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 Table of Contents
 Controlling difficult weeds in...
 Aeschynomene
 Establishment of new pasture and...
 Establishment of new pasture and...
 Legume inoculation
 Preemergence herbicides - what...
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00022
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: May 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00022

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Controlling difficult weeds in Roundup-ready cotton
        Page 2
    Aeschynomene
        Page 2
    Establishment of new pasture and hay crop seedings - I
        Page 3
    Establishment of new pasture and hay crop seedings - II
        Page 3
    Legume inoculation
        Page 3
    Preemergence herbicides - what they control and what they cost
        Page 4
    Publications
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY

,.- UNIVERSITY OF
NTFLORIDA
EXTENSION
Insrtut. o FoandAgricult. .,la SoU so A N O T E S May 2002



DATES TO REMEMBER
May 19-24 Aquatic Weed Control, Aquatic Plant Culture and Revegetation Short Course Fort Lauderdale,
FL
May 22-24 Florida Soil & Crop Science Society Meeting C lici\c. i Beach, FL
May 23 Beef Forage Field Day Brooksville, FL
June 6 Corn Silage Field Day Hague, FL



IN THIS ISSUE PAGE


COTTON
Controlling Difficult W eeds in Roundup Ready Cotton......................... .......................... 2

FORAGE
Aeschynomene ....................................................................................... 2
Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop Seedings I ......................................................... 3
Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop Seedings II ........................................................ 3
L egum e Inoculation ............................................................................. ...................... 3

PEANUT
Preemergence Herbicides What They Control and What They Cost ................................... 4

MISCELLANEOUS
Publications ................................................................ ................... .. .. ....... .... 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








CONTROLLING DIFFICULT WEEDS IN
ROUNDUP READY COTTON

As a new season begins, it is easy to remember the "prob-
lem" weeds from last year and time to plan for controlling
them this year. Some problem weeds to consider in Roundup
Ready cotton include nutsedge, hemp sesbania, tropical
spiderwort (sometimes confused with dayflower), Florida
pusley and perennial broadleaf weeds, because these are
difficult to control with Roundup. The following recom-
mendations should be considered when planning a weed
management program if these problem weeds exist.

Nutsedge: A single over-the-top application of glyphosate
at 0.75 pound of acid equivalent often only suppresses nut-
sedge. In heavily infested areas, sequential over-the-top
glyphosate applications are often needed. Following the over-
the-top applications) of glyphosate, a directed application
of 2 pounds active ingredient of MSMA or 0.75 pound of
acid equivalent of glyphosate normally controls yellow and
purple nutsedge. A second directed application may be nec-
essary in severely infested fields. Generally, glyphosate is
more effective than MSMA in controlling purple nutsedge,
but MSMA is more effective than glyphosate for yellow
nutsedge.

Hemp Sesbania: Georgia research in 1999 indicated that
hemp sesbania is also very difficult to control with glyphosate
after the first true leaf stage. When hemp sesbania is ex-
pected to be a problem, soil-applied herbicides such as
fluometuron (Cotoran or Meturon) or Zorial may be war-
ranted. The herbicides may only give partial control; how-
ever, they do set the foundation for postemergence control.
Alternatively, Staple or glyphosate/Staple mixtures applied
post-emergence after sesbania puts on its first true leaf may
be a more effective option. Additionally, traditional
postemergence-directed herbicides are often effective if ad-
equate spray coverage is obtained.

Tropical Spiderwort: Glyphosate will suppress growth of
tropical spiderwort for several weeks. However, with no re-
sidual activity and only suppressionby glyphosate, this weed
is quickly becoming the most troublesome and costly weed
in Roundup Ready cotton grown in the southeast. Soil-ap-
plied herbicides such as fluometuron (Cotoran or Meturon)
or Command provide some residual control if weed emer-
gence is near planting and herbicide application. Unfortu-
nately, tropical spiderwort usually begins emerging in mid-
June and continues emerging till frost; thus, herbicides ap-
plied at planting are usually non-effective. Research con-
ducted in 2001 in Georgia noted that Dual Magnum applied
just prior to spiderwort emergence and activated by rainfall
provided good to excellent residual control. Dual Magnum
can be applied overtop or directed to 3- to 12-inch cotton.
Dual Magnum may be mixed with glyphosate and precision-
directed to Roundup Ready cotton between 3 and 12 inches,
but this mixture may NOT be applied topically.


Once spiderwort has emerged it becomes very difficult to
manage. Applications must be made before spiderwort is 2
inches in height. Staple alone or mixed with glyphosate ap-
plied post-emergence over-the-top, prometryn (Caparol or
Cotton-Pro) plus MSMA, Cobra plus MSMA, or diuron plus
MSMA postemergence-directed are moderately effective
controlling emerged spiderwort. MSMA at 2.0 pounds ac-
tive ingredient per acre, may in fact, be the most effective
single postemergence herbicide for control. Although the
aforementioned herbicides provide moderate control of
emerged spiderwort, continued emergence of this weed of-
ten requires multiple timely applications for season-long con-
trol.

Florida Pusley: Florida pusley can be controlled by
glyphosate ONLY if applied when the weed is very small (1
inch or less) and under favorable growing conditions; mul-
tiple applications at the highest labeled rate are often neces-
sary. Pendimethalin (Pendimax or Prowl) or trifluralin
(Treflan, Trifluralin, other) applied preplant-incorporated will
control Florida pusley and should be applied in fields where
this weed is expected. In conservation tillage where incor-
poration is not feasible, a preemergence application of
pendimethalin is usually advantageous.

Perennial Broadleaf Weeds: Although perennial weeds of-
ten are not problems in conventional tillage, trumpetcreeper,
horsenettle, maypop passionflower, common milkweed, and
hemp dogbane may become significant problems in conser-
vation tillage. Soil-applied herbicides do not control these
weeds and, with the exception of horsenettle, traditional
postemergence-directed herbicides are ineffective. Multiple
directed applications of MSMA are effective in controlling
horsenettle. Additionally, hooded applications of glyphosate
or glyphosate applied as a harvest aid may improve control
in conventional cotton.

Suppression or control of perennial broadleaf weeds can be
obtained with multiple applications of glyphosate applied in
Roundup Ready cotton. Later applications are generally more
effective on perennials, and two applications are more effec-
tive than one. Adequate spray coverage should be obtained
on low-growing perennials such as trumpetcreeper and
horsenettle with precision directing equipment. Hooded
sprayers must be used to obtain adequate spray coverage on
taller weeds such as milkweed and hemp dogbane.


JTD

AESCHYNOMENE

If the summer rains come early this year it will present an
opportunity to overseed pastures with common
aeschynomene (aeschynomene americana). This summer
annual legume is adapted to moist flatwood soils. It should
be seeded in early June at the rate of 5 to 7 pounds of dehulled








CONTROLLING DIFFICULT WEEDS IN
ROUNDUP READY COTTON

As a new season begins, it is easy to remember the "prob-
lem" weeds from last year and time to plan for controlling
them this year. Some problem weeds to consider in Roundup
Ready cotton include nutsedge, hemp sesbania, tropical
spiderwort (sometimes confused with dayflower), Florida
pusley and perennial broadleaf weeds, because these are
difficult to control with Roundup. The following recom-
mendations should be considered when planning a weed
management program if these problem weeds exist.

Nutsedge: A single over-the-top application of glyphosate
at 0.75 pound of acid equivalent often only suppresses nut-
sedge. In heavily infested areas, sequential over-the-top
glyphosate applications are often needed. Following the over-
the-top applications) of glyphosate, a directed application
of 2 pounds active ingredient of MSMA or 0.75 pound of
acid equivalent of glyphosate normally controls yellow and
purple nutsedge. A second directed application may be nec-
essary in severely infested fields. Generally, glyphosate is
more effective than MSMA in controlling purple nutsedge,
but MSMA is more effective than glyphosate for yellow
nutsedge.

Hemp Sesbania: Georgia research in 1999 indicated that
hemp sesbania is also very difficult to control with glyphosate
after the first true leaf stage. When hemp sesbania is ex-
pected to be a problem, soil-applied herbicides such as
fluometuron (Cotoran or Meturon) or Zorial may be war-
ranted. The herbicides may only give partial control; how-
ever, they do set the foundation for postemergence control.
Alternatively, Staple or glyphosate/Staple mixtures applied
post-emergence after sesbania puts on its first true leaf may
be a more effective option. Additionally, traditional
postemergence-directed herbicides are often effective if ad-
equate spray coverage is obtained.

Tropical Spiderwort: Glyphosate will suppress growth of
tropical spiderwort for several weeks. However, with no re-
sidual activity and only suppressionby glyphosate, this weed
is quickly becoming the most troublesome and costly weed
in Roundup Ready cotton grown in the southeast. Soil-ap-
plied herbicides such as fluometuron (Cotoran or Meturon)
or Command provide some residual control if weed emer-
gence is near planting and herbicide application. Unfortu-
nately, tropical spiderwort usually begins emerging in mid-
June and continues emerging till frost; thus, herbicides ap-
plied at planting are usually non-effective. Research con-
ducted in 2001 in Georgia noted that Dual Magnum applied
just prior to spiderwort emergence and activated by rainfall
provided good to excellent residual control. Dual Magnum
can be applied overtop or directed to 3- to 12-inch cotton.
Dual Magnum may be mixed with glyphosate and precision-
directed to Roundup Ready cotton between 3 and 12 inches,
but this mixture may NOT be applied topically.


Once spiderwort has emerged it becomes very difficult to
manage. Applications must be made before spiderwort is 2
inches in height. Staple alone or mixed with glyphosate ap-
plied post-emergence over-the-top, prometryn (Caparol or
Cotton-Pro) plus MSMA, Cobra plus MSMA, or diuron plus
MSMA postemergence-directed are moderately effective
controlling emerged spiderwort. MSMA at 2.0 pounds ac-
tive ingredient per acre, may in fact, be the most effective
single postemergence herbicide for control. Although the
aforementioned herbicides provide moderate control of
emerged spiderwort, continued emergence of this weed of-
ten requires multiple timely applications for season-long con-
trol.

Florida Pusley: Florida pusley can be controlled by
glyphosate ONLY if applied when the weed is very small (1
inch or less) and under favorable growing conditions; mul-
tiple applications at the highest labeled rate are often neces-
sary. Pendimethalin (Pendimax or Prowl) or trifluralin
(Treflan, Trifluralin, other) applied preplant-incorporated will
control Florida pusley and should be applied in fields where
this weed is expected. In conservation tillage where incor-
poration is not feasible, a preemergence application of
pendimethalin is usually advantageous.

Perennial Broadleaf Weeds: Although perennial weeds of-
ten are not problems in conventional tillage, trumpetcreeper,
horsenettle, maypop passionflower, common milkweed, and
hemp dogbane may become significant problems in conser-
vation tillage. Soil-applied herbicides do not control these
weeds and, with the exception of horsenettle, traditional
postemergence-directed herbicides are ineffective. Multiple
directed applications of MSMA are effective in controlling
horsenettle. Additionally, hooded applications of glyphosate
or glyphosate applied as a harvest aid may improve control
in conventional cotton.

Suppression or control of perennial broadleaf weeds can be
obtained with multiple applications of glyphosate applied in
Roundup Ready cotton. Later applications are generally more
effective on perennials, and two applications are more effec-
tive than one. Adequate spray coverage should be obtained
on low-growing perennials such as trumpetcreeper and
horsenettle with precision directing equipment. Hooded
sprayers must be used to obtain adequate spray coverage on
taller weeds such as milkweed and hemp dogbane.


JTD

AESCHYNOMENE

If the summer rains come early this year it will present an
opportunity to overseed pastures with common
aeschynomene (aeschynomene americana). This summer
annual legume is adapted to moist flatwood soils. It should
be seeded in early June at the rate of 5 to 7 pounds of dehulled








seed per acre. Make sure that the pasture has been grazed
short before seeding. If the summer rains start and continue,
the first crop of seedlings will continue to grow and develop
into productive plants. Often seedlings that come up after a
rain in April or May die due to a 7-to-10-day drought. This
legume is very palatable to both cattle and deer; it provides
much needed protein in July and August when the quality of
perennial grasses slump. Weight gain of all classes of ani-
mals improves. Calves that were creep-grazed on
aeschynomene gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting
in 30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning. Success
with overseeding aeschynomene depends on early June plant-
ing, appropriate grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.


CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some of the seed
will not germinate and/or develop into plants. Therefore,
more seed are sown than numbers of plants needed to make
a complete stand or cover. A number of factors affect germi-
nation and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:
1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been used to in-
crease seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply (especially in wet,
heavy soils) may not have enough oxygen to germinate.
(Not as much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained with proper seed-
ing date. (In south Florida seeding of bahiagrass can be
made at any time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be much slower
than during the warm season. It may be desirable to make
seedings after chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass seedlings.)
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating temperature and mois-
ture levels (too low for complete germination) can lower
seed viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail because of:
1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil may germinate
after a light rain but may dry out and die before develop-
ing sufficient roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to freezing as the
young root breaks the seed coat, and temperatures below
-30C are lethal. Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can withstand much
lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or mulch protects
against both drying and freezing; without it seed estab-
lish only when soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.


4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed probably is wasted
in this way than any other.
5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent emergence, espe-
cially when seed are sown deeply on fine textured (clay)
soils.

CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may stop because
of:
1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied according to
soil test to provide desirable pH, plus Ca and Mg as nu-
trients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to ensure ad-
equate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the surface or in
the soil profile can limit growth.
5. Drought. This is the most-commonly given reason for
stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops. Cereals compete
with forage seedlings for water, light, and nutrients and
are not "nurse crops."
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar to compan-
ion crops, but competition may be more severe and last
longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can weaken new stands
of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or pythium can be
fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall or seeding
poorly adapted cultivars can result in winter-kill.


CGC

LEGUME INOCULATION

It will soon be time to plant summer forage legumes. One of
the important features of legume plants is their symbiotic
association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix atmospheric nitro-
gen which can be used by the plant.

The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced into the soil
in which a legume is to be planted by applying a commer-
cially-prepared culture of bacteria to the legume seed. In
using commercial inoculants, the following points should
be observed:
1. Check that the packet of inoculum contains the correct
rhizobial strain for the legume to be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under refrigeration or in a cool
place until ready to use.








seed per acre. Make sure that the pasture has been grazed
short before seeding. If the summer rains start and continue,
the first crop of seedlings will continue to grow and develop
into productive plants. Often seedlings that come up after a
rain in April or May die due to a 7-to-10-day drought. This
legume is very palatable to both cattle and deer; it provides
much needed protein in July and August when the quality of
perennial grasses slump. Weight gain of all classes of ani-
mals improves. Calves that were creep-grazed on
aeschynomene gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting
in 30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning. Success
with overseeding aeschynomene depends on early June plant-
ing, appropriate grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.


CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some of the seed
will not germinate and/or develop into plants. Therefore,
more seed are sown than numbers of plants needed to make
a complete stand or cover. A number of factors affect germi-
nation and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:
1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been used to in-
crease seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply (especially in wet,
heavy soils) may not have enough oxygen to germinate.
(Not as much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained with proper seed-
ing date. (In south Florida seeding of bahiagrass can be
made at any time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be much slower
than during the warm season. It may be desirable to make
seedings after chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass seedlings.)
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating temperature and mois-
ture levels (too low for complete germination) can lower
seed viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail because of:
1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil may germinate
after a light rain but may dry out and die before develop-
ing sufficient roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to freezing as the
young root breaks the seed coat, and temperatures below
-30C are lethal. Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can withstand much
lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or mulch protects
against both drying and freezing; without it seed estab-
lish only when soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.


4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed probably is wasted
in this way than any other.
5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent emergence, espe-
cially when seed are sown deeply on fine textured (clay)
soils.

CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may stop because
of:
1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied according to
soil test to provide desirable pH, plus Ca and Mg as nu-
trients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to ensure ad-
equate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the surface or in
the soil profile can limit growth.
5. Drought. This is the most-commonly given reason for
stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops. Cereals compete
with forage seedlings for water, light, and nutrients and
are not "nurse crops."
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar to compan-
ion crops, but competition may be more severe and last
longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can weaken new stands
of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or pythium can be
fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall or seeding
poorly adapted cultivars can result in winter-kill.


CGC

LEGUME INOCULATION

It will soon be time to plant summer forage legumes. One of
the important features of legume plants is their symbiotic
association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix atmospheric nitro-
gen which can be used by the plant.

The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced into the soil
in which a legume is to be planted by applying a commer-
cially-prepared culture of bacteria to the legume seed. In
using commercial inoculants, the following points should
be observed:
1. Check that the packet of inoculum contains the correct
rhizobial strain for the legume to be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under refrigeration or in a cool
place until ready to use.








seed per acre. Make sure that the pasture has been grazed
short before seeding. If the summer rains start and continue,
the first crop of seedlings will continue to grow and develop
into productive plants. Often seedlings that come up after a
rain in April or May die due to a 7-to-10-day drought. This
legume is very palatable to both cattle and deer; it provides
much needed protein in July and August when the quality of
perennial grasses slump. Weight gain of all classes of ani-
mals improves. Calves that were creep-grazed on
aeschynomene gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting
in 30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning. Success
with overseeding aeschynomene depends on early June plant-
ing, appropriate grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.


CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some of the seed
will not germinate and/or develop into plants. Therefore,
more seed are sown than numbers of plants needed to make
a complete stand or cover. A number of factors affect germi-
nation and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:
1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been used to in-
crease seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply (especially in wet,
heavy soils) may not have enough oxygen to germinate.
(Not as much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained with proper seed-
ing date. (In south Florida seeding of bahiagrass can be
made at any time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be much slower
than during the warm season. It may be desirable to make
seedings after chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass seedlings.)
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating temperature and mois-
ture levels (too low for complete germination) can lower
seed viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail because of:
1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil may germinate
after a light rain but may dry out and die before develop-
ing sufficient roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to freezing as the
young root breaks the seed coat, and temperatures below
-30C are lethal. Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can withstand much
lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or mulch protects
against both drying and freezing; without it seed estab-
lish only when soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.


4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed probably is wasted
in this way than any other.
5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent emergence, espe-
cially when seed are sown deeply on fine textured (clay)
soils.

CGC

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW PASTURE AND
HAY CROP SEEDINGS II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may stop because
of:
1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied according to
soil test to provide desirable pH, plus Ca and Mg as nu-
trients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to ensure ad-
equate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the surface or in
the soil profile can limit growth.
5. Drought. This is the most-commonly given reason for
stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops. Cereals compete
with forage seedlings for water, light, and nutrients and
are not "nurse crops."
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar to compan-
ion crops, but competition may be more severe and last
longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can weaken new stands
of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or pythium can be
fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall or seeding
poorly adapted cultivars can result in winter-kill.


CGC

LEGUME INOCULATION

It will soon be time to plant summer forage legumes. One of
the important features of legume plants is their symbiotic
association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix atmospheric nitro-
gen which can be used by the plant.

The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced into the soil
in which a legume is to be planted by applying a commer-
cially-prepared culture of bacteria to the legume seed. In
using commercial inoculants, the following points should
be observed:
1. Check that the packet of inoculum contains the correct
rhizobial strain for the legume to be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under refrigeration or in a cool
place until ready to use.









4. Inoculate seed according to directions just prior to sow-
ing. (This includes using a material that will stick and
hold the inoculum to the seed--commonly called a sticker.)
(Under Florida conditions, increase the rate of inoculum
two to four times that recommended by the manufacturer.)
5. Do not expose inoculated seed to direct sunlight.
6. Sow inoculated seed as soon as possible into moist soil
and cover.
7. Do not mix inoculated seed with caustic lime or soluble
fertilizers, as this may kill the bacteria.

The summer annual legumes commonly used in Florida use
the cop\ pc" type inoculant. Most of our soils already con-
tain this type of bacteria. The question arises as to whether
or not we should inoculate seed of the summer annual le-
gumes with the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Probably not. If
the area (field) to be planted has had any of the summer le-
gumes in it in the past then the bacteria will likely be in the
soil. Some producers inoculate their seed just to be sure.

CGC

PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDES WHAT
THEY CONTROL AND WHAT THEY COST

Many producers are going to total postemergence herbicide
systems, but a preemergence herbicide shouldn't be com-
pletely forgotten. Applying to peanuts a "yellow" herbicide
such as pendimethalin (Prowl, Pendimax) or ethalfluralin
(Sonalan) can offer many benefits at a cheap cost. For ex-
ample, weeds such as crabgrass, crowfootgrass, panicums


(fall and Texas), carpetweed, purslane, pigweeds, Florida
pusley, groundcherry, and nightshade can be controlled or
suppressed by spending $5-7/acre on a yellow herbicide. In
addition to the yellow herbicides, a preemergence applica-
tion of Strongarm can pick up problem weeds such as bristly
starbur, ragweed, eclipta, and prickly sida for $17.50/ acre
and can offer some nutsedge suppression. If Valor is applied
preemergence, it will control Florida beggarweed,
morningglorys, eclipta, tropic croton, and hairy indigo for
$15/acre.

JTD



PUBLICATIONS

The following publication have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. APDF file is available for
each publication.

SSAGR21 Old World Climbing Fern (Lygodium
microphyllum)

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that screen
fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Database Search
Engine. Type in the publication number (example: SSAGR01)
or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click on the appropriate
button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.). You
will get a listing of publications. Please be sure to check the
date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the most up-
to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. T. Ducar, Extension Agronomist; and E. B. Whitty, Exten-
sion Agronomist.









4. Inoculate seed according to directions just prior to sow-
ing. (This includes using a material that will stick and
hold the inoculum to the seed--commonly called a sticker.)
(Under Florida conditions, increase the rate of inoculum
two to four times that recommended by the manufacturer.)
5. Do not expose inoculated seed to direct sunlight.
6. Sow inoculated seed as soon as possible into moist soil
and cover.
7. Do not mix inoculated seed with caustic lime or soluble
fertilizers, as this may kill the bacteria.

The summer annual legumes commonly used in Florida use
the cop\ pc" type inoculant. Most of our soils already con-
tain this type of bacteria. The question arises as to whether
or not we should inoculate seed of the summer annual le-
gumes with the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Probably not. If
the area (field) to be planted has had any of the summer le-
gumes in it in the past then the bacteria will likely be in the
soil. Some producers inoculate their seed just to be sure.

CGC

PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDES WHAT
THEY CONTROL AND WHAT THEY COST

Many producers are going to total postemergence herbicide
systems, but a preemergence herbicide shouldn't be com-
pletely forgotten. Applying to peanuts a "yellow" herbicide
such as pendimethalin (Prowl, Pendimax) or ethalfluralin
(Sonalan) can offer many benefits at a cheap cost. For ex-
ample, weeds such as crabgrass, crowfootgrass, panicums


(fall and Texas), carpetweed, purslane, pigweeds, Florida
pusley, groundcherry, and nightshade can be controlled or
suppressed by spending $5-7/acre on a yellow herbicide. In
addition to the yellow herbicides, a preemergence applica-
tion of Strongarm can pick up problem weeds such as bristly
starbur, ragweed, eclipta, and prickly sida for $17.50/ acre
and can offer some nutsedge suppression. If Valor is applied
preemergence, it will control Florida beggarweed,
morningglorys, eclipta, tropic croton, and hairy indigo for
$15/acre.

JTD



PUBLICATIONS

The following publication have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. APDF file is available for
each publication.

SSAGR21 Old World Climbing Fern (Lygodium
microphyllum)

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that screen
fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Database Search
Engine. Type in the publication number (example: SSAGR01)
or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click on the appropriate
button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.). You
will get a listing of publications. Please be sure to check the
date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the most up-
to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. T. Ducar, Extension Agronomist; and E. B. Whitty, Exten-
sion Agronomist.