the base assignment may
affect land values, rental costs, and other input costs. While
most farmers may want to assign their base to their home
farm, there may be reasons to assign it elsewhere.

EBW

EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PEANUTS

When all payments for peanuts are finally received, they will
probably total less than they did under the old price support
program. Quota payments should not be considered as pro-
duction payments, but rather as reimbursement for costs as-
sociated with obtaining and maintaining the quota. Conse-
quently, farmers should try to increase their efficiency of
production where possible. Selecting varieties, pesticides,
fertilizers, equipment, and production practices that can re-
turn the most benefits for their cost are essential for efficient
production. These selections can vary from one field or farm
to another even in the same area.

EBW

PEANUT ACREAGE IN VARIOUS STATES

The estimated harvested acreage of peanuts changed among
several of the producing states in 2002 from that harvested
in 2001. There were increases in Texas, Georgia, and Florida,
but decreases in North Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma.








There was no or little change in Alabama, South Carolina,
and New Mexico. Whether or not these changes are tempo-
rary and due to weather or other conditions in 2002, or are
an indication of a more permanent response to changes in
the federal program is not certain at this time.

EBW

TOBACCO ROTATION AND NEMATODE
CONTROL

Preventing tobacco yield and quality losses to nematodes
requires that a combination of several control measures be
used because no single measure would normally be adequate.
Control measures include proper crop rotations (tobacco
grown on the same field only once every four years),
nematicides, resistant varieties, and management practices.
For example, most varieties grown in Florida are listed as
"nematode resistant", but this resistance is only to the south-
ern root knot nematode. When resistant varieties are grown,
other species such as the Javanese and peanut root knot nema-
tode can cause losses because no current variety of tobacco
has resistance to these two species. Resistant varieties are
useful, but do not provide complete or even adequate con-
trol when used as the only control measure in fields that are
infested with the other two species of nematodes. When
properly applied, Telone II is a very effective nematicide
against the root knot nematodes that attack tobacco, but losses
can still occur. Possible reasons for these losses are related
to the lack of proper rotation and includes: (1)extremely high
populations of nematodes due to heavy infestations on the
preceding crop or weeds growing in the field; (2) intact roots
of susceptible plants that protect nematodes from the Telone
II fumigant; and (3) nematode movement upward into the
fumigated zone, which is also the root zone of tobacco.
Extremely high populations of nematodes in the soil increases
the probability that there will be some survival after fumiga-
tion as compared to fields with low populations. Growing a
crop that is resistant to root knot nematodes the year preced-
ing tobacco helps insure that the nematode levels will be
low and therefore more likely to destroyed by the fumigant.
Intact roots of the preceding crop can prevent the fumigant
from reaching nematodes that are contained within the root.
Tobacco produces large, woody roots that often do not de-
cay during the fall and winter, which results in the protected
nematodes being available to attack the new crop early in
the season. Destroying the roots as soon as possible after
the final harvest helps reduce the incidence ofundecomposed
roots. Rotation also affects the number and vigor of nema-
todes that can move up in the soil after fumigation. Properly
applied Telone II should kill most, if not all, nematodes in
the upper 12-15 inches of soil, but those nematodes below
this depth remain alive and then move upward when attracted
to roots of the new crop of tobacco. It is likely that nema-
todes at these lower depths will be at higher populations and
individual nematodes will be more vigorous if they were re-


plenished by the preceding crop as opposed to those from
crops grown 3-4 years earlier.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANTING DATES AND NEMA-
TODE LIFE CYCLES

Life cycles of root knot nematodes are much shorter during
hot weather than during cold weather. For example, the fe-
male nematode may produce a few hundred young in 3 weeks
after she was hatched in June, but it may take several more
days for the same rate of reproduction in March. The rate of
reproduction is greatly affected by the soil temperature, while
the presence of susceptible plants during the warmer period
may also be a factor. This rate of nematode reproduction
could be a factor in the greater damage that is often noted in
late planted tobacco. It is also true that late planted tobacco
develops faster than that planted in the early season, but it is
likely that nematode reproduction is even faster during warm
weather. Consequently growers may want to transplant early
if they suspect that they could have a nematode problem.
However other available means of nematode control should
be the primary means of control, because optimum trans-
planting dates for tobacco production are influenced by many
other factors.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKETING

Marketing of the 2002 flue-cured tobacco crop is now active
at contract centers and auction markets. About 80 percent of
the US crop is contracted, but in Florida about 100 percent is
contracted. There are two receiving points in Florida, one at
Madison and the other in Live Oak. A considerable amount
of Florida tobacco is also delivered to receiving points in
Georgia. No auctions operate in Florida, but four operate in
Georgia. There are independent auctions at Moultrie and
Nashville, and the Stabilization Cooperative operates in
Douglas and Statesboro. Through August about 7 million
pounds of tobacco have been sold at the Florida receiving
points and the average price has been about $1.86 per pound.
For the US, the Stabilization marketing centers have sold 20
million pounds for an average price of $1.75 per pound, while
the independent auctions have sold 11 million pounds at an
average price of $1.70 per pound. All of the US contract
centers have bought 218 million pounds for an average price
of $1.83 per pound.

EBW

THE 2002 TOBACCO CROP

While Florida growers have had some problems in produc-
ing their 2002 tobacco crop, they are fortunate to have es-








There was no or little change in Alabama, South Carolina,
and New Mexico. Whether or not these changes are tempo-
rary and due to weather or other conditions in 2002, or are
an indication of a more permanent response to changes in
the federal program is not certain at this time.

EBW

TOBACCO ROTATION AND NEMATODE
CONTROL

Preventing tobacco yield and quality losses to nematodes
requires that a combination of several control measures be
used because no single measure would normally be adequate.
Control measures include proper crop rotations (tobacco
grown on the same field only once every four years),
nematicides, resistant varieties, and management practices.
For example, most varieties grown in Florida are listed as
"nematode resistant", but this resistance is only to the south-
ern root knot nematode. When resistant varieties are grown,
other species such as the Javanese and peanut root knot nema-
tode can cause losses because no current variety of tobacco
has resistance to these two species. Resistant varieties are
useful, but do not provide complete or even adequate con-
trol when used as the only control measure in fields that are
infested with the other two species of nematodes. When
properly applied, Telone II is a very effective nematicide
against the root knot nematodes that attack tobacco, but losses
can still occur. Possible reasons for these losses are related
to the lack of proper rotation and includes: (1)extremely high
populations of nematodes due to heavy infestations on the
preceding crop or weeds growing in the field; (2) intact roots
of susceptible plants that protect nematodes from the Telone
II fumigant; and (3) nematode movement upward into the
fumigated zone, which is also the root zone of tobacco.
Extremely high populations of nematodes in the soil increases
the probability that there will be some survival after fumiga-
tion as compared to fields with low populations. Growing a
crop that is resistant to root knot nematodes the year preced-
ing tobacco helps insure that the nematode levels will be
low and therefore more likely to destroyed by the fumigant.
Intact roots of the preceding crop can prevent the fumigant
from reaching nematodes that are contained within the root.
Tobacco produces large, woody roots that often do not de-
cay during the fall and winter, which results in the protected
nematodes being available to attack the new crop early in
the season. Destroying the roots as soon as possible after
the final harvest helps reduce the incidence ofundecomposed
roots. Rotation also affects the number and vigor of nema-
todes that can move up in the soil after fumigation. Properly
applied Telone II should kill most, if not all, nematodes in
the upper 12-15 inches of soil, but those nematodes below
this depth remain alive and then move upward when attracted
to roots of the new crop of tobacco. It is likely that nema-
todes at these lower depths will be at higher populations and
individual nematodes will be more vigorous if they were re-


plenished by the preceding crop as opposed to those from
crops grown 3-4 years earlier.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANTING DATES AND NEMA-
TODE LIFE CYCLES

Life cycles of root knot nematodes are much shorter during
hot weather than during cold weather. For example, the fe-
male nematode may produce a few hundred young in 3 weeks
after she was hatched in June, but it may take several more
days for the same rate of reproduction in March. The rate of
reproduction is greatly affected by the soil temperature, while
the presence of susceptible plants during the warmer period
may also be a factor. This rate of nematode reproduction
could be a factor in the greater damage that is often noted in
late planted tobacco. It is also true that late planted tobacco
develops faster than that planted in the early season, but it is
likely that nematode reproduction is even faster during warm
weather. Consequently growers may want to transplant early
if they suspect that they could have a nematode problem.
However other available means of nematode control should
be the primary means of control, because optimum trans-
planting dates for tobacco production are influenced by many
other factors.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKETING

Marketing of the 2002 flue-cured tobacco crop is now active
at contract centers and auction markets. About 80 percent of
the US crop is contracted, but in Florida about 100 percent is
contracted. There are two receiving points in Florida, one at
Madison and the other in Live Oak. A considerable amount
of Florida tobacco is also delivered to receiving points in
Georgia. No auctions operate in Florida, but four operate in
Georgia. There are independent auctions at Moultrie and
Nashville, and the Stabilization Cooperative operates in
Douglas and Statesboro. Through August about 7 million
pounds of tobacco have been sold at the Florida receiving
points and the average price has been about $1.86 per pound.
For the US, the Stabilization marketing centers have sold 20
million pounds for an average price of $1.75 per pound, while
the independent auctions have sold 11 million pounds at an
average price of $1.70 per pound. All of the US contract
centers have bought 218 million pounds for an average price
of $1.83 per pound.

EBW

THE 2002 TOBACCO CROP

While Florida growers have had some problems in produc-
ing their 2002 tobacco crop, they are fortunate to have es-








There was no or little change in Alabama, South Carolina,
and New Mexico. Whether or not these changes are tempo-
rary and due to weather or other conditions in 2002, or are
an indication of a more permanent response to changes in
the federal program is not certain at this time.

EBW

TOBACCO ROTATION AND NEMATODE
CONTROL

Preventing tobacco yield and quality losses to nematodes
requires that a combination of several control measures be
used because no single measure would normally be adequate.
Control measures include proper crop rotations (tobacco
grown on the same field only once every four years),
nematicides, resistant varieties, and management practices.
For example, most varieties grown in Florida are listed as
"nematode resistant", but this resistance is only to the south-
ern root knot nematode. When resistant varieties are grown,
other species such as the Javanese and peanut root knot nema-
tode can cause losses because no current variety of tobacco
has resistance to these two species. Resistant varieties are
useful, but do not provide complete or even adequate con-
trol when used as the only control measure in fields that are
infested with the other two species of nematodes. When
properly applied, Telone II is a very effective nematicide
against the root knot nematodes that attack tobacco, but losses
can still occur. Possible reasons for these losses are related
to the lack of proper rotation and includes: (1)extremely high
populations of nematodes due to heavy infestations on the
preceding crop or weeds growing in the field; (2) intact roots
of susceptible plants that protect nematodes from the Telone
II fumigant; and (3) nematode movement upward into the
fumigated zone, which is also the root zone of tobacco.
Extremely high populations of nematodes in the soil increases
the probability that there will be some survival after fumiga-
tion as compared to fields with low populations. Growing a
crop that is resistant to root knot nematodes the year preced-
ing tobacco helps insure that the nematode levels will be
low and therefore more likely to destroyed by the fumigant.
Intact roots of the preceding crop can prevent the fumigant
from reaching nematodes that are contained within the root.
Tobacco produces large, woody roots that often do not de-
cay during the fall and winter, which results in the protected
nematodes being available to attack the new crop early in
the season. Destroying the roots as soon as possible after
the final harvest helps reduce the incidence ofundecomposed
roots. Rotation also affects the number and vigor of nema-
todes that can move up in the soil after fumigation. Properly
applied Telone II should kill most, if not all, nematodes in
the upper 12-15 inches of soil, but those nematodes below
this depth remain alive and then move upward when attracted
to roots of the new crop of tobacco. It is likely that nema-
todes at these lower depths will be at higher populations and
individual nematodes will be more vigorous if they were re-


plenished by the preceding crop as opposed to those from
crops grown 3-4 years earlier.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANTING DATES AND NEMA-
TODE LIFE CYCLES

Life cycles of root knot nematodes are much shorter during
hot weather than during cold weather. For example, the fe-
male nematode may produce a few hundred young in 3 weeks
after she was hatched in June, but it may take several more
days for the same rate of reproduction in March. The rate of
reproduction is greatly affected by the soil temperature, while
the presence of susceptible plants during the warmer period
may also be a factor. This rate of nematode reproduction
could be a factor in the greater damage that is often noted in
late planted tobacco. It is also true that late planted tobacco
develops faster than that planted in the early season, but it is
likely that nematode reproduction is even faster during warm
weather. Consequently growers may want to transplant early
if they suspect that they could have a nematode problem.
However other available means of nematode control should
be the primary means of control, because optimum trans-
planting dates for tobacco production are influenced by many
other factors.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKETING

Marketing of the 2002 flue-cured tobacco crop is now active
at contract centers and auction markets. About 80 percent of
the US crop is contracted, but in Florida about 100 percent is
contracted. There are two receiving points in Florida, one at
Madison and the other in Live Oak. A considerable amount
of Florida tobacco is also delivered to receiving points in
Georgia. No auctions operate in Florida, but four operate in
Georgia. There are independent auctions at Moultrie and
Nashville, and the Stabilization Cooperative operates in
Douglas and Statesboro. Through August about 7 million
pounds of tobacco have been sold at the Florida receiving
points and the average price has been about $1.86 per pound.
For the US, the Stabilization marketing centers have sold 20
million pounds for an average price of $1.75 per pound, while
the independent auctions have sold 11 million pounds at an
average price of $1.70 per pound. All of the US contract
centers have bought 218 million pounds for an average price
of $1.83 per pound.

EBW

THE 2002 TOBACCO CROP

While Florida growers have had some problems in produc-
ing their 2002 tobacco crop, they are fortunate to have es-








There was no or little change in Alabama, South Carolina,
and New Mexico. Whether or not these changes are tempo-
rary and due to weather or other conditions in 2002, or are
an indication of a more permanent response to changes in
the federal program is not certain at this time.

EBW

TOBACCO ROTATION AND NEMATODE
CONTROL

Preventing tobacco yield and quality losses to nematodes
requires that a combination of several control measures be
used because no single measure would normally be adequate.
Control measures include proper crop rotations (tobacco
grown on the same field only once every four years),
nematicides, resistant varieties, and management practices.
For example, most varieties grown in Florida are listed as
"nematode resistant", but this resistance is only to the south-
ern root knot nematode. When resistant varieties are grown,
other species such as the Javanese and peanut root knot nema-
tode can cause losses because no current variety of tobacco
has resistance to these two species. Resistant varieties are
useful, but do not provide complete or even adequate con-
trol when used as the only control measure in fields that are
infested with the other two species of nematodes. When
properly applied, Telone II is a very effective nematicide
against the root knot nematodes that attack tobacco, but losses
can still occur. Possible reasons for these losses are related
to the lack of proper rotation and includes: (1)extremely high
populations of nematodes due to heavy infestations on the
preceding crop or weeds growing in the field; (2) intact roots
of susceptible plants that protect nematodes from the Telone
II fumigant; and (3) nematode movement upward into the
fumigated zone, which is also the root zone of tobacco.
Extremely high populations of nematodes in the soil increases
the probability that there will be some survival after fumiga-
tion as compared to fields with low populations. Growing a
crop that is resistant to root knot nematodes the year preced-
ing tobacco helps insure that the nematode levels will be
low and therefore more likely to destroyed by the fumigant.
Intact roots of the preceding crop can prevent the fumigant
from reaching nematodes that are contained within the root.
Tobacco produces large, woody roots that often do not de-
cay during the fall and winter, which results in the protected
nematodes being available to attack the new crop early in
the season. Destroying the roots as soon as possible after
the final harvest helps reduce the incidence ofundecomposed
roots. Rotation also affects the number and vigor of nema-
todes that can move up in the soil after fumigation. Properly
applied Telone II should kill most, if not all, nematodes in
the upper 12-15 inches of soil, but those nematodes below
this depth remain alive and then move upward when attracted
to roots of the new crop of tobacco. It is likely that nema-
todes at these lower depths will be at higher populations and
individual nematodes will be more vigorous if they were re-


plenished by the preceding crop as opposed to those from
crops grown 3-4 years earlier.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANTING DATES AND NEMA-
TODE LIFE CYCLES

Life cycles of root knot nematodes are much shorter during
hot weather than during cold weather. For example, the fe-
male nematode may produce a few hundred young in 3 weeks
after she was hatched in June, but it may take several more
days for the same rate of reproduction in March. The rate of
reproduction is greatly affected by the soil temperature, while
the presence of susceptible plants during the warmer period
may also be a factor. This rate of nematode reproduction
could be a factor in the greater damage that is often noted in
late planted tobacco. It is also true that late planted tobacco
develops faster than that planted in the early season, but it is
likely that nematode reproduction is even faster during warm
weather. Consequently growers may want to transplant early
if they suspect that they could have a nematode problem.
However other available means of nematode control should
be the primary means of control, because optimum trans-
planting dates for tobacco production are influenced by many
other factors.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKETING

Marketing of the 2002 flue-cured tobacco crop is now active
at contract centers and auction markets. About 80 percent of
the US crop is contracted, but in Florida about 100 percent is
contracted. There are two receiving points in Florida, one at
Madison and the other in Live Oak. A considerable amount
of Florida tobacco is also delivered to receiving points in
Georgia. No auctions operate in Florida, but four operate in
Georgia. There are independent auctions at Moultrie and
Nashville, and the Stabilization Cooperative operates in
Douglas and Statesboro. Through August about 7 million
pounds of tobacco have been sold at the Florida receiving
points and the average price has been about $1.86 per pound.
For the US, the Stabilization marketing centers have sold 20
million pounds for an average price of $1.75 per pound, while
the independent auctions have sold 11 million pounds at an
average price of $1.70 per pound. All of the US contract
centers have bought 218 million pounds for an average price
of $1.83 per pound.

EBW

THE 2002 TOBACCO CROP

While Florida growers have had some problems in produc-
ing their 2002 tobacco crop, they are fortunate to have es-








caped most of the tomato spotted wilt virus and drought prob-
lems that have plagued farmers in the other states. The re-
sult of these problems are indicated by the yields and prices
shown elsewhere in this newsletter. Despite the 10,000-acre
increase in the US from 2001, close to 50 million fewer
pounds of flue-cured tobacco will be sold this year, accord-
ing to current estimates. Prices paid for tobacco are also less
than in 2001.

EBW

DESTROY TOBACCO ROOTS

Destruction of tobacco stalks and roots and the prevention
of suckers will help control pests for the 2003 crop. If leaves
or suckers are available, homworms, budworms, aphids, and
other insect pests can continue to feed, which can lead to
earlier and heavier infestations for the next crop. Viral and
fungal diseases can also be maintained in the live plants, and
thereby provide inoculum for 2003. Nematodes are perhaps
the pest most favored by stalks and roots remaining in the
field because the nematodes continue to feed on the roots
and increase populations that can overwinter and attack the
next crop. To reduce the potential problem, the tobacco roots
should be plowed out and the field disked as needed to pre-
vent regrowth of the tobacco plant. By exposing the roots to
the drying action of the sun and wind, many of the nema-
todes that are already present in the roots may be killed.

EBW

DOVE HUNTING

Remind land owners, lessees, and others to follow the rules.
Hunting doves over baited fields is a federal offense. The
following is excerpted from SS-AGR-45 (archived), a fact
sheet on Small Grain Varieties and Production by Dr. Ron
Barnett and others.

"Small Grain Plantings for Dove Hunting":
Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. [The seed should be covered.] The only
time that it is recommended that small grain be surface-seeded
is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating cotton.
[Normal seeding rates must be used.] Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal agricul-
tural practice and would be considered baiting if done in this
manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do not usu-
ally attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it would be
advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet in the
summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of bird
hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


SOIL AND NEMATODE SAMPLING AFTER
CROP HARVEST

The fall of the year is the best time to take soil and nematode
samples. The crop is out of the way and it is easy to drive or
walk across the fields. During harvest there are always ar-
eas of the field that do not do as well as expected and these
areas can be sampled separately from other areas in the field
to try to determine the cause. Nematodes affecting the crop
are at the highest levels and nutrients left after crop removal
should give a good indication of what is available for the
next crop. All workers on harvesters should be trained to
note areas that have lower yield so that adjustments can be
made in management the following year.

DLW

PESTICIDE REGISTRATION UPDATES

On July 12, FDACS registered Bayer CropScience's Gem
(trifloxystrobin) fungicide for disease control on rice.
(FDACS PREC Agenda, 8/1/02).

Tolerances have been established for the conventional "re-
duced-risk", OP alternative insecticide, indoxacarb (Stew-
ard/Avaunt) in support of new uses on alfalfa, peanut,
lettuce, potato, and soybean. Grower interest for this chemi-
cal has been intense, and registration of indoxacarb on these
commodities has prevented a number of Emergency Exemp-
tion (Section 18) requests (USDA OPMP Newest News, 7/
10/02).

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. received a tolerance for com-
bined residues of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl and its
metabolite in or on sorghum grain (0.1 ppm) and sorghum
grain forage/stover (0.2 ppm). (Federal Register, 8/7/02).

At the request of Valent and IR-4, the EPA has granted toler-
ances for the herbicide clethodim and metabolites in or on
alfalfa (6 ppm), brassica, leafy greens subgroup (3 ppm),
peanut (3 ppm), spinach (2 ppm), and turnip greens (3 ppm).
(Federal Register, 7/17/02).

MAM


CGC








caped most of the tomato spotted wilt virus and drought prob-
lems that have plagued farmers in the other states. The re-
sult of these problems are indicated by the yields and prices
shown elsewhere in this newsletter. Despite the 10,000-acre
increase in the US from 2001, close to 50 million fewer
pounds of flue-cured tobacco will be sold this year, accord-
ing to current estimates. Prices paid for tobacco are also less
than in 2001.

EBW

DESTROY TOBACCO ROOTS

Destruction of tobacco stalks and roots and the prevention
of suckers will help control pests for the 2003 crop. If leaves
or suckers are available, homworms, budworms, aphids, and
other insect pests can continue to feed, which can lead to
earlier and heavier infestations for the next crop. Viral and
fungal diseases can also be maintained in the live plants, and
thereby provide inoculum for 2003. Nematodes are perhaps
the pest most favored by stalks and roots remaining in the
field because the nematodes continue to feed on the roots
and increase populations that can overwinter and attack the
next crop. To reduce the potential problem, the tobacco roots
should be plowed out and the field disked as needed to pre-
vent regrowth of the tobacco plant. By exposing the roots to
the drying action of the sun and wind, many of the nema-
todes that are already present in the roots may be killed.

EBW

DOVE HUNTING

Remind land owners, lessees, and others to follow the rules.
Hunting doves over baited fields is a federal offense. The
following is excerpted from SS-AGR-45 (archived), a fact
sheet on Small Grain Varieties and Production by Dr. Ron
Barnett and others.

"Small Grain Plantings for Dove Hunting":
Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. [The seed should be covered.] The only
time that it is recommended that small grain be surface-seeded
is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating cotton.
[Normal seeding rates must be used.] Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal agricul-
tural practice and would be considered baiting if done in this
manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do not usu-
ally attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it would be
advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet in the
summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of bird
hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


SOIL AND NEMATODE SAMPLING AFTER
CROP HARVEST

The fall of the year is the best time to take soil and nematode
samples. The crop is out of the way and it is easy to drive or
walk across the fields. During harvest there are always ar-
eas of the field that do not do as well as expected and these
areas can be sampled separately from other areas in the field
to try to determine the cause. Nematodes affecting the crop
are at the highest levels and nutrients left after crop removal
should give a good indication of what is available for the
next crop. All workers on harvesters should be trained to
note areas that have lower yield so that adjustments can be
made in management the following year.

DLW

PESTICIDE REGISTRATION UPDATES

On July 12, FDACS registered Bayer CropScience's Gem
(trifloxystrobin) fungicide for disease control on rice.
(FDACS PREC Agenda, 8/1/02).

Tolerances have been established for the conventional "re-
duced-risk", OP alternative insecticide, indoxacarb (Stew-
ard/Avaunt) in support of new uses on alfalfa, peanut,
lettuce, potato, and soybean. Grower interest for this chemi-
cal has been intense, and registration of indoxacarb on these
commodities has prevented a number of Emergency Exemp-
tion (Section 18) requests (USDA OPMP Newest News, 7/
10/02).

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. received a tolerance for com-
bined residues of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl and its
metabolite in or on sorghum grain (0.1 ppm) and sorghum
grain forage/stover (0.2 ppm). (Federal Register, 8/7/02).

At the request of Valent and IR-4, the EPA has granted toler-
ances for the herbicide clethodim and metabolites in or on
alfalfa (6 ppm), brassica, leafy greens subgroup (3 ppm),
peanut (3 ppm), spinach (2 ppm), and turnip greens (3 ppm).
(Federal Register, 7/17/02).

MAM


CGC








caped most of the tomato spotted wilt virus and drought prob-
lems that have plagued farmers in the other states. The re-
sult of these problems are indicated by the yields and prices
shown elsewhere in this newsletter. Despite the 10,000-acre
increase in the US from 2001, close to 50 million fewer
pounds of flue-cured tobacco will be sold this year, accord-
ing to current estimates. Prices paid for tobacco are also less
than in 2001.

EBW

DESTROY TOBACCO ROOTS

Destruction of tobacco stalks and roots and the prevention
of suckers will help control pests for the 2003 crop. If leaves
or suckers are available, homworms, budworms, aphids, and
other insect pests can continue to feed, which can lead to
earlier and heavier infestations for the next crop. Viral and
fungal diseases can also be maintained in the live plants, and
thereby provide inoculum for 2003. Nematodes are perhaps
the pest most favored by stalks and roots remaining in the
field because the nematodes continue to feed on the roots
and increase populations that can overwinter and attack the
next crop. To reduce the potential problem, the tobacco roots
should be plowed out and the field disked as needed to pre-
vent regrowth of the tobacco plant. By exposing the roots to
the drying action of the sun and wind, many of the nema-
todes that are already present in the roots may be killed.

EBW

DOVE HUNTING

Remind land owners, lessees, and others to follow the rules.
Hunting doves over baited fields is a federal offense. The
following is excerpted from SS-AGR-45 (archived), a fact
sheet on Small Grain Varieties and Production by Dr. Ron
Barnett and others.

"Small Grain Plantings for Dove Hunting":
Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. [The seed should be covered.] The only
time that it is recommended that small grain be surface-seeded
is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating cotton.
[Normal seeding rates must be used.] Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal agricul-
tural practice and would be considered baiting if done in this
manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do not usu-
ally attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it would be
advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet in the
summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of bird
hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


SOIL AND NEMATODE SAMPLING AFTER
CROP HARVEST

The fall of the year is the best time to take soil and nematode
samples. The crop is out of the way and it is easy to drive or
walk across the fields. During harvest there are always ar-
eas of the field that do not do as well as expected and these
areas can be sampled separately from other areas in the field
to try to determine the cause. Nematodes affecting the crop
are at the highest levels and nutrients left after crop removal
should give a good indication of what is available for the
next crop. All workers on harvesters should be trained to
note areas that have lower yield so that adjustments can be
made in management the following year.

DLW

PESTICIDE REGISTRATION UPDATES

On July 12, FDACS registered Bayer CropScience's Gem
(trifloxystrobin) fungicide for disease control on rice.
(FDACS PREC Agenda, 8/1/02).

Tolerances have been established for the conventional "re-
duced-risk", OP alternative insecticide, indoxacarb (Stew-
ard/Avaunt) in support of new uses on alfalfa, peanut,
lettuce, potato, and soybean. Grower interest for this chemi-
cal has been intense, and registration of indoxacarb on these
commodities has prevented a number of Emergency Exemp-
tion (Section 18) requests (USDA OPMP Newest News, 7/
10/02).

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. received a tolerance for com-
bined residues of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl and its
metabolite in or on sorghum grain (0.1 ppm) and sorghum
grain forage/stover (0.2 ppm). (Federal Register, 8/7/02).

At the request of Valent and IR-4, the EPA has granted toler-
ances for the herbicide clethodim and metabolites in or on
alfalfa (6 ppm), brassica, leafy greens subgroup (3 ppm),
peanut (3 ppm), spinach (2 ppm), and turnip greens (3 ppm).
(Federal Register, 7/17/02).

MAM


CGC








caped most of the tomato spotted wilt virus and drought prob-
lems that have plagued farmers in the other states. The re-
sult of these problems are indicated by the yields and prices
shown elsewhere in this newsletter. Despite the 10,000-acre
increase in the US from 2001, close to 50 million fewer
pounds of flue-cured tobacco will be sold this year, accord-
ing to current estimates. Prices paid for tobacco are also less
than in 2001.

EBW

DESTROY TOBACCO ROOTS

Destruction of tobacco stalks and roots and the prevention
of suckers will help control pests for the 2003 crop. If leaves
or suckers are available, homworms, budworms, aphids, and
other insect pests can continue to feed, which can lead to
earlier and heavier infestations for the next crop. Viral and
fungal diseases can also be maintained in the live plants, and
thereby provide inoculum for 2003. Nematodes are perhaps
the pest most favored by stalks and roots remaining in the
field because the nematodes continue to feed on the roots
and increase populations that can overwinter and attack the
next crop. To reduce the potential problem, the tobacco roots
should be plowed out and the field disked as needed to pre-
vent regrowth of the tobacco plant. By exposing the roots to
the drying action of the sun and wind, many of the nema-
todes that are already present in the roots may be killed.

EBW

DOVE HUNTING

Remind land owners, lessees, and others to follow the rules.
Hunting doves over baited fields is a federal offense. The
following is excerpted from SS-AGR-45 (archived), a fact
sheet on Small Grain Varieties and Production by Dr. Ron
Barnett and others.

"Small Grain Plantings for Dove Hunting":
Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. [The seed should be covered.] The only
time that it is recommended that small grain be surface-seeded
is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating cotton.
[Normal seeding rates must be used.] Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal agricul-
tural practice and would be considered baiting if done in this
manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do not usu-
ally attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it would be
advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet in the
summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of bird
hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


SOIL AND NEMATODE SAMPLING AFTER
CROP HARVEST

The fall of the year is the best time to take soil and nematode
samples. The crop is out of the way and it is easy to drive or
walk across the fields. During harvest there are always ar-
eas of the field that do not do as well as expected and these
areas can be sampled separately from other areas in the field
to try to determine the cause. Nematodes affecting the crop
are at the highest levels and nutrients left after crop removal
should give a good indication of what is available for the
next crop. All workers on harvesters should be trained to
note areas that have lower yield so that adjustments can be
made in management the following year.

DLW

PESTICIDE REGISTRATION UPDATES

On July 12, FDACS registered Bayer CropScience's Gem
(trifloxystrobin) fungicide for disease control on rice.
(FDACS PREC Agenda, 8/1/02).

Tolerances have been established for the conventional "re-
duced-risk", OP alternative insecticide, indoxacarb (Stew-
ard/Avaunt) in support of new uses on alfalfa, peanut,
lettuce, potato, and soybean. Grower interest for this chemi-
cal has been intense, and registration of indoxacarb on these
commodities has prevented a number of Emergency Exemp-
tion (Section 18) requests (USDA OPMP Newest News, 7/
10/02).

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. received a tolerance for com-
bined residues of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl and its
metabolite in or on sorghum grain (0.1 ppm) and sorghum
grain forage/stover (0.2 ppm). (Federal Register, 8/7/02).

At the request of Valent and IR-4, the EPA has granted toler-
ances for the herbicide clethodim and metabolites in or on
alfalfa (6 ppm), brassica, leafy greens subgroup (3 ppm),
peanut (3 ppm), spinach (2 ppm), and turnip greens (3 ppm).
(Federal Register, 7/17/02).

MAM


CGC









AUGUST CROP REPORT


The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the following acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop
based on conditions as of August 1:

Acres for Harvest (xl000) Yield per Acre
Crop Florida United States Florida United States
Cotton 119 13,112 706 lb 675 lb
Peanuts 92 1425 2600 lb 2885 lb
Sugarcane 453 1022 37.0 ton 34.7 ton
Tobacco 4.8 435 2800 2117


EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist; and M. A. Mossier, Pesticide Information Specialist.