<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Table of Contents
 Late planted corn
 Cotton conditions
 Cotton production costs
 Strip till cotton
 Peanut legislation
 Peanut marketing
 Tobacco referendum
 Tobacco market report
 Price support for tobacco cured...
 On-farm storage for tobacco
 Learning control methods by life...
 Practices that increase perennial...
 October crop estimates


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00017
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 2001
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00017

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Late planted corn
        Page 2
    Cotton conditions
        Page 2
    Cotton production costs
        Page 2
    Strip till cotton
        Page 2
    Peanut legislation
        Page 2
    Peanut marketing
        Page 2
    Tobacco referendum
        Page 2
    Tobacco market report
        Page 3
    Price support for tobacco cured with direct heat
        Page 3
    On-farm storage for tobacco
        Page 3
    Learning control methods by life cycle
        Page 3
    Practices that increase perennial weeds
        Page 4
    October crop estimates
        Page 4
Full Text






AGRONOMY

.-;,. UNIVERSITY OF
' FLORIDA OT
EXTENSION
Intute or Fodndd Agrinuli.ra S.n- N OS October 2001


DATES TO REMEMBER

October 16-18 Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition Moultrie, GA
October 21-26 American Society of Agronomy Charlotte, NC


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

CORN
L ate Planted C orn .................................................................... .............................. 2

COTTON
C otton C conditions ..................................................................... .............................. 2
C otton P reduction C osts .............................................. ................................................... 2
Strip T ill C otto n .................................................................. .................... .................. ..... 2

PEANUT
P eanut L legislation ............................................................... ...................................... ..... 2
Peanut M marketing ...................................................................... ............................. 2

TOBACCO
T tobacco R referendum .............................................. ........................................................ 2
Tobacco M market R report ..................................................... .......................................... 3
Price Support for Tobacco Cured with Direct Heat ...................... ................. ................... 3
On-Farm Storage for Tobacco ............................................... .................................. 3

WEEDS
Learning Control M ethods by Life Cycle.......................... ........................................... 3
Practices that Increase Perennial W eeds.......................... ........................................... 4

MISCELLANEOUS
O ctob er C rop E stim ates ............................................... ................................................... 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








LATE PLANTED CORN


Corn planted after May in 2001 did not suffer the insect dam-
age that normally occurs from late planting. However, dis-
ease did hit late-planted corn as usual and reduced the yield
dramatically. Pioneer HiBred InternationalTM has a new tropi-
cal corn out this year in trials at the University and on-farm
trials with the Bt gene as well as having good tolerance to
southern rust and southern corn leaf blight. This hybrid has
yielded well from June and early July plantings for both grain
and silage. Many of the on-farm trials over a wide area should
give us an idea about its adaptability to the deep south. It
looks to be better than anything else that we have tested over
the years and may help solve the late season planting prob-
lem.

DLW

COTTON CONDITIONS

The cotton growing season was good in Florida except for
moisture at planting. Several areas in west Florida had good
early season moisture and were able to plant early with har-
vests underway. In the eastern part of our cotton-growing
region, rains occurred later and some of that cotton will not
be harvested until late October and early November. Record
cool temperatures have slowed down the maturity of the late-
planted cotton and will affect yield. This has been a low in-
sect year on cotton, with growers spraying little to control
insects. Good yields have been reported from early planted
cotton. Some fields have shown high levels of hard lock bolls.
This is usually weather-related.


DLW


COTTON PRODUCTION COSTS

With most crops, the majority of the expense is put into
the crop by harvest time. Cotton is different in that only
58-60% of the variable input costs are spent by defolia-
tion time. That means that by October, growers will still
be spending as much as 40-42% of crop input to get the
crop defoliated, harvested, transported, ginned and stored.
With cotton prices in the mid 30 cent level, good deci-
sions made through marketing are a must to make a profit.
Most growers will spend the majority of their manage-
ment time on planting, growing, fertilization, irrigation,
scouting, and making insecticide decisions. The biggest
single cost factor in cotton production is in the harvesting
equipment, with as much as 30-40% of harvest-time vari-
able cost in this operation. Management time should be
put into this very important area to help reduce cost of
production.


DLW


Many growers have been very successful planting strip till
cotton. Most of these growers are using Roundup ReadyTM
cotton that allows the grower to use RoundupTM over the top
of cotton through the 4th node stage. In many cases, the crop
is clean at this point, which allows cotton to get a growth
advantage over weeds so that directed sprays can be used.
This has reduced the need for many of the residual herbi-
cides early on and has reduced cost of production. The sec-
ond generation of Roundup ReadyTM cotton is being devel-
oped so that RoundupTM can be applied over the top for a
longer period of time to give more flexibility in the weed
control program and encourage more growers to use conser-
vation tillage means of planting cotton. This should result in
more economic production.

DLW

PEANUT LEGISLATION

The House of Representatives recently passed a new farm
bill that would take effect in 2002, if the Senate and the Presi-
dent concur. The peanut portion of the bill eliminates the
quota system and replaces it with a marketing loan program
similar to many other crops. The bill also would provide
funds for a buyout of quota at the rate of 10 cents per pound
per year for the next five years. The Senate has yet to intro-
duce their farm bill.

EBW

PEANUT MARKETING

Through October 12, the Federal-State Inspection Service
had graded 77,116 tons of 2001 peanuts in Florida. Of this
amount, 36,573 tons of additional and 27,044 tons of quota
have been sold and 4,622 tons of additional and 8,877 tons
of quota have been placed in the loan program. All of
Florida's peanuts have been runners, except for 3,132 tons
of virginias.

EBW

TOBACCO REFERENDUM

The USDA will conduct a referendum to determine if Florida
tobacco growers want to allow the sale of quota across county
lines, but within the State. With few exceptions, quota can
be currently sold only to another buyer that will grow it in
the same county. A similar referendum will also be con-
ducted in Georgia. These referenda will be conducted Octo-
ber 15-19, 2001. If a majority of those voting approve, sales
will begin with the 2002 crop. Those favoring such a sale
point out that there may be few, if any, willing buyers in
some small counties. Consequently prices for quota are of-


STRIP TILL COTTON








ten less than in counties where there is more demand. Op-
ponents object to the potential loss of agricultural income in
a county if quotas are moved.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Contracts became generally available to Florida tobacco
growers for the first time this year and the response was one
of almost complete acceptance as over 99 percent of the
State's 2001 crop was sold under contract. As a result, no
auction markets operated in Florida in 2001. Farmers who
contracted their tobacco delivered it to a receiving point.
There were two receiving points in Florida, with Universal
Leaf operating one in Madison and Brown and Williamson
operating one in Live Oak. Florida farmers also contracted
with companies that had delivery points in Georgia. To date,
the two receiving points in Florida have received over 9 mil-
lion pounds of tobacco and paid an average price of $1.87
per pound, while the US total amounts to over 430 million
pounds with an average price of $1.87. Auction sales in
Georgia have amounted to over 5 million pounds for an av-
erage price of $1.81, while US auction sales have amounted
to 105 million pounds and an average sale price of $1.83.

EBW

PRICE SUPPORT FOR TOBACCO CURED WITH
DIRECT HEAT

The USDA has announced that, beginning in 2002, tobacco
cured in barns with direct heat will have a price support loan
rate that is one-half the normal price support rate of tobacco
cured in barns with an indirect heat source. To meet these
requirements, growers should be sure to retrofit all barns
that will be used for curing tobacco in 2002 with heat ex-
changers. It is expected that contractors will also require
that tobacco delivered to them be cured in barns with an in-
direct heat source.

EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF TOBACCO

Many farmers produced more tobacco in 2001 than they could
sell under their quota and therefore will need to store this
excess tobacco in order to sell it next year. The best place to
store this tobacco is to leave it in racks or boxes in the curing
barn. The fans and heat canbe used to control moisture and
mold in the tobacco as well as insects. If it is necessary to
store tobacco in a pack house, be sure to clean out old to-
bacco and trash that may harbor insects. Store the tobacco
in sheets rather than in bales because of the need to inspect
the tobacco and perhaps treat for insects and maintain a low
moisture content. Put a sheet of plastic film under the to-


bacco to provide a moisture barrier, especially on concrete
or asphalt floors. It would be a good idea to put the tobacco
on wooden pallets if they are available. Inspect the tobacco
frequently.

EBW

LEARNING CONTROL METHODS BY LIFE
CYCLE

Nearly every week, I am asked when is the best time of year
to control a particular weed. Depending on the weed, the
answer will vary. Following is a brief summary of the con-
trol methods available and their effect on weeds.

Annual plants are the easiest to control. They survive on
disturbed sites and are well adapted to areas where sites are
open due to annual tillage. Annual weeds complete their
life cycle in one year. Control is achieved through most
methods including tillage, contact and systemic herbicides,
as well as with soil and foliar applied herbicides. Annual
plants that reroot at the nodes are more difficult to kill with
tillage because the plant pieces can reroot if left in moist
soil. Seedling annual grasses tend to be more resistant to
contact herbicides, flaming, and mowing than broadleaf
weeds because of their lower, more protected growing points.

Biennial plants produce a rosette the first year and bolt and
seed the second year. Biennials are not well adapted to sites
that are disturbed annually by tillage because an effective
tillage per year will both destroy and prevent the plant from
seeding. This characteristic makes biennials seldom a prob-
lem in conventionally-tilled annual crops. Biennials persist
in undisturbed areas, in perennial crops, and areas that are
infrequently mowed. Biennials canbe controlled effectively
by removing or destroying the rosette in the fall or spring
with tillage or herbicides. They become most resistant to
herbicides after bolting.

Perennial plants can be divided into two groups. Simple
perennials usually require two or more years for establish-
ment and reproduction. Thus, they are a problem in undis-
turbed sites. They have shoots and flowers close to the ground
and can persist in frequently mowed turf. Tall simple peren-
nials are often eliminated by mowing. Of the various weed
types, creeping perennials are probably the best equipped to
survive under a wide range of conditions. Creeping peren-
nials produce new plants from vegetative reproductive struc-
tures and from seed which allows these plants to survive,
multiply, and compete in both annual and perennial crop-
ping situations.

Variable success occurs from methods of removing only the
rosettes or tops of simple perennials. Most herbaceous simple
perennial broadleaves generally shoot from buds on crowns,
some of which can extend several inches below the ground.








ten less than in counties where there is more demand. Op-
ponents object to the potential loss of agricultural income in
a county if quotas are moved.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Contracts became generally available to Florida tobacco
growers for the first time this year and the response was one
of almost complete acceptance as over 99 percent of the
State's 2001 crop was sold under contract. As a result, no
auction markets operated in Florida in 2001. Farmers who
contracted their tobacco delivered it to a receiving point.
There were two receiving points in Florida, with Universal
Leaf operating one in Madison and Brown and Williamson
operating one in Live Oak. Florida farmers also contracted
with companies that had delivery points in Georgia. To date,
the two receiving points in Florida have received over 9 mil-
lion pounds of tobacco and paid an average price of $1.87
per pound, while the US total amounts to over 430 million
pounds with an average price of $1.87. Auction sales in
Georgia have amounted to over 5 million pounds for an av-
erage price of $1.81, while US auction sales have amounted
to 105 million pounds and an average sale price of $1.83.

EBW

PRICE SUPPORT FOR TOBACCO CURED WITH
DIRECT HEAT

The USDA has announced that, beginning in 2002, tobacco
cured in barns with direct heat will have a price support loan
rate that is one-half the normal price support rate of tobacco
cured in barns with an indirect heat source. To meet these
requirements, growers should be sure to retrofit all barns
that will be used for curing tobacco in 2002 with heat ex-
changers. It is expected that contractors will also require
that tobacco delivered to them be cured in barns with an in-
direct heat source.

EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF TOBACCO

Many farmers produced more tobacco in 2001 than they could
sell under their quota and therefore will need to store this
excess tobacco in order to sell it next year. The best place to
store this tobacco is to leave it in racks or boxes in the curing
barn. The fans and heat canbe used to control moisture and
mold in the tobacco as well as insects. If it is necessary to
store tobacco in a pack house, be sure to clean out old to-
bacco and trash that may harbor insects. Store the tobacco
in sheets rather than in bales because of the need to inspect
the tobacco and perhaps treat for insects and maintain a low
moisture content. Put a sheet of plastic film under the to-


bacco to provide a moisture barrier, especially on concrete
or asphalt floors. It would be a good idea to put the tobacco
on wooden pallets if they are available. Inspect the tobacco
frequently.

EBW

LEARNING CONTROL METHODS BY LIFE
CYCLE

Nearly every week, I am asked when is the best time of year
to control a particular weed. Depending on the weed, the
answer will vary. Following is a brief summary of the con-
trol methods available and their effect on weeds.

Annual plants are the easiest to control. They survive on
disturbed sites and are well adapted to areas where sites are
open due to annual tillage. Annual weeds complete their
life cycle in one year. Control is achieved through most
methods including tillage, contact and systemic herbicides,
as well as with soil and foliar applied herbicides. Annual
plants that reroot at the nodes are more difficult to kill with
tillage because the plant pieces can reroot if left in moist
soil. Seedling annual grasses tend to be more resistant to
contact herbicides, flaming, and mowing than broadleaf
weeds because of their lower, more protected growing points.

Biennial plants produce a rosette the first year and bolt and
seed the second year. Biennials are not well adapted to sites
that are disturbed annually by tillage because an effective
tillage per year will both destroy and prevent the plant from
seeding. This characteristic makes biennials seldom a prob-
lem in conventionally-tilled annual crops. Biennials persist
in undisturbed areas, in perennial crops, and areas that are
infrequently mowed. Biennials canbe controlled effectively
by removing or destroying the rosette in the fall or spring
with tillage or herbicides. They become most resistant to
herbicides after bolting.

Perennial plants can be divided into two groups. Simple
perennials usually require two or more years for establish-
ment and reproduction. Thus, they are a problem in undis-
turbed sites. They have shoots and flowers close to the ground
and can persist in frequently mowed turf. Tall simple peren-
nials are often eliminated by mowing. Of the various weed
types, creeping perennials are probably the best equipped to
survive under a wide range of conditions. Creeping peren-
nials produce new plants from vegetative reproductive struc-
tures and from seed which allows these plants to survive,
multiply, and compete in both annual and perennial crop-
ping situations.

Variable success occurs from methods of removing only the
rosettes or tops of simple perennials. Most herbaceous simple
perennial broadleaves generally shoot from buds on crowns,
some of which can extend several inches below the ground.








ten less than in counties where there is more demand. Op-
ponents object to the potential loss of agricultural income in
a county if quotas are moved.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Contracts became generally available to Florida tobacco
growers for the first time this year and the response was one
of almost complete acceptance as over 99 percent of the
State's 2001 crop was sold under contract. As a result, no
auction markets operated in Florida in 2001. Farmers who
contracted their tobacco delivered it to a receiving point.
There were two receiving points in Florida, with Universal
Leaf operating one in Madison and Brown and Williamson
operating one in Live Oak. Florida farmers also contracted
with companies that had delivery points in Georgia. To date,
the two receiving points in Florida have received over 9 mil-
lion pounds of tobacco and paid an average price of $1.87
per pound, while the US total amounts to over 430 million
pounds with an average price of $1.87. Auction sales in
Georgia have amounted to over 5 million pounds for an av-
erage price of $1.81, while US auction sales have amounted
to 105 million pounds and an average sale price of $1.83.

EBW

PRICE SUPPORT FOR TOBACCO CURED WITH
DIRECT HEAT

The USDA has announced that, beginning in 2002, tobacco
cured in barns with direct heat will have a price support loan
rate that is one-half the normal price support rate of tobacco
cured in barns with an indirect heat source. To meet these
requirements, growers should be sure to retrofit all barns
that will be used for curing tobacco in 2002 with heat ex-
changers. It is expected that contractors will also require
that tobacco delivered to them be cured in barns with an in-
direct heat source.

EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF TOBACCO

Many farmers produced more tobacco in 2001 than they could
sell under their quota and therefore will need to store this
excess tobacco in order to sell it next year. The best place to
store this tobacco is to leave it in racks or boxes in the curing
barn. The fans and heat canbe used to control moisture and
mold in the tobacco as well as insects. If it is necessary to
store tobacco in a pack house, be sure to clean out old to-
bacco and trash that may harbor insects. Store the tobacco
in sheets rather than in bales because of the need to inspect
the tobacco and perhaps treat for insects and maintain a low
moisture content. Put a sheet of plastic film under the to-


bacco to provide a moisture barrier, especially on concrete
or asphalt floors. It would be a good idea to put the tobacco
on wooden pallets if they are available. Inspect the tobacco
frequently.

EBW

LEARNING CONTROL METHODS BY LIFE
CYCLE

Nearly every week, I am asked when is the best time of year
to control a particular weed. Depending on the weed, the
answer will vary. Following is a brief summary of the con-
trol methods available and their effect on weeds.

Annual plants are the easiest to control. They survive on
disturbed sites and are well adapted to areas where sites are
open due to annual tillage. Annual weeds complete their
life cycle in one year. Control is achieved through most
methods including tillage, contact and systemic herbicides,
as well as with soil and foliar applied herbicides. Annual
plants that reroot at the nodes are more difficult to kill with
tillage because the plant pieces can reroot if left in moist
soil. Seedling annual grasses tend to be more resistant to
contact herbicides, flaming, and mowing than broadleaf
weeds because of their lower, more protected growing points.

Biennial plants produce a rosette the first year and bolt and
seed the second year. Biennials are not well adapted to sites
that are disturbed annually by tillage because an effective
tillage per year will both destroy and prevent the plant from
seeding. This characteristic makes biennials seldom a prob-
lem in conventionally-tilled annual crops. Biennials persist
in undisturbed areas, in perennial crops, and areas that are
infrequently mowed. Biennials canbe controlled effectively
by removing or destroying the rosette in the fall or spring
with tillage or herbicides. They become most resistant to
herbicides after bolting.

Perennial plants can be divided into two groups. Simple
perennials usually require two or more years for establish-
ment and reproduction. Thus, they are a problem in undis-
turbed sites. They have shoots and flowers close to the ground
and can persist in frequently mowed turf. Tall simple peren-
nials are often eliminated by mowing. Of the various weed
types, creeping perennials are probably the best equipped to
survive under a wide range of conditions. Creeping peren-
nials produce new plants from vegetative reproductive struc-
tures and from seed which allows these plants to survive,
multiply, and compete in both annual and perennial crop-
ping situations.

Variable success occurs from methods of removing only the
rosettes or tops of simple perennials. Most herbaceous simple
perennial broadleaves generally shoot from buds on crowns,
some of which can extend several inches below the ground.








ten less than in counties where there is more demand. Op-
ponents object to the potential loss of agricultural income in
a county if quotas are moved.

EBW

TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

Contracts became generally available to Florida tobacco
growers for the first time this year and the response was one
of almost complete acceptance as over 99 percent of the
State's 2001 crop was sold under contract. As a result, no
auction markets operated in Florida in 2001. Farmers who
contracted their tobacco delivered it to a receiving point.
There were two receiving points in Florida, with Universal
Leaf operating one in Madison and Brown and Williamson
operating one in Live Oak. Florida farmers also contracted
with companies that had delivery points in Georgia. To date,
the two receiving points in Florida have received over 9 mil-
lion pounds of tobacco and paid an average price of $1.87
per pound, while the US total amounts to over 430 million
pounds with an average price of $1.87. Auction sales in
Georgia have amounted to over 5 million pounds for an av-
erage price of $1.81, while US auction sales have amounted
to 105 million pounds and an average sale price of $1.83.

EBW

PRICE SUPPORT FOR TOBACCO CURED WITH
DIRECT HEAT

The USDA has announced that, beginning in 2002, tobacco
cured in barns with direct heat will have a price support loan
rate that is one-half the normal price support rate of tobacco
cured in barns with an indirect heat source. To meet these
requirements, growers should be sure to retrofit all barns
that will be used for curing tobacco in 2002 with heat ex-
changers. It is expected that contractors will also require
that tobacco delivered to them be cured in barns with an in-
direct heat source.

EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF TOBACCO

Many farmers produced more tobacco in 2001 than they could
sell under their quota and therefore will need to store this
excess tobacco in order to sell it next year. The best place to
store this tobacco is to leave it in racks or boxes in the curing
barn. The fans and heat canbe used to control moisture and
mold in the tobacco as well as insects. If it is necessary to
store tobacco in a pack house, be sure to clean out old to-
bacco and trash that may harbor insects. Store the tobacco
in sheets rather than in bales because of the need to inspect
the tobacco and perhaps treat for insects and maintain a low
moisture content. Put a sheet of plastic film under the to-


bacco to provide a moisture barrier, especially on concrete
or asphalt floors. It would be a good idea to put the tobacco
on wooden pallets if they are available. Inspect the tobacco
frequently.

EBW

LEARNING CONTROL METHODS BY LIFE
CYCLE

Nearly every week, I am asked when is the best time of year
to control a particular weed. Depending on the weed, the
answer will vary. Following is a brief summary of the con-
trol methods available and their effect on weeds.

Annual plants are the easiest to control. They survive on
disturbed sites and are well adapted to areas where sites are
open due to annual tillage. Annual weeds complete their
life cycle in one year. Control is achieved through most
methods including tillage, contact and systemic herbicides,
as well as with soil and foliar applied herbicides. Annual
plants that reroot at the nodes are more difficult to kill with
tillage because the plant pieces can reroot if left in moist
soil. Seedling annual grasses tend to be more resistant to
contact herbicides, flaming, and mowing than broadleaf
weeds because of their lower, more protected growing points.

Biennial plants produce a rosette the first year and bolt and
seed the second year. Biennials are not well adapted to sites
that are disturbed annually by tillage because an effective
tillage per year will both destroy and prevent the plant from
seeding. This characteristic makes biennials seldom a prob-
lem in conventionally-tilled annual crops. Biennials persist
in undisturbed areas, in perennial crops, and areas that are
infrequently mowed. Biennials canbe controlled effectively
by removing or destroying the rosette in the fall or spring
with tillage or herbicides. They become most resistant to
herbicides after bolting.

Perennial plants can be divided into two groups. Simple
perennials usually require two or more years for establish-
ment and reproduction. Thus, they are a problem in undis-
turbed sites. They have shoots and flowers close to the ground
and can persist in frequently mowed turf. Tall simple peren-
nials are often eliminated by mowing. Of the various weed
types, creeping perennials are probably the best equipped to
survive under a wide range of conditions. Creeping peren-
nials produce new plants from vegetative reproductive struc-
tures and from seed which allows these plants to survive,
multiply, and compete in both annual and perennial crop-
ping situations.

Variable success occurs from methods of removing only the
rosettes or tops of simple perennials. Most herbaceous simple
perennial broadleaves generally shoot from buds on crowns,
some of which can extend several inches below the ground.








Such plants tolerate shallow tillage, contact herbicides, and
mowing. Translocatable herbicides that move into the crown
or deep tillage that uproots the plant and deposits it on the
soil surface are required for adequate control.

JTD

PRACTICES THAT INCREASE PERENNIAL
WEEDS

Throughout the years, weed shifts occur resulting in new
weeds encroaching areas of fields, roadsides, and yards. In
order to adopt a realistic approach to controlling weeds, it is
helpful to learn what causes these weeds to move. The fol-
lowing is a list of seven cultural practices that have contrib-
uted to the increase in perennial weed problems, specifically:

1. Most current programs for controlling weeds in annual
crops control annual weeds but are relatively ineffec-
tive in controlling perennials.


2. Modern equipment is extremely efficient at spreading
weed seed over large areas.
3. Elimination of tillage results in a loss of weed control.
4. Earlier planting dates favor weed development by limit-
ing weed control operations that can be achieved prior
to planting.
5. The numbers of crops in rotation has been reduced.
Reducing crop rotation is ideal for the buildup of adapted
annual and creeping perennial weed species.
6. Individual weeds or small weed patches have been ig-
nored and control measures usually aren't sought until
it has become a serious problem.
7. Economic and public pressures have resulted in fewer
spraying, mowing, and weed control in noncrop, road-
side, and ditchbank areas. These are major sources of
seed production.


OCTOBER CROP ESTIMATES
The October 12 crop estimates by the USDA are as follows:

Florida United States

Crop Acreage for Yield per Acre Acreage for Yield per Acre
Harvest (xl000) Harvest
(x000l )

Peanuts 87 2900 lb 1,390.5 2783 lb

Sugarcane 465 36 ton 1,029.2 35.5 ton

Tobacco 4.5 2600 lb 451.24 2299 lb



EBW
















The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; J. Tredaway Ducar, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist and D. L. Wright,
Extension Agronomist.








Such plants tolerate shallow tillage, contact herbicides, and
mowing. Translocatable herbicides that move into the crown
or deep tillage that uproots the plant and deposits it on the
soil surface are required for adequate control.

JTD

PRACTICES THAT INCREASE PERENNIAL
WEEDS

Throughout the years, weed shifts occur resulting in new
weeds encroaching areas of fields, roadsides, and yards. In
order to adopt a realistic approach to controlling weeds, it is
helpful to learn what causes these weeds to move. The fol-
lowing is a list of seven cultural practices that have contrib-
uted to the increase in perennial weed problems, specifically:

1. Most current programs for controlling weeds in annual
crops control annual weeds but are relatively ineffec-
tive in controlling perennials.


2. Modern equipment is extremely efficient at spreading
weed seed over large areas.
3. Elimination of tillage results in a loss of weed control.
4. Earlier planting dates favor weed development by limit-
ing weed control operations that can be achieved prior
to planting.
5. The numbers of crops in rotation has been reduced.
Reducing crop rotation is ideal for the buildup of adapted
annual and creeping perennial weed species.
6. Individual weeds or small weed patches have been ig-
nored and control measures usually aren't sought until
it has become a serious problem.
7. Economic and public pressures have resulted in fewer
spraying, mowing, and weed control in noncrop, road-
side, and ditchbank areas. These are major sources of
seed production.


OCTOBER CROP ESTIMATES
The October 12 crop estimates by the USDA are as follows:

Florida United States

Crop Acreage for Yield per Acre Acreage for Yield per Acre
Harvest (xl000) Harvest
(x000l )

Peanuts 87 2900 lb 1,390.5 2783 lb

Sugarcane 465 36 ton 1,029.2 35.5 ton

Tobacco 4.5 2600 lb 451.24 2299 lb



EBW
















The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; J. Tredaway Ducar, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist and D. L. Wright,
Extension Agronomist.