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 Table of Contents
 Cotton and potassium (K) needs
 Foliar applications of nutrients...
 Mowing pastures
 Vegetative propagation of forage...
 Summer annual grasses/grazing...
 Tobacco crop conditions
 Tobacco sales
 Publications
 Hay and pasture insects
 Peanut legislation
 Producing quality peanut seed
 Peanut field days
 Soybean sending rate, row spacing...
 Tobacco legislation


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products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright,
Extension Agronomist.




Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00024
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: July 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00024

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton and potassium (K) needs
        Page 2
    Foliar applications of nutrients on cotton
        Page 2
    Mowing pastures
        Page 2
    Vegetative propagation of forage grasses
        Page 2
    Summer annual grasses/grazing management
        Page 2
    Tobacco crop conditions
        Page 4
    Tobacco sales
        Page 4
    Publications
        Page 4
    Hay and pasture insects
        Page 3
    Peanut legislation
        Page 3
    Producing quality peanut seed
        Page 3
    Peanut field days
        Page 3
    Soybean sending rate, row spacing and plant population
        Page 3
    Tobacco legislation
        Page 4
Full Text






AGRONOMY


*,*. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
EXTENSION
1I ... .r .. r, j .A ,, I.. 1 .1-1 S .......-


NOTES


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Cotton and Potassium (K) Needs ......................................... ............................................ 2
Foliar Application of Nutrients on Cotton ............................ ... ............................... 2

FORAGE
M ow ing P astures ........................................................ .................................................. . 2
Vegetative Propagation of Forage Grasses ............................ .... .............................. 2
Summer Annual Grasses/Grazing Management ............................................. ................. 2
H ay and Pasture Insects ....................................................................... ........................... 3

PEANUT
P eanu t L egislatio n ................................................................... ............................... ............ 3
Producing Quality Peanut Seed ........................................... ............................................ 3
P eanu t F field D ay ....................................................................................... ....................... 3

SOYBEAN
Soybean Seeding Rate, Row Spacing and Plant Population....................... ................. 3

TOBACCO
T ob acco L legislation ................................................................................... ...................... 4
T tobacco C rop C conditions ........................................................................... ...................... 4
T ob acco S ale s ......................................................... .. ........................ ............... ... ............ 4

MISCELLANEOUS
P u b licatio n s .... ........................... .................................................................. .......... ....... 4


July 2002


DATES TO REMEMBER
July 9-11 Deep South Weed Tour Jay, FL
July 16-19 American Peanut Research and Education Society Annual Meeting-
Research Triangle Park, NC
July 21-23 Southern Peanut Farmers Growers Conference Panama City, FL
August 21 Peanut Field Day Marianna REC


PAGE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









COTTON AND POTASSIUM (K) NEEDS

Cotton responds to K on many of our sandy Coastal Plain
soils. Some research has shown that K uptake is inversely
related to the amount of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) uptake. Our research in long term no-till or strip
till plots show that a buildup of Ca and Mg in the top
couple of inches of soil may result in less uptake of K
and may result in more incidence of disease and perhaps
even more hard lock. This concept is being evaluated
extensively at the present time. Generally, we would like
to see the K level at 3.5% in the petiole at first bloom and
levels will normally decrease to less than 2% at maturity.
Potash deficiencies are usually noticed visually when the
petiole K level drops below 1.25%. Plants with these low
levels of K will normally defoliate early.


DLW

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS ON
COTTON

Cotton, like other crops, responds to soil applications of
nutrients. Foliar application of nutrients is often recom-
mended when a petiole deficiency is detected or when
levels drop in petiole samples. It is natural for any plant
to have less concentration of nutrients as it matures and
nutrient applications should not be made just because of
a fast drop in nutrient content. This may only mean that
the crop is growing faster than the roots are able to take
up nutrients. N, P, and K as well as Ca, Mg, and S have
relatively high uptake rates while micronutrients such as
Zn, Mn, and B have less than 1 lb/A taken up by the crop
during the season. Therefore, it stands to reason that if
foliar feeding is to be done, the nutrients that are needed
in the lowest amounts are the ones that are likely to re-
spond the most to foliar fertilizer. Plant leaves are de-
signed for respiration and not nutrient uptake, with
stomates on the underside of the leaf and a waxy cuticle
on the top. Foliar fertilization is a very inefficient way to
supply nutrients, but can be done for nutrients needed in
small amounts. N is often applied as a foliar fertilization,
but at low rates (usually 5 lbs/A, as 2 gallons of 23% N
in 3 gallons of water /A to avoid burn). These rates are
often not high enough to make a critical difference in
yield of cotton. Better management of soil applied or side
dress N should be considered, since higher rates can be
used at much lower costs. With irrigation, N can be in-
jected into irrigation water along with B and K at what-
ever rate desired without any consideration for burn on
the crop because of the volume of water being applied.
This will also get the nutrients into the root zone where
nutrients are taken up effectively.

DLW


MOWING PASTURES


Late July early August may be a good time to mow pas-
tures. Usually by this time, dogfennels are large but have
not made seed. Mowing them at this time may reduce their
regrowth. Also, pastures will have been spot grazed and
mowing the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more palatable and nu-
tritious. But when needed, mowing can be a useful man-
agement tool. In some situations, use of a herbicide for
weed control may be called for.


CGC

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FORAGE
GRASSES

In order to obtain good stands, Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton
85, stargrasses, and other vegetatively propagated grasses
require special attention. When preparing a seedbed, two
factors are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be planted
in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand failures: 1) plant-
ing in fields that have stands of other grasses (common
bermudagrass), 2) using dried-out sprigs or tops, 3) pro-
longed drought after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass
is established. The planting material should be planted on a
clean, moist seedbed that is free of other growing grasses.
When planting tops, use mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old.
Use fresh planting material with at least three nodes orjoints,
plant sprigs or tops the same day they are harvested. Cover
the planting material immediately or within 15 minutes af-
ter dropping on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than bermudagrass
sprigs and tops of Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming
the soil around the planting material after it has been dis-
tributed and covered is very critical in maintaining adequate
soil moisture in the soil surface and thus preventing the plant-
ing material from drying out and dying. Grass planted in
the summer usually requires 90 days or more before it is
established well enough for any type of harvest to be taken.
If less than 100% stand establishment has occurred, caution
should be exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north Florida,
try to complete summer plantings by August 15.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES/GRAZING
MANAGEMENT

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids can add
quantity and quality to a summer forage program. These









COTTON AND POTASSIUM (K) NEEDS

Cotton responds to K on many of our sandy Coastal Plain
soils. Some research has shown that K uptake is inversely
related to the amount of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) uptake. Our research in long term no-till or strip
till plots show that a buildup of Ca and Mg in the top
couple of inches of soil may result in less uptake of K
and may result in more incidence of disease and perhaps
even more hard lock. This concept is being evaluated
extensively at the present time. Generally, we would like
to see the K level at 3.5% in the petiole at first bloom and
levels will normally decrease to less than 2% at maturity.
Potash deficiencies are usually noticed visually when the
petiole K level drops below 1.25%. Plants with these low
levels of K will normally defoliate early.


DLW

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS ON
COTTON

Cotton, like other crops, responds to soil applications of
nutrients. Foliar application of nutrients is often recom-
mended when a petiole deficiency is detected or when
levels drop in petiole samples. It is natural for any plant
to have less concentration of nutrients as it matures and
nutrient applications should not be made just because of
a fast drop in nutrient content. This may only mean that
the crop is growing faster than the roots are able to take
up nutrients. N, P, and K as well as Ca, Mg, and S have
relatively high uptake rates while micronutrients such as
Zn, Mn, and B have less than 1 lb/A taken up by the crop
during the season. Therefore, it stands to reason that if
foliar feeding is to be done, the nutrients that are needed
in the lowest amounts are the ones that are likely to re-
spond the most to foliar fertilizer. Plant leaves are de-
signed for respiration and not nutrient uptake, with
stomates on the underside of the leaf and a waxy cuticle
on the top. Foliar fertilization is a very inefficient way to
supply nutrients, but can be done for nutrients needed in
small amounts. N is often applied as a foliar fertilization,
but at low rates (usually 5 lbs/A, as 2 gallons of 23% N
in 3 gallons of water /A to avoid burn). These rates are
often not high enough to make a critical difference in
yield of cotton. Better management of soil applied or side
dress N should be considered, since higher rates can be
used at much lower costs. With irrigation, N can be in-
jected into irrigation water along with B and K at what-
ever rate desired without any consideration for burn on
the crop because of the volume of water being applied.
This will also get the nutrients into the root zone where
nutrients are taken up effectively.

DLW


MOWING PASTURES


Late July early August may be a good time to mow pas-
tures. Usually by this time, dogfennels are large but have
not made seed. Mowing them at this time may reduce their
regrowth. Also, pastures will have been spot grazed and
mowing the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more palatable and nu-
tritious. But when needed, mowing can be a useful man-
agement tool. In some situations, use of a herbicide for
weed control may be called for.


CGC

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FORAGE
GRASSES

In order to obtain good stands, Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton
85, stargrasses, and other vegetatively propagated grasses
require special attention. When preparing a seedbed, two
factors are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be planted
in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand failures: 1) plant-
ing in fields that have stands of other grasses (common
bermudagrass), 2) using dried-out sprigs or tops, 3) pro-
longed drought after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass
is established. The planting material should be planted on a
clean, moist seedbed that is free of other growing grasses.
When planting tops, use mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old.
Use fresh planting material with at least three nodes orjoints,
plant sprigs or tops the same day they are harvested. Cover
the planting material immediately or within 15 minutes af-
ter dropping on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than bermudagrass
sprigs and tops of Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming
the soil around the planting material after it has been dis-
tributed and covered is very critical in maintaining adequate
soil moisture in the soil surface and thus preventing the plant-
ing material from drying out and dying. Grass planted in
the summer usually requires 90 days or more before it is
established well enough for any type of harvest to be taken.
If less than 100% stand establishment has occurred, caution
should be exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north Florida,
try to complete summer plantings by August 15.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES/GRAZING
MANAGEMENT

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids can add
quantity and quality to a summer forage program. These









COTTON AND POTASSIUM (K) NEEDS

Cotton responds to K on many of our sandy Coastal Plain
soils. Some research has shown that K uptake is inversely
related to the amount of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) uptake. Our research in long term no-till or strip
till plots show that a buildup of Ca and Mg in the top
couple of inches of soil may result in less uptake of K
and may result in more incidence of disease and perhaps
even more hard lock. This concept is being evaluated
extensively at the present time. Generally, we would like
to see the K level at 3.5% in the petiole at first bloom and
levels will normally decrease to less than 2% at maturity.
Potash deficiencies are usually noticed visually when the
petiole K level drops below 1.25%. Plants with these low
levels of K will normally defoliate early.


DLW

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS ON
COTTON

Cotton, like other crops, responds to soil applications of
nutrients. Foliar application of nutrients is often recom-
mended when a petiole deficiency is detected or when
levels drop in petiole samples. It is natural for any plant
to have less concentration of nutrients as it matures and
nutrient applications should not be made just because of
a fast drop in nutrient content. This may only mean that
the crop is growing faster than the roots are able to take
up nutrients. N, P, and K as well as Ca, Mg, and S have
relatively high uptake rates while micronutrients such as
Zn, Mn, and B have less than 1 lb/A taken up by the crop
during the season. Therefore, it stands to reason that if
foliar feeding is to be done, the nutrients that are needed
in the lowest amounts are the ones that are likely to re-
spond the most to foliar fertilizer. Plant leaves are de-
signed for respiration and not nutrient uptake, with
stomates on the underside of the leaf and a waxy cuticle
on the top. Foliar fertilization is a very inefficient way to
supply nutrients, but can be done for nutrients needed in
small amounts. N is often applied as a foliar fertilization,
but at low rates (usually 5 lbs/A, as 2 gallons of 23% N
in 3 gallons of water /A to avoid burn). These rates are
often not high enough to make a critical difference in
yield of cotton. Better management of soil applied or side
dress N should be considered, since higher rates can be
used at much lower costs. With irrigation, N can be in-
jected into irrigation water along with B and K at what-
ever rate desired without any consideration for burn on
the crop because of the volume of water being applied.
This will also get the nutrients into the root zone where
nutrients are taken up effectively.

DLW


MOWING PASTURES


Late July early August may be a good time to mow pas-
tures. Usually by this time, dogfennels are large but have
not made seed. Mowing them at this time may reduce their
regrowth. Also, pastures will have been spot grazed and
mowing the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more palatable and nu-
tritious. But when needed, mowing can be a useful man-
agement tool. In some situations, use of a herbicide for
weed control may be called for.


CGC

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FORAGE
GRASSES

In order to obtain good stands, Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton
85, stargrasses, and other vegetatively propagated grasses
require special attention. When preparing a seedbed, two
factors are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be planted
in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand failures: 1) plant-
ing in fields that have stands of other grasses (common
bermudagrass), 2) using dried-out sprigs or tops, 3) pro-
longed drought after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass
is established. The planting material should be planted on a
clean, moist seedbed that is free of other growing grasses.
When planting tops, use mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old.
Use fresh planting material with at least three nodes orjoints,
plant sprigs or tops the same day they are harvested. Cover
the planting material immediately or within 15 minutes af-
ter dropping on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than bermudagrass
sprigs and tops of Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming
the soil around the planting material after it has been dis-
tributed and covered is very critical in maintaining adequate
soil moisture in the soil surface and thus preventing the plant-
ing material from drying out and dying. Grass planted in
the summer usually requires 90 days or more before it is
established well enough for any type of harvest to be taken.
If less than 100% stand establishment has occurred, caution
should be exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north Florida,
try to complete summer plantings by August 15.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES/GRAZING
MANAGEMENT

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids can add
quantity and quality to a summer forage program. These









COTTON AND POTASSIUM (K) NEEDS

Cotton responds to K on many of our sandy Coastal Plain
soils. Some research has shown that K uptake is inversely
related to the amount of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) uptake. Our research in long term no-till or strip
till plots show that a buildup of Ca and Mg in the top
couple of inches of soil may result in less uptake of K
and may result in more incidence of disease and perhaps
even more hard lock. This concept is being evaluated
extensively at the present time. Generally, we would like
to see the K level at 3.5% in the petiole at first bloom and
levels will normally decrease to less than 2% at maturity.
Potash deficiencies are usually noticed visually when the
petiole K level drops below 1.25%. Plants with these low
levels of K will normally defoliate early.


DLW

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS ON
COTTON

Cotton, like other crops, responds to soil applications of
nutrients. Foliar application of nutrients is often recom-
mended when a petiole deficiency is detected or when
levels drop in petiole samples. It is natural for any plant
to have less concentration of nutrients as it matures and
nutrient applications should not be made just because of
a fast drop in nutrient content. This may only mean that
the crop is growing faster than the roots are able to take
up nutrients. N, P, and K as well as Ca, Mg, and S have
relatively high uptake rates while micronutrients such as
Zn, Mn, and B have less than 1 lb/A taken up by the crop
during the season. Therefore, it stands to reason that if
foliar feeding is to be done, the nutrients that are needed
in the lowest amounts are the ones that are likely to re-
spond the most to foliar fertilizer. Plant leaves are de-
signed for respiration and not nutrient uptake, with
stomates on the underside of the leaf and a waxy cuticle
on the top. Foliar fertilization is a very inefficient way to
supply nutrients, but can be done for nutrients needed in
small amounts. N is often applied as a foliar fertilization,
but at low rates (usually 5 lbs/A, as 2 gallons of 23% N
in 3 gallons of water /A to avoid burn). These rates are
often not high enough to make a critical difference in
yield of cotton. Better management of soil applied or side
dress N should be considered, since higher rates can be
used at much lower costs. With irrigation, N can be in-
jected into irrigation water along with B and K at what-
ever rate desired without any consideration for burn on
the crop because of the volume of water being applied.
This will also get the nutrients into the root zone where
nutrients are taken up effectively.

DLW


MOWING PASTURES


Late July early August may be a good time to mow pas-
tures. Usually by this time, dogfennels are large but have
not made seed. Mowing them at this time may reduce their
regrowth. Also, pastures will have been spot grazed and
mowing the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more palatable and nu-
tritious. But when needed, mowing can be a useful man-
agement tool. In some situations, use of a herbicide for
weed control may be called for.


CGC

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FORAGE
GRASSES

In order to obtain good stands, Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton
85, stargrasses, and other vegetatively propagated grasses
require special attention. When preparing a seedbed, two
factors are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be planted
in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand failures: 1) plant-
ing in fields that have stands of other grasses (common
bermudagrass), 2) using dried-out sprigs or tops, 3) pro-
longed drought after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass
is established. The planting material should be planted on a
clean, moist seedbed that is free of other growing grasses.
When planting tops, use mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old.
Use fresh planting material with at least three nodes orjoints,
plant sprigs or tops the same day they are harvested. Cover
the planting material immediately or within 15 minutes af-
ter dropping on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than bermudagrass
sprigs and tops of Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming
the soil around the planting material after it has been dis-
tributed and covered is very critical in maintaining adequate
soil moisture in the soil surface and thus preventing the plant-
ing material from drying out and dying. Grass planted in
the summer usually requires 90 days or more before it is
established well enough for any type of harvest to be taken.
If less than 100% stand establishment has occurred, caution
should be exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north Florida,
try to complete summer plantings by August 15.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES/GRAZING
MANAGEMENT

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids can add
quantity and quality to a summer forage program. These









COTTON AND POTASSIUM (K) NEEDS

Cotton responds to K on many of our sandy Coastal Plain
soils. Some research has shown that K uptake is inversely
related to the amount of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) uptake. Our research in long term no-till or strip
till plots show that a buildup of Ca and Mg in the top
couple of inches of soil may result in less uptake of K
and may result in more incidence of disease and perhaps
even more hard lock. This concept is being evaluated
extensively at the present time. Generally, we would like
to see the K level at 3.5% in the petiole at first bloom and
levels will normally decrease to less than 2% at maturity.
Potash deficiencies are usually noticed visually when the
petiole K level drops below 1.25%. Plants with these low
levels of K will normally defoliate early.


DLW

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS ON
COTTON

Cotton, like other crops, responds to soil applications of
nutrients. Foliar application of nutrients is often recom-
mended when a petiole deficiency is detected or when
levels drop in petiole samples. It is natural for any plant
to have less concentration of nutrients as it matures and
nutrient applications should not be made just because of
a fast drop in nutrient content. This may only mean that
the crop is growing faster than the roots are able to take
up nutrients. N, P, and K as well as Ca, Mg, and S have
relatively high uptake rates while micronutrients such as
Zn, Mn, and B have less than 1 lb/A taken up by the crop
during the season. Therefore, it stands to reason that if
foliar feeding is to be done, the nutrients that are needed
in the lowest amounts are the ones that are likely to re-
spond the most to foliar fertilizer. Plant leaves are de-
signed for respiration and not nutrient uptake, with
stomates on the underside of the leaf and a waxy cuticle
on the top. Foliar fertilization is a very inefficient way to
supply nutrients, but can be done for nutrients needed in
small amounts. N is often applied as a foliar fertilization,
but at low rates (usually 5 lbs/A, as 2 gallons of 23% N
in 3 gallons of water /A to avoid burn). These rates are
often not high enough to make a critical difference in
yield of cotton. Better management of soil applied or side
dress N should be considered, since higher rates can be
used at much lower costs. With irrigation, N can be in-
jected into irrigation water along with B and K at what-
ever rate desired without any consideration for burn on
the crop because of the volume of water being applied.
This will also get the nutrients into the root zone where
nutrients are taken up effectively.

DLW


MOWING PASTURES


Late July early August may be a good time to mow pas-
tures. Usually by this time, dogfennels are large but have
not made seed. Mowing them at this time may reduce their
regrowth. Also, pastures will have been spot grazed and
mowing the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more palatable and nu-
tritious. But when needed, mowing can be a useful man-
agement tool. In some situations, use of a herbicide for
weed control may be called for.


CGC

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF FORAGE
GRASSES

In order to obtain good stands, Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton
85, stargrasses, and other vegetatively propagated grasses
require special attention. When preparing a seedbed, two
factors are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be planted
in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand failures: 1) plant-
ing in fields that have stands of other grasses (common
bermudagrass), 2) using dried-out sprigs or tops, 3) pro-
longed drought after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass
is established. The planting material should be planted on a
clean, moist seedbed that is free of other growing grasses.
When planting tops, use mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old.
Use fresh planting material with at least three nodes orjoints,
plant sprigs or tops the same day they are harvested. Cover
the planting material immediately or within 15 minutes af-
ter dropping on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than bermudagrass
sprigs and tops of Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming
the soil around the planting material after it has been dis-
tributed and covered is very critical in maintaining adequate
soil moisture in the soil surface and thus preventing the plant-
ing material from drying out and dying. Grass planted in
the summer usually requires 90 days or more before it is
established well enough for any type of harvest to be taken.
If less than 100% stand establishment has occurred, caution
should be exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north Florida,
try to complete summer plantings by August 15.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES/GRAZING
MANAGEMENT

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids can add
quantity and quality to a summer forage program. These








of seed per acre. Late plantings should be made in 7-9 inch
wide rows with 3-4 seed per foot of row. This correlates to
50-65 lbs. of seed per acre depending on seed size. Row
spacing research with 12, 24, and 36 inch rows resulted in
no difference inyield when planted during the recommended
planting time of May 15 to June 15. This conflicts with Mid-
west data but has been verified many times in the Southeast.


DLW

TOBACCO LEGISLATION

In June, a new bill was introduced in the United States Sen-
ate that would allow FDA control over tobacco. It is ex-
pected that provisions to provide a buyout of quota will even-
tually be considered in this proposed legislationbecause this,
along with FDA control and other items, were recommenda-
tions by the President's Commission. Another bill was in-
troduced in the House of Representatives several weeks ago
that addressed the same topics. At this time, there is no way
to predict the final form or outcome of this proposed legisla-
tion, but farmers and others that are interested in a quota
buyout should keep up with the developments.


EBW

TOBACCO CROP CONDITIONS

In general, the 2002 Florida tobacco crop is considered to be
in good condition. Recent rains have delayed maturity, but
unless rains become heavier and more frequent, the quality
of the crop should not decline. If possible, tobacco should
be harvested when dry to reduce the possibility of barn rot.
Blue mold has been favored by the rain, but this disease
should not progress on the more mature tobacco, especially
as the lower leaves are harvested. Tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) has been more common in 2002 than in 2001, but
the incidence is not as high as in Georgia. TSWV has also
become more severe in the Carolinas and has been found as
far north as Maryland.

EBW

TOBACCO SALES

Almost all of Florida's tobacco is contracted, but there will
be auction sales in Georgia. The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabi-
lization Cooperative will operate auction sales in Douglas
and Statesboro. There may be some private warehouses also
in operation. Sale schedules should be available in July for
those that may be interested in obtaining one. Auction sales
will also be conducted in the Carolinas and Virginia.


EBW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.


SSAGR17
SSAGR36
SSAGR47
SSAGR51
SSAGR53
SSAGR59
SSAGR60
SSAGR61
SSAGR63
SSAGR65
SSAGR67

SSAGR70
SSAGR71
SSAGR90
SSAGR161


Brazilian Pepper Tree Control
Bahiagrass
Alyceclover Summer Annual Legume
Digitgrasses
Savanna Stylo Production Guide
Callide Rhodesgrass
Bermudagrass Production in Florida
Aeschynomene
Forage Testing
Pastures and Forage Crops for Horses
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria
altissima)
Hay Production in Florida
Forage Grasses for Florida's Organic Soils
Calibrating Forage Seeding Equipment
Forage Planting and Establishment
Methods


The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR56 Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage
Legumes
SSAGR58 Mott Elephantgrass
SSAGR62 Stargrass
SSAGR79 Minor Use Summer Annual Forage Legumes
SSAGR89 Producing Millets and Sorghums
SSAGR92 Grazing Management Concepts and Systems
SSAGR93 Forage Quality
SSAGR94 General Guidelines for Managing Pastures for
Dairy Cows
SSAGR97 Florida Forage Handbook: Table of Contents
SSAGR98 Florida Forage Handbook: Preface
SSAGR99 Florida Forage Handbook: Contributing
Authors
SSAGR105 Managing South Florida Range for Cattle
SSAGR146 Sugarcane Cultivar Quick Reference Chart
SSAGR147 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1213
SSAGR148 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1641
SSAGR149 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1666
SSAGR157 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1100
SSAGR158 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1340

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click








of seed per acre. Late plantings should be made in 7-9 inch
wide rows with 3-4 seed per foot of row. This correlates to
50-65 lbs. of seed per acre depending on seed size. Row
spacing research with 12, 24, and 36 inch rows resulted in
no difference inyield when planted during the recommended
planting time of May 15 to June 15. This conflicts with Mid-
west data but has been verified many times in the Southeast.


DLW

TOBACCO LEGISLATION

In June, a new bill was introduced in the United States Sen-
ate that would allow FDA control over tobacco. It is ex-
pected that provisions to provide a buyout of quota will even-
tually be considered in this proposed legislationbecause this,
along with FDA control and other items, were recommenda-
tions by the President's Commission. Another bill was in-
troduced in the House of Representatives several weeks ago
that addressed the same topics. At this time, there is no way
to predict the final form or outcome of this proposed legisla-
tion, but farmers and others that are interested in a quota
buyout should keep up with the developments.


EBW

TOBACCO CROP CONDITIONS

In general, the 2002 Florida tobacco crop is considered to be
in good condition. Recent rains have delayed maturity, but
unless rains become heavier and more frequent, the quality
of the crop should not decline. If possible, tobacco should
be harvested when dry to reduce the possibility of barn rot.
Blue mold has been favored by the rain, but this disease
should not progress on the more mature tobacco, especially
as the lower leaves are harvested. Tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) has been more common in 2002 than in 2001, but
the incidence is not as high as in Georgia. TSWV has also
become more severe in the Carolinas and has been found as
far north as Maryland.

EBW

TOBACCO SALES

Almost all of Florida's tobacco is contracted, but there will
be auction sales in Georgia. The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabi-
lization Cooperative will operate auction sales in Douglas
and Statesboro. There may be some private warehouses also
in operation. Sale schedules should be available in July for
those that may be interested in obtaining one. Auction sales
will also be conducted in the Carolinas and Virginia.


EBW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.


SSAGR17
SSAGR36
SSAGR47
SSAGR51
SSAGR53
SSAGR59
SSAGR60
SSAGR61
SSAGR63
SSAGR65
SSAGR67

SSAGR70
SSAGR71
SSAGR90
SSAGR161


Brazilian Pepper Tree Control
Bahiagrass
Alyceclover Summer Annual Legume
Digitgrasses
Savanna Stylo Production Guide
Callide Rhodesgrass
Bermudagrass Production in Florida
Aeschynomene
Forage Testing
Pastures and Forage Crops for Horses
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria
altissima)
Hay Production in Florida
Forage Grasses for Florida's Organic Soils
Calibrating Forage Seeding Equipment
Forage Planting and Establishment
Methods


The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR56 Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage
Legumes
SSAGR58 Mott Elephantgrass
SSAGR62 Stargrass
SSAGR79 Minor Use Summer Annual Forage Legumes
SSAGR89 Producing Millets and Sorghums
SSAGR92 Grazing Management Concepts and Systems
SSAGR93 Forage Quality
SSAGR94 General Guidelines for Managing Pastures for
Dairy Cows
SSAGR97 Florida Forage Handbook: Table of Contents
SSAGR98 Florida Forage Handbook: Preface
SSAGR99 Florida Forage Handbook: Contributing
Authors
SSAGR105 Managing South Florida Range for Cattle
SSAGR146 Sugarcane Cultivar Quick Reference Chart
SSAGR147 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1213
SSAGR148 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1641
SSAGR149 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1666
SSAGR157 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1100
SSAGR158 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1340

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click








of seed per acre. Late plantings should be made in 7-9 inch
wide rows with 3-4 seed per foot of row. This correlates to
50-65 lbs. of seed per acre depending on seed size. Row
spacing research with 12, 24, and 36 inch rows resulted in
no difference inyield when planted during the recommended
planting time of May 15 to June 15. This conflicts with Mid-
west data but has been verified many times in the Southeast.


DLW

TOBACCO LEGISLATION

In June, a new bill was introduced in the United States Sen-
ate that would allow FDA control over tobacco. It is ex-
pected that provisions to provide a buyout of quota will even-
tually be considered in this proposed legislationbecause this,
along with FDA control and other items, were recommenda-
tions by the President's Commission. Another bill was in-
troduced in the House of Representatives several weeks ago
that addressed the same topics. At this time, there is no way
to predict the final form or outcome of this proposed legisla-
tion, but farmers and others that are interested in a quota
buyout should keep up with the developments.


EBW

TOBACCO CROP CONDITIONS

In general, the 2002 Florida tobacco crop is considered to be
in good condition. Recent rains have delayed maturity, but
unless rains become heavier and more frequent, the quality
of the crop should not decline. If possible, tobacco should
be harvested when dry to reduce the possibility of barn rot.
Blue mold has been favored by the rain, but this disease
should not progress on the more mature tobacco, especially
as the lower leaves are harvested. Tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) has been more common in 2002 than in 2001, but
the incidence is not as high as in Georgia. TSWV has also
become more severe in the Carolinas and has been found as
far north as Maryland.

EBW

TOBACCO SALES

Almost all of Florida's tobacco is contracted, but there will
be auction sales in Georgia. The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabi-
lization Cooperative will operate auction sales in Douglas
and Statesboro. There may be some private warehouses also
in operation. Sale schedules should be available in July for
those that may be interested in obtaining one. Auction sales
will also be conducted in the Carolinas and Virginia.


EBW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.


SSAGR17
SSAGR36
SSAGR47
SSAGR51
SSAGR53
SSAGR59
SSAGR60
SSAGR61
SSAGR63
SSAGR65
SSAGR67

SSAGR70
SSAGR71
SSAGR90
SSAGR161


Brazilian Pepper Tree Control
Bahiagrass
Alyceclover Summer Annual Legume
Digitgrasses
Savanna Stylo Production Guide
Callide Rhodesgrass
Bermudagrass Production in Florida
Aeschynomene
Forage Testing
Pastures and Forage Crops for Horses
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria
altissima)
Hay Production in Florida
Forage Grasses for Florida's Organic Soils
Calibrating Forage Seeding Equipment
Forage Planting and Establishment
Methods


The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR56 Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage
Legumes
SSAGR58 Mott Elephantgrass
SSAGR62 Stargrass
SSAGR79 Minor Use Summer Annual Forage Legumes
SSAGR89 Producing Millets and Sorghums
SSAGR92 Grazing Management Concepts and Systems
SSAGR93 Forage Quality
SSAGR94 General Guidelines for Managing Pastures for
Dairy Cows
SSAGR97 Florida Forage Handbook: Table of Contents
SSAGR98 Florida Forage Handbook: Preface
SSAGR99 Florida Forage Handbook: Contributing
Authors
SSAGR105 Managing South Florida Range for Cattle
SSAGR146 Sugarcane Cultivar Quick Reference Chart
SSAGR147 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1213
SSAGR148 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1641
SSAGR149 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1666
SSAGR157 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1100
SSAGR158 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1340

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click








crops, when planted on well-drained, fertile soils and with
proper fertilization and management, can furnish grazing for
2 or more cows per acre from June into September. Forage
quality declines rapidly as plants mature, so grazing man-
agement should be designed to keep the plants in a young
vegetative state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25 to 30 inches
and then graze down to 6 to 8 inches. Continuous grazing
can be used on pearl millet, if the stocking rate can be ad-
justed to keep the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continu-
ous grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent pro-
duction. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids should not be
grazed continuously because of the danger of prussic acid
poisoning when young forage is consumed. This crop should
not be grazed before plants reach 30 inches.


CGC

HAY AND PASTURE INSECTS

Be on the lookout for fall armyworms and grass loopers.
Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem to attract the fall ar-
myworm moth. They especially like bermudagrass. Popu-
lations reach a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field fertilized for fall
hay production may indicate an infestation of fall army-
worms.

Spittlebug build up in fields where grass has been allowed
to accumulate throughout the summer. Circular spots where
the grass is dying back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields
with a severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or har-
vested for hay or silage. This will open the field and allow
sunlight to desiccate the young nymphs. If the adults are
emerging or have emerged at the time when the field is har-
vested, they can be killed with an application of insecticide.
Burning of fields in the winter helps with spittlebug control.
Susceptible plants include digitgrass (Pangola), limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Chinch bugs have been a problem on
Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug damage usually occurs on
the higher, dryer ground. Populations should diminish in
September.


CGC

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The farm bill that was recently enacted by Congress made
major changes in the peanut program. Abuyout will end the
quota system, and replace it with a market loan program simi-
lar to that used for cotton, grains, and soybeans. In place of
a quota, farmers will have a 'basis' or quantity of peanuts
that they can produce. The basis is determined by past pea-
nut production and will be needed to participate in the loan
program. Marketing procedures and information on obtain-


ing loans will be made available as the season progresses.
The USDA's Farm Service Agency will write rules and regu-
lations to implement the new program.


EBW

PRODUCING QUALITY PEANUT SEED

Certified peanut seed must be grown according to the rules
and standards established by the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. Purity must be insured by
planting only foundation, registered, or first-year certified
seed, and must not be grown on a field where another vari-
ety was grown in the past two years. Other regulations also
apply to insure purity of the peanuts that are produced. Pea-
nuts being grown for seed should receive an application of
gypsum regardless of the soil calcium levels. The reason for
this recommendation is that high calcium levels in the nuts
that are produced helps prevent poor germination caused by
a dead embryo, commonly called "black heart." Other rec-
ommendations for growing peanuts should be followed. If a
late-maturing variety is planted, be sure to let it get fully
mature before harvesting.

EBW


PEANUT FIELD DAY


The annual Peanut Field Day will be held at the Marianna
REC on August 21, starting with registration at 8:00 am
(CDT). Atour of the field studies will start at 8:30 am. Top-
ics to be covered include control of leaf spot and white mold,
tomato spotted wilt virus, insect control, weed control, breed-
ing and varieties, tillage and crop management. A meal will
be provided at noon and CEUs will be available at registra-
tion. The Marianna REC is located 7 miles north of Marianna
on Highway 71 or a mile south of Greenwood.


EBW

SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE, ROW SPACING
AND PLANT POPULATION

Soybeans were grown widely over Florida and are still grown
in certain areas. One of the most important management prac-
tices is to plant the proper amount of seed in the correct row
spacing. Generally, if soybeans form a full canopy or lap
rows by growth stage R1 (first bloom) yield limitations due
to row spacing are minimal. Late plantings, after July 10,
normally have reduced yields but can be compensated to a
large extent by using narrow rows and increasing the seed-
ing rate. Use of herbicide resistant varieties makes the use of
narrow rows more feasible and allows better control of weeds,
since cultivation is impossible. Normally 6-9 seeds per foot
of row are planted in 36 inch wide rows, or about 35-45 lbs.








crops, when planted on well-drained, fertile soils and with
proper fertilization and management, can furnish grazing for
2 or more cows per acre from June into September. Forage
quality declines rapidly as plants mature, so grazing man-
agement should be designed to keep the plants in a young
vegetative state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25 to 30 inches
and then graze down to 6 to 8 inches. Continuous grazing
can be used on pearl millet, if the stocking rate can be ad-
justed to keep the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continu-
ous grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent pro-
duction. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids should not be
grazed continuously because of the danger of prussic acid
poisoning when young forage is consumed. This crop should
not be grazed before plants reach 30 inches.


CGC

HAY AND PASTURE INSECTS

Be on the lookout for fall armyworms and grass loopers.
Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem to attract the fall ar-
myworm moth. They especially like bermudagrass. Popu-
lations reach a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field fertilized for fall
hay production may indicate an infestation of fall army-
worms.

Spittlebug build up in fields where grass has been allowed
to accumulate throughout the summer. Circular spots where
the grass is dying back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields
with a severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or har-
vested for hay or silage. This will open the field and allow
sunlight to desiccate the young nymphs. If the adults are
emerging or have emerged at the time when the field is har-
vested, they can be killed with an application of insecticide.
Burning of fields in the winter helps with spittlebug control.
Susceptible plants include digitgrass (Pangola), limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Chinch bugs have been a problem on
Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug damage usually occurs on
the higher, dryer ground. Populations should diminish in
September.


CGC

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The farm bill that was recently enacted by Congress made
major changes in the peanut program. Abuyout will end the
quota system, and replace it with a market loan program simi-
lar to that used for cotton, grains, and soybeans. In place of
a quota, farmers will have a 'basis' or quantity of peanuts
that they can produce. The basis is determined by past pea-
nut production and will be needed to participate in the loan
program. Marketing procedures and information on obtain-


ing loans will be made available as the season progresses.
The USDA's Farm Service Agency will write rules and regu-
lations to implement the new program.


EBW

PRODUCING QUALITY PEANUT SEED

Certified peanut seed must be grown according to the rules
and standards established by the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. Purity must be insured by
planting only foundation, registered, or first-year certified
seed, and must not be grown on a field where another vari-
ety was grown in the past two years. Other regulations also
apply to insure purity of the peanuts that are produced. Pea-
nuts being grown for seed should receive an application of
gypsum regardless of the soil calcium levels. The reason for
this recommendation is that high calcium levels in the nuts
that are produced helps prevent poor germination caused by
a dead embryo, commonly called "black heart." Other rec-
ommendations for growing peanuts should be followed. If a
late-maturing variety is planted, be sure to let it get fully
mature before harvesting.

EBW


PEANUT FIELD DAY


The annual Peanut Field Day will be held at the Marianna
REC on August 21, starting with registration at 8:00 am
(CDT). Atour of the field studies will start at 8:30 am. Top-
ics to be covered include control of leaf spot and white mold,
tomato spotted wilt virus, insect control, weed control, breed-
ing and varieties, tillage and crop management. A meal will
be provided at noon and CEUs will be available at registra-
tion. The Marianna REC is located 7 miles north of Marianna
on Highway 71 or a mile south of Greenwood.


EBW

SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE, ROW SPACING
AND PLANT POPULATION

Soybeans were grown widely over Florida and are still grown
in certain areas. One of the most important management prac-
tices is to plant the proper amount of seed in the correct row
spacing. Generally, if soybeans form a full canopy or lap
rows by growth stage R1 (first bloom) yield limitations due
to row spacing are minimal. Late plantings, after July 10,
normally have reduced yields but can be compensated to a
large extent by using narrow rows and increasing the seed-
ing rate. Use of herbicide resistant varieties makes the use of
narrow rows more feasible and allows better control of weeds,
since cultivation is impossible. Normally 6-9 seeds per foot
of row are planted in 36 inch wide rows, or about 35-45 lbs.








crops, when planted on well-drained, fertile soils and with
proper fertilization and management, can furnish grazing for
2 or more cows per acre from June into September. Forage
quality declines rapidly as plants mature, so grazing man-
agement should be designed to keep the plants in a young
vegetative state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25 to 30 inches
and then graze down to 6 to 8 inches. Continuous grazing
can be used on pearl millet, if the stocking rate can be ad-
justed to keep the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continu-
ous grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent pro-
duction. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids should not be
grazed continuously because of the danger of prussic acid
poisoning when young forage is consumed. This crop should
not be grazed before plants reach 30 inches.


CGC

HAY AND PASTURE INSECTS

Be on the lookout for fall armyworms and grass loopers.
Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem to attract the fall ar-
myworm moth. They especially like bermudagrass. Popu-
lations reach a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field fertilized for fall
hay production may indicate an infestation of fall army-
worms.

Spittlebug build up in fields where grass has been allowed
to accumulate throughout the summer. Circular spots where
the grass is dying back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields
with a severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or har-
vested for hay or silage. This will open the field and allow
sunlight to desiccate the young nymphs. If the adults are
emerging or have emerged at the time when the field is har-
vested, they can be killed with an application of insecticide.
Burning of fields in the winter helps with spittlebug control.
Susceptible plants include digitgrass (Pangola), limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Chinch bugs have been a problem on
Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug damage usually occurs on
the higher, dryer ground. Populations should diminish in
September.


CGC

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The farm bill that was recently enacted by Congress made
major changes in the peanut program. Abuyout will end the
quota system, and replace it with a market loan program simi-
lar to that used for cotton, grains, and soybeans. In place of
a quota, farmers will have a 'basis' or quantity of peanuts
that they can produce. The basis is determined by past pea-
nut production and will be needed to participate in the loan
program. Marketing procedures and information on obtain-


ing loans will be made available as the season progresses.
The USDA's Farm Service Agency will write rules and regu-
lations to implement the new program.


EBW

PRODUCING QUALITY PEANUT SEED

Certified peanut seed must be grown according to the rules
and standards established by the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. Purity must be insured by
planting only foundation, registered, or first-year certified
seed, and must not be grown on a field where another vari-
ety was grown in the past two years. Other regulations also
apply to insure purity of the peanuts that are produced. Pea-
nuts being grown for seed should receive an application of
gypsum regardless of the soil calcium levels. The reason for
this recommendation is that high calcium levels in the nuts
that are produced helps prevent poor germination caused by
a dead embryo, commonly called "black heart." Other rec-
ommendations for growing peanuts should be followed. If a
late-maturing variety is planted, be sure to let it get fully
mature before harvesting.

EBW


PEANUT FIELD DAY


The annual Peanut Field Day will be held at the Marianna
REC on August 21, starting with registration at 8:00 am
(CDT). Atour of the field studies will start at 8:30 am. Top-
ics to be covered include control of leaf spot and white mold,
tomato spotted wilt virus, insect control, weed control, breed-
ing and varieties, tillage and crop management. A meal will
be provided at noon and CEUs will be available at registra-
tion. The Marianna REC is located 7 miles north of Marianna
on Highway 71 or a mile south of Greenwood.


EBW

SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE, ROW SPACING
AND PLANT POPULATION

Soybeans were grown widely over Florida and are still grown
in certain areas. One of the most important management prac-
tices is to plant the proper amount of seed in the correct row
spacing. Generally, if soybeans form a full canopy or lap
rows by growth stage R1 (first bloom) yield limitations due
to row spacing are minimal. Late plantings, after July 10,
normally have reduced yields but can be compensated to a
large extent by using narrow rows and increasing the seed-
ing rate. Use of herbicide resistant varieties makes the use of
narrow rows more feasible and allows better control of weeds,
since cultivation is impossible. Normally 6-9 seeds per foot
of row are planted in 36 inch wide rows, or about 35-45 lbs.








crops, when planted on well-drained, fertile soils and with
proper fertilization and management, can furnish grazing for
2 or more cows per acre from June into September. Forage
quality declines rapidly as plants mature, so grazing man-
agement should be designed to keep the plants in a young
vegetative state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25 to 30 inches
and then graze down to 6 to 8 inches. Continuous grazing
can be used on pearl millet, if the stocking rate can be ad-
justed to keep the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continu-
ous grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent pro-
duction. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids should not be
grazed continuously because of the danger of prussic acid
poisoning when young forage is consumed. This crop should
not be grazed before plants reach 30 inches.


CGC

HAY AND PASTURE INSECTS

Be on the lookout for fall armyworms and grass loopers.
Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem to attract the fall ar-
myworm moth. They especially like bermudagrass. Popu-
lations reach a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field fertilized for fall
hay production may indicate an infestation of fall army-
worms.

Spittlebug build up in fields where grass has been allowed
to accumulate throughout the summer. Circular spots where
the grass is dying back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields
with a severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or har-
vested for hay or silage. This will open the field and allow
sunlight to desiccate the young nymphs. If the adults are
emerging or have emerged at the time when the field is har-
vested, they can be killed with an application of insecticide.
Burning of fields in the winter helps with spittlebug control.
Susceptible plants include digitgrass (Pangola), limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Chinch bugs have been a problem on
Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug damage usually occurs on
the higher, dryer ground. Populations should diminish in
September.


CGC

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The farm bill that was recently enacted by Congress made
major changes in the peanut program. Abuyout will end the
quota system, and replace it with a market loan program simi-
lar to that used for cotton, grains, and soybeans. In place of
a quota, farmers will have a 'basis' or quantity of peanuts
that they can produce. The basis is determined by past pea-
nut production and will be needed to participate in the loan
program. Marketing procedures and information on obtain-


ing loans will be made available as the season progresses.
The USDA's Farm Service Agency will write rules and regu-
lations to implement the new program.


EBW

PRODUCING QUALITY PEANUT SEED

Certified peanut seed must be grown according to the rules
and standards established by the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. Purity must be insured by
planting only foundation, registered, or first-year certified
seed, and must not be grown on a field where another vari-
ety was grown in the past two years. Other regulations also
apply to insure purity of the peanuts that are produced. Pea-
nuts being grown for seed should receive an application of
gypsum regardless of the soil calcium levels. The reason for
this recommendation is that high calcium levels in the nuts
that are produced helps prevent poor germination caused by
a dead embryo, commonly called "black heart." Other rec-
ommendations for growing peanuts should be followed. If a
late-maturing variety is planted, be sure to let it get fully
mature before harvesting.

EBW


PEANUT FIELD DAY


The annual Peanut Field Day will be held at the Marianna
REC on August 21, starting with registration at 8:00 am
(CDT). Atour of the field studies will start at 8:30 am. Top-
ics to be covered include control of leaf spot and white mold,
tomato spotted wilt virus, insect control, weed control, breed-
ing and varieties, tillage and crop management. A meal will
be provided at noon and CEUs will be available at registra-
tion. The Marianna REC is located 7 miles north of Marianna
on Highway 71 or a mile south of Greenwood.


EBW

SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE, ROW SPACING
AND PLANT POPULATION

Soybeans were grown widely over Florida and are still grown
in certain areas. One of the most important management prac-
tices is to plant the proper amount of seed in the correct row
spacing. Generally, if soybeans form a full canopy or lap
rows by growth stage R1 (first bloom) yield limitations due
to row spacing are minimal. Late plantings, after July 10,
normally have reduced yields but can be compensated to a
large extent by using narrow rows and increasing the seed-
ing rate. Use of herbicide resistant varieties makes the use of
narrow rows more feasible and allows better control of weeds,
since cultivation is impossible. Normally 6-9 seeds per foot
of row are planted in 36 inch wide rows, or about 35-45 lbs.








crops, when planted on well-drained, fertile soils and with
proper fertilization and management, can furnish grazing for
2 or more cows per acre from June into September. Forage
quality declines rapidly as plants mature, so grazing man-
agement should be designed to keep the plants in a young
vegetative state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25 to 30 inches
and then graze down to 6 to 8 inches. Continuous grazing
can be used on pearl millet, if the stocking rate can be ad-
justed to keep the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continu-
ous grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent pro-
duction. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids should not be
grazed continuously because of the danger of prussic acid
poisoning when young forage is consumed. This crop should
not be grazed before plants reach 30 inches.


CGC

HAY AND PASTURE INSECTS

Be on the lookout for fall armyworms and grass loopers.
Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem to attract the fall ar-
myworm moth. They especially like bermudagrass. Popu-
lations reach a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field fertilized for fall
hay production may indicate an infestation of fall army-
worms.

Spittlebug build up in fields where grass has been allowed
to accumulate throughout the summer. Circular spots where
the grass is dying back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields
with a severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or har-
vested for hay or silage. This will open the field and allow
sunlight to desiccate the young nymphs. If the adults are
emerging or have emerged at the time when the field is har-
vested, they can be killed with an application of insecticide.
Burning of fields in the winter helps with spittlebug control.
Susceptible plants include digitgrass (Pangola), limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Chinch bugs have been a problem on
Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug damage usually occurs on
the higher, dryer ground. Populations should diminish in
September.


CGC

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The farm bill that was recently enacted by Congress made
major changes in the peanut program. Abuyout will end the
quota system, and replace it with a market loan program simi-
lar to that used for cotton, grains, and soybeans. In place of
a quota, farmers will have a 'basis' or quantity of peanuts
that they can produce. The basis is determined by past pea-
nut production and will be needed to participate in the loan
program. Marketing procedures and information on obtain-


ing loans will be made available as the season progresses.
The USDA's Farm Service Agency will write rules and regu-
lations to implement the new program.


EBW

PRODUCING QUALITY PEANUT SEED

Certified peanut seed must be grown according to the rules
and standards established by the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. Purity must be insured by
planting only foundation, registered, or first-year certified
seed, and must not be grown on a field where another vari-
ety was grown in the past two years. Other regulations also
apply to insure purity of the peanuts that are produced. Pea-
nuts being grown for seed should receive an application of
gypsum regardless of the soil calcium levels. The reason for
this recommendation is that high calcium levels in the nuts
that are produced helps prevent poor germination caused by
a dead embryo, commonly called "black heart." Other rec-
ommendations for growing peanuts should be followed. If a
late-maturing variety is planted, be sure to let it get fully
mature before harvesting.

EBW


PEANUT FIELD DAY


The annual Peanut Field Day will be held at the Marianna
REC on August 21, starting with registration at 8:00 am
(CDT). Atour of the field studies will start at 8:30 am. Top-
ics to be covered include control of leaf spot and white mold,
tomato spotted wilt virus, insect control, weed control, breed-
ing and varieties, tillage and crop management. A meal will
be provided at noon and CEUs will be available at registra-
tion. The Marianna REC is located 7 miles north of Marianna
on Highway 71 or a mile south of Greenwood.


EBW

SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE, ROW SPACING
AND PLANT POPULATION

Soybeans were grown widely over Florida and are still grown
in certain areas. One of the most important management prac-
tices is to plant the proper amount of seed in the correct row
spacing. Generally, if soybeans form a full canopy or lap
rows by growth stage R1 (first bloom) yield limitations due
to row spacing are minimal. Late plantings, after July 10,
normally have reduced yields but can be compensated to a
large extent by using narrow rows and increasing the seed-
ing rate. Use of herbicide resistant varieties makes the use of
narrow rows more feasible and allows better control of weeds,
since cultivation is impossible. Normally 6-9 seeds per foot
of row are planted in 36 inch wide rows, or about 35-45 lbs.








of seed per acre. Late plantings should be made in 7-9 inch
wide rows with 3-4 seed per foot of row. This correlates to
50-65 lbs. of seed per acre depending on seed size. Row
spacing research with 12, 24, and 36 inch rows resulted in
no difference inyield when planted during the recommended
planting time of May 15 to June 15. This conflicts with Mid-
west data but has been verified many times in the Southeast.


DLW

TOBACCO LEGISLATION

In June, a new bill was introduced in the United States Sen-
ate that would allow FDA control over tobacco. It is ex-
pected that provisions to provide a buyout of quota will even-
tually be considered in this proposed legislationbecause this,
along with FDA control and other items, were recommenda-
tions by the President's Commission. Another bill was in-
troduced in the House of Representatives several weeks ago
that addressed the same topics. At this time, there is no way
to predict the final form or outcome of this proposed legisla-
tion, but farmers and others that are interested in a quota
buyout should keep up with the developments.


EBW

TOBACCO CROP CONDITIONS

In general, the 2002 Florida tobacco crop is considered to be
in good condition. Recent rains have delayed maturity, but
unless rains become heavier and more frequent, the quality
of the crop should not decline. If possible, tobacco should
be harvested when dry to reduce the possibility of barn rot.
Blue mold has been favored by the rain, but this disease
should not progress on the more mature tobacco, especially
as the lower leaves are harvested. Tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) has been more common in 2002 than in 2001, but
the incidence is not as high as in Georgia. TSWV has also
become more severe in the Carolinas and has been found as
far north as Maryland.

EBW

TOBACCO SALES

Almost all of Florida's tobacco is contracted, but there will
be auction sales in Georgia. The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabi-
lization Cooperative will operate auction sales in Douglas
and Statesboro. There may be some private warehouses also
in operation. Sale schedules should be available in July for
those that may be interested in obtaining one. Auction sales
will also be conducted in the Carolinas and Virginia.


EBW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.


SSAGR17
SSAGR36
SSAGR47
SSAGR51
SSAGR53
SSAGR59
SSAGR60
SSAGR61
SSAGR63
SSAGR65
SSAGR67

SSAGR70
SSAGR71
SSAGR90
SSAGR161


Brazilian Pepper Tree Control
Bahiagrass
Alyceclover Summer Annual Legume
Digitgrasses
Savanna Stylo Production Guide
Callide Rhodesgrass
Bermudagrass Production in Florida
Aeschynomene
Forage Testing
Pastures and Forage Crops for Horses
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria
altissima)
Hay Production in Florida
Forage Grasses for Florida's Organic Soils
Calibrating Forage Seeding Equipment
Forage Planting and Establishment
Methods


The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR56 Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage
Legumes
SSAGR58 Mott Elephantgrass
SSAGR62 Stargrass
SSAGR79 Minor Use Summer Annual Forage Legumes
SSAGR89 Producing Millets and Sorghums
SSAGR92 Grazing Management Concepts and Systems
SSAGR93 Forage Quality
SSAGR94 General Guidelines for Managing Pastures for
Dairy Cows
SSAGR97 Florida Forage Handbook: Table of Contents
SSAGR98 Florida Forage Handbook: Preface
SSAGR99 Florida Forage Handbook: Contributing
Authors
SSAGR105 Managing South Florida Range for Cattle
SSAGR146 Sugarcane Cultivar Quick Reference Chart
SSAGR147 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1213
SSAGR148 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1641
SSAGR149 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 92-1666
SSAGR157 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1100
SSAGR158 Sugarcane Descriptive Fact Sheet CP 94-1340

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click