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 Table of Contents
 Fall forage update 2001
 Florida 99 ALFAFA
 Legume inoculation
 Summer forage legumes = protei...
 Harvest excess grass for silag...
 Fertilize for Fall hay product...
 Stockpile (reserve) forage for...
 Fall armyworms in fertilized pasture...
 Spittlebugs in hay fields
 Nutsedge is increasing
 Lowering soil pH
 Sulfur - plant nutrient vs. soil...
 Sulfur - the confusion remains
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00016
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: August 2001
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00016

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Fall forage update 2001
        Page 2
    Florida 99 ALFAFA
        Page 3
    Legume inoculation
        Page 3
    Summer forage legumes = protein
        Page 4
    Harvest excess grass for silage
        Page 5
    Fertilize for Fall hay production
        Page 5
    Stockpile (reserve) forage for winter feed
        Page 5
    Fall armyworms in fertilized pasture and hay fields
        Page 5
    Spittlebugs in hay fields
        Page 5
    Nutsedge is increasing
        Page 5
    Lowering soil pH
        Page 6
    Sulfur - plant nutrient vs. soil acidifier
        Page 6
    Sulfur - the confusion remains
        Page 6
    Publications
        Page 7
Full Text






AGRONOMY

L!, NTVER TTY OF
: FLORIDA
EXTENSION NS A
[r.... F,.-.,. .-.n A u..u ,..r. s B... August 2001


DATES TO REMEMBER

August 21 Peanut Field Day Marianna, FL
September 6 Row Crop Field Day Jay, FL
September 10-13 Florida Association of Extension Professionals Meeting Palm Beach Gardens, FL


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

FORAGE
F all F orage U p date 200 1 ................................................. ................................................... 2
F lo rid a 9 9 A lfalfa .................................................................. ............................................... 3
L egu m e In ocu latio n ..................................................................................... ......................... 3
Sum m er Forage Legum es = Protein ............................................. ................................ 4
H arvest E xcess G rass for Silage ....................................... .................................................... 5
Fertilize for Fall H ay Production................................................................. ................. 5
Stockpile (Reserve) Forage for Winter Feed .......................... ..................................... 5
Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and Hay Fields......................................................... 5
Spittlebu g s in H ay F ield s .................................................. ................................................... 5

WEEDS
N utsedge is Increasing .................................................................... ............................ 5

MISCELLANEOUS
L ow erin g S o il p H ........................................................................................ ......................... 6
Sulfur Plant Nutrient vs Soil Acidifier .......................... ..... ........................................ 6
Sulfur The Confusion Rem ains ............................................... ................................... 6
P ub licatio n s .. .. ....................... .......................................... ...................... ................ ..... 7


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









FALL FORAGE UPDATE 2001

Introduction
Cool season forages can supply excellent grazing for live-
stock. They are usually higher in total digestible nutrients
and protein than our summer perennial grasses. Planting and
growing these forage crops can involve considerable ex-
pense. For these reasons they are often used only to supple-
ment frosted perennial grass pastures or low quality hay.
Some producers may reserve them for young animals that
need higher quality forages. Winter forages cannot be grown
everywhere in the state and on every soil type. Some areas
and some soils are too dry during the cool season to suc-
cessfully grow plants. Therefore, the type of winter forage
and the site where it is grown should be carefully selected.
Below is given the recommended cool season forages and
varieties that can be grown in Florida with some success.

Recommended Cultivar (Varieties)

Grasses
RYE Rye is the small grain most widely used for winter
grazing. Rye is more cold tolerant than oats and generally pro-
duces more forage than either oats or wheat. Do not plant too
early; wait until cool weather begins. Normally rye from north-
ern states will produce little forage in late fall or early winter
and will usually be severely damaged by leaf rust. Recom-
mended varieties are Florida 401 and Florida Black for late
fall and early winter grazing. Wrens 96, Florida 402, Wrens
Abruzzi, Bates, Elbon, Bonel, Oklon, Maton, Pennington
Wintergraze 70, Gurley Grazer 2000, and Grazemaster for
winter and spring grazing. (Wrens 96, a recent cultivar re-
lease, is a good seed producer in Florida; Maton, Elbon, Bonel,
or Oklon are very poor seed producers.)

OATS May be planted and grazed earlier than rye. Very
palatable, but susceptible to freeze injury. Recommended
varieties are Florida 502, Florida 501, and Coker 820 for
early season grazing. Horizon 314, Chapman, Harrison,
Terral Secretariat LA495, Coker 227, Ozark, AR-County
Seeds 833, 811, and LA604 for winter and spring grazing.
Horizon 314 is a new variety that was available for the first
time in 2000. It has improved crown rust resistance, winter
hardiness, and grain and forage production.

WHEAT Similar to oats in yield and palatability. Less sus-
ceptible to freeze injury than oats. Wheat should not be
planted for grazing before October 15. Plant only Hessian
fly resistant varieties for grazing. Recommended varieties
for grazing are AGS 2000, Pioneer 26R61, Florida 304, Pio-
neer 2684, Coker 9835, Roberts, GA-Gore, GA-Dozier. AGS
2000 and Pioneer 26R61 are two new varieties available for
the first time in 2000, and they have performed very well in
grain yield trials as well as forage trials.

RYEGRASS Ryegrass is a valuable winter and spring graz-
ing crop for use on flatwoods soils or the heavier sandy loam


soils in Northwest Florida. Ryegrass may be seeded alone or
with a small grain on a prepared seedbed or overseeded onto
permanent grass pastures. Seeding ryegrass with a small grain
crop lengthens the grazing season. Recommended varieties
are Jumbo, Florlina, Surrey, Jackson, Magnolia, Rio, Gulf,
Southern Star, Big Daddy, TAM 90, Paseral, Rustmaster,
Stampede, Fantastic, Graze-N-Gro, King, and Prine. (Other
new varieties may be suitable but have not been adequately
tested in Florida.)

TALL FESCUE In general, fescue should not be planted in
Florida. A few producers have had limited success with Ga-
5 when planted on low, wet, clay soils in Northwest Florida.

Legumes
WHITE CLOVER is usually a winter annual but may act
as a perennial under optimum fertility and moisture condi-
tions. It is adapted to moist soils throughout Florida. Pro-
duction and persistence can be limited by nematodes and
other pests. Recommended varieties are Osceola (developed
in Florida), Louisiana S-1, and Regal Ladino.

RED CLOVER is a winter annual under Florida conditions
and usually does not reseed itself. It will not tolerate flood-
ing. Recommended varieties are Cherokee, Kenland, Redland
III, and Kenstar. (Cherokee, developed in Florida, is earlier
and highest-yielding cultivar.)

ALFALFA is usually grown as a winter annual in Florida.
Best use is for haylage, green chopping or hay. Requires good
management and high fertility. It will not tolerate flooding
or a high water table. Acreage is low in Florida because of
cost and management requirements. The recommended va-
riety is Florida 99.

CRIMSON CLOVER is a reseeding annual adapted to fer-
tile well-drained soils. It has a relatively short grazing sea-
son. It may be grown in combination with ryegrass or a small
grain crop. Recommended varieties are Flame, Dixie, Chief,
Tibbee, and AU-Robin.

ARROWLEAF CLOVER is an annual that is similar to
crimson clover in soil adaptation, management and fertility
requirements. It is mainly grown on heavier soils in North-
west Florida. It makes more growth in late spring than crim-
son. Recommended variety is Yuchi.

LUPINE is an annual adapted to well drained soils in North
and West Florida. It is an excellent cover crop. In recent years
seed supply has been low, and production has been limited by
diseases and insects. Only sweet varieties are suitable for for-
age. Recommended varieties are Tifblue, Tifwhite, and Frost.

SWEETCLOVER grows on slightly drier soils than white
clover. It will not tolerate flooding. It has an earlier but shorter
grazing season than white clover. It should be reseeded each
year. Recommended varieties are Hubam and Floranna.








AUSTRIAN WINTER PEAS (Common). This annual legume
is best suited to well drained soils with a high clay content.

VETCH grows best on well-drained, fertile, loamy soils. It
has not generally been highly productive in Florida. Rec-
ommended varieties are Cahaba White, Hairy, Common, and
AU-Early Cover.

Remember the following:

Planting cool season forages on a clean-tilled seedbed will
result in earlier and more total production as compared with
overseeding on a grass sod. If overseeding bahiagrass, the
sod should be disked or chopped for 30 to 50 percent distur-
bance. For overseeding bermudagrass, a pasture drill or no-
till drill can be used alone. Excess forage should always be
removed as hay or by grazing before planting. Recent expe-
rience suggests that planting of cool season annual grasses
on bahia should be delayed until mid-November or later.
Success of winter pastures depends on rainfall. This is espe-
cially true when overseeding.

In Central and South Peninsular Florida, sod seeding
overseedingg) of cool season annuals into an established grass
sod often fails due to insufficient soil moisture -- this is gen-
erally not recommended unless irrigation is available. Look
for opportunities to plant on a clean-till seedbed such as fol-
lowing vegetables or a row crop, after lifting sod, or in a
pasture renovation program where the sod is plowed or turned
under.

In South Central Florida, small grains and ryegrass have been
successfully grown on flatwoods in a pasture renovation pro-
gram. If the sod is turned with a moldboard plow (late Octo-
ber-early November) and the soil harrowed, planted, and
packed the same day, there will usually be enough moisture
conserved to establish the new planting. If equipment and
labor does not allow for such a rapid progression of work, it
may be best to turn the sod and disk in early to mid-October
and wait (hope) for a good rain before planting.

Winter legumes are more dependable on the heavier clay
soils of Northwest Florida or on sandy soils that are under-
lain by a clay layer as compared with deep upland sands or
sandy flatwoods. But, white clover and ryegrass overseeded
can also be grown successfully on certain flatwoods areas in
Northeast Florida and South Central Florida where the soil
remains moist throughout the growing season.

Conserved Forage
In early August, estimate the quantity of hay that will be
needed for the coming cool season. If additional hay is
needed, fertilize perennial grasses in order to harvest extra
hay in the fall or make arrangements to purchase extra hay.

Since both the supply and quality of hay may be low in some
areas, this might be a good time to try hay ammoniation. The


quality of old rank bahiagrass and bermudagrass often har-
vested in mid to late summer could be improved by treat-
ment with anhydrous ammonia. Because of the possibility
of toxicity symptoms (and death) in young calves, it is rec-
ommended that ammoniated hay not be fed to lactating cows
or to cows just prior to calving.

"Ammoniated hay should be reserved for feeding to devel-
oping heifers, herd bulls or cull cows that are held over the
winter to obtain a greater price in the spring market" (W. F.
Brown and W. Kunkle). See Bulletin 888, "Improving the
Feeding Value of Hay by Anhydrous Ammonia Treatment."

Hay should be analyzed for protein and total digestible nu-
trients (TDN). Some hays may supply the nutritional needs
of certain classes of animals without any additional protein
or energy supplements. Contact your county agricultural
Extension agent for information about forage testing.

Stockpiled or standing hay crop Floralta and Bigalta
Limpograss may be fertilized from mid August through Oc-
tober in order to accumulate growth that can be grazed dur-
ing the late fall--early winter period. This accumulated growth
can supply the energy needs of a mature cow but the protein
content of the grass will be low and a protein supplement
must be fed in order to obtain expected animal performance.
See Table 1 on page four

CGC


FLORIDA 99 ALFALFA


This new variety is available for fall planting this year.
"Florida 99 Alfalfa is an excellent high-yielding, persistent
alfalfa variety bred by the Agronomy Department, Univer-
sity of Florida. This cultivar is adapted to the entire state of
Florida and all other areas where dormancy #9 alfalfa is
grown." Florida 99 is what is called a non-dormant type
alfalfa. This means that it will continue to grow during short
days and cool nights, whereas more northerly-adapted vari-
eties will not. Florida 99 is an improvement of the older
variety known as Florida 77. Yields at Jay Florida and at
Gainesville were significantly higher than other nondormant
varieties, averaging 5 to 6 tons of dry matter per acre per
year over a 2 to 3 year period.

CGC

LEGUME INOCULATION

Whether planting Florida 99 Alfalfa, Cherokee Red Clover,
Flame Crimson Clover or any other cool season legume, at-
tention must be given to inoculation of the seed with the
correct strain of nitrogen fixing bacteria. Correct inocula-
tion of the legume seed, followed by modulation, can mean
success or failure of a legume planting. When ordering or
purchasing the seed, also order or purchase the inoculant and








AUSTRIAN WINTER PEAS (Common). This annual legume
is best suited to well drained soils with a high clay content.

VETCH grows best on well-drained, fertile, loamy soils. It
has not generally been highly productive in Florida. Rec-
ommended varieties are Cahaba White, Hairy, Common, and
AU-Early Cover.

Remember the following:

Planting cool season forages on a clean-tilled seedbed will
result in earlier and more total production as compared with
overseeding on a grass sod. If overseeding bahiagrass, the
sod should be disked or chopped for 30 to 50 percent distur-
bance. For overseeding bermudagrass, a pasture drill or no-
till drill can be used alone. Excess forage should always be
removed as hay or by grazing before planting. Recent expe-
rience suggests that planting of cool season annual grasses
on bahia should be delayed until mid-November or later.
Success of winter pastures depends on rainfall. This is espe-
cially true when overseeding.

In Central and South Peninsular Florida, sod seeding
overseedingg) of cool season annuals into an established grass
sod often fails due to insufficient soil moisture -- this is gen-
erally not recommended unless irrigation is available. Look
for opportunities to plant on a clean-till seedbed such as fol-
lowing vegetables or a row crop, after lifting sod, or in a
pasture renovation program where the sod is plowed or turned
under.

In South Central Florida, small grains and ryegrass have been
successfully grown on flatwoods in a pasture renovation pro-
gram. If the sod is turned with a moldboard plow (late Octo-
ber-early November) and the soil harrowed, planted, and
packed the same day, there will usually be enough moisture
conserved to establish the new planting. If equipment and
labor does not allow for such a rapid progression of work, it
may be best to turn the sod and disk in early to mid-October
and wait (hope) for a good rain before planting.

Winter legumes are more dependable on the heavier clay
soils of Northwest Florida or on sandy soils that are under-
lain by a clay layer as compared with deep upland sands or
sandy flatwoods. But, white clover and ryegrass overseeded
can also be grown successfully on certain flatwoods areas in
Northeast Florida and South Central Florida where the soil
remains moist throughout the growing season.

Conserved Forage
In early August, estimate the quantity of hay that will be
needed for the coming cool season. If additional hay is
needed, fertilize perennial grasses in order to harvest extra
hay in the fall or make arrangements to purchase extra hay.

Since both the supply and quality of hay may be low in some
areas, this might be a good time to try hay ammoniation. The


quality of old rank bahiagrass and bermudagrass often har-
vested in mid to late summer could be improved by treat-
ment with anhydrous ammonia. Because of the possibility
of toxicity symptoms (and death) in young calves, it is rec-
ommended that ammoniated hay not be fed to lactating cows
or to cows just prior to calving.

"Ammoniated hay should be reserved for feeding to devel-
oping heifers, herd bulls or cull cows that are held over the
winter to obtain a greater price in the spring market" (W. F.
Brown and W. Kunkle). See Bulletin 888, "Improving the
Feeding Value of Hay by Anhydrous Ammonia Treatment."

Hay should be analyzed for protein and total digestible nu-
trients (TDN). Some hays may supply the nutritional needs
of certain classes of animals without any additional protein
or energy supplements. Contact your county agricultural
Extension agent for information about forage testing.

Stockpiled or standing hay crop Floralta and Bigalta
Limpograss may be fertilized from mid August through Oc-
tober in order to accumulate growth that can be grazed dur-
ing the late fall--early winter period. This accumulated growth
can supply the energy needs of a mature cow but the protein
content of the grass will be low and a protein supplement
must be fed in order to obtain expected animal performance.
See Table 1 on page four

CGC


FLORIDA 99 ALFALFA


This new variety is available for fall planting this year.
"Florida 99 Alfalfa is an excellent high-yielding, persistent
alfalfa variety bred by the Agronomy Department, Univer-
sity of Florida. This cultivar is adapted to the entire state of
Florida and all other areas where dormancy #9 alfalfa is
grown." Florida 99 is what is called a non-dormant type
alfalfa. This means that it will continue to grow during short
days and cool nights, whereas more northerly-adapted vari-
eties will not. Florida 99 is an improvement of the older
variety known as Florida 77. Yields at Jay Florida and at
Gainesville were significantly higher than other nondormant
varieties, averaging 5 to 6 tons of dry matter per acre per
year over a 2 to 3 year period.

CGC

LEGUME INOCULATION

Whether planting Florida 99 Alfalfa, Cherokee Red Clover,
Flame Crimson Clover or any other cool season legume, at-
tention must be given to inoculation of the seed with the
correct strain of nitrogen fixing bacteria. Correct inocula-
tion of the legume seed, followed by modulation, can mean
success or failure of a legume planting. When ordering or
purchasing the seed, also order or purchase the inoculant and









Table 1. Planting dates, seeding rates and planting depths for certain cool season forage
crops.

Seed-Propagated CropsI Planting Datesz Seeding Rates Seeding Depth
(lb/A Broadcast) (inch)

Alfalfa Oct. 1 Nov. 15 12-20 1/4 -/2

Clover, Arrowleaf Oct. 1 Nov. 15 8-10 0- /2

Clover, Berseem Oct. 1 Nov. 15 16 20 1/4 /2

Clover, Crimson Oct. 1 Nov. 15 20 26 1/4 /2

Clover, Red Oct. 1 Nov. 15 6-12 1/4 -/2

Clover, Subterranean Oct. 1 Nov. 15 18 22 1/4 /2

Clover, White Oct. 1 Nov. 15 3 4 0 1/4

Fescue, Tall Nov. 1 -Dec. 15 16 20 1/4- /2

Oats for forage Sept. 15 Nov. 15 96 128 (3 4 bu) 1 -2

Pea, Austrian Winter Oct. 1 Nov. 15 45 60 /2 -1

Rye for forage Oct. 15 Nov. 15 84 112 (1.5 2 bu) 1-2

Ryegrass, Italian (annual) Oct. 1 Nov. 15 20 30 0 /2

Sweetclover Oct. 1 -Nov. 15 12-15 1/4- /2

Turnips Oct. 1 Nov. 15 5-6 1/4- /2

Vetch, hairy Oct. 1 Nov. 15 20-30 1-2

Wheat for forage Oct. 15 Nov. 15 90- 120 (1.5 2 bu) 1 -2

1 Always check seed quality. Seed germination should be 80% or higher for best results.
2 Planting date range: in general, cool season forage crops in north Florida can be planted in
the early part of the planting date range and in south Florida, the latter part of the planting date
range.


sticker. Always check inoculants for (1) the age of the cul-
ture as indicated by the date of expiration on the container;
(2) the list of plants the culture will satisfactorily inoculate;
(3) the quantity of seed for which the contents of the con-
tainer are intended; and (4) directions for applying the in-
oculant to the seed (including the use of a sticker). The
quantity of some inoculants used may need to be increased
(doubled or tripled) above what the manufacturer recom-
mends when small seed are planted on Florida's sandy soils.
Inoculants are perishable and should be stored in a cool,
dark place. Plant inoculated seed as soon as possible after
the inoculant has been added. Do not expose inoculated seed
to direct sunlight and when possible do not allow seed to
completely dry before planting. Never inoculate more seed
than can be planted within four hours. Seed stored for an


extended period of time after inoculation may need to be
reinoculated before planting.

CGC

SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES = PROTEIN

Cows and calves grazing the tips of branches and stems of
summer legumes will be eating forage with a protein content
of 15% plus on a dry matter basis. This high protein content
usually does not exist in our warm season perennial grasses
during August. Thus, summer legumes can be a real plus for
calves that need a high level of protein. Research has shown
that calves will make extra weight gain when summer le-
gumes are available.
CGC









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated









HARVEST EXCESS GRASS FOR SILAGE

High humidity and frequent rainfall during August make hay
harvest difficult. Grass can be harvested and stored as silage
without interference from frequent rains, since the grass is
stored at a high moisture content (55 to 75 percent mois-
ture). Hay must be dried to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

FERTILIZE FOR FALL HAY PRODUCTION

In Central and South Florida, much of the hay is made in
October and November when damage by rain is less likely
than in the spring and summer. Production of a large fall
hay crop usually requires an application of fertilizer some-
time from late August through early October. Fertilizing
Pangola digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide Rhodesgrass,
one of the stargrasses or improved bermudagrasses in late
August will provide enough time for adequate growth be-
fore the cool, dry weather begins when plant growth slows.
Some producers delay fertilization until early October in an
attempt to avoid problems with foliage-feeding worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can be grazed or
mowed close in August or early September to remove ma-
ture growth. This will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time, since there will be less of the overly mature
and dead plant material in the hay. Those who have facili-
ties and equipment to use silage might want to consider har-
vesting excess summer grass as silage, and then use the fall
growth for hay.

CGC

STOCKPILE (RESERVE) FORAGE FOR WINTER
FEED

In central and south Florida stockpiling forage (letting grass
accumulate in the field) is one way to supply part of an
animal's winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is usu-
ally allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in the fall before
being utilized. One of the problems associated with this sys-
tem is the decrease in digestibility with increase in age of the
forage. This problem can be partially overcome by select-
ing the proper grass to use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola
and the other digitgrasses have been used for many years for
this purpose. Their digestibility drops with increase in age,
but palatability is maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled forage. It
maintains a relatively high level of digestibility with increase
in age, thus making it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the cool season than
Pangola. The quality and feed value of stockpiled forage
continues to decline with time; therefore it should be used
up before other feed sources are utilized.

CGC


FALL ARMYWORMS IN FERTILIZED PASTURE
AND HAY FIELDS

It's that time of year again, when the fall armyworm attacks
fertilized grasses. Spot check recently fertilized fields to
determine if a serious infestation of worms is present. The
cattle egret (white bird) feeding in pastures may be a tip-off
indicating the presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not been determined.
Action should be taken immediately if an outbreak of worms
occurs. First consider using the grass before the worms de-
stroy it. In hay fields, if enough growth has accumulated to
harvest, it may be wise to go ahead and harvest immediately
rather than waiting to accumulate additional growth. If the
grass can be grazed, concentrate a large number of cattle in
the area and graze it off quickly. Next, consider the use of
an insecticide to control the worms.

CGC

SPITTLEBUGS IN HAY FIELDS

The two-lined spittlebug may cause severe damage in hay
fields or pastures. The young spittlebug or nymph can be
found in the spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of the
grass plant. The nymph, which is soft and white in color,
will over a period of several weeks develop into an adult
spittlebug. The adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes across each wing.
Although both the nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult spittlebugs can be found
in May and June, then again in late August through Septem-
ber into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a problem when a pas-
ture is intensively grazed throughout the summer. Where
grass is allowed to accumulate during the summer, spittle-
bugs may cause serious injury to the grass. Insecticides can
be used to kill the adult spittlebug, but timing is critical.
Check pastures and hay fields for the adults as well as the
spittle masses. If you find spittle masses in the grass, watch
for emergence of adult spittlebugs from the spittle. When
the adults emerge, harvest the grass and then spray immedi-
ately to kill the adults. Spraying before harvest does not
give good results, because the bugs can hide under the grass
and the spray (insecticide) does not reach them. Also, spray-
ing the spittle masses may not be effective. The spittle mass
protects the young bugs (nymphs) from the insecticide.

CGC

NUTSEDGE IS INCREASING

I can sum up the most problematic weed of this summer with
one word nutsedge. After three years of a continuous
drought, we finally got back into our normal rainfall pat-
terns in most areas of the state. Certain weeds are associated








with moist field conditions and become more prevalent with
more rainfall. Nutsedge is found growing in many soil types
and exposures, but is most common on well-drained, sandy
soils or damp-to-wet sites. Infestations often start in wet
areas, then spread. The two most common types of nut-
sedge are purple and yellow. Rhizomes and tubers are
present. Tubers are produced at the end of rhizomes. A
single plant may produce hundreds or several thousand in a
season. Yellow nutsedge reproduces primarily by tubers,
although seeds can be produced. Purple nutsedge repro-
duces primarily by rhizomes, but tubers develop along the
length of the rhizomes.

Now you may ask, How can I control it? This can be very
hard to answer in some cases. This late in the season,
your nutsedge problem should be minimal due to canopy
coverage. However, earlier in the season when the crops
are actively growing is the prime time to control it. In
peanut, Cadre is available and does an excellent job. In
cotton, if you are using Roundup Ready cotton, MSMA +
glyphosate is the best solution. Sempra does an excellent
job in field or popcorn and grain sorghum. However, if
you are in a pasture or hayfield situation, the options are
slim-to-none. Sempra is labeled for use in bahiagrass and
bermudagrass turfgrass sod and seed farms. However it
does not have a pasture or hayfield label. If Oasis gets a
label soon, it will be our number one means of controlling
nutsedge. They are expecting a federal label around Sep-
tember of this year.

JAT


LOWERING SOIL pH


It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of el-
emental sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the
soil pH. The magnitude of the pH change will depend on
the relative amounts of acids and bases present. The rule of
thumb which states that it takes a third as much sulfur to
lower the soil pH one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH
one unit is based on the stoichiometric relationship between
calcium carbonate and the acid produced from oxidation of
sulfur. So, if you over-limed by a ton per acre you can neu-
tralize that over-liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If
the soil is naturally alkaline, the rule of thumb doesn't
hold.

GK


SULFUR PLANT NUTRIENT VS SOIL ACIDIFIER

There is frequently confusion regarding the use of sulfur in
soils. This occurs because sulfur may be applied for two dis-
tinct reasons:

1. to supply sulfur as a plant nutrient, or
2. to acidify the soil (i.e., lower the soil pH).

The rates of application and the forms of sulfur used to ac-
complish these two purposes are very different. As a nutri-
ent, sulfur rates of 10 to 20 pounds per acre are commonly
used and the sulfate (SO4) form is usually recommended.
Plants take up sulfur in the sulfate form so the nutrient is
immediately available when it is applied as sulfate such as
potassium, calcium, or magnesium sulfate.

As an amendment for acidifying soil, sulfur is usually rec-
ommended at rates of 300 to 500 pounds per acre. Elemental
sulfur in the soil is acted upon by microorganisms and sulfu-
ric acid is produced. It's the acid produced that lowers the
soil pH.

It should be noted that in calcareous soil, the application of
sulfur to lower the soil pH is not generally practical because
of the large reserve of carbonates in such soil (ex., marls or
soils with limestone or shells). The acid produced by the
oxidation of the applied sulfur is quickly neutralized by the
carbonates and the pH returns to the equilibrium that existed
before the sulfur was added. Permanent lowering of soil pH
with sulfur is practical if the soil was over-limed or if the pH
was acid to begin with.
GK

SULFUR THE CONFUSION REMAINS

Yes, elemental sulfur can lower soil pH. No, sulfate
sulfur (SO42) does not lower soil pH. It's important to
understand the distinction, because applying the wrong
material to your soil could give you a result you don't
want.

When you want to lower the soil pH, application of elemen-
tal sulfur is in order. In the soil, microorganisms act upon
elemental sulfur and produce sulfuric acid, which in turn
results in a lowering of soil pH. Granular sulfur and wet-
table sulfur are forms of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur
is yellow in color.
On the other hand, application of a sulfate form of sulfur to
soil has no particular effect on soil pH. However, you can't
add the sulfate ion (SO42-) to soil without adding an accom-
panying cation such as Ca2 NH4 Mg2, Cu2+, etc. That ac-
companying cation may or may not affect the soil pH and
therein lie the seeds of confusion.

Two sulfate compounds that are widely recognized and com-
monly recommended as acid-forming fertilizers are ammo-








with moist field conditions and become more prevalent with
more rainfall. Nutsedge is found growing in many soil types
and exposures, but is most common on well-drained, sandy
soils or damp-to-wet sites. Infestations often start in wet
areas, then spread. The two most common types of nut-
sedge are purple and yellow. Rhizomes and tubers are
present. Tubers are produced at the end of rhizomes. A
single plant may produce hundreds or several thousand in a
season. Yellow nutsedge reproduces primarily by tubers,
although seeds can be produced. Purple nutsedge repro-
duces primarily by rhizomes, but tubers develop along the
length of the rhizomes.

Now you may ask, How can I control it? This can be very
hard to answer in some cases. This late in the season,
your nutsedge problem should be minimal due to canopy
coverage. However, earlier in the season when the crops
are actively growing is the prime time to control it. In
peanut, Cadre is available and does an excellent job. In
cotton, if you are using Roundup Ready cotton, MSMA +
glyphosate is the best solution. Sempra does an excellent
job in field or popcorn and grain sorghum. However, if
you are in a pasture or hayfield situation, the options are
slim-to-none. Sempra is labeled for use in bahiagrass and
bermudagrass turfgrass sod and seed farms. However it
does not have a pasture or hayfield label. If Oasis gets a
label soon, it will be our number one means of controlling
nutsedge. They are expecting a federal label around Sep-
tember of this year.

JAT


LOWERING SOIL pH


It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of el-
emental sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the
soil pH. The magnitude of the pH change will depend on
the relative amounts of acids and bases present. The rule of
thumb which states that it takes a third as much sulfur to
lower the soil pH one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH
one unit is based on the stoichiometric relationship between
calcium carbonate and the acid produced from oxidation of
sulfur. So, if you over-limed by a ton per acre you can neu-
tralize that over-liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If
the soil is naturally alkaline, the rule of thumb doesn't
hold.

GK


SULFUR PLANT NUTRIENT VS SOIL ACIDIFIER

There is frequently confusion regarding the use of sulfur in
soils. This occurs because sulfur may be applied for two dis-
tinct reasons:

1. to supply sulfur as a plant nutrient, or
2. to acidify the soil (i.e., lower the soil pH).

The rates of application and the forms of sulfur used to ac-
complish these two purposes are very different. As a nutri-
ent, sulfur rates of 10 to 20 pounds per acre are commonly
used and the sulfate (SO4) form is usually recommended.
Plants take up sulfur in the sulfate form so the nutrient is
immediately available when it is applied as sulfate such as
potassium, calcium, or magnesium sulfate.

As an amendment for acidifying soil, sulfur is usually rec-
ommended at rates of 300 to 500 pounds per acre. Elemental
sulfur in the soil is acted upon by microorganisms and sulfu-
ric acid is produced. It's the acid produced that lowers the
soil pH.

It should be noted that in calcareous soil, the application of
sulfur to lower the soil pH is not generally practical because
of the large reserve of carbonates in such soil (ex., marls or
soils with limestone or shells). The acid produced by the
oxidation of the applied sulfur is quickly neutralized by the
carbonates and the pH returns to the equilibrium that existed
before the sulfur was added. Permanent lowering of soil pH
with sulfur is practical if the soil was over-limed or if the pH
was acid to begin with.
GK

SULFUR THE CONFUSION REMAINS

Yes, elemental sulfur can lower soil pH. No, sulfate
sulfur (SO42) does not lower soil pH. It's important to
understand the distinction, because applying the wrong
material to your soil could give you a result you don't
want.

When you want to lower the soil pH, application of elemen-
tal sulfur is in order. In the soil, microorganisms act upon
elemental sulfur and produce sulfuric acid, which in turn
results in a lowering of soil pH. Granular sulfur and wet-
table sulfur are forms of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur
is yellow in color.
On the other hand, application of a sulfate form of sulfur to
soil has no particular effect on soil pH. However, you can't
add the sulfate ion (SO42-) to soil without adding an accom-
panying cation such as Ca2 NH4 Mg2, Cu2+, etc. That ac-
companying cation may or may not affect the soil pH and
therein lie the seeds of confusion.

Two sulfate compounds that are widely recognized and com-
monly recommended as acid-forming fertilizers are ammo-








with moist field conditions and become more prevalent with
more rainfall. Nutsedge is found growing in many soil types
and exposures, but is most common on well-drained, sandy
soils or damp-to-wet sites. Infestations often start in wet
areas, then spread. The two most common types of nut-
sedge are purple and yellow. Rhizomes and tubers are
present. Tubers are produced at the end of rhizomes. A
single plant may produce hundreds or several thousand in a
season. Yellow nutsedge reproduces primarily by tubers,
although seeds can be produced. Purple nutsedge repro-
duces primarily by rhizomes, but tubers develop along the
length of the rhizomes.

Now you may ask, How can I control it? This can be very
hard to answer in some cases. This late in the season,
your nutsedge problem should be minimal due to canopy
coverage. However, earlier in the season when the crops
are actively growing is the prime time to control it. In
peanut, Cadre is available and does an excellent job. In
cotton, if you are using Roundup Ready cotton, MSMA +
glyphosate is the best solution. Sempra does an excellent
job in field or popcorn and grain sorghum. However, if
you are in a pasture or hayfield situation, the options are
slim-to-none. Sempra is labeled for use in bahiagrass and
bermudagrass turfgrass sod and seed farms. However it
does not have a pasture or hayfield label. If Oasis gets a
label soon, it will be our number one means of controlling
nutsedge. They are expecting a federal label around Sep-
tember of this year.

JAT


LOWERING SOIL pH


It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of el-
emental sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the
soil pH. The magnitude of the pH change will depend on
the relative amounts of acids and bases present. The rule of
thumb which states that it takes a third as much sulfur to
lower the soil pH one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH
one unit is based on the stoichiometric relationship between
calcium carbonate and the acid produced from oxidation of
sulfur. So, if you over-limed by a ton per acre you can neu-
tralize that over-liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If
the soil is naturally alkaline, the rule of thumb doesn't
hold.

GK


SULFUR PLANT NUTRIENT VS SOIL ACIDIFIER

There is frequently confusion regarding the use of sulfur in
soils. This occurs because sulfur may be applied for two dis-
tinct reasons:

1. to supply sulfur as a plant nutrient, or
2. to acidify the soil (i.e., lower the soil pH).

The rates of application and the forms of sulfur used to ac-
complish these two purposes are very different. As a nutri-
ent, sulfur rates of 10 to 20 pounds per acre are commonly
used and the sulfate (SO4) form is usually recommended.
Plants take up sulfur in the sulfate form so the nutrient is
immediately available when it is applied as sulfate such as
potassium, calcium, or magnesium sulfate.

As an amendment for acidifying soil, sulfur is usually rec-
ommended at rates of 300 to 500 pounds per acre. Elemental
sulfur in the soil is acted upon by microorganisms and sulfu-
ric acid is produced. It's the acid produced that lowers the
soil pH.

It should be noted that in calcareous soil, the application of
sulfur to lower the soil pH is not generally practical because
of the large reserve of carbonates in such soil (ex., marls or
soils with limestone or shells). The acid produced by the
oxidation of the applied sulfur is quickly neutralized by the
carbonates and the pH returns to the equilibrium that existed
before the sulfur was added. Permanent lowering of soil pH
with sulfur is practical if the soil was over-limed or if the pH
was acid to begin with.
GK

SULFUR THE CONFUSION REMAINS

Yes, elemental sulfur can lower soil pH. No, sulfate
sulfur (SO42) does not lower soil pH. It's important to
understand the distinction, because applying the wrong
material to your soil could give you a result you don't
want.

When you want to lower the soil pH, application of elemen-
tal sulfur is in order. In the soil, microorganisms act upon
elemental sulfur and produce sulfuric acid, which in turn
results in a lowering of soil pH. Granular sulfur and wet-
table sulfur are forms of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur
is yellow in color.
On the other hand, application of a sulfate form of sulfur to
soil has no particular effect on soil pH. However, you can't
add the sulfate ion (SO42-) to soil without adding an accom-
panying cation such as Ca2 NH4 Mg2, Cu2+, etc. That ac-
companying cation may or may not affect the soil pH and
therein lie the seeds of confusion.

Two sulfate compounds that are widely recognized and com-
monly recommended as acid-forming fertilizers are ammo-









nium sulfate and iron sulfate. Since elemental sulfur, am-
monium sulfate, and iron sulfate all acidify the soil, it would
seem logical that it is the sulfur in these materials which is
the acid-producer. Unfortunately, that seemingly logical con-
clusion is incorrect. It is the ammonium and iron in those
two particular sulfate compounds which have the acidify-
ing effect! The sulfate is innocent of any pH change as is
the case when other familiar compounds like calcium sul-
fate (gypsum), magnesium sulfate, and copper sulfate are


added to soil. In the case of those materials there is no ef-
fect on soil pH.

The take-home lesson: Elemental sulfur added to soil has
an acidifying effect. Sulfate compounds added to soil may
or may not have an acidifying effect it depends on the cat-
ion, not the sulfate anion.

GK


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDA TED and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR39 Perennial Peanut An Alternative Forage of Growing Importance
SSAGR68 Kenaf A Possible New Crop for Central Florida
SSAGR71 Grasses for Florida's Organic Soils
SSAGR84 Fall Forage Update 2001

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS. APDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR166 Utilization of Organic Wastes in Florida Agriculture
SSAGR167 Biosolids: Are these Residuals All the Same?
SSAGR168 Assessing Economic Value of Biosolids
SSAGR169 Rotational Crops for Sugarcane Grown on Mineral Soils
SSAGR170 Importance of Mycorrhizae for Agricultural Crops
SSAGR171 Biological Associations: N2 Fixation
SSAGR172 Application of Precision Agricultural Techniques to Florida's Mineral Solids

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated
Database Search Engine. Type in the publication number (example: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example:
Bahiagrass). Click on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.). You will get a
listing of publications. Please be sure to check the date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the most
up-to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. A. Tredaway, Extension Agronomist and Gerald Kidder,
Extension Soil Scientist.