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 Table of Contents
 Winter pea or Austrian winter...
 Planting bahigrass in the Fall
 Livestock and pasture toxicity...
 Coffee weed - poisonous plant
 Frosted sorghums
 Grass tetany in cattle
 Foliar N-spray may improve the...
 Peanut market report
 Peanut legislation
 Tobacco market report
 Selecting a tobacco variety for...
 Tobacco plant bed fumigation
 Low nitrosamine tobacco produc...
 Retrofitting tobacco barns
 Fall soil sampling
 Publications
 In service training canceled
 November crop estimates


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00018
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 2001
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00018

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Winter pea or Austrian winter pea
        Page 2
    Planting bahigrass in the Fall
        Page 2
    Livestock and pasture toxicity problems
        Page 2
    Coffee weed - poisonous plant
        Page 2
    Frosted sorghums
        Page 3
    Grass tetany in cattle
        Page 3
    Foliar N-spray may improve the quality of stockpiled limpograss
        Page 3
    Peanut market report
        Page 4
    Peanut legislation
        Page 4
    Tobacco market report
        Page 4
    Selecting a tobacco variety for 2002
        Page 5
    Tobacco plant bed fumigation
        Page 5
    Low nitrosamine tobacco products
        Page 5
    Retrofitting tobacco barns
        Page 5
    Fall soil sampling
        Page 5
    Publications
        Page 6
    In service training canceled
        Page 6
    November crop estimates
        Page 6
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
.FLORIDA
EXTENSION
,NO....... ,...,.T ES,,..,s..,.. November 2001



DATES TO REMEMBER
January 22-23 In-Service Training Cancelled Quincy, FL (see enclosed article)
February 3-5 Southern Agricultural Worker Annual Meeting Orlando



IN THIS ISSUE PAGE


FORAGE
Winter Pea or Austrian Winter Pea (Pisum Sativum Subsp. Arvense) ...................................... 2
Planting Bahiagrass in the Fall .............................................. .................................. 2
Livestock and Pasture Toxicity Problems ......................... ........................................... 2
Coffee W eed Poisonous Plant .............................................. ................................. 2
Frosted Sorghum s .................................................................... .............................. 3
G rass T etany in C battle ............................................................................. ...................... 3
Foliar N-Spray may Improve the Quality of Stockpiled Limpograss ....................................... 3

PEANUT
Peanut M market R report ............................................................... ............................. 4
Peanut L legislation .................................................................. ................................ 4

TOBACCO
T ob acco M market R report ...................................................... ............................................. 4
Selecting a Tobacco Variety for 2002 ......................... ....... ...................................... 5
Tobacco Plant Bed Fum igation............................................... ................................. 5
Low Nitrosam ine Tobacco Products ........................... ..... ....................................... 5
R etrofitting T tobacco B arns ......................................... .................................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS
F all Soil Sam pling .................................................................... .............................. 5
P ub licatio n s ............................................................................................................... ..... 6
In-Service Training Cancelled ................................................ ................................. 6
N ovem ber C rop E stim ates ........................................... ................................................... 6


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









WINTER PEA OR AUSTRIAN WINTER PEA (PISUM
SATIVUM SUBSP. ARVENSE)

This is an old crop that is not grown to any great extent in
Florida except for wildlife (deer plots). Seed are available
and occasionally someone will ask about them. It is similar
to the garden pea except the latter has a sweeter and more
delicate flavor. It is grown as a winter annual in the South
and as a summer annual in the Northern US. In the past this
crop was grown primarily for soil improvement.

Much of the following was excerpted from the book "South-
ern Forages". Origin: Mediterranean region. Description:
Vine winter annual with stems 2 to 4 feet long. Primary Ad-
aptation: Well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. Major Uses:
Silage, green manure, and [wildlife plants]. High nutri-
tive quality. Establishment: Seed are planted in Septem-
ber-October at 30 to 40 lb/A if grown alone or 20 to 30 lb/A
if sown with small grain. When used for forage the winter
pea is usually grown with a small grain. Fertilization: Re-
sponds well to phosphorus and potassium. Intolerant of highly
acid soil. Seasonal Production: Canbe cut for silage in April.
Management: Not well adapted for pasture because plants
are easily damaged by trampling. Best used as silage as the
crop is difficult to cure for hay. Pests: Downy mildew can be
quite destructive during warm wet winters. Virus diseases
can be a problem. Pea weevil, aphids, and nematodes also
can cause considerable damage.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain, and/or
ryegrass, and fertilizer and spread all in one application in
the fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is con-
siderable risk involved as far as the establishment of the
bahiagrass is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting
from seed that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze
or competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some may be carried over through the winter and
germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the cool
season forages may result in loss of these seedlings. This is
especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed and is
allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage. For suc-
cessful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late spring
drought.

CGC

LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE TOXICITY PROBLEMS

This is the time of year when producers need to be concerned
about animal toxicity problems. When the available forage
is limited in a pasture, animals may start eating poisonous


plants that they ignored over the past year. Last year, sev-
eral beef animals were lost due to the consumption of coffee
senna. This occurred soon if not immediately after a frost.
Available forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may have been
more frost tolerant (still green) or the frost may have changed
the palatability (taste) of the plants making them more ac-
ceptable to the livestock. Ranchers should mow these plants
before available forage reaches a low level and before frost
occurs. Other poisonous plants such as lantana or black night-
shade can also be a problem. Ranchers grazing the rem-
nants of sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings should
be ready to remove animals from these pastures when frost
is predicted. After the frosted sorghum plants have dried,
they are safe to graze. When grazing cool-season annual
grasses, be aware of possible nitrate poisoning and grass
tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in the plant to toxic levels
occurs on highly fertilized grass when certain climatic con-
ditions (continuous cloud cover, drought, etc.) slows top
growth. This may occur in warm season as well as cool sea-
son annual grasses. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called a deficiency
problem.

CGC

COFFEE WEED POISONOUS PLANT

There are two plants commonly called coffee weed that can
cause a problem: sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee
senna (Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna is very simi-
lar to sicklepod but usually has 8 or more leaflets rather than
4 to 6. The pods on coffee senna are flattened, while those
of sickle pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna pods
tend to be straighter and shorter than those of sicklepod. The
end of leaflets of coffee senna are pointed whereas those of
sicklepod tend to be rounded. These plants are found through-
out the South, but are more abundant on sandy soils of the
coastal plain. They are most abundant in cultivated fields,
roadsides, waste sites and open pinelands.

Toxicity: The toxic principles have not been clearly estab-
lished. The seeds appear to exert their toxicity upon the skel-
etal muscles, kidney, and liver. The leaves and stem also
contain toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much more
prevalent but somewhat less toxic than coffee senna. Ani-
mals can be poisoned by consuming the plant in the field, in
green chop, in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be assumed that other
animals are susceptible to the effects of these plants.

Symptoms: Diarrhea is usually the first symptom observed.
Later, the animals go off feed, appear lethargic, and tremors
appear in the hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine becomes dark
(coffee-colored) and the animal becomes recumbent and is
unable to rise. Death often occurs within 12 hours after the
animal goes down. There is no fever.









WINTER PEA OR AUSTRIAN WINTER PEA (PISUM
SATIVUM SUBSP. ARVENSE)

This is an old crop that is not grown to any great extent in
Florida except for wildlife (deer plots). Seed are available
and occasionally someone will ask about them. It is similar
to the garden pea except the latter has a sweeter and more
delicate flavor. It is grown as a winter annual in the South
and as a summer annual in the Northern US. In the past this
crop was grown primarily for soil improvement.

Much of the following was excerpted from the book "South-
ern Forages". Origin: Mediterranean region. Description:
Vine winter annual with stems 2 to 4 feet long. Primary Ad-
aptation: Well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. Major Uses:
Silage, green manure, and [wildlife plants]. High nutri-
tive quality. Establishment: Seed are planted in Septem-
ber-October at 30 to 40 lb/A if grown alone or 20 to 30 lb/A
if sown with small grain. When used for forage the winter
pea is usually grown with a small grain. Fertilization: Re-
sponds well to phosphorus and potassium. Intolerant of highly
acid soil. Seasonal Production: Canbe cut for silage in April.
Management: Not well adapted for pasture because plants
are easily damaged by trampling. Best used as silage as the
crop is difficult to cure for hay. Pests: Downy mildew can be
quite destructive during warm wet winters. Virus diseases
can be a problem. Pea weevil, aphids, and nematodes also
can cause considerable damage.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain, and/or
ryegrass, and fertilizer and spread all in one application in
the fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is con-
siderable risk involved as far as the establishment of the
bahiagrass is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting
from seed that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze
or competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some may be carried over through the winter and
germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the cool
season forages may result in loss of these seedlings. This is
especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed and is
allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage. For suc-
cessful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late spring
drought.

CGC

LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE TOXICITY PROBLEMS

This is the time of year when producers need to be concerned
about animal toxicity problems. When the available forage
is limited in a pasture, animals may start eating poisonous


plants that they ignored over the past year. Last year, sev-
eral beef animals were lost due to the consumption of coffee
senna. This occurred soon if not immediately after a frost.
Available forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may have been
more frost tolerant (still green) or the frost may have changed
the palatability (taste) of the plants making them more ac-
ceptable to the livestock. Ranchers should mow these plants
before available forage reaches a low level and before frost
occurs. Other poisonous plants such as lantana or black night-
shade can also be a problem. Ranchers grazing the rem-
nants of sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings should
be ready to remove animals from these pastures when frost
is predicted. After the frosted sorghum plants have dried,
they are safe to graze. When grazing cool-season annual
grasses, be aware of possible nitrate poisoning and grass
tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in the plant to toxic levels
occurs on highly fertilized grass when certain climatic con-
ditions (continuous cloud cover, drought, etc.) slows top
growth. This may occur in warm season as well as cool sea-
son annual grasses. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called a deficiency
problem.

CGC

COFFEE WEED POISONOUS PLANT

There are two plants commonly called coffee weed that can
cause a problem: sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee
senna (Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna is very simi-
lar to sicklepod but usually has 8 or more leaflets rather than
4 to 6. The pods on coffee senna are flattened, while those
of sickle pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna pods
tend to be straighter and shorter than those of sicklepod. The
end of leaflets of coffee senna are pointed whereas those of
sicklepod tend to be rounded. These plants are found through-
out the South, but are more abundant on sandy soils of the
coastal plain. They are most abundant in cultivated fields,
roadsides, waste sites and open pinelands.

Toxicity: The toxic principles have not been clearly estab-
lished. The seeds appear to exert their toxicity upon the skel-
etal muscles, kidney, and liver. The leaves and stem also
contain toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much more
prevalent but somewhat less toxic than coffee senna. Ani-
mals can be poisoned by consuming the plant in the field, in
green chop, in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be assumed that other
animals are susceptible to the effects of these plants.

Symptoms: Diarrhea is usually the first symptom observed.
Later, the animals go off feed, appear lethargic, and tremors
appear in the hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine becomes dark
(coffee-colored) and the animal becomes recumbent and is
unable to rise. Death often occurs within 12 hours after the
animal goes down. There is no fever.









WINTER PEA OR AUSTRIAN WINTER PEA (PISUM
SATIVUM SUBSP. ARVENSE)

This is an old crop that is not grown to any great extent in
Florida except for wildlife (deer plots). Seed are available
and occasionally someone will ask about them. It is similar
to the garden pea except the latter has a sweeter and more
delicate flavor. It is grown as a winter annual in the South
and as a summer annual in the Northern US. In the past this
crop was grown primarily for soil improvement.

Much of the following was excerpted from the book "South-
ern Forages". Origin: Mediterranean region. Description:
Vine winter annual with stems 2 to 4 feet long. Primary Ad-
aptation: Well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. Major Uses:
Silage, green manure, and [wildlife plants]. High nutri-
tive quality. Establishment: Seed are planted in Septem-
ber-October at 30 to 40 lb/A if grown alone or 20 to 30 lb/A
if sown with small grain. When used for forage the winter
pea is usually grown with a small grain. Fertilization: Re-
sponds well to phosphorus and potassium. Intolerant of highly
acid soil. Seasonal Production: Canbe cut for silage in April.
Management: Not well adapted for pasture because plants
are easily damaged by trampling. Best used as silage as the
crop is difficult to cure for hay. Pests: Downy mildew can be
quite destructive during warm wet winters. Virus diseases
can be a problem. Pea weevil, aphids, and nematodes also
can cause considerable damage.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain, and/or
ryegrass, and fertilizer and spread all in one application in
the fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is con-
siderable risk involved as far as the establishment of the
bahiagrass is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting
from seed that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze
or competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some may be carried over through the winter and
germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the cool
season forages may result in loss of these seedlings. This is
especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed and is
allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage. For suc-
cessful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late spring
drought.

CGC

LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE TOXICITY PROBLEMS

This is the time of year when producers need to be concerned
about animal toxicity problems. When the available forage
is limited in a pasture, animals may start eating poisonous


plants that they ignored over the past year. Last year, sev-
eral beef animals were lost due to the consumption of coffee
senna. This occurred soon if not immediately after a frost.
Available forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may have been
more frost tolerant (still green) or the frost may have changed
the palatability (taste) of the plants making them more ac-
ceptable to the livestock. Ranchers should mow these plants
before available forage reaches a low level and before frost
occurs. Other poisonous plants such as lantana or black night-
shade can also be a problem. Ranchers grazing the rem-
nants of sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings should
be ready to remove animals from these pastures when frost
is predicted. After the frosted sorghum plants have dried,
they are safe to graze. When grazing cool-season annual
grasses, be aware of possible nitrate poisoning and grass
tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in the plant to toxic levels
occurs on highly fertilized grass when certain climatic con-
ditions (continuous cloud cover, drought, etc.) slows top
growth. This may occur in warm season as well as cool sea-
son annual grasses. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called a deficiency
problem.

CGC

COFFEE WEED POISONOUS PLANT

There are two plants commonly called coffee weed that can
cause a problem: sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee
senna (Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna is very simi-
lar to sicklepod but usually has 8 or more leaflets rather than
4 to 6. The pods on coffee senna are flattened, while those
of sickle pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna pods
tend to be straighter and shorter than those of sicklepod. The
end of leaflets of coffee senna are pointed whereas those of
sicklepod tend to be rounded. These plants are found through-
out the South, but are more abundant on sandy soils of the
coastal plain. They are most abundant in cultivated fields,
roadsides, waste sites and open pinelands.

Toxicity: The toxic principles have not been clearly estab-
lished. The seeds appear to exert their toxicity upon the skel-
etal muscles, kidney, and liver. The leaves and stem also
contain toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much more
prevalent but somewhat less toxic than coffee senna. Ani-
mals can be poisoned by consuming the plant in the field, in
green chop, in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be assumed that other
animals are susceptible to the effects of these plants.

Symptoms: Diarrhea is usually the first symptom observed.
Later, the animals go off feed, appear lethargic, and tremors
appear in the hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine becomes dark
(coffee-colored) and the animal becomes recumbent and is
unable to rise. Death often occurs within 12 hours after the
animal goes down. There is no fever.









WINTER PEA OR AUSTRIAN WINTER PEA (PISUM
SATIVUM SUBSP. ARVENSE)

This is an old crop that is not grown to any great extent in
Florida except for wildlife (deer plots). Seed are available
and occasionally someone will ask about them. It is similar
to the garden pea except the latter has a sweeter and more
delicate flavor. It is grown as a winter annual in the South
and as a summer annual in the Northern US. In the past this
crop was grown primarily for soil improvement.

Much of the following was excerpted from the book "South-
ern Forages". Origin: Mediterranean region. Description:
Vine winter annual with stems 2 to 4 feet long. Primary Ad-
aptation: Well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. Major Uses:
Silage, green manure, and [wildlife plants]. High nutri-
tive quality. Establishment: Seed are planted in Septem-
ber-October at 30 to 40 lb/A if grown alone or 20 to 30 lb/A
if sown with small grain. When used for forage the winter
pea is usually grown with a small grain. Fertilization: Re-
sponds well to phosphorus and potassium. Intolerant of highly
acid soil. Seasonal Production: Canbe cut for silage in April.
Management: Not well adapted for pasture because plants
are easily damaged by trampling. Best used as silage as the
crop is difficult to cure for hay. Pests: Downy mildew can be
quite destructive during warm wet winters. Virus diseases
can be a problem. Pea weevil, aphids, and nematodes also
can cause considerable damage.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain, and/or
ryegrass, and fertilizer and spread all in one application in
the fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is con-
siderable risk involved as far as the establishment of the
bahiagrass is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting
from seed that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze
or competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some may be carried over through the winter and
germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the cool
season forages may result in loss of these seedlings. This is
especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed and is
allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage. For suc-
cessful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late spring
drought.

CGC

LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE TOXICITY PROBLEMS

This is the time of year when producers need to be concerned
about animal toxicity problems. When the available forage
is limited in a pasture, animals may start eating poisonous


plants that they ignored over the past year. Last year, sev-
eral beef animals were lost due to the consumption of coffee
senna. This occurred soon if not immediately after a frost.
Available forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may have been
more frost tolerant (still green) or the frost may have changed
the palatability (taste) of the plants making them more ac-
ceptable to the livestock. Ranchers should mow these plants
before available forage reaches a low level and before frost
occurs. Other poisonous plants such as lantana or black night-
shade can also be a problem. Ranchers grazing the rem-
nants of sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings should
be ready to remove animals from these pastures when frost
is predicted. After the frosted sorghum plants have dried,
they are safe to graze. When grazing cool-season annual
grasses, be aware of possible nitrate poisoning and grass
tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in the plant to toxic levels
occurs on highly fertilized grass when certain climatic con-
ditions (continuous cloud cover, drought, etc.) slows top
growth. This may occur in warm season as well as cool sea-
son annual grasses. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called a deficiency
problem.

CGC

COFFEE WEED POISONOUS PLANT

There are two plants commonly called coffee weed that can
cause a problem: sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee
senna (Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna is very simi-
lar to sicklepod but usually has 8 or more leaflets rather than
4 to 6. The pods on coffee senna are flattened, while those
of sickle pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna pods
tend to be straighter and shorter than those of sicklepod. The
end of leaflets of coffee senna are pointed whereas those of
sicklepod tend to be rounded. These plants are found through-
out the South, but are more abundant on sandy soils of the
coastal plain. They are most abundant in cultivated fields,
roadsides, waste sites and open pinelands.

Toxicity: The toxic principles have not been clearly estab-
lished. The seeds appear to exert their toxicity upon the skel-
etal muscles, kidney, and liver. The leaves and stem also
contain toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much more
prevalent but somewhat less toxic than coffee senna. Ani-
mals can be poisoned by consuming the plant in the field, in
green chop, in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be assumed that other
animals are susceptible to the effects of these plants.

Symptoms: Diarrhea is usually the first symptom observed.
Later, the animals go off feed, appear lethargic, and tremors
appear in the hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine becomes dark
(coffee-colored) and the animal becomes recumbent and is
unable to rise. Death often occurs within 12 hours after the
animal goes down. There is no fever.








Treatment: Once animals become recumbent, treatment is
usually ineffective. Selenium and Vitamin E injections have
been used with variable results.

The above information was taken from SP 57 Poisonous
Plants of the Southeastern United States, available from the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS) for the cost of $4.00.

CGC

FROSTED SORGHUMS

Sorghums, sudangrass, andjohnsongrass will produce prus-
sic acid after a frost or freeze. The frosted forage will pro-
duce large quantities of prussic acid when the plant cells
break down in the cow's rumen. This may cause prussic
acid (HCN) poisoning.

If the forage is allowed to dry for 3 to 6 days, it should be
safe to consume. As the plants dry, the toxic compound
will be released into the atmosphere as a gas. In the fall,
remove animals from these pastures when frost is eminent.
(Pearl millet does not produce prussic acid.)

Also, do not allow animals to graze young regrowth (south
Florida) that may appear after the tops have been killed by
a frost. At any time during the growing season, always
allow these plants to reach a height of 18 to 24 inches be-
fore grazing. The young plants have a higher concentra-
tion of prussic acid (frost or no frost), and can be danger-
ous.

Frosted sorghums can be harvested for silage. The danger
of prussic acid poisoning is minimized, since the forage is
chopped coming out of the field and then handled again
when taken out of the silo. This provides ample opportu-
nity for the toxin to escape into the atmosphere. A light
frost may even be helpful if sorghum is harvested for si-
lage, since it will allow the plant to dry down. The forage
sorghums often contain too high a level of moisture when
harvested directly (without wilting) for silage.

Sorghums and other warm season annual grasses that have
received moderate to high rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and
have been under drought stress, may contain toxic levels of
nitrates. If levels are high enough, nitrate poisoning can
occur. Drying or harvesting the plants for silage does not
get rid of the nitrate. In some situations, the potential for
nitrate poisoning may be greater than for prussic acid poi-
soning.

CGC

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Grass tetany, sometimes called "grass staggers" or hypo-
magnesemia, can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle
grazing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usu-
ally confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the dis-


ease is unknown, although it is always associated with an im-
balance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more se-
vere when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the first
flush of growth during December and January. Once the for-
age becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems occur-
ring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under conditions
of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality pasture may cause
such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those of
milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of co-
ordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When the
disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called immedi-
ately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in beef
herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportunity to
observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle may be found
dead in the pasture.

Factors which have been associated with this disease include
low levels of magnesium (Mg) and high protein and potassium
levels in the forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which contains
magnesium, to increase forage magnesium levels if the level
of soil magnesium is low. On soils with a high pH level, mag-
nesium canbe included with fertilizer materials. Excess nitro-
gen in conjunction with high levels of potassium fertilization
tends to reduce the magnesium level in most forage plants.
Consequently, these fertilizer elements should not be applied
in excess on temporary winter pastures. Follow recommenda-
tions based on soil test results.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding mineral supplements
that contain magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures con-
taining 10-15% magnesium are available for feeding during
periods of increased grass tetany probability. Cattle need to
consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of this mineral. (For additional
information on this problem, see the Agronomy Fact Sheet
SS-AGR-64 Grass Tetany in Cattle).

CGC

FOLIAR N-SPRAY MAY IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF
STOCKPILED LIMPOGRASS

Adequate quantity and quality of cool-season forage are lim-
iting factors to cow-calf production in south-central Florida.
Limpograss is a forage with potential high dry matter pro-
duction and digestibility during the cool, short-day season.
However, crude protein (CP) in stockpiled limpograss is of-
ten <7%, which is below the maintenance requirement for
cattle. Hence, cattle grazing stockpiled limpograss are usu-
ally supplemented with either liquid or dry protein feed at
additional cost.

In 1964, Al Kretschmer described a technique to increase N
concentration in deferred grass forage. He applied late N








Treatment: Once animals become recumbent, treatment is
usually ineffective. Selenium and Vitamin E injections have
been used with variable results.

The above information was taken from SP 57 Poisonous
Plants of the Southeastern United States, available from the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS) for the cost of $4.00.

CGC

FROSTED SORGHUMS

Sorghums, sudangrass, andjohnsongrass will produce prus-
sic acid after a frost or freeze. The frosted forage will pro-
duce large quantities of prussic acid when the plant cells
break down in the cow's rumen. This may cause prussic
acid (HCN) poisoning.

If the forage is allowed to dry for 3 to 6 days, it should be
safe to consume. As the plants dry, the toxic compound
will be released into the atmosphere as a gas. In the fall,
remove animals from these pastures when frost is eminent.
(Pearl millet does not produce prussic acid.)

Also, do not allow animals to graze young regrowth (south
Florida) that may appear after the tops have been killed by
a frost. At any time during the growing season, always
allow these plants to reach a height of 18 to 24 inches be-
fore grazing. The young plants have a higher concentra-
tion of prussic acid (frost or no frost), and can be danger-
ous.

Frosted sorghums can be harvested for silage. The danger
of prussic acid poisoning is minimized, since the forage is
chopped coming out of the field and then handled again
when taken out of the silo. This provides ample opportu-
nity for the toxin to escape into the atmosphere. A light
frost may even be helpful if sorghum is harvested for si-
lage, since it will allow the plant to dry down. The forage
sorghums often contain too high a level of moisture when
harvested directly (without wilting) for silage.

Sorghums and other warm season annual grasses that have
received moderate to high rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and
have been under drought stress, may contain toxic levels of
nitrates. If levels are high enough, nitrate poisoning can
occur. Drying or harvesting the plants for silage does not
get rid of the nitrate. In some situations, the potential for
nitrate poisoning may be greater than for prussic acid poi-
soning.

CGC

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Grass tetany, sometimes called "grass staggers" or hypo-
magnesemia, can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle
grazing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usu-
ally confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the dis-


ease is unknown, although it is always associated with an im-
balance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more se-
vere when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the first
flush of growth during December and January. Once the for-
age becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems occur-
ring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under conditions
of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality pasture may cause
such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those of
milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of co-
ordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When the
disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called immedi-
ately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in beef
herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportunity to
observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle may be found
dead in the pasture.

Factors which have been associated with this disease include
low levels of magnesium (Mg) and high protein and potassium
levels in the forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which contains
magnesium, to increase forage magnesium levels if the level
of soil magnesium is low. On soils with a high pH level, mag-
nesium canbe included with fertilizer materials. Excess nitro-
gen in conjunction with high levels of potassium fertilization
tends to reduce the magnesium level in most forage plants.
Consequently, these fertilizer elements should not be applied
in excess on temporary winter pastures. Follow recommenda-
tions based on soil test results.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding mineral supplements
that contain magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures con-
taining 10-15% magnesium are available for feeding during
periods of increased grass tetany probability. Cattle need to
consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of this mineral. (For additional
information on this problem, see the Agronomy Fact Sheet
SS-AGR-64 Grass Tetany in Cattle).

CGC

FOLIAR N-SPRAY MAY IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF
STOCKPILED LIMPOGRASS

Adequate quantity and quality of cool-season forage are lim-
iting factors to cow-calf production in south-central Florida.
Limpograss is a forage with potential high dry matter pro-
duction and digestibility during the cool, short-day season.
However, crude protein (CP) in stockpiled limpograss is of-
ten <7%, which is below the maintenance requirement for
cattle. Hence, cattle grazing stockpiled limpograss are usu-
ally supplemented with either liquid or dry protein feed at
additional cost.

In 1964, Al Kretschmer described a technique to increase N
concentration in deferred grass forage. He applied late N








Treatment: Once animals become recumbent, treatment is
usually ineffective. Selenium and Vitamin E injections have
been used with variable results.

The above information was taken from SP 57 Poisonous
Plants of the Southeastern United States, available from the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS) for the cost of $4.00.

CGC

FROSTED SORGHUMS

Sorghums, sudangrass, andjohnsongrass will produce prus-
sic acid after a frost or freeze. The frosted forage will pro-
duce large quantities of prussic acid when the plant cells
break down in the cow's rumen. This may cause prussic
acid (HCN) poisoning.

If the forage is allowed to dry for 3 to 6 days, it should be
safe to consume. As the plants dry, the toxic compound
will be released into the atmosphere as a gas. In the fall,
remove animals from these pastures when frost is eminent.
(Pearl millet does not produce prussic acid.)

Also, do not allow animals to graze young regrowth (south
Florida) that may appear after the tops have been killed by
a frost. At any time during the growing season, always
allow these plants to reach a height of 18 to 24 inches be-
fore grazing. The young plants have a higher concentra-
tion of prussic acid (frost or no frost), and can be danger-
ous.

Frosted sorghums can be harvested for silage. The danger
of prussic acid poisoning is minimized, since the forage is
chopped coming out of the field and then handled again
when taken out of the silo. This provides ample opportu-
nity for the toxin to escape into the atmosphere. A light
frost may even be helpful if sorghum is harvested for si-
lage, since it will allow the plant to dry down. The forage
sorghums often contain too high a level of moisture when
harvested directly (without wilting) for silage.

Sorghums and other warm season annual grasses that have
received moderate to high rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and
have been under drought stress, may contain toxic levels of
nitrates. If levels are high enough, nitrate poisoning can
occur. Drying or harvesting the plants for silage does not
get rid of the nitrate. In some situations, the potential for
nitrate poisoning may be greater than for prussic acid poi-
soning.

CGC

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Grass tetany, sometimes called "grass staggers" or hypo-
magnesemia, can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle
grazing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usu-
ally confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the dis-


ease is unknown, although it is always associated with an im-
balance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more se-
vere when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the first
flush of growth during December and January. Once the for-
age becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems occur-
ring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under conditions
of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality pasture may cause
such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those of
milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of co-
ordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When the
disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called immedi-
ately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in beef
herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportunity to
observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle may be found
dead in the pasture.

Factors which have been associated with this disease include
low levels of magnesium (Mg) and high protein and potassium
levels in the forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which contains
magnesium, to increase forage magnesium levels if the level
of soil magnesium is low. On soils with a high pH level, mag-
nesium canbe included with fertilizer materials. Excess nitro-
gen in conjunction with high levels of potassium fertilization
tends to reduce the magnesium level in most forage plants.
Consequently, these fertilizer elements should not be applied
in excess on temporary winter pastures. Follow recommenda-
tions based on soil test results.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding mineral supplements
that contain magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures con-
taining 10-15% magnesium are available for feeding during
periods of increased grass tetany probability. Cattle need to
consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of this mineral. (For additional
information on this problem, see the Agronomy Fact Sheet
SS-AGR-64 Grass Tetany in Cattle).

CGC

FOLIAR N-SPRAY MAY IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF
STOCKPILED LIMPOGRASS

Adequate quantity and quality of cool-season forage are lim-
iting factors to cow-calf production in south-central Florida.
Limpograss is a forage with potential high dry matter pro-
duction and digestibility during the cool, short-day season.
However, crude protein (CP) in stockpiled limpograss is of-
ten <7%, which is below the maintenance requirement for
cattle. Hence, cattle grazing stockpiled limpograss are usu-
ally supplemented with either liquid or dry protein feed at
additional cost.

In 1964, Al Kretschmer described a technique to increase N
concentration in deferred grass forage. He applied late N








fertilization (LNF) to forage 2-3 weeks before forage utili-
zation in November early December. Later, in 1996, Al
Kretschmer and George Snyder improved upon their sys-
tem where an initial N fertilization (INF) in September was
used to increase dry matter yield of stockpiled limpograss
followed by a LNF in December to boost CP concentration
in the fall-deferred Bigalta limpograss.

The influence of liquid foliar N spray on stockpiled
limpograss has not been studied before this period. So, on
November 19, 1999, John Arthington and I applied both
granular and liquid N in the form of ammonium sulfate to a
fall-deferred mature Floralta limpograss stand at the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona. Liquid N has a
tendency to bur the top of forage grasses, so we applied
only 30 lb N/A in either form. We also had a control that
received no N. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Sec-
tions of the treated stockpiled forage were harvested to a 6-
inch stubble at 30, 60, 90 and 120 d after fertilization. Har-
vested forage subsamples were cut up into "basal" (bottom
9") and "top" (all above 9") sections, dried, ground and ana-
lyzed for CP and IVOMD. The 1999-2000 winter season
was warm and standing forage increased from 3 to 4 ton/A
across all treatments until frost occurred in mid-January.
The top canopy forage was 60% and basal canopy was 40%
of total standing forage mass.

The initial (19 November) CP concentration in top canopy
forage was 7% and in the basal canopy forage about 5%.
The CP concentration in top canopy forage was 7, 10, and
12% at 30 d; and 6, 8, and 11% at 60 d for the control,
granular, and liquid ammonium sulfate treatments, respec-
tively. The mid-January freeze knocked down top canopy
CP on all treatments to <6% at 90 d sample. However, due
to a more rapid regrowth after the frost, the top canopy for-
age CP at 120 d was 9% for the liquid N treatment com-
pared with 6% for the control and granular N treatments.
Basal canopy CP (4-8%) also tended to be highest for the
liquid N treatment. Forage IVOMD (50-62%) was always
high and not affected much by our LNF treatment.

In 2000-2001 winter season, John and I tried a wide range
of liquid N fertilizer as foliar spray but ran into bad luck
when an early freeze occurred on 24 November, just 3 d
after application. This was followed by 8 additional frosts
in December and January. We had no plant response to our
treatments. We hope to conduct another test this year.

Meanwhile, it appears that foliar absorption at low rates of
LNF (20-30 N lb/A), 4-8 weeks before forage utilization
may help improve the CP concentration in fall-deferred
Floralta limpograss.

MBA

PEANUT MARKET REPORT

Through November 6 almost 1.8 million tons of peanuts
grown in the United States have gone through the Federal-
State Inspection Program. Florida buying points have


handled over 111,000 tons. Of the national total, about 1.1
million tons have been quota and the remainder were
additional. Very few of the peanuts graded have gone into
the Segregation 3 category, which is the classification for
those that contain the aflatoxin-producing fungus. So far
almost 230,000 tons of quota peanuts have been placed in
the loan program. This causes concern due to the likeli-
hood that these peanuts will have to be sold at well below
the loan rate and crushed for oil. Since peanuts are in a no-
net-cost program (to the government) growers will have to
make up the losses. About 94 percent of the quota peanuts
under loan came from the states of Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida.

EBW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

It does not appear that a new farm bill will be enacted in
time for it to become effective for the 2002 crop. The House
of Representatives passed their version, which contained
major changes in the peanut program, but the Senate has
yet to vote on their proposal. Since Congress is expected to
adjourn soon, it is unlikely that new legislation will be in
place for 2002. Peanut quotas for 2002 will be announced
by December 15, 2001. The current farm program does not
expire until the end of 2002, but there were attempts to en-
act a new program that would start a year early.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Almost all flue-cured tobacco markets in the United States
are now closed. For the season, the USDA reports that about
554 million pounds were sold at an average price of about
$1.85 per pound. Of the total, about 80 percent or 440 mil-
lion pounds were sold by contract at an average price of just
over $1.87 per pound. The remaining 114 million pounds
were sold at auction for an average price of just over $1.83
per pound. Of the tobacco offered for sale at auction, about
15 million pounds were placed under loan.

EBW

SELECTING A TOBACCO VARIETY FOR 2002

The K 326 variety has been popular with Florida farmers
for many years because it produces good quality and yields,
has resistance to some root-knot nematodes, and hiolds 1\ 11"
in the field. In the 2001 Florida variety trials, K 326 was a
leading variety in price per pound and produced good yields.
A major disadvantage of K 326 is the lack of resistance to
the black shank disease. Because of increasing need for
black shank resistance, NC 71 has become a popular vari-
ety. NC 71 produced some of the highest yields of any
variety in the 2001 Florida variety trials and has root-knot








fertilization (LNF) to forage 2-3 weeks before forage utili-
zation in November early December. Later, in 1996, Al
Kretschmer and George Snyder improved upon their sys-
tem where an initial N fertilization (INF) in September was
used to increase dry matter yield of stockpiled limpograss
followed by a LNF in December to boost CP concentration
in the fall-deferred Bigalta limpograss.

The influence of liquid foliar N spray on stockpiled
limpograss has not been studied before this period. So, on
November 19, 1999, John Arthington and I applied both
granular and liquid N in the form of ammonium sulfate to a
fall-deferred mature Floralta limpograss stand at the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona. Liquid N has a
tendency to bur the top of forage grasses, so we applied
only 30 lb N/A in either form. We also had a control that
received no N. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Sec-
tions of the treated stockpiled forage were harvested to a 6-
inch stubble at 30, 60, 90 and 120 d after fertilization. Har-
vested forage subsamples were cut up into "basal" (bottom
9") and "top" (all above 9") sections, dried, ground and ana-
lyzed for CP and IVOMD. The 1999-2000 winter season
was warm and standing forage increased from 3 to 4 ton/A
across all treatments until frost occurred in mid-January.
The top canopy forage was 60% and basal canopy was 40%
of total standing forage mass.

The initial (19 November) CP concentration in top canopy
forage was 7% and in the basal canopy forage about 5%.
The CP concentration in top canopy forage was 7, 10, and
12% at 30 d; and 6, 8, and 11% at 60 d for the control,
granular, and liquid ammonium sulfate treatments, respec-
tively. The mid-January freeze knocked down top canopy
CP on all treatments to <6% at 90 d sample. However, due
to a more rapid regrowth after the frost, the top canopy for-
age CP at 120 d was 9% for the liquid N treatment com-
pared with 6% for the control and granular N treatments.
Basal canopy CP (4-8%) also tended to be highest for the
liquid N treatment. Forage IVOMD (50-62%) was always
high and not affected much by our LNF treatment.

In 2000-2001 winter season, John and I tried a wide range
of liquid N fertilizer as foliar spray but ran into bad luck
when an early freeze occurred on 24 November, just 3 d
after application. This was followed by 8 additional frosts
in December and January. We had no plant response to our
treatments. We hope to conduct another test this year.

Meanwhile, it appears that foliar absorption at low rates of
LNF (20-30 N lb/A), 4-8 weeks before forage utilization
may help improve the CP concentration in fall-deferred
Floralta limpograss.

MBA

PEANUT MARKET REPORT

Through November 6 almost 1.8 million tons of peanuts
grown in the United States have gone through the Federal-
State Inspection Program. Florida buying points have


handled over 111,000 tons. Of the national total, about 1.1
million tons have been quota and the remainder were
additional. Very few of the peanuts graded have gone into
the Segregation 3 category, which is the classification for
those that contain the aflatoxin-producing fungus. So far
almost 230,000 tons of quota peanuts have been placed in
the loan program. This causes concern due to the likeli-
hood that these peanuts will have to be sold at well below
the loan rate and crushed for oil. Since peanuts are in a no-
net-cost program (to the government) growers will have to
make up the losses. About 94 percent of the quota peanuts
under loan came from the states of Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida.

EBW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

It does not appear that a new farm bill will be enacted in
time for it to become effective for the 2002 crop. The House
of Representatives passed their version, which contained
major changes in the peanut program, but the Senate has
yet to vote on their proposal. Since Congress is expected to
adjourn soon, it is unlikely that new legislation will be in
place for 2002. Peanut quotas for 2002 will be announced
by December 15, 2001. The current farm program does not
expire until the end of 2002, but there were attempts to en-
act a new program that would start a year early.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Almost all flue-cured tobacco markets in the United States
are now closed. For the season, the USDA reports that about
554 million pounds were sold at an average price of about
$1.85 per pound. Of the total, about 80 percent or 440 mil-
lion pounds were sold by contract at an average price of just
over $1.87 per pound. The remaining 114 million pounds
were sold at auction for an average price of just over $1.83
per pound. Of the tobacco offered for sale at auction, about
15 million pounds were placed under loan.

EBW

SELECTING A TOBACCO VARIETY FOR 2002

The K 326 variety has been popular with Florida farmers
for many years because it produces good quality and yields,
has resistance to some root-knot nematodes, and hiolds 1\ 11"
in the field. In the 2001 Florida variety trials, K 326 was a
leading variety in price per pound and produced good yields.
A major disadvantage of K 326 is the lack of resistance to
the black shank disease. Because of increasing need for
black shank resistance, NC 71 has become a popular vari-
ety. NC 71 produced some of the highest yields of any
variety in the 2001 Florida variety trials and has root-knot








fertilization (LNF) to forage 2-3 weeks before forage utili-
zation in November early December. Later, in 1996, Al
Kretschmer and George Snyder improved upon their sys-
tem where an initial N fertilization (INF) in September was
used to increase dry matter yield of stockpiled limpograss
followed by a LNF in December to boost CP concentration
in the fall-deferred Bigalta limpograss.

The influence of liquid foliar N spray on stockpiled
limpograss has not been studied before this period. So, on
November 19, 1999, John Arthington and I applied both
granular and liquid N in the form of ammonium sulfate to a
fall-deferred mature Floralta limpograss stand at the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona. Liquid N has a
tendency to bur the top of forage grasses, so we applied
only 30 lb N/A in either form. We also had a control that
received no N. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Sec-
tions of the treated stockpiled forage were harvested to a 6-
inch stubble at 30, 60, 90 and 120 d after fertilization. Har-
vested forage subsamples were cut up into "basal" (bottom
9") and "top" (all above 9") sections, dried, ground and ana-
lyzed for CP and IVOMD. The 1999-2000 winter season
was warm and standing forage increased from 3 to 4 ton/A
across all treatments until frost occurred in mid-January.
The top canopy forage was 60% and basal canopy was 40%
of total standing forage mass.

The initial (19 November) CP concentration in top canopy
forage was 7% and in the basal canopy forage about 5%.
The CP concentration in top canopy forage was 7, 10, and
12% at 30 d; and 6, 8, and 11% at 60 d for the control,
granular, and liquid ammonium sulfate treatments, respec-
tively. The mid-January freeze knocked down top canopy
CP on all treatments to <6% at 90 d sample. However, due
to a more rapid regrowth after the frost, the top canopy for-
age CP at 120 d was 9% for the liquid N treatment com-
pared with 6% for the control and granular N treatments.
Basal canopy CP (4-8%) also tended to be highest for the
liquid N treatment. Forage IVOMD (50-62%) was always
high and not affected much by our LNF treatment.

In 2000-2001 winter season, John and I tried a wide range
of liquid N fertilizer as foliar spray but ran into bad luck
when an early freeze occurred on 24 November, just 3 d
after application. This was followed by 8 additional frosts
in December and January. We had no plant response to our
treatments. We hope to conduct another test this year.

Meanwhile, it appears that foliar absorption at low rates of
LNF (20-30 N lb/A), 4-8 weeks before forage utilization
may help improve the CP concentration in fall-deferred
Floralta limpograss.

MBA

PEANUT MARKET REPORT

Through November 6 almost 1.8 million tons of peanuts
grown in the United States have gone through the Federal-
State Inspection Program. Florida buying points have


handled over 111,000 tons. Of the national total, about 1.1
million tons have been quota and the remainder were
additional. Very few of the peanuts graded have gone into
the Segregation 3 category, which is the classification for
those that contain the aflatoxin-producing fungus. So far
almost 230,000 tons of quota peanuts have been placed in
the loan program. This causes concern due to the likeli-
hood that these peanuts will have to be sold at well below
the loan rate and crushed for oil. Since peanuts are in a no-
net-cost program (to the government) growers will have to
make up the losses. About 94 percent of the quota peanuts
under loan came from the states of Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida.

EBW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

It does not appear that a new farm bill will be enacted in
time for it to become effective for the 2002 crop. The House
of Representatives passed their version, which contained
major changes in the peanut program, but the Senate has
yet to vote on their proposal. Since Congress is expected to
adjourn soon, it is unlikely that new legislation will be in
place for 2002. Peanut quotas for 2002 will be announced
by December 15, 2001. The current farm program does not
expire until the end of 2002, but there were attempts to en-
act a new program that would start a year early.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Almost all flue-cured tobacco markets in the United States
are now closed. For the season, the USDA reports that about
554 million pounds were sold at an average price of about
$1.85 per pound. Of the total, about 80 percent or 440 mil-
lion pounds were sold by contract at an average price of just
over $1.87 per pound. The remaining 114 million pounds
were sold at auction for an average price of just over $1.83
per pound. Of the tobacco offered for sale at auction, about
15 million pounds were placed under loan.

EBW

SELECTING A TOBACCO VARIETY FOR 2002

The K 326 variety has been popular with Florida farmers
for many years because it produces good quality and yields,
has resistance to some root-knot nematodes, and hiolds 1\ 11"
in the field. In the 2001 Florida variety trials, K 326 was a
leading variety in price per pound and produced good yields.
A major disadvantage of K 326 is the lack of resistance to
the black shank disease. Because of increasing need for
black shank resistance, NC 71 has become a popular vari-
ety. NC 71 produced some of the highest yields of any
variety in the 2001 Florida variety trials and has root-knot








nematode resistance. Other varieties such as NC 72, NC
606, K 346, Speight 168, Speight 179, and OX 207 also
have high black shank resistance, root-knot nematode re-
sistance, and otherwise produce well in Florida. NC 55 has
been grown on many acres in Florida because it has been
the only variety with resistance to potato virus-Y and to-
bacco etch virus. Like K 326, NC 55 has low resistance to
black shank, which limits the popularity of the variety. NC
297 was grown on several acres in Florida in 2001 because
there were concerns over the possibility of tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) being as severe as it was in 2000. While there
was little TMV in 2001, NC 297 did produce good yields
and was otherwise a satisfactory variety. Speight H20,
PVH03, PVH09, and RGH4 are other varieties with TMV
resistance and produced good yields and quality in the vari-
ety tests. Some growers may wish to consider growing a
non-flowering variety because of the ease of sucker con-
trol. Speight NF3 and OX414NF have consistently per-
formed well in Florida tests. If there is a need for an early-
maturing variety, Coker 371-Gold and K 394 could be con-
sidered. Neither of these two varieties have resistance to
root-knot nematodes.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Plant bed sites should be well-prepared prior to fumigation,
so that trash or clods of soil will not block the fumigant
from killing weed seed, disease organisms, and nematodes.
If the soil is dry, irrigate a few days before fumigation to
help soften the seed coats of the weeds and increase the
probability of control by the fumigant. Fumigate when air
temperatures are above 55 degrees. Fumigants for tobacco
plant beds will likely contain 20-33 percent chloropicrin,
and the remainder as methyl bromide. It should be remem-
bered that chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as
quickly as methyl bromide, and residues can affect tobacco
seed germination. To avoid poor stands from excess chlo-
ropicrin, extend the aeration period before seeding to two
weeks and still check to see if there is any odor of the chemi-
cal in the soil. Do not seed until the odor is gone. To pro-
vide for this extended aeration period, it may be advisable
to fumigate earlier than normal, so that the beds can be
seeded at the normal time.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Companies that began buying low nitrosamine tobacco
cured with indirect-fired barns a few years ago have an-
nounced that they have started test marketing products
made from such tobacco. Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company is test marketing a cigarette named Advance. Star
Tobacco is test marketing Stonewall, a snuff in moist or


dry forms, and Ariva, a compressed powder tobacco in a
product called a cigalett.

EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

Since tobacco cured in barns with direct-fire burners will
receive a reduced price support in 2002, growers should be
sure that they have enough barns retrofitted with indirect-
fire burners to cure their entire crop. Quotas will be an-
nounced on December 15, which provides a basis for esti-
mating the barn needs. If quota is to be bought or leased, be
sure to have adequate barn space for this additional tobacco.

EBW

FALL SOIL SAMPLING

Fall is the time of year to sample soil for both nematodes and
fertility. Consistent readings on soil fertility and nematodes
can be monitored if samples are collected during the fall af-
ter crops are harvested, as the fields are easier to access.
Sampling nutrient use from crop removal can show what
nutrients are needed and the types and numbers of nema-
todes present in the soil. This will help in making decisions
on crop rotations and nematode-resistant varieties for the next
year.

Sod rotations -- proper rotation has been one of the main
production recommendations in production guides for years.
There is a lot of data showing that annual legumes fix nitro-
gen for the next crop. However, for long term benefits, a
perennial grass crop must be in the rotations for other soil
health characteristics, such as increased organic matter and
decreased bulk density, and reduced nematode populations.
Benefits accrue over time, but as few as two years in grass
sod like bahiagrass can result in many of these benefits. One
long-running study with continuous wheat in Oklahoma
(over 100 years) showed that organic matter decreased con-
sistently over the 100-year period after it was taken out of
native grasses, even if manure and fertilizers were applied
to the wheat crop yearly. Organic matter content was only
1/3 of what it was originally and soil nitrogen followed the
same trend as organic matter. Long-term sustainability must
contain sod-based rotations to keep high yields and soil
health. Now is a good time to purchase bahiagrass seed for
the coming year, as prices are at a decade-low price.

Cotton maturity in cool weather -- cotton maturity essen-
tially stops when night temperatures are in the low 40s and
day temperatures are around 70.

Growers should not try to mature the top few bolls and risk
the main part of the crop. If temperatures get down to 28
degrees F for 3-4 hours, green bolls become unharvestable.
The water in the greenbolls freezes, rupturing cells causing








nematode resistance. Other varieties such as NC 72, NC
606, K 346, Speight 168, Speight 179, and OX 207 also
have high black shank resistance, root-knot nematode re-
sistance, and otherwise produce well in Florida. NC 55 has
been grown on many acres in Florida because it has been
the only variety with resistance to potato virus-Y and to-
bacco etch virus. Like K 326, NC 55 has low resistance to
black shank, which limits the popularity of the variety. NC
297 was grown on several acres in Florida in 2001 because
there were concerns over the possibility of tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) being as severe as it was in 2000. While there
was little TMV in 2001, NC 297 did produce good yields
and was otherwise a satisfactory variety. Speight H20,
PVH03, PVH09, and RGH4 are other varieties with TMV
resistance and produced good yields and quality in the vari-
ety tests. Some growers may wish to consider growing a
non-flowering variety because of the ease of sucker con-
trol. Speight NF3 and OX414NF have consistently per-
formed well in Florida tests. If there is a need for an early-
maturing variety, Coker 371-Gold and K 394 could be con-
sidered. Neither of these two varieties have resistance to
root-knot nematodes.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Plant bed sites should be well-prepared prior to fumigation,
so that trash or clods of soil will not block the fumigant
from killing weed seed, disease organisms, and nematodes.
If the soil is dry, irrigate a few days before fumigation to
help soften the seed coats of the weeds and increase the
probability of control by the fumigant. Fumigate when air
temperatures are above 55 degrees. Fumigants for tobacco
plant beds will likely contain 20-33 percent chloropicrin,
and the remainder as methyl bromide. It should be remem-
bered that chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as
quickly as methyl bromide, and residues can affect tobacco
seed germination. To avoid poor stands from excess chlo-
ropicrin, extend the aeration period before seeding to two
weeks and still check to see if there is any odor of the chemi-
cal in the soil. Do not seed until the odor is gone. To pro-
vide for this extended aeration period, it may be advisable
to fumigate earlier than normal, so that the beds can be
seeded at the normal time.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Companies that began buying low nitrosamine tobacco
cured with indirect-fired barns a few years ago have an-
nounced that they have started test marketing products
made from such tobacco. Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company is test marketing a cigarette named Advance. Star
Tobacco is test marketing Stonewall, a snuff in moist or


dry forms, and Ariva, a compressed powder tobacco in a
product called a cigalett.

EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

Since tobacco cured in barns with direct-fire burners will
receive a reduced price support in 2002, growers should be
sure that they have enough barns retrofitted with indirect-
fire burners to cure their entire crop. Quotas will be an-
nounced on December 15, which provides a basis for esti-
mating the barn needs. If quota is to be bought or leased, be
sure to have adequate barn space for this additional tobacco.

EBW

FALL SOIL SAMPLING

Fall is the time of year to sample soil for both nematodes and
fertility. Consistent readings on soil fertility and nematodes
can be monitored if samples are collected during the fall af-
ter crops are harvested, as the fields are easier to access.
Sampling nutrient use from crop removal can show what
nutrients are needed and the types and numbers of nema-
todes present in the soil. This will help in making decisions
on crop rotations and nematode-resistant varieties for the next
year.

Sod rotations -- proper rotation has been one of the main
production recommendations in production guides for years.
There is a lot of data showing that annual legumes fix nitro-
gen for the next crop. However, for long term benefits, a
perennial grass crop must be in the rotations for other soil
health characteristics, such as increased organic matter and
decreased bulk density, and reduced nematode populations.
Benefits accrue over time, but as few as two years in grass
sod like bahiagrass can result in many of these benefits. One
long-running study with continuous wheat in Oklahoma
(over 100 years) showed that organic matter decreased con-
sistently over the 100-year period after it was taken out of
native grasses, even if manure and fertilizers were applied
to the wheat crop yearly. Organic matter content was only
1/3 of what it was originally and soil nitrogen followed the
same trend as organic matter. Long-term sustainability must
contain sod-based rotations to keep high yields and soil
health. Now is a good time to purchase bahiagrass seed for
the coming year, as prices are at a decade-low price.

Cotton maturity in cool weather -- cotton maturity essen-
tially stops when night temperatures are in the low 40s and
day temperatures are around 70.

Growers should not try to mature the top few bolls and risk
the main part of the crop. If temperatures get down to 28
degrees F for 3-4 hours, green bolls become unharvestable.
The water in the greenbolls freezes, rupturing cells causing








nematode resistance. Other varieties such as NC 72, NC
606, K 346, Speight 168, Speight 179, and OX 207 also
have high black shank resistance, root-knot nematode re-
sistance, and otherwise produce well in Florida. NC 55 has
been grown on many acres in Florida because it has been
the only variety with resistance to potato virus-Y and to-
bacco etch virus. Like K 326, NC 55 has low resistance to
black shank, which limits the popularity of the variety. NC
297 was grown on several acres in Florida in 2001 because
there were concerns over the possibility of tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) being as severe as it was in 2000. While there
was little TMV in 2001, NC 297 did produce good yields
and was otherwise a satisfactory variety. Speight H20,
PVH03, PVH09, and RGH4 are other varieties with TMV
resistance and produced good yields and quality in the vari-
ety tests. Some growers may wish to consider growing a
non-flowering variety because of the ease of sucker con-
trol. Speight NF3 and OX414NF have consistently per-
formed well in Florida tests. If there is a need for an early-
maturing variety, Coker 371-Gold and K 394 could be con-
sidered. Neither of these two varieties have resistance to
root-knot nematodes.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Plant bed sites should be well-prepared prior to fumigation,
so that trash or clods of soil will not block the fumigant
from killing weed seed, disease organisms, and nematodes.
If the soil is dry, irrigate a few days before fumigation to
help soften the seed coats of the weeds and increase the
probability of control by the fumigant. Fumigate when air
temperatures are above 55 degrees. Fumigants for tobacco
plant beds will likely contain 20-33 percent chloropicrin,
and the remainder as methyl bromide. It should be remem-
bered that chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as
quickly as methyl bromide, and residues can affect tobacco
seed germination. To avoid poor stands from excess chlo-
ropicrin, extend the aeration period before seeding to two
weeks and still check to see if there is any odor of the chemi-
cal in the soil. Do not seed until the odor is gone. To pro-
vide for this extended aeration period, it may be advisable
to fumigate earlier than normal, so that the beds can be
seeded at the normal time.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Companies that began buying low nitrosamine tobacco
cured with indirect-fired barns a few years ago have an-
nounced that they have started test marketing products
made from such tobacco. Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company is test marketing a cigarette named Advance. Star
Tobacco is test marketing Stonewall, a snuff in moist or


dry forms, and Ariva, a compressed powder tobacco in a
product called a cigalett.

EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

Since tobacco cured in barns with direct-fire burners will
receive a reduced price support in 2002, growers should be
sure that they have enough barns retrofitted with indirect-
fire burners to cure their entire crop. Quotas will be an-
nounced on December 15, which provides a basis for esti-
mating the barn needs. If quota is to be bought or leased, be
sure to have adequate barn space for this additional tobacco.

EBW

FALL SOIL SAMPLING

Fall is the time of year to sample soil for both nematodes and
fertility. Consistent readings on soil fertility and nematodes
can be monitored if samples are collected during the fall af-
ter crops are harvested, as the fields are easier to access.
Sampling nutrient use from crop removal can show what
nutrients are needed and the types and numbers of nema-
todes present in the soil. This will help in making decisions
on crop rotations and nematode-resistant varieties for the next
year.

Sod rotations -- proper rotation has been one of the main
production recommendations in production guides for years.
There is a lot of data showing that annual legumes fix nitro-
gen for the next crop. However, for long term benefits, a
perennial grass crop must be in the rotations for other soil
health characteristics, such as increased organic matter and
decreased bulk density, and reduced nematode populations.
Benefits accrue over time, but as few as two years in grass
sod like bahiagrass can result in many of these benefits. One
long-running study with continuous wheat in Oklahoma
(over 100 years) showed that organic matter decreased con-
sistently over the 100-year period after it was taken out of
native grasses, even if manure and fertilizers were applied
to the wheat crop yearly. Organic matter content was only
1/3 of what it was originally and soil nitrogen followed the
same trend as organic matter. Long-term sustainability must
contain sod-based rotations to keep high yields and soil
health. Now is a good time to purchase bahiagrass seed for
the coming year, as prices are at a decade-low price.

Cotton maturity in cool weather -- cotton maturity essen-
tially stops when night temperatures are in the low 40s and
day temperatures are around 70.

Growers should not try to mature the top few bolls and risk
the main part of the crop. If temperatures get down to 28
degrees F for 3-4 hours, green bolls become unharvestable.
The water in the greenbolls freezes, rupturing cells causing








nematode resistance. Other varieties such as NC 72, NC
606, K 346, Speight 168, Speight 179, and OX 207 also
have high black shank resistance, root-knot nematode re-
sistance, and otherwise produce well in Florida. NC 55 has
been grown on many acres in Florida because it has been
the only variety with resistance to potato virus-Y and to-
bacco etch virus. Like K 326, NC 55 has low resistance to
black shank, which limits the popularity of the variety. NC
297 was grown on several acres in Florida in 2001 because
there were concerns over the possibility of tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) being as severe as it was in 2000. While there
was little TMV in 2001, NC 297 did produce good yields
and was otherwise a satisfactory variety. Speight H20,
PVH03, PVH09, and RGH4 are other varieties with TMV
resistance and produced good yields and quality in the vari-
ety tests. Some growers may wish to consider growing a
non-flowering variety because of the ease of sucker con-
trol. Speight NF3 and OX414NF have consistently per-
formed well in Florida tests. If there is a need for an early-
maturing variety, Coker 371-Gold and K 394 could be con-
sidered. Neither of these two varieties have resistance to
root-knot nematodes.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Plant bed sites should be well-prepared prior to fumigation,
so that trash or clods of soil will not block the fumigant
from killing weed seed, disease organisms, and nematodes.
If the soil is dry, irrigate a few days before fumigation to
help soften the seed coats of the weeds and increase the
probability of control by the fumigant. Fumigate when air
temperatures are above 55 degrees. Fumigants for tobacco
plant beds will likely contain 20-33 percent chloropicrin,
and the remainder as methyl bromide. It should be remem-
bered that chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as
quickly as methyl bromide, and residues can affect tobacco
seed germination. To avoid poor stands from excess chlo-
ropicrin, extend the aeration period before seeding to two
weeks and still check to see if there is any odor of the chemi-
cal in the soil. Do not seed until the odor is gone. To pro-
vide for this extended aeration period, it may be advisable
to fumigate earlier than normal, so that the beds can be
seeded at the normal time.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Companies that began buying low nitrosamine tobacco
cured with indirect-fired barns a few years ago have an-
nounced that they have started test marketing products
made from such tobacco. Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company is test marketing a cigarette named Advance. Star
Tobacco is test marketing Stonewall, a snuff in moist or


dry forms, and Ariva, a compressed powder tobacco in a
product called a cigalett.

EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

Since tobacco cured in barns with direct-fire burners will
receive a reduced price support in 2002, growers should be
sure that they have enough barns retrofitted with indirect-
fire burners to cure their entire crop. Quotas will be an-
nounced on December 15, which provides a basis for esti-
mating the barn needs. If quota is to be bought or leased, be
sure to have adequate barn space for this additional tobacco.

EBW

FALL SOIL SAMPLING

Fall is the time of year to sample soil for both nematodes and
fertility. Consistent readings on soil fertility and nematodes
can be monitored if samples are collected during the fall af-
ter crops are harvested, as the fields are easier to access.
Sampling nutrient use from crop removal can show what
nutrients are needed and the types and numbers of nema-
todes present in the soil. This will help in making decisions
on crop rotations and nematode-resistant varieties for the next
year.

Sod rotations -- proper rotation has been one of the main
production recommendations in production guides for years.
There is a lot of data showing that annual legumes fix nitro-
gen for the next crop. However, for long term benefits, a
perennial grass crop must be in the rotations for other soil
health characteristics, such as increased organic matter and
decreased bulk density, and reduced nematode populations.
Benefits accrue over time, but as few as two years in grass
sod like bahiagrass can result in many of these benefits. One
long-running study with continuous wheat in Oklahoma
(over 100 years) showed that organic matter decreased con-
sistently over the 100-year period after it was taken out of
native grasses, even if manure and fertilizers were applied
to the wheat crop yearly. Organic matter content was only
1/3 of what it was originally and soil nitrogen followed the
same trend as organic matter. Long-term sustainability must
contain sod-based rotations to keep high yields and soil
health. Now is a good time to purchase bahiagrass seed for
the coming year, as prices are at a decade-low price.

Cotton maturity in cool weather -- cotton maturity essen-
tially stops when night temperatures are in the low 40s and
day temperatures are around 70.

Growers should not try to mature the top few bolls and risk
the main part of the crop. If temperatures get down to 28
degrees F for 3-4 hours, green bolls become unharvestable.
The water in the greenbolls freezes, rupturing cells causing








nematode resistance. Other varieties such as NC 72, NC
606, K 346, Speight 168, Speight 179, and OX 207 also
have high black shank resistance, root-knot nematode re-
sistance, and otherwise produce well in Florida. NC 55 has
been grown on many acres in Florida because it has been
the only variety with resistance to potato virus-Y and to-
bacco etch virus. Like K 326, NC 55 has low resistance to
black shank, which limits the popularity of the variety. NC
297 was grown on several acres in Florida in 2001 because
there were concerns over the possibility of tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) being as severe as it was in 2000. While there
was little TMV in 2001, NC 297 did produce good yields
and was otherwise a satisfactory variety. Speight H20,
PVH03, PVH09, and RGH4 are other varieties with TMV
resistance and produced good yields and quality in the vari-
ety tests. Some growers may wish to consider growing a
non-flowering variety because of the ease of sucker con-
trol. Speight NF3 and OX414NF have consistently per-
formed well in Florida tests. If there is a need for an early-
maturing variety, Coker 371-Gold and K 394 could be con-
sidered. Neither of these two varieties have resistance to
root-knot nematodes.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Plant bed sites should be well-prepared prior to fumigation,
so that trash or clods of soil will not block the fumigant
from killing weed seed, disease organisms, and nematodes.
If the soil is dry, irrigate a few days before fumigation to
help soften the seed coats of the weeds and increase the
probability of control by the fumigant. Fumigate when air
temperatures are above 55 degrees. Fumigants for tobacco
plant beds will likely contain 20-33 percent chloropicrin,
and the remainder as methyl bromide. It should be remem-
bered that chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as
quickly as methyl bromide, and residues can affect tobacco
seed germination. To avoid poor stands from excess chlo-
ropicrin, extend the aeration period before seeding to two
weeks and still check to see if there is any odor of the chemi-
cal in the soil. Do not seed until the odor is gone. To pro-
vide for this extended aeration period, it may be advisable
to fumigate earlier than normal, so that the beds can be
seeded at the normal time.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Companies that began buying low nitrosamine tobacco
cured with indirect-fired barns a few years ago have an-
nounced that they have started test marketing products
made from such tobacco. Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company is test marketing a cigarette named Advance. Star
Tobacco is test marketing Stonewall, a snuff in moist or


dry forms, and Ariva, a compressed powder tobacco in a
product called a cigalett.

EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

Since tobacco cured in barns with direct-fire burners will
receive a reduced price support in 2002, growers should be
sure that they have enough barns retrofitted with indirect-
fire burners to cure their entire crop. Quotas will be an-
nounced on December 15, which provides a basis for esti-
mating the barn needs. If quota is to be bought or leased, be
sure to have adequate barn space for this additional tobacco.

EBW

FALL SOIL SAMPLING

Fall is the time of year to sample soil for both nematodes and
fertility. Consistent readings on soil fertility and nematodes
can be monitored if samples are collected during the fall af-
ter crops are harvested, as the fields are easier to access.
Sampling nutrient use from crop removal can show what
nutrients are needed and the types and numbers of nema-
todes present in the soil. This will help in making decisions
on crop rotations and nematode-resistant varieties for the next
year.

Sod rotations -- proper rotation has been one of the main
production recommendations in production guides for years.
There is a lot of data showing that annual legumes fix nitro-
gen for the next crop. However, for long term benefits, a
perennial grass crop must be in the rotations for other soil
health characteristics, such as increased organic matter and
decreased bulk density, and reduced nematode populations.
Benefits accrue over time, but as few as two years in grass
sod like bahiagrass can result in many of these benefits. One
long-running study with continuous wheat in Oklahoma
(over 100 years) showed that organic matter decreased con-
sistently over the 100-year period after it was taken out of
native grasses, even if manure and fertilizers were applied
to the wheat crop yearly. Organic matter content was only
1/3 of what it was originally and soil nitrogen followed the
same trend as organic matter. Long-term sustainability must
contain sod-based rotations to keep high yields and soil
health. Now is a good time to purchase bahiagrass seed for
the coming year, as prices are at a decade-low price.

Cotton maturity in cool weather -- cotton maturity essen-
tially stops when night temperatures are in the low 40s and
day temperatures are around 70.

Growers should not try to mature the top few bolls and risk
the main part of the crop. If temperatures get down to 28
degrees F for 3-4 hours, green bolls become unharvestable.
The water in the greenbolls freezes, rupturing cells causing








them to be unable to open. When the low temperatures get
below 50 degrees F on a regular basis, cotton should be de-
foliated since few or no DD-60s or degree days will accu-
mulate to mature the cotton.

Deep tillage for small grains -- using a chisel plow to break
the compaction layer on soils that need it is still a good prac-
tice. Years of research data shows that grain yields of wheat
can be increased by 10-15 bushels per acre by breaking the
compaction layer and allowing roots to penetrate into the
subsoil. Wet winters leach nitrogen through the soil and roots
are unable to get to the fertilizer unless this compaction layer
is broken, allowing roots to grow deeper to retrieve nutri-
ents. Fields can be checked for compaction layers by push-
ing a sharpened iron rod into the soil when soils are moist.
The compaction layer normally begins about 6 inches deep
and goes to about 14 inches deep on most soils in Florida.

DLW

PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each pub-
lications is also available.

SSAGR106 Names and Adresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators
SSAGR112 Poison Control Centers


The following NEW publications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR23 Rice in the Crop Rotation

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass).
Click on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or
Find Publication No.). You will get a listing of publica-
tions. Please be sure to check the date in the footnote on the
first page to be sure it is the most up-to-date publication for
that topic.




IN-SERVICE TRAINING CANCELLED

Due to the current budget situation, Dean
Waddill has cancelled all in-service training
for the rest of the fiscal year. This cancella-
tion includes the Agronomic Crops Training
that had been scheduled for January.

EBW


November CROP ESTIMATES

The November 9 crop estimates by the USDA are as follows:


Florida United States

Crop Acreage for Yield per Acre Acreage for Yield per Acre
Harvest (xl000) Harvest
(x1000l )

Peanuts 87 3000 lb 1,336.0 2990 lb

Sugarcane 465 36 ton 1,029.2 35 ton

Tobacco 4.5 2600 lb 451.24 2355 lb

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; M. B. Adjei, Extension Forage Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Forage Agronomist; J. Tredaway
Ducar, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.








them to be unable to open. When the low temperatures get
below 50 degrees F on a regular basis, cotton should be de-
foliated since few or no DD-60s or degree days will accu-
mulate to mature the cotton.

Deep tillage for small grains -- using a chisel plow to break
the compaction layer on soils that need it is still a good prac-
tice. Years of research data shows that grain yields of wheat
can be increased by 10-15 bushels per acre by breaking the
compaction layer and allowing roots to penetrate into the
subsoil. Wet winters leach nitrogen through the soil and roots
are unable to get to the fertilizer unless this compaction layer
is broken, allowing roots to grow deeper to retrieve nutri-
ents. Fields can be checked for compaction layers by push-
ing a sharpened iron rod into the soil when soils are moist.
The compaction layer normally begins about 6 inches deep
and goes to about 14 inches deep on most soils in Florida.

DLW

PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each pub-
lications is also available.

SSAGR106 Names and Adresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators
SSAGR112 Poison Control Centers


The following NEW publications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR23 Rice in the Crop Rotation

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass).
Click on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or
Find Publication No.). You will get a listing of publica-
tions. Please be sure to check the date in the footnote on the
first page to be sure it is the most up-to-date publication for
that topic.




IN-SERVICE TRAINING CANCELLED

Due to the current budget situation, Dean
Waddill has cancelled all in-service training
for the rest of the fiscal year. This cancella-
tion includes the Agronomic Crops Training
that had been scheduled for January.

EBW


November CROP ESTIMATES

The November 9 crop estimates by the USDA are as follows:


Florida United States

Crop Acreage for Yield per Acre Acreage for Yield per Acre
Harvest (xl000) Harvest
(x1000l )

Peanuts 87 3000 lb 1,336.0 2990 lb

Sugarcane 465 36 ton 1,029.2 35 ton

Tobacco 4.5 2600 lb 451.24 2355 lb

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; M. B. Adjei, Extension Forage Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Forage Agronomist; J. Tredaway
Ducar, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.








them to be unable to open. When the low temperatures get
below 50 degrees F on a regular basis, cotton should be de-
foliated since few or no DD-60s or degree days will accu-
mulate to mature the cotton.

Deep tillage for small grains -- using a chisel plow to break
the compaction layer on soils that need it is still a good prac-
tice. Years of research data shows that grain yields of wheat
can be increased by 10-15 bushels per acre by breaking the
compaction layer and allowing roots to penetrate into the
subsoil. Wet winters leach nitrogen through the soil and roots
are unable to get to the fertilizer unless this compaction layer
is broken, allowing roots to grow deeper to retrieve nutri-
ents. Fields can be checked for compaction layers by push-
ing a sharpened iron rod into the soil when soils are moist.
The compaction layer normally begins about 6 inches deep
and goes to about 14 inches deep on most soils in Florida.

DLW

PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each pub-
lications is also available.

SSAGR106 Names and Adresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators
SSAGR112 Poison Control Centers


The following NEW publications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR23 Rice in the Crop Rotation

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass).
Click on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or
Find Publication No.). You will get a listing of publica-
tions. Please be sure to check the date in the footnote on the
first page to be sure it is the most up-to-date publication for
that topic.




IN-SERVICE TRAINING CANCELLED

Due to the current budget situation, Dean
Waddill has cancelled all in-service training
for the rest of the fiscal year. This cancella-
tion includes the Agronomic Crops Training
that had been scheduled for January.

EBW


November CROP ESTIMATES

The November 9 crop estimates by the USDA are as follows:


Florida United States

Crop Acreage for Yield per Acre Acreage for Yield per Acre
Harvest (xl000) Harvest
(x1000l )

Peanuts 87 3000 lb 1,336.0 2990 lb

Sugarcane 465 36 ton 1,029.2 35 ton

Tobacco 4.5 2600 lb 451.24 2355 lb

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; M. B. Adjei, Extension Forage Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Forage Agronomist; J. Tredaway
Ducar, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.