<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Table of Contents
 Possible increased assessment on...
 Quota and additional peanuts
 Confirm 2f is now legal for armyworm...
 Grass tetany in cattle
 Hay feeding losses
 Tobacco quota outlook
 Tobacco quota terminology
 Tobacco contracting
 Tobacco varieties
 Aeration of fumigated tobacco...
 Bermudagrass control...is...
 Small grain weed control
 November field crop estimates


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00013
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: December 1999
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00013

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Possible increased assessment on 2000 quota peanuts
        Page 2
    Quota and additional peanuts
        Page 2
    Confirm 2f is now legal for armyworm control
        Page 2
    Grass tetany in cattle
        Page 2
    Hay feeding losses
        Page 3
    Tobacco quota outlook
        Page 3
    Tobacco quota terminology
        Page 4
    Tobacco contracting
        Page 4
    Tobacco varieties
        Page 4
    Aeration of fumigated tobacco beds
        Page 4
    Bermudagrass control...is it possible?
        Page 4
    Small grain weed control
        Page 4
    November field crop estimates
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
'FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

DATES TO REMEMBER


January 13
January 24-25
January 30-31


NOTES


Smutgrass Field Day SWREC, Immokalee
Sustainable Agronomic Crop Production In-Service Training NFREC, Quincy
Southern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy Meetings -
Lexington, KY


IN THIS ISSUE


PAGE


PEANUT
Possible Increased A ssessm ent on 2000 Quota Peanuts........................................ ................. 2
Quota and A additional Peanuts ................................................................... ....................... 2

FORAGE
Confirm 2f is N ow Legal for A rm yw orm Control ........................................... ....................... 2
Grass Tetany in Cattle ............................................................................... ............................... 2
H ay Feeding Losses ................................................................................... .............................. 3

TOBACCO
Tobacco Quota Outlook ........................................................................... ......................... 3
Tobacco Quota Term inology .................................................... ............................................... 4
Tobacco Contracting .................................................................................. .............................. 4
Tobacco V varieties ................................................................................... ......................... 4
A eration of Fum igated Tobacco Beds ................................................ ............................... 4

WEEDS
Berm udagrass Control.....Is it Possible? ................................ .................................................. 4
Sm all Grain W eed Control ..................................................... ................................................. 4

MISCELLANEOUS
N ovem ber Field Crop Estim ates .............................................. ................................................ 5


December 1999


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








POSSIBLE INCREASED ASSESSMENT ON 2000
QUOTA PEANUTS

Due to a considerable amount of 1999 quota peanuts being
placed under loan and dim prospects for purchases of these
stocks for uses other than crushing for oil, a fairly large loss
to the program is expected. The actual loss will not be known
until after the loan peanuts are sold by the end of June 2000.
Since peanuts are in a no-net-cost program, farmers may be
assessed for these losses when they sell their 2000 crop. Cur-
rently farmers and buyers pay a no-net-cost assessment, but
it has not been necessary to utilize the accumulated funds
thus far. If approved, use of these accumulated funds would
reduce the assessment level that would otherwise be needed.

EBW

QUOTA AND ADDITIONAL PEANUTS

Peanuts that are harvested and sold after drying are gener-
ally classified as quota or additional. Quota peanuts are those
peanuts that are used for domestic use, and have an average
support price of $610 per ton. In exchange for the support
price, farmers are given a quota of peanuts that can be sold.
Additional peanuts are non-quota, and there is no govern-
mental limitation on production, but they have a support price
that is well below the cost of production. Additional pea-
nuts have to be exported, unless they go through buy back
procedures that allow them to be used in the domestic mar-
ket when there is a shortage of quota peanuts. If additional
peanuts are placed in the loan program and not sold for ex-
port, they are normally sold to be crushed for oil. Addi-
tional peanuts are often grown under a contract and are pro-
duced to a greater extent in certain states than in others. For
example, the 1999 quota for Florida is just over 50,000 tons,
but the November crop estimate is for over 127,000 tons to
be produced. Thus just 40 percent of Florida's 1999 pro-
duction is quota peanuts. In Texas, there has been a large
growth in peanut acreage in the western part of the state, and
the 1999 crop is expected to be only 32 percent quota. Many
of the other major producing states grow relatively few ad-
ditional peanuts. The November crop estimate of over 1.9
million tons for all states, would be made up of 62 percent
quota.

EBW


CONFIRM 2F IS NOW LEGAL FOR ARMYWORM
CONTROL ON PASTURE & RANGELAND IN FLORIDA


Confirm is a new insect control technology in the MAC
(molt accelerating compound) family of insecticide prod-
ucts developed by Rohm and Haas Company. Confirm
mimics the action of the natural insect hormone 20-


hydroxyecdysone, the physiological inducer of molting and
metamorphosis in insects. It induces premature lethal molt
only hours after ingestion of treated crop surfaces. Although
feeding by larvae ceases within 24 hours of ingestion, actual
death takes several days to occur. It is selective and labeled
for broad spectrum and long-lasting control of lepidopter-
ous (worm) pests on a wide range of crops. The selectivity
of Confirm allows for the maintenance of populations of
beneficial and predatory insects which is a key element in
integrated pest management programs.

Last month, the EPA granted Florida a chapter 24C approval
(EPA SLN No. FL-990012) for the use of Confirm on pas-
ture and rangeland to control armyworms. For ground ap-
plication, 6 to 8 fluid ounces of product (0.09-0.125 ai/A) in
10 gallons of water/A is recommended. For aerial applica-
tion, apply Confirm in a minimum of 5 gallons per acre.
Confirm must be applied in combination with Latron CS-7
at a rate of 2 pints per 100 gallons of spray mix to ensure
thorough crop coverage. A minimum of six hours drying
time is required between completion of application and on-
set on rain to ensure retention of spray. Restrictions on Con-
firm usage include not more than two applications per sea-
son or not more than 16 fluid ounces of product per acre per
season. Also do not graze treated areas until spray has dried.
With this new label, producers may try Confirm next grow-
ing season to control armyworms but should remember to
follow all directions.

MBA

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Sometimes called grass staggers or hypomagnesemia, grass
tetany can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle graz-
ing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the disease is
unknown, although it is always associated with an imbal-
ance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more
severe when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the
first flush of growth during December and January. Once
the forage becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems
occurring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under
conditions of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pas-
ture directly after being on frosted or other low quality pas-
ture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those
of milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of
coordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called im-
mediately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in
beef herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportu-
nity to observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle
may be found dead in the pasture.








POSSIBLE INCREASED ASSESSMENT ON 2000
QUOTA PEANUTS

Due to a considerable amount of 1999 quota peanuts being
placed under loan and dim prospects for purchases of these
stocks for uses other than crushing for oil, a fairly large loss
to the program is expected. The actual loss will not be known
until after the loan peanuts are sold by the end of June 2000.
Since peanuts are in a no-net-cost program, farmers may be
assessed for these losses when they sell their 2000 crop. Cur-
rently farmers and buyers pay a no-net-cost assessment, but
it has not been necessary to utilize the accumulated funds
thus far. If approved, use of these accumulated funds would
reduce the assessment level that would otherwise be needed.

EBW

QUOTA AND ADDITIONAL PEANUTS

Peanuts that are harvested and sold after drying are gener-
ally classified as quota or additional. Quota peanuts are those
peanuts that are used for domestic use, and have an average
support price of $610 per ton. In exchange for the support
price, farmers are given a quota of peanuts that can be sold.
Additional peanuts are non-quota, and there is no govern-
mental limitation on production, but they have a support price
that is well below the cost of production. Additional pea-
nuts have to be exported, unless they go through buy back
procedures that allow them to be used in the domestic mar-
ket when there is a shortage of quota peanuts. If additional
peanuts are placed in the loan program and not sold for ex-
port, they are normally sold to be crushed for oil. Addi-
tional peanuts are often grown under a contract and are pro-
duced to a greater extent in certain states than in others. For
example, the 1999 quota for Florida is just over 50,000 tons,
but the November crop estimate is for over 127,000 tons to
be produced. Thus just 40 percent of Florida's 1999 pro-
duction is quota peanuts. In Texas, there has been a large
growth in peanut acreage in the western part of the state, and
the 1999 crop is expected to be only 32 percent quota. Many
of the other major producing states grow relatively few ad-
ditional peanuts. The November crop estimate of over 1.9
million tons for all states, would be made up of 62 percent
quota.

EBW


CONFIRM 2F IS NOW LEGAL FOR ARMYWORM
CONTROL ON PASTURE & RANGELAND IN FLORIDA


Confirm is a new insect control technology in the MAC
(molt accelerating compound) family of insecticide prod-
ucts developed by Rohm and Haas Company. Confirm
mimics the action of the natural insect hormone 20-


hydroxyecdysone, the physiological inducer of molting and
metamorphosis in insects. It induces premature lethal molt
only hours after ingestion of treated crop surfaces. Although
feeding by larvae ceases within 24 hours of ingestion, actual
death takes several days to occur. It is selective and labeled
for broad spectrum and long-lasting control of lepidopter-
ous (worm) pests on a wide range of crops. The selectivity
of Confirm allows for the maintenance of populations of
beneficial and predatory insects which is a key element in
integrated pest management programs.

Last month, the EPA granted Florida a chapter 24C approval
(EPA SLN No. FL-990012) for the use of Confirm on pas-
ture and rangeland to control armyworms. For ground ap-
plication, 6 to 8 fluid ounces of product (0.09-0.125 ai/A) in
10 gallons of water/A is recommended. For aerial applica-
tion, apply Confirm in a minimum of 5 gallons per acre.
Confirm must be applied in combination with Latron CS-7
at a rate of 2 pints per 100 gallons of spray mix to ensure
thorough crop coverage. A minimum of six hours drying
time is required between completion of application and on-
set on rain to ensure retention of spray. Restrictions on Con-
firm usage include not more than two applications per sea-
son or not more than 16 fluid ounces of product per acre per
season. Also do not graze treated areas until spray has dried.
With this new label, producers may try Confirm next grow-
ing season to control armyworms but should remember to
follow all directions.

MBA

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Sometimes called grass staggers or hypomagnesemia, grass
tetany can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle graz-
ing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the disease is
unknown, although it is always associated with an imbal-
ance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more
severe when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the
first flush of growth during December and January. Once
the forage becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems
occurring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under
conditions of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pas-
ture directly after being on frosted or other low quality pas-
ture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those
of milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of
coordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called im-
mediately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in
beef herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportu-
nity to observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle
may be found dead in the pasture.








POSSIBLE INCREASED ASSESSMENT ON 2000
QUOTA PEANUTS

Due to a considerable amount of 1999 quota peanuts being
placed under loan and dim prospects for purchases of these
stocks for uses other than crushing for oil, a fairly large loss
to the program is expected. The actual loss will not be known
until after the loan peanuts are sold by the end of June 2000.
Since peanuts are in a no-net-cost program, farmers may be
assessed for these losses when they sell their 2000 crop. Cur-
rently farmers and buyers pay a no-net-cost assessment, but
it has not been necessary to utilize the accumulated funds
thus far. If approved, use of these accumulated funds would
reduce the assessment level that would otherwise be needed.

EBW

QUOTA AND ADDITIONAL PEANUTS

Peanuts that are harvested and sold after drying are gener-
ally classified as quota or additional. Quota peanuts are those
peanuts that are used for domestic use, and have an average
support price of $610 per ton. In exchange for the support
price, farmers are given a quota of peanuts that can be sold.
Additional peanuts are non-quota, and there is no govern-
mental limitation on production, but they have a support price
that is well below the cost of production. Additional pea-
nuts have to be exported, unless they go through buy back
procedures that allow them to be used in the domestic mar-
ket when there is a shortage of quota peanuts. If additional
peanuts are placed in the loan program and not sold for ex-
port, they are normally sold to be crushed for oil. Addi-
tional peanuts are often grown under a contract and are pro-
duced to a greater extent in certain states than in others. For
example, the 1999 quota for Florida is just over 50,000 tons,
but the November crop estimate is for over 127,000 tons to
be produced. Thus just 40 percent of Florida's 1999 pro-
duction is quota peanuts. In Texas, there has been a large
growth in peanut acreage in the western part of the state, and
the 1999 crop is expected to be only 32 percent quota. Many
of the other major producing states grow relatively few ad-
ditional peanuts. The November crop estimate of over 1.9
million tons for all states, would be made up of 62 percent
quota.

EBW


CONFIRM 2F IS NOW LEGAL FOR ARMYWORM
CONTROL ON PASTURE & RANGELAND IN FLORIDA


Confirm is a new insect control technology in the MAC
(molt accelerating compound) family of insecticide prod-
ucts developed by Rohm and Haas Company. Confirm
mimics the action of the natural insect hormone 20-


hydroxyecdysone, the physiological inducer of molting and
metamorphosis in insects. It induces premature lethal molt
only hours after ingestion of treated crop surfaces. Although
feeding by larvae ceases within 24 hours of ingestion, actual
death takes several days to occur. It is selective and labeled
for broad spectrum and long-lasting control of lepidopter-
ous (worm) pests on a wide range of crops. The selectivity
of Confirm allows for the maintenance of populations of
beneficial and predatory insects which is a key element in
integrated pest management programs.

Last month, the EPA granted Florida a chapter 24C approval
(EPA SLN No. FL-990012) for the use of Confirm on pas-
ture and rangeland to control armyworms. For ground ap-
plication, 6 to 8 fluid ounces of product (0.09-0.125 ai/A) in
10 gallons of water/A is recommended. For aerial applica-
tion, apply Confirm in a minimum of 5 gallons per acre.
Confirm must be applied in combination with Latron CS-7
at a rate of 2 pints per 100 gallons of spray mix to ensure
thorough crop coverage. A minimum of six hours drying
time is required between completion of application and on-
set on rain to ensure retention of spray. Restrictions on Con-
firm usage include not more than two applications per sea-
son or not more than 16 fluid ounces of product per acre per
season. Also do not graze treated areas until spray has dried.
With this new label, producers may try Confirm next grow-
ing season to control armyworms but should remember to
follow all directions.

MBA

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Sometimes called grass staggers or hypomagnesemia, grass
tetany can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle graz-
ing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the disease is
unknown, although it is always associated with an imbal-
ance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more
severe when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the
first flush of growth during December and January. Once
the forage becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems
occurring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under
conditions of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pas-
ture directly after being on frosted or other low quality pas-
ture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those
of milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of
coordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called im-
mediately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in
beef herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportu-
nity to observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle
may be found dead in the pasture.








POSSIBLE INCREASED ASSESSMENT ON 2000
QUOTA PEANUTS

Due to a considerable amount of 1999 quota peanuts being
placed under loan and dim prospects for purchases of these
stocks for uses other than crushing for oil, a fairly large loss
to the program is expected. The actual loss will not be known
until after the loan peanuts are sold by the end of June 2000.
Since peanuts are in a no-net-cost program, farmers may be
assessed for these losses when they sell their 2000 crop. Cur-
rently farmers and buyers pay a no-net-cost assessment, but
it has not been necessary to utilize the accumulated funds
thus far. If approved, use of these accumulated funds would
reduce the assessment level that would otherwise be needed.

EBW

QUOTA AND ADDITIONAL PEANUTS

Peanuts that are harvested and sold after drying are gener-
ally classified as quota or additional. Quota peanuts are those
peanuts that are used for domestic use, and have an average
support price of $610 per ton. In exchange for the support
price, farmers are given a quota of peanuts that can be sold.
Additional peanuts are non-quota, and there is no govern-
mental limitation on production, but they have a support price
that is well below the cost of production. Additional pea-
nuts have to be exported, unless they go through buy back
procedures that allow them to be used in the domestic mar-
ket when there is a shortage of quota peanuts. If additional
peanuts are placed in the loan program and not sold for ex-
port, they are normally sold to be crushed for oil. Addi-
tional peanuts are often grown under a contract and are pro-
duced to a greater extent in certain states than in others. For
example, the 1999 quota for Florida is just over 50,000 tons,
but the November crop estimate is for over 127,000 tons to
be produced. Thus just 40 percent of Florida's 1999 pro-
duction is quota peanuts. In Texas, there has been a large
growth in peanut acreage in the western part of the state, and
the 1999 crop is expected to be only 32 percent quota. Many
of the other major producing states grow relatively few ad-
ditional peanuts. The November crop estimate of over 1.9
million tons for all states, would be made up of 62 percent
quota.

EBW


CONFIRM 2F IS NOW LEGAL FOR ARMYWORM
CONTROL ON PASTURE & RANGELAND IN FLORIDA


Confirm is a new insect control technology in the MAC
(molt accelerating compound) family of insecticide prod-
ucts developed by Rohm and Haas Company. Confirm
mimics the action of the natural insect hormone 20-


hydroxyecdysone, the physiological inducer of molting and
metamorphosis in insects. It induces premature lethal molt
only hours after ingestion of treated crop surfaces. Although
feeding by larvae ceases within 24 hours of ingestion, actual
death takes several days to occur. It is selective and labeled
for broad spectrum and long-lasting control of lepidopter-
ous (worm) pests on a wide range of crops. The selectivity
of Confirm allows for the maintenance of populations of
beneficial and predatory insects which is a key element in
integrated pest management programs.

Last month, the EPA granted Florida a chapter 24C approval
(EPA SLN No. FL-990012) for the use of Confirm on pas-
ture and rangeland to control armyworms. For ground ap-
plication, 6 to 8 fluid ounces of product (0.09-0.125 ai/A) in
10 gallons of water/A is recommended. For aerial applica-
tion, apply Confirm in a minimum of 5 gallons per acre.
Confirm must be applied in combination with Latron CS-7
at a rate of 2 pints per 100 gallons of spray mix to ensure
thorough crop coverage. A minimum of six hours drying
time is required between completion of application and on-
set on rain to ensure retention of spray. Restrictions on Con-
firm usage include not more than two applications per sea-
son or not more than 16 fluid ounces of product per acre per
season. Also do not graze treated areas until spray has dried.
With this new label, producers may try Confirm next grow-
ing season to control armyworms but should remember to
follow all directions.

MBA

GRASS TETANY IN CATTLE

Sometimes called grass staggers or hypomagnesemia, grass
tetany can be a serious problem in Florida with cattle graz-
ing small grain or ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of the disease is
unknown, although it is always associated with an imbal-
ance in the mineral components of blood serum, especially
reduced magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is more
severe when cattle are grazing young forage, particularly the
first flush of growth during December and January. Once
the forage becomes more mature, the likelihood of problems
occurring is reduced. The disease is apt to appear under
conditions of nutritional stress. Placing cattle on winter pas-
ture directly after being on frosted or other low quality pas-
ture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely resemble those
of milk fever or ketosis. These include nervousness, lack of
coordination, muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be called im-
mediately to diagnose and to initiate treatment. However, in
beef herds, the herdsman does not always have the opportu-
nity to observe the signs of the disease and affected cattle
may be found dead in the pasture.








Factors which have been associated with this disease include
low levels of magnesium (Mg) and high protein and potas-
sium levels in the forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which
contains magnesium, to increase forage magnesium levels if
the level of soil magnesium is low. On soils with a high pH
level, magnesium oxide (MgO) can be included with fertil-
izer materials. Excess nitrogen in conjunction with high lev-
els of potassium fertilization tends to reduce the magnesium
level in most forage plants. Consequently, these fertilizer
elements should not be applied in excess on temporary win-
ter pastures. Follow recommendations based on soil test re-
sults.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding mineral supple-
ments that contain magnesium. Commercial mineral mix-
tures containing 10-15% magnesium are available for feed-
ing during periods of increased grass tetany probability.
Cattle need to consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of this min-
eral. (For additional information on this problem, see the
publication Agronomy Facts SS-AGR-64 "Grass Tetany in
Cattle").

CGC


HAY FEEDING LOSSES


This is the time of year when we need to be concerned about
hay feeding losses. This is especially true when feeding large
round bales that have not only been stored outside (where
considerable weathering loss has occurred), but will also be
fed outside on the ground. Feeding losses can occur with
any feeding system; the objective should be to minimize the
loss so that animals can consume most of the hay given to
them.

Most large hay packages are fed on sod whether stored in-
side or outside. Feeding hay on sod offers the advantage of
distributing hay on pasture land rather than concentrating it
along a feed bunk or in a barn. When hay is fed on sod,
livestock usually waste and refuse less hay in situations in
which they have a solid footing. Dry, well-drained, sites
should therefore be chosen for feeding hay outside.

Feeding in only one area permits selection of a convenient
feeding location which is easily accessible and which mini-
mizes the size of the area in which sod is killed. However, it
causes excessive sod destruction, may create muddy condi-
tions, often results in heavy spring weed pressure, and can
result in soil compaction and/or ruts in the pasture.

Some livestock producers who feed in only one area prefer
to feed on concrete or to haul in large gravel so the hay can
be placed on a solid foundation. Also, some producers feed
the lowest quality hay first, thus initially causing excessive
hay wastage but providing a foundation for further feeding.


Frequently moving the feeding area allows manure to be
spread more uniformly over the pastures) and therefore
improves the soil fertility in bare or thin spots, while reduc-
ing the severity of (though not necessarily the total area which
sustains) sod damage.

When hay is fed on sod, the amount of hay wasted will be
much less when only a one-day hay supply is given, and
when hay is fed in such a manner that all animals have ac-
cess. However, unrestricted animal access to large found
bales or stacks will result in grossly excessive feeding waste.

If substantial quantities of hay must be put out at one time,
erecting a barrier between the hay and the feeding animals
will reduce waste. The barrier can be an electric wire, feed-
ing racks or rings, panels, wagons or gates. Feeding racks
and rings are available in a variety of shapes and sizes (racks
which prevent hay from contacting the ground are particu-
larly effective).

When racks or panels are not used, enough animals are
needed to eat the amount of hay offered in a relatively short
period of time. Waste can be reduced by having at least one
cow for each foot of outside dimension (circumference) of
the hay package.


CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA OUTLOOK

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco quota will be announced on
December 15, 1999. The three major components of the
quota include buying intentions of the domestic manufac-
turers, average exports for the last three years, and the amount
of tobacco in storage. The buying intentions will be known
on December 1, as will be the export level. The amount of
tobacco in storage is that amount held by the Flue-Cured
Tobacco Stabilization Cooperative and is the tobacco that
was placed under loan. If the amount under loan is less than
15 percent of the previous year's basic quota, the difference
will be added to the sum of the other two components, but if
it is greater than 15 percent, the difference will be subtracted.
Since the receipts in 1999 exceeded 20 percent of sales and
there are also substantial receipts from the 1997 and 1998
crops in storage, the storage component of the formula will
be a negative figure in the formula unless sales increase
greatly by December 15. If there are no substantial sales,
the 2000 quota is projected to be 20-25 percent less than in
1999. The Secretary of Agriculture can adjust the final cal-
culated quota by 3 percent in either direction.


EBW








Factors which have been associated with this disease include
low levels of magnesium (Mg) and high protein and potas-
sium levels in the forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which
contains magnesium, to increase forage magnesium levels if
the level of soil magnesium is low. On soils with a high pH
level, magnesium oxide (MgO) can be included with fertil-
izer materials. Excess nitrogen in conjunction with high lev-
els of potassium fertilization tends to reduce the magnesium
level in most forage plants. Consequently, these fertilizer
elements should not be applied in excess on temporary win-
ter pastures. Follow recommendations based on soil test re-
sults.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding mineral supple-
ments that contain magnesium. Commercial mineral mix-
tures containing 10-15% magnesium are available for feed-
ing during periods of increased grass tetany probability.
Cattle need to consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of this min-
eral. (For additional information on this problem, see the
publication Agronomy Facts SS-AGR-64 "Grass Tetany in
Cattle").

CGC


HAY FEEDING LOSSES


This is the time of year when we need to be concerned about
hay feeding losses. This is especially true when feeding large
round bales that have not only been stored outside (where
considerable weathering loss has occurred), but will also be
fed outside on the ground. Feeding losses can occur with
any feeding system; the objective should be to minimize the
loss so that animals can consume most of the hay given to
them.

Most large hay packages are fed on sod whether stored in-
side or outside. Feeding hay on sod offers the advantage of
distributing hay on pasture land rather than concentrating it
along a feed bunk or in a barn. When hay is fed on sod,
livestock usually waste and refuse less hay in situations in
which they have a solid footing. Dry, well-drained, sites
should therefore be chosen for feeding hay outside.

Feeding in only one area permits selection of a convenient
feeding location which is easily accessible and which mini-
mizes the size of the area in which sod is killed. However, it
causes excessive sod destruction, may create muddy condi-
tions, often results in heavy spring weed pressure, and can
result in soil compaction and/or ruts in the pasture.

Some livestock producers who feed in only one area prefer
to feed on concrete or to haul in large gravel so the hay can
be placed on a solid foundation. Also, some producers feed
the lowest quality hay first, thus initially causing excessive
hay wastage but providing a foundation for further feeding.


Frequently moving the feeding area allows manure to be
spread more uniformly over the pastures) and therefore
improves the soil fertility in bare or thin spots, while reduc-
ing the severity of (though not necessarily the total area which
sustains) sod damage.

When hay is fed on sod, the amount of hay wasted will be
much less when only a one-day hay supply is given, and
when hay is fed in such a manner that all animals have ac-
cess. However, unrestricted animal access to large found
bales or stacks will result in grossly excessive feeding waste.

If substantial quantities of hay must be put out at one time,
erecting a barrier between the hay and the feeding animals
will reduce waste. The barrier can be an electric wire, feed-
ing racks or rings, panels, wagons or gates. Feeding racks
and rings are available in a variety of shapes and sizes (racks
which prevent hay from contacting the ground are particu-
larly effective).

When racks or panels are not used, enough animals are
needed to eat the amount of hay offered in a relatively short
period of time. Waste can be reduced by having at least one
cow for each foot of outside dimension (circumference) of
the hay package.


CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA OUTLOOK

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco quota will be announced on
December 15, 1999. The three major components of the
quota include buying intentions of the domestic manufac-
turers, average exports for the last three years, and the amount
of tobacco in storage. The buying intentions will be known
on December 1, as will be the export level. The amount of
tobacco in storage is that amount held by the Flue-Cured
Tobacco Stabilization Cooperative and is the tobacco that
was placed under loan. If the amount under loan is less than
15 percent of the previous year's basic quota, the difference
will be added to the sum of the other two components, but if
it is greater than 15 percent, the difference will be subtracted.
Since the receipts in 1999 exceeded 20 percent of sales and
there are also substantial receipts from the 1997 and 1998
crops in storage, the storage component of the formula will
be a negative figure in the formula unless sales increase
greatly by December 15. If there are no substantial sales,
the 2000 quota is projected to be 20-25 percent less than in
1999. The Secretary of Agriculture can adjust the final cal-
culated quota by 3 percent in either direction.


EBW









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









TOBACCO QUOTA TERMINOLOGY

There are two tobacco quota terms, basic and effective. The
basic quota is that quota as determined by formula. Each
quota holder shares the same percentage increase or decrease
as in the national basic quota. The effective quota is the
basic quota plus or minus any under or over marketing from
the previous year. A grower can sell up to 3 percent above
his quota in one year, but the excess will be deducted from
the next year's quota. Likewise any under marketing will
be added the next year. Thus the changes in effective quota
may vary between farms, but not the basic quota.


EBW

TOBACCO CONTRACTING

Despite rumors, there been no confirmations as to whether
or not the major tobacco companies will offer contracts for
tobacco in 2000. In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted
with farmers that cured tobacco in special barns, and reports
indicate that the number of these barns will be increased in
2000. Contracts usually specify the quantity, quality, and
any other criteria that is important to either side and agreed
to by both parties. Contracted tobacco does not go through
the auction market system.

EBW

TOBACCO VARIETIES

Many Florida farmers are changing varieties in an effort to
get better disease resistance. The highly popular K326 vari-
ety still produces high yields of good quality tobacco and is
relatively easy to grow and manage in disease-free situa-
tions. However it has low black shank resistance and certain
virus diseases are common on the variety. NC 55 is very
similar to K 326, except that it has resistance to potato virus-
Y and tobacco etch virus. However NC 55 does not have
any more resistance to black shank than K 326. Some farm-
ers have noted that NC 55 produces a larger plant than K
326, which indicates that it is especially important that over-
fertilization be avoided. NC 71 and NC 72 are high yielding
varieties that have good resistance to black shank. They are
also resistant to root knot nematodes. Speight 168 and
Speight 172 also have high resistance to black shank. There
are several other varieties that could be grown.


EBW

AERATION OF FUMIGATED TOBACCO BEDS

A longer aeration period may be needed for tobacco beds
fumigated with a 75/25 mixture of methylbromide and chlo-


ropicrin than is needed for 98 percent methyl bromide. The
chloropicrin does not volatilize as quickly as methyl bro-
mide and if residues are still high in the soil at seeding, poor
stands may result. The label for 75/25 methyl bromide/
chloripicrin calls for the plastic cover to be remain in place
for 48-72 hours for fumigation and then removed and the
soil allowed to aerate for two weeks prior to seeding. Only
two days of aeration is needed for 98 percent methyl bro-
mide.

EBW

BERMUDAGRASS CONTROL.....IS IT POSSIBLE?

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season, peren-
nial plant that inhabits many areas throughout the state. It
canbe found in row crops, vegetable crops, pasture, and pine
forests. Not only does bermudagrass produce a number of
seeds, it arises from stolons (above ground stems) and rhi-
zomes (below ground stems) which enable it to spread rap-
idly and establish populations easily.

Several people are preparing for next year's crop and have
asked how, if possible, to eliminate bermudagrass. This is
not an easy question to answer but there are methods (me-
chanical, chemical, and cultural) that may be used to de-
crease bermudagrass populations. The most successful
method is to use a combination of the methods. Deep plow-
ing the field in the fall will break the vegetative structures
and expose them to the colder temperatures. A winter crop
such as rye can be planted if erosion is a concern. In the
Spring, as plants soon begin to green up, spray the
bermudagrass with herbicide. Herbicides of choice include
Roundup Ultra (5 qt/A) or Select (8 12 fl. oz /A). Select is
very effective on bermudagrass and can be applied up to 16
fl. oz/A. When grass dies, another tillage operation would
help deplete the food reserves of the bermudagrass. Though
this type of system is time consuming and costly, it will even-
tually help reduce if not eliminate the bermudagrass. Al-
ways remember to consult your label for instructions for weed
control and restrictions.

JAT

SMALL GRAIN WEED CONTROL

Small grains such as oats, rye, and wheat provide good graz-
ing during the winter months. They are commonly planted
with a legume to provide additional forage and extend the
feeding time in the season. In Florida, small grains are in-
fested with several broadleaf weed species that are easily
controlled by phenoxy-type herbicides, 2,4-D or Banvel.
Proper weed identification is necessary in order to use the
correct chemical. For example, wild radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum) is often confused with wild mustard (Bras-
sica kaber). Wild mustard is not a dominant weed in Florida









and is easily controlled by 2,4-D. Wild radish is very preva-
lent in Florida and is not easily controlled with 2,4-D. Small
grains are not widely grown for agronomic purposes in
Florida and that limits the amount of materials labeled for
weed control use. As with all crops, herbicide applications
should be made when the weeds are small. Small grains


vary in their tolerance to herbicides but most applications
should be made prior to jointing. The following table con-
tains the herbicides that have performed well in IFAS re-
search and are labeled for application to small grains. Con-
sult the label for specific information.


NOVEMBER FIELD CROP ESTIMATES


The National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the fol-
lowing estimates as of November 1, with corn, cotton, hay,
soybean, and wheat estimates for Florida being carried over
from the October report:


Florida United States

Acreage for Harvest Yield per Acreage for Harves Yield per
Crop (x1000) Acre (x1000) Acre

Corn for grain 40 88 bu 70,925 134.7bu

Cotton 88 524 lb 13,405.2 592 lb

Hay, all 260 2.4 ton 62,051 2.60 ton

Peanuts 88 2,900 lb 1,436.5 2,664 lb

Soybeans 19 30 bu 72,786 36.7 bu

Sugarcane 456 39 ton 987.2 38.1 ton

Tobacco, all 6 2,550 lb 649.1 1,9561b

Wheat, a 9 40 bu 54,069 42.7 bu

The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Tredaway, Extension
Weed Specialist; M. B. Adjei, Extension Agronomist.


Grazing Restrictions
Trade Name Rate (days to wait or
(Common name) (product per acre withdraw animal Remarks

2,4-D (2,4-D) 0.5-2.0 pt 14 Spray after grain starts tillering but
before the boot stage (usually 4-8
inches tall).

Banvel (dicamba) 0.5-1.0 pt 7- lactating Mustbe applied before jointing
0 non-lactating stage.

Weedmaster (2,4-D 0.25-2.0 pt 7 lactating Do not apply after grass reaches
+ dicamba) 0 non-lactating the joint stage.

Buctril 0.5-1.0 pt 45 Apply from emergence to the boot
stage.