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 Producing high quality grass...
 Summer annual legumes to help with...
 Lowering soil pH
 Cleaning spray equipment
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00015
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: June 2001
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00015

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Producing high quality grass hay
        Page 2
    Summer annual legumes to help with nitrogen fertilizer cost
        Page 2
    Lowering soil pH
        Page 2
    Cleaning spray equipment
        Page 2
    Publications
        Page 3
Full Text





AGRONOMY

U N PV..e I'5 FTY OF
.'F LORIDA NOTES
EXTENSION
S ,..... ,, F ....-.,: .F ,.,.i.... s.. r. June 2001





DATES TO REMEMBER

American Peanut Research & Education Society (APRES) July 17-20


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

FORAGE
Producing H igh Q quality G rass H ay ....................................................................... .... 2
Summer Annual Legumes to Help with Nitrogen Fertilizer Cost ............................................ 2

MISCELLANEOUS
L ow erin g S oil p H .............................................................. ..................... ..................... ...... 2
C leaning Spray E quipm ent ......................................... ........................................................ 2
Publications ................................................................... .......................... .. . ......... 3


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the two
most important criteria used in determining hay quality. Stage
of maturity at harvest is the most important factor influenc-
ing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude protein and
digestible energy concentration decrease. The improved hy-
brid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should be harvested at
15 18 inches for the first cutting and then cut every 4 to 5
weeks. During mid-summer, some producers are harvesting
stargrass for silage every three weeks to produce feed that
has a protein concentration of 15 percent or greater and a
relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay season begins. A breakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble nu-
trients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying quickly
and thus increases respiration loss and the possibility of mold.
Respiration is the breakdown of sugars, etc. in the plant. This
process occurs in all living plants, and it continues after the
plants are cut. Respiration stops when the moisture content
drops below 40 percent. In Florida's climate, rain damage is
difficult to avoid. Frequent thunder showers in the summer
will usually hit one or more hay harvests. During the sum-
mer, if a suitable period of weather occurs for harvesting hay,
and if the grass is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to
start harvesting even though the regrowth has not reached a 4
or 5 week schedule.


SUMMER ANNUAL LEGUMES TO HELP WITH
NITROGEN FERTILIZER COST

The summer annual legumes alyceclover, common
aeschynomnene, and hairy indigo can be overseeded on es-
tablished pastures. If pastures are successfully established,
with the help of certain bacteria they will take nitrogen (N,, a
gas) out of the soil air and fix it in a form that can be used by
the legume plants. As the legume plants grow, the amount of
nitrogen captured increases. Over time, as legume leaves drop
to the ground or, after being eaten by livestocks, some of the
nitrogen in the leaves is excreted in urine and manure, this
captured nitrogen will be available for grasses and other non-
nitrogen fixing plants to use.

These summer annual legumes can increase the nitrogen level
in the soil. They also provide grazing animals with a higher
level of protein and digestible nutrients than would generally
be available frombahiagrass alone. The positive weight gain
response of young animals during the late summer to these
legumes is well documented. Nursing calves in creep graz-
ing studies have gained an extra 0.3 to 0.5 pounds per day
when these high quality forages were available; this produced
an additional 30 to 50 pounds of weaning weight per calf.


These legumes give their best results when we have a wet
spring that allows them to get an early start. They can be
planted through mid June with the expectation of obtaining
economical production. Production depends on successful
establishment, proper grazing management, and adequate
rainfall.

CGC

LOWERING SOIL pH

It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of elemen-
tal sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the soil pH.
The magnitude of the pH change will depend on the relative
amounts of acids and bases present. The "rule of thumb" which
states that it takes a third as much sulfur to lower the soil pH
one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH one unit is based
on the stoichiometric relationship between calcium carbon-
ate and the acid produced from oxidation of sulfur. So, if you
over-limed by a ton per acre you can neutralize that over-
liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If the soil is natu-
rally alkaline, the "rule of thumb" doesn't hold.

GK

CLEANING SPRAY EQUIPMENT

An agent asked if cotton could be damaged by 2,4-D if the
sprayer he was using had applied at least 14 tank loads of
Roundup since the 2,4-D was applied. The answer that I
gave him was 'yes'. It is well known that 2,4-D will injure
cotton but it would seem that the sprayer would be clean
enough after several tanks of Roundup had been run through
it. In this case, it was not. Proper cleaning of spray equip-
ment is essential to herbicide applications. Residues can be
present not only in the hoses but also in pumps, strainers,
nozzle bodies, tips, etc. Oftentimes, these residues will not
be removed by simply rinsing the sprayer with water or by
using other herbicides. I suggest the following procedure for
cleaning spray equipment in order to prevent any possible
crop injury due to herbicide residue: Triple rinse the sprayer
with water. Mix 1/2 gallon of household ammonia in 50 gal-
lons of water and agitate the tank. Flush the sprayer with the
ammonia and water mixture. Flush again with water. To
clean spray tips: Remove tips and strainers after herbicide
application. Triple rinse them in a container of water to re-
move any residue. If residue still exists on the strainers, re-









PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the two
most important criteria used in determining hay quality. Stage
of maturity at harvest is the most important factor influenc-
ing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude protein and
digestible energy concentration decrease. The improved hy-
brid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should be harvested at
15 18 inches for the first cutting and then cut every 4 to 5
weeks. During mid-summer, some producers are harvesting
stargrass for silage every three weeks to produce feed that
has a protein concentration of 15 percent or greater and a
relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay season begins. A breakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble nu-
trients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying quickly
and thus increases respiration loss and the possibility of mold.
Respiration is the breakdown of sugars, etc. in the plant. This
process occurs in all living plants, and it continues after the
plants are cut. Respiration stops when the moisture content
drops below 40 percent. In Florida's climate, rain damage is
difficult to avoid. Frequent thunder showers in the summer
will usually hit one or more hay harvests. During the sum-
mer, if a suitable period of weather occurs for harvesting hay,
and if the grass is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to
start harvesting even though the regrowth has not reached a 4
or 5 week schedule.


SUMMER ANNUAL LEGUMES TO HELP WITH
NITROGEN FERTILIZER COST

The summer annual legumes alyceclover, common
aeschynomnene, and hairy indigo can be overseeded on es-
tablished pastures. If pastures are successfully established,
with the help of certain bacteria they will take nitrogen (N,, a
gas) out of the soil air and fix it in a form that can be used by
the legume plants. As the legume plants grow, the amount of
nitrogen captured increases. Over time, as legume leaves drop
to the ground or, after being eaten by livestocks, some of the
nitrogen in the leaves is excreted in urine and manure, this
captured nitrogen will be available for grasses and other non-
nitrogen fixing plants to use.

These summer annual legumes can increase the nitrogen level
in the soil. They also provide grazing animals with a higher
level of protein and digestible nutrients than would generally
be available frombahiagrass alone. The positive weight gain
response of young animals during the late summer to these
legumes is well documented. Nursing calves in creep graz-
ing studies have gained an extra 0.3 to 0.5 pounds per day
when these high quality forages were available; this produced
an additional 30 to 50 pounds of weaning weight per calf.


These legumes give their best results when we have a wet
spring that allows them to get an early start. They can be
planted through mid June with the expectation of obtaining
economical production. Production depends on successful
establishment, proper grazing management, and adequate
rainfall.

CGC

LOWERING SOIL pH

It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of elemen-
tal sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the soil pH.
The magnitude of the pH change will depend on the relative
amounts of acids and bases present. The "rule of thumb" which
states that it takes a third as much sulfur to lower the soil pH
one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH one unit is based
on the stoichiometric relationship between calcium carbon-
ate and the acid produced from oxidation of sulfur. So, if you
over-limed by a ton per acre you can neutralize that over-
liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If the soil is natu-
rally alkaline, the "rule of thumb" doesn't hold.

GK

CLEANING SPRAY EQUIPMENT

An agent asked if cotton could be damaged by 2,4-D if the
sprayer he was using had applied at least 14 tank loads of
Roundup since the 2,4-D was applied. The answer that I
gave him was 'yes'. It is well known that 2,4-D will injure
cotton but it would seem that the sprayer would be clean
enough after several tanks of Roundup had been run through
it. In this case, it was not. Proper cleaning of spray equip-
ment is essential to herbicide applications. Residues can be
present not only in the hoses but also in pumps, strainers,
nozzle bodies, tips, etc. Oftentimes, these residues will not
be removed by simply rinsing the sprayer with water or by
using other herbicides. I suggest the following procedure for
cleaning spray equipment in order to prevent any possible
crop injury due to herbicide residue: Triple rinse the sprayer
with water. Mix 1/2 gallon of household ammonia in 50 gal-
lons of water and agitate the tank. Flush the sprayer with the
ammonia and water mixture. Flush again with water. To
clean spray tips: Remove tips and strainers after herbicide
application. Triple rinse them in a container of water to re-
move any residue. If residue still exists on the strainers, re-









PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the two
most important criteria used in determining hay quality. Stage
of maturity at harvest is the most important factor influenc-
ing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude protein and
digestible energy concentration decrease. The improved hy-
brid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should be harvested at
15 18 inches for the first cutting and then cut every 4 to 5
weeks. During mid-summer, some producers are harvesting
stargrass for silage every three weeks to produce feed that
has a protein concentration of 15 percent or greater and a
relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay season begins. A breakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble nu-
trients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying quickly
and thus increases respiration loss and the possibility of mold.
Respiration is the breakdown of sugars, etc. in the plant. This
process occurs in all living plants, and it continues after the
plants are cut. Respiration stops when the moisture content
drops below 40 percent. In Florida's climate, rain damage is
difficult to avoid. Frequent thunder showers in the summer
will usually hit one or more hay harvests. During the sum-
mer, if a suitable period of weather occurs for harvesting hay,
and if the grass is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to
start harvesting even though the regrowth has not reached a 4
or 5 week schedule.


SUMMER ANNUAL LEGUMES TO HELP WITH
NITROGEN FERTILIZER COST

The summer annual legumes alyceclover, common
aeschynomnene, and hairy indigo can be overseeded on es-
tablished pastures. If pastures are successfully established,
with the help of certain bacteria they will take nitrogen (N,, a
gas) out of the soil air and fix it in a form that can be used by
the legume plants. As the legume plants grow, the amount of
nitrogen captured increases. Over time, as legume leaves drop
to the ground or, after being eaten by livestocks, some of the
nitrogen in the leaves is excreted in urine and manure, this
captured nitrogen will be available for grasses and other non-
nitrogen fixing plants to use.

These summer annual legumes can increase the nitrogen level
in the soil. They also provide grazing animals with a higher
level of protein and digestible nutrients than would generally
be available frombahiagrass alone. The positive weight gain
response of young animals during the late summer to these
legumes is well documented. Nursing calves in creep graz-
ing studies have gained an extra 0.3 to 0.5 pounds per day
when these high quality forages were available; this produced
an additional 30 to 50 pounds of weaning weight per calf.


These legumes give their best results when we have a wet
spring that allows them to get an early start. They can be
planted through mid June with the expectation of obtaining
economical production. Production depends on successful
establishment, proper grazing management, and adequate
rainfall.

CGC

LOWERING SOIL pH

It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of elemen-
tal sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the soil pH.
The magnitude of the pH change will depend on the relative
amounts of acids and bases present. The "rule of thumb" which
states that it takes a third as much sulfur to lower the soil pH
one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH one unit is based
on the stoichiometric relationship between calcium carbon-
ate and the acid produced from oxidation of sulfur. So, if you
over-limed by a ton per acre you can neutralize that over-
liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If the soil is natu-
rally alkaline, the "rule of thumb" doesn't hold.

GK

CLEANING SPRAY EQUIPMENT

An agent asked if cotton could be damaged by 2,4-D if the
sprayer he was using had applied at least 14 tank loads of
Roundup since the 2,4-D was applied. The answer that I
gave him was 'yes'. It is well known that 2,4-D will injure
cotton but it would seem that the sprayer would be clean
enough after several tanks of Roundup had been run through
it. In this case, it was not. Proper cleaning of spray equip-
ment is essential to herbicide applications. Residues can be
present not only in the hoses but also in pumps, strainers,
nozzle bodies, tips, etc. Oftentimes, these residues will not
be removed by simply rinsing the sprayer with water or by
using other herbicides. I suggest the following procedure for
cleaning spray equipment in order to prevent any possible
crop injury due to herbicide residue: Triple rinse the sprayer
with water. Mix 1/2 gallon of household ammonia in 50 gal-
lons of water and agitate the tank. Flush the sprayer with the
ammonia and water mixture. Flush again with water. To
clean spray tips: Remove tips and strainers after herbicide
application. Triple rinse them in a container of water to re-
move any residue. If residue still exists on the strainers, re-









PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY GRASS HAY

Crude protein and total digestible energy (TDN) are the two
most important criteria used in determining hay quality. Stage
of maturity at harvest is the most important factor influenc-
ing hay quality. As plants increase in age, crude protein and
digestible energy concentration decrease. The improved hy-
brid bermudagrasses and stargrasses should be harvested at
15 18 inches for the first cutting and then cut every 4 to 5
weeks. During mid-summer, some producers are harvesting
stargrass for silage every three weeks to produce feed that
has a protein concentration of 15 percent or greater and a
relatively high TDN.

All hay equipment should be serviced and repaired before
the hay season begins. A breakdown during harvest almost
guarantees rain damage to the hay. Rain leaches soluble nu-
trients from the grass. It prevents the grass from drying quickly
and thus increases respiration loss and the possibility of mold.
Respiration is the breakdown of sugars, etc. in the plant. This
process occurs in all living plants, and it continues after the
plants are cut. Respiration stops when the moisture content
drops below 40 percent. In Florida's climate, rain damage is
difficult to avoid. Frequent thunder showers in the summer
will usually hit one or more hay harvests. During the sum-
mer, if a suitable period of weather occurs for harvesting hay,
and if the grass is long enough (15 inches), it may be wise to
start harvesting even though the regrowth has not reached a 4
or 5 week schedule.


SUMMER ANNUAL LEGUMES TO HELP WITH
NITROGEN FERTILIZER COST

The summer annual legumes alyceclover, common
aeschynomnene, and hairy indigo can be overseeded on es-
tablished pastures. If pastures are successfully established,
with the help of certain bacteria they will take nitrogen (N,, a
gas) out of the soil air and fix it in a form that can be used by
the legume plants. As the legume plants grow, the amount of
nitrogen captured increases. Over time, as legume leaves drop
to the ground or, after being eaten by livestocks, some of the
nitrogen in the leaves is excreted in urine and manure, this
captured nitrogen will be available for grasses and other non-
nitrogen fixing plants to use.

These summer annual legumes can increase the nitrogen level
in the soil. They also provide grazing animals with a higher
level of protein and digestible nutrients than would generally
be available frombahiagrass alone. The positive weight gain
response of young animals during the late summer to these
legumes is well documented. Nursing calves in creep graz-
ing studies have gained an extra 0.3 to 0.5 pounds per day
when these high quality forages were available; this produced
an additional 30 to 50 pounds of weaning weight per calf.


These legumes give their best results when we have a wet
spring that allows them to get an early start. They can be
planted through mid June with the expectation of obtaining
economical production. Production depends on successful
establishment, proper grazing management, and adequate
rainfall.

CGC

LOWERING SOIL pH

It is generally impractical to permanently lower the soil pH
on a field basis when free carbonates are present. Examples
of such situations are marl soils or soils containing particles
of limestone or shells. Because of the tremendous reserve of
carbonates in these soils, any acid added or produced is
quickly used up, and the pH returns to where it was before
the correction was attempted.

Where the pH is high due to over-liming, addition of elemen-
tal sulfur or acid-forming fertilizers will reduce the soil pH.
The magnitude of the pH change will depend on the relative
amounts of acids and bases present. The "rule of thumb" which
states that it takes a third as much sulfur to lower the soil pH
one unit as it does lime to raise the soil pH one unit is based
on the stoichiometric relationship between calcium carbon-
ate and the acid produced from oxidation of sulfur. So, if you
over-limed by a ton per acre you can neutralize that over-
liming with 1/3 ton of elemental sulfur. If the soil is natu-
rally alkaline, the "rule of thumb" doesn't hold.

GK

CLEANING SPRAY EQUIPMENT

An agent asked if cotton could be damaged by 2,4-D if the
sprayer he was using had applied at least 14 tank loads of
Roundup since the 2,4-D was applied. The answer that I
gave him was 'yes'. It is well known that 2,4-D will injure
cotton but it would seem that the sprayer would be clean
enough after several tanks of Roundup had been run through
it. In this case, it was not. Proper cleaning of spray equip-
ment is essential to herbicide applications. Residues can be
present not only in the hoses but also in pumps, strainers,
nozzle bodies, tips, etc. Oftentimes, these residues will not
be removed by simply rinsing the sprayer with water or by
using other herbicides. I suggest the following procedure for
cleaning spray equipment in order to prevent any possible
crop injury due to herbicide residue: Triple rinse the sprayer
with water. Mix 1/2 gallon of household ammonia in 50 gal-
lons of water and agitate the tank. Flush the sprayer with the
ammonia and water mixture. Flush again with water. To
clean spray tips: Remove tips and strainers after herbicide
application. Triple rinse them in a container of water to re-
move any residue. If residue still exists on the strainers, re-










place them. Be sure and re-calibrate your sprayer after put-
ting tips and strainers back on the sprayer.

JAT

PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR44 Peanut Varieties for 2001

You canfind EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once the screen
fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Database Search
Engine. Type in the publication number (example: S SAGR01)
or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click on the appropri-
ate button below (Find Keywords or Find Publication No.).
You will get a listing of publications. Please be sure to check
the date in the footnote on the first page to be sure it is the
most up-to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. A. Tredaway, Extension Agronomist; and G. Kidder, Soil and
after Science.