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 Table of Contents
 Pest in corn
 Cotton stress
 Cotton and drought
 Nitrogen source for cotton
 Bermudagrass hayfields
 Summer annuals for hay?
 Producing high quality grass...
 The mole cricket nematode is spreading...
 Price of cadre reduced
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00023
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: June 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00023

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Pest in corn
        Page 2
    Cotton stress
        Page 2
    Cotton and drought
        Page 2
    Nitrogen source for cotton
        Page 2
    Bermudagrass hayfields
        Page 2
    Summer annuals for hay?
        Page 2
    Producing high quality grass hay
        Page 3
    The mole cricket nematode is spreading to control mole crickets in South-central Florida pastures
        Page 3
    Price of cadre reduced
        Page 4
    Publications
        Page 4
Full Text






AGRONOMY


,;4. UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
EXTENSION
1, ..r, .. j an. ,,., .. S 11 ........1 S


NOTES


June 2002


IN THIS ISSUE


CORN
Pest in C orn .................. ................. ...... ........ 2

COTTON
Cotton Stress .................. ......................... ...... 2
C otton and D brought ............................................................. .................................... ............ 2
N itrogen Source for C otton ...................................................... .............................................. 2

FORAGE
B erm udagrass H ayfields .......................................................... .............................................. 2
Sum m er A nnuals for H ay? .................................................. ................................................... 2
Producing H igh Q quality G rass H ay .................................................... ................................ 3
The Mole Cricket Nematode Is Spreading to Control Mole Crickets in
South-central Florida Pastures .......................................... ........................................... 3

PEANUT
P rice of C adre R edu ced ................................................................................................................ 4

MISCELLANEOUS
Publications .................. ................. ...... ........ 4


DATES TO REMEMBER
June 10-13 Florida/Georgia Tobacco Tour
June 13 Suwannee County Hay Field Day Hay Stack Farms
June 19 8th Annual Gulf Coast Turfgrass Expo & Field Day Jay, FL


PAGE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a









PEST IN CORN

We have seen high levels of fall armyworms in young corn
this year. Little damage has been noted over the past three
years and this appears to be a year when they may hit late
planted corn. Young corn may need treatment to keep yield
potential high. Keep an eye on all pests this year, as it ap-
pears that insects may be worse than the past few years.


DLW

COTTON STRESS

Cotton is an unique crop in that it can recover from many
different problems and make a good yield, as compared to
cotton that has grown well all season long. Cotton is often
damaged early by thrips or herbicides to such a degree that
it looks like it will never recover and may stay stunted for a
long period before it grows out of it, making a normal crop.
Early fruit retention may be poor due to drought or insects
and may still recover with good management to make a nor-
mal crop. Be careful not to over-apply nitrogen or apply it
too late when trying to bring out a crop of cotton that looks
poor early in the season.


DLW


COTTON AND DROUGHT


Cotton producers who do not irrigate should make every
effort to save moisture. Judicious use of cultivators is criti-
cal to keep from drying out the soil. Cotton is also a low user
of water compared to many crops and especially during the
time prior to squaring up to early bloom. If timely rains fall
in July and August, historical records indicate that yields
will be good. Many May-planted fields still have cotton
emerging, while fields planted in early April are already
squaring. After blooming starts, cotton needs about 1 to 1.5
inches of water during the first and second weeks of bloom,
followed by 2 to 2.5 inches during the third and fourth week
of bloom and then starts decreasing back to 1 to 1.5 during
the fifth through eighth week of bloom. Drought rarely causes
fruit shed before blooming, but can be a real problem after
blooming when water use is much higher. Square develop-
ment can proceed fairly well during periods of drought, but
drought may reduce the number of fruiting branches.


DLW

NITROGEN SOURCE FOR COTTON

Is it better to use liquid or dry sources of nitrogen (N)? Ei-
ther source will do equally well for the plant and either source
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with leaves. Dry


sources can bur the plant from "fines", especially if it is
applied when dew is still on the foliage, and liquid sources
can bur the plant if it comes in contact with it. Cotton will
grow out of the damage from either one. Dry weather al-
ways brings about concerns of volatilization. Research data
show if you band N from either liquid N, which is a combi-
nation of half urea and half ammonium nitrate (28-32%/N)
or side dress with ammonium nitrate, little loss occurs. Plow-
ing in side-dressed N probably does more harm from prun-
ing roots than it does good from less volatilization of N.
The remaining question is cost of material. Liquid N is of-
ten 30-50% cheaper than dry forms and liquids can be
handled with pumps, while dry material must be handled
manually.


DLW


BERMUDAGRASS HAYFIELDS

Dry weather once again has delayed growth of
bermudagrass. Research plots were harvested on April 25
near Gainesville, Florida, and the bermudagrass varieties
have grown very little since, whereas the bahiagrass vari-
eties are ready to harvest again (June 03). This is a good
demonstration of the superior drought tolerance of the
bahiagrass varieties. The drought may be over with recent
thunder storms and hopefully the bermudgrass will start
growing and be ready for harvest in three to four weeks.

Bermudagrass hay producers should keep a careful watch
for armyworm infestation. Check your fields regularly.
Look for the small worms (caterpillars) and be ready to
harvest or spray if the grass is not large enough to harvest.
Watching for cattle egret activity in the field may be help-
ful, but the worms could be quite large before the birds
find them. Small worms are easier to control than large
worms. In the recent past, large outbreaks of armyworms
have followed an extended spring drought. Whether or not
there is a cause-and-effect relationship is not known by the
author but it is a good idea to be vigilant in any case.


CGC

SUMMER ANNUALS FOR HAY?

Producers occasionally ask about choices for a summer hay
crop that can be grown on cultivated land. Various crops
could be used, such as pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass,
japanese or brown top millet, crabgrass, and perhaps
rhodesgrass, cowpeas and alyceclover. Those attempting
to grow pearl millet or sorghum x sudangrass for hay should
be aware that their large stems make drying difficult. A
hay conditioner that crushes or breaks the stems will be
needed. Alyceclover may be the best choice. Following a








highly fertilized crop, such as watermelons or other veg-
etables on well-drained soils, alyceclover produces excel-
lent quality forage that may be grazed or harvested as hay.
This summer annual legume should be planted between
April 15 and June 30 at the rate of 12 to 15 pounds of seed
per acre. Seed are usually broadcast and covered with a
cultipacker or planted with a grain drill that has a small
seed box and covered to a depth of 1/4 to /2 inch. Fertilize
and lime according to soil test recommendations. If
alyceclover is planted immediately following a highly fer-
tilized crop, it may not be necessary to add lime or fertil-
izer. Do not plant alyceclover on land known to be in-
fested with rootknot nematodes, since alyceclover is sus-
ceptible to this pest. Do not plant alyceclover (intended
for hay harvest) on land infested with coffeeweed.
Coffeeweed is toxic to livestock. Herbicides are not avail-
able that will remove coffeeweed from alyceclover. If the
coffeeweed were to grow taller than the alyceclover (which
is not likely), it might be possible to remove it with a weed
wiper and Roundup.

CGC

PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the
two most important criteria used in determining hay qual-
ity. Stage of maturity at harvest is the most important fac-
tor influencing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude
protein and digestible energy concentration decrease. The
improved hybrid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should
be harvested at 15 18 inches for the first cutting and then
cut every 4 to 5 weeks. During mid summer, some produc-
ers are harvesting stargrass for silage every three weeks to
produce feed that has a protein concentration of 15 percent
or greater and a relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay seasonbegins. Abreakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble
nutrients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying
quickly and thus increases respiration loss and the possi-
bility of mold. Respiration is the breakdown of sugars,
etc., in the plant. This process occurs in all living plants,
and it continues after the plants are cut. Respiration stops
when the moisture content drops below 40 percent. In
Florida's climate, rain damage is difficult to avoid. Fre-
quent thunder showers in the summer will usually hit one
or more hay harvests. During the summer if a suitable pe-
riod of weather occurs for harvesting hay, and if the grass
is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to start harvest-
ing even though the regrowth has not reached a 4 or 5 week
schedule.


CGC


THE MOLE CRICKET NEMATODE IS
SPREADING TO CONTROL MOLE CRICKETS
IN SOUTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA PASTURES

We applied 22 billion beneficial nematodes to more than 20
ranches in south-central Florida to suppress damaging mole
crickets and bring economic relief to livestock producers.

In September of 2000, nematodes were applied in strips to
distribute 0, 1/8, 1/4, and 12 billion nematodes per acre to
determine the rate of nematode spread within the mole crick-
ets on a Polk City pasture. Number of mole crickets trapped
were recorded weekly and samples of mole crickets were
analyzed for nematode infection monthly. Mole crickets are
very mobile and infected mole crickets spread the nema-
todes throughout that pasture within a few months. In the
fall of 2001, the entire pasture got flooded for several days
and the adult mole crickets relocated. However, results show
that the nematodes persisted in the soil through the fall and
subsequent winter months and have resumed breeding in
adult mole crickets during spring 2002. For April 2002, per-
centage nematode infection at the Polk city site ranged from
30 to 50%. Mole cricket numbers have declined by 65-80%
and pasture grass has recovered by 45-100%.

To promote widespread distribution of these mole cricket-
killing nematodes, the Florida Legislature provided UF-IFAS
Mole Cricket Task Force, through FDACS-DPI, $300,000
in 2001. The purpose of those funds was to reestablish a
research/demonstration Mole Cricket State Program and con-
duct an area-wide distribution of the nematodes.

In the first phase of the State Program Nematac S, donated
by MicroBio, was applied in spring 2001 to seven ranches
covering Hardee, DeSoto, Pasco and Polk Counties. Nema-
todes were applied with a slit-injector in strips at the 1/4 and
1/8 billion/A. We observed no differences between the ef-
fects of 1/8 and 1/4 billion rates of nematode application on
infection level. The nematodes applied in spring 2001 per-
sisted in the soil during summer, survived the winter, and
spread within the adult mole cricket population this spring.
Percentage of trapped mole crickets infected with nematodes
when averaged over March and April 2002 are as follows:
H. Keller (Hardee) 50%; Peace River Ranch (Hardee) 75%;
L. Bryant (Hardee) 25%; W. Wise (DeSoto) 20%; Al Bar
(Pasco) 70%; M. Nutt (Pasco) 50%; and H. Combee (Polk)
20%.

In the second phase of the program, nematodes were ap-
plied to pasture and sod farms on 13 sites in south-central
Florida. Nematac S product was applied in strips only at the
1/8 billion nematodes/A at all sites during fall 2001. For the
pasture sites, average March and April ratings for percent-
age trapped mole crickets infected with nematodes are: D.
Barber (Osceola) 71%; Deseret (Orange) 20%; T. Kibler
(Manatee) 35%; M. Taylor (Manatee) 45%; J. Payne (High-
lands) 40%; Hollingsworth (DeSoto) 80%; B. Keating








highly fertilized crop, such as watermelons or other veg-
etables on well-drained soils, alyceclover produces excel-
lent quality forage that may be grazed or harvested as hay.
This summer annual legume should be planted between
April 15 and June 30 at the rate of 12 to 15 pounds of seed
per acre. Seed are usually broadcast and covered with a
cultipacker or planted with a grain drill that has a small
seed box and covered to a depth of 1/4 to /2 inch. Fertilize
and lime according to soil test recommendations. If
alyceclover is planted immediately following a highly fer-
tilized crop, it may not be necessary to add lime or fertil-
izer. Do not plant alyceclover on land known to be in-
fested with rootknot nematodes, since alyceclover is sus-
ceptible to this pest. Do not plant alyceclover (intended
for hay harvest) on land infested with coffeeweed.
Coffeeweed is toxic to livestock. Herbicides are not avail-
able that will remove coffeeweed from alyceclover. If the
coffeeweed were to grow taller than the alyceclover (which
is not likely), it might be possible to remove it with a weed
wiper and Roundup.

CGC

PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the
two most important criteria used in determining hay qual-
ity. Stage of maturity at harvest is the most important fac-
tor influencing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude
protein and digestible energy concentration decrease. The
improved hybrid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should
be harvested at 15 18 inches for the first cutting and then
cut every 4 to 5 weeks. During mid summer, some produc-
ers are harvesting stargrass for silage every three weeks to
produce feed that has a protein concentration of 15 percent
or greater and a relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay seasonbegins. Abreakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble
nutrients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying
quickly and thus increases respiration loss and the possi-
bility of mold. Respiration is the breakdown of sugars,
etc., in the plant. This process occurs in all living plants,
and it continues after the plants are cut. Respiration stops
when the moisture content drops below 40 percent. In
Florida's climate, rain damage is difficult to avoid. Fre-
quent thunder showers in the summer will usually hit one
or more hay harvests. During the summer if a suitable pe-
riod of weather occurs for harvesting hay, and if the grass
is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to start harvest-
ing even though the regrowth has not reached a 4 or 5 week
schedule.


CGC


THE MOLE CRICKET NEMATODE IS
SPREADING TO CONTROL MOLE CRICKETS
IN SOUTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA PASTURES

We applied 22 billion beneficial nematodes to more than 20
ranches in south-central Florida to suppress damaging mole
crickets and bring economic relief to livestock producers.

In September of 2000, nematodes were applied in strips to
distribute 0, 1/8, 1/4, and 12 billion nematodes per acre to
determine the rate of nematode spread within the mole crick-
ets on a Polk City pasture. Number of mole crickets trapped
were recorded weekly and samples of mole crickets were
analyzed for nematode infection monthly. Mole crickets are
very mobile and infected mole crickets spread the nema-
todes throughout that pasture within a few months. In the
fall of 2001, the entire pasture got flooded for several days
and the adult mole crickets relocated. However, results show
that the nematodes persisted in the soil through the fall and
subsequent winter months and have resumed breeding in
adult mole crickets during spring 2002. For April 2002, per-
centage nematode infection at the Polk city site ranged from
30 to 50%. Mole cricket numbers have declined by 65-80%
and pasture grass has recovered by 45-100%.

To promote widespread distribution of these mole cricket-
killing nematodes, the Florida Legislature provided UF-IFAS
Mole Cricket Task Force, through FDACS-DPI, $300,000
in 2001. The purpose of those funds was to reestablish a
research/demonstration Mole Cricket State Program and con-
duct an area-wide distribution of the nematodes.

In the first phase of the State Program Nematac S, donated
by MicroBio, was applied in spring 2001 to seven ranches
covering Hardee, DeSoto, Pasco and Polk Counties. Nema-
todes were applied with a slit-injector in strips at the 1/4 and
1/8 billion/A. We observed no differences between the ef-
fects of 1/8 and 1/4 billion rates of nematode application on
infection level. The nematodes applied in spring 2001 per-
sisted in the soil during summer, survived the winter, and
spread within the adult mole cricket population this spring.
Percentage of trapped mole crickets infected with nematodes
when averaged over March and April 2002 are as follows:
H. Keller (Hardee) 50%; Peace River Ranch (Hardee) 75%;
L. Bryant (Hardee) 25%; W. Wise (DeSoto) 20%; Al Bar
(Pasco) 70%; M. Nutt (Pasco) 50%; and H. Combee (Polk)
20%.

In the second phase of the program, nematodes were ap-
plied to pasture and sod farms on 13 sites in south-central
Florida. Nematac S product was applied in strips only at the
1/8 billion nematodes/A at all sites during fall 2001. For the
pasture sites, average March and April ratings for percent-
age trapped mole crickets infected with nematodes are: D.
Barber (Osceola) 71%; Deseret (Orange) 20%; T. Kibler
(Manatee) 35%; M. Taylor (Manatee) 45%; J. Payne (High-
lands) 40%; Hollingsworth (DeSoto) 80%; B. Keating








(Hardee) 65%; J.B. Starkey (Pasco) 30%; and Yates (Orange)
0%. Similar infection ratings for the sod farms are: Duda
(Polk) 74%; Schrodder & Manatee (Manatee) 47%, Bethel
(55%) and H & H (Osceola) 10% .

Conclusions
In all three studies, the percentage of trapped mole crickets
infected with the nematodes increased steadily from winter
through spring in 2002. Any mole cricket infected is ex-
pected to die within a few days. The nematodes have done a
good job of breeding within the mole crickets and their off-
spring continue to attack other adult mole crickets in 19 of
the 21 sites. Nematodes have persisted in the soil through
flood and cold winter months. There has been dramatic
recovery of pastures in most cases. We will continue to
monitor the spread and grass recovery. Meanwhile, the nema-
todes became commercially available to ranchers and sod
growers this spring and marketing information may be ob-
tained from Becker Underwood's local representative, Gabe
Diaz-Saavedra, at 941-358-9091. Information on applica-
tion can be obtained from your local extension agent or from
the Range Cattle REC at 863-735-1314 ext 211.


MBA

PRICE OF CADRE REDUCED

Peanut growers will now have a more economical option
available for weed control in peanut. BASF has reduced the
price of Cadre approximately 50% according to Technical
Service Rep. Sandy Newell. This will reduce the cost from
$32 per acre to $16 per acre. In addition to the price reduc-
tion, if a grower buys more than 100 acres of Cadre, they
will be offered a $5 rebate, which will bring the price down
to around $11.00 per acre. The actual price reduction will
be based on the distributor in the peanut areas, so growers
should check with their distributor to get the exact price.


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

The Florida Sugarcane Handbook
SP-55 2002 Florida Aquatic Weed Management
Guide
SSAGR23 Rice in the Crop Rotation
SSAGR52 Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.)
Biology, Ecology and Management in Florida
SSAGR162 Florida 2001 Short, Mid, and Full-Season Corn
Variety Tests for Silage and Grain
SSAGR163 2001 Florida Early, Mid, and Full Season
Cotton Variety Tests at Quincy and Jay

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR43 Tillage and Overseeding Pastures for Winter
Forage Production in North Florida
SSAGR91 SunOleic/High Oleic Peanuts
SSAGR246 Application of the Soil Taxonomy Key to the
Organic Soils of the Everglades Agricultural
Area

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that screen
fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Database Search
Engine. Type in the publication number (example: SSAGR01)
or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click on the appropriate
button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.). You
will get a listing of publications. Please be sure to check the
date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the most up-
to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; M. B. Adjei, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. T. Ducar, Extension
Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.








(Hardee) 65%; J.B. Starkey (Pasco) 30%; and Yates (Orange)
0%. Similar infection ratings for the sod farms are: Duda
(Polk) 74%; Schrodder & Manatee (Manatee) 47%, Bethel
(55%) and H & H (Osceola) 10% .

Conclusions
In all three studies, the percentage of trapped mole crickets
infected with the nematodes increased steadily from winter
through spring in 2002. Any mole cricket infected is ex-
pected to die within a few days. The nematodes have done a
good job of breeding within the mole crickets and their off-
spring continue to attack other adult mole crickets in 19 of
the 21 sites. Nematodes have persisted in the soil through
flood and cold winter months. There has been dramatic
recovery of pastures in most cases. We will continue to
monitor the spread and grass recovery. Meanwhile, the nema-
todes became commercially available to ranchers and sod
growers this spring and marketing information may be ob-
tained from Becker Underwood's local representative, Gabe
Diaz-Saavedra, at 941-358-9091. Information on applica-
tion can be obtained from your local extension agent or from
the Range Cattle REC at 863-735-1314 ext 211.


MBA

PRICE OF CADRE REDUCED

Peanut growers will now have a more economical option
available for weed control in peanut. BASF has reduced the
price of Cadre approximately 50% according to Technical
Service Rep. Sandy Newell. This will reduce the cost from
$32 per acre to $16 per acre. In addition to the price reduc-
tion, if a grower buys more than 100 acres of Cadre, they
will be offered a $5 rebate, which will bring the price down
to around $11.00 per acre. The actual price reduction will
be based on the distributor in the peanut areas, so growers
should check with their distributor to get the exact price.


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

The Florida Sugarcane Handbook
SP-55 2002 Florida Aquatic Weed Management
Guide
SSAGR23 Rice in the Crop Rotation
SSAGR52 Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.)
Biology, Ecology and Management in Florida
SSAGR162 Florida 2001 Short, Mid, and Full-Season Corn
Variety Tests for Silage and Grain
SSAGR163 2001 Florida Early, Mid, and Full Season
Cotton Variety Tests at Quincy and Jay

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR42 Rye and Triticale Breeding in the South
SSAGR43 Tillage and Overseeding Pastures for Winter
Forage Production in North Florida
SSAGR91 SunOleic/High Oleic Peanuts
SSAGR246 Application of the Soil Taxonomy Key to the
Organic Soils of the Everglades Agricultural
Area

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that screen
fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Database Search
Engine. Type in the publication number (example: SSAGR01)
or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click on the appropriate
button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.). You
will get a listing of publications. Please be sure to check the
date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the most up-
to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; M. B. Adjei, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. T. Ducar, Extension
Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.