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 Table of Contents
 Peanut marketing
 Peanut assessments
 What about lupines?
 New tetraploid ryegrass
 Florida capron dismodium impacts...
 Pasture renovation
 Changes in the IFAS Forage Extension...
 Phase II tobacco settlement...
 Pesticide levels on tobacco
 Tobacco bailing report
 Tobacco market report
 Outlook for 2000 tobacco quota
 Tobacco specific nitrosamines
 What is a weed? What makes it a...
 October field crop estimates


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00012
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 1999
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00012

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Peanut marketing
        Page 2
    Peanut assessments
        Page 2
    What about lupines?
        Page 2
    New tetraploid ryegrass
        Page 2
    Florida capron dismodium impacts pasture production in Central Florida
        Page 3
    Pasture renovation
        Page 3
    Changes in the IFAS Forage Extension Testing Program
        Page 3
    Phase II tobacco settlement payments
        Page 4
    Pesticide levels on tobacco
        Page 4
    Tobacco bailing report
        Page 4
    Tobacco market report
        Page 4
    Outlook for 2000 tobacco quota
        Page 4
    Tobacco specific nitrosamines
        Page 4
    What is a weed? What makes it a weed?
        Page 5
    October field crop estimates
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
i'' FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


DATES TO REMEMBER


October 31-November 4
January 30-31

January 13


NOTES


November 1999


American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Salt Lake City
Southern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy Meetings -
Lexington, KY
Smutgrass Field Day SWREC, Immokalee


IN THIS ISSUE


PAGE


PEANUT
Peanut M marketing .... ........ ..................... .................................................................................. 2
Peanut A ssessm ents .............................................................................................................. ....................... 2

FORAGE
W hat About Lupines? ........................................................................................................................................ 2
N ew Tetraploid Ryegrass ................................................................................. ........................................... 2
Florida Carpon Desmodium Impacts Pasture Production in Central Florida................................................. 3
Pasture Renovation ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Changes in the IFA S Forage Extension Testing Program ............................... ... ................................... 3

TOBACCO
Phase II Tobacco Settlem ent Paym ents......................................................... .............................................. 4
Pesticide Levels on Tobacco ................. ...................................................................................................... 4
Tobacco Baling Report ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Tobacco M market Report ................................................................................................. .............................. 4
Outlook for 2000 Tobacco Quota........................................................................... ........... ................ ....... 4
Tobacco Specific N itrosam ines ................................................................ ............................................... 4

WEEDS
W hat is a W eed? W hat M akes it a W eed? .................................................... ............................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS
O october Field Crop Estim ates ....................................................................................... .............................. 5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








PEANUT MARKETING

In 1998 over 200,000 tons of peanuts were transferred from
the additional category to the domestic edible group through
the buyback procedure. There was also a small quota in-
crease for 1999. Consequently, it appears that all 1999 quota
peanuts may not be bought for domestic edible uses and the
excess may have to be crushed for oil. Quota peanuts that
are under loan and are crushed for oil represent a consider-
able loss in value. Since peanuts are under a no-net-cost
program, growers may have to make up for the losses through
additional marketing assessments on the 2000 crop.

EBW


PEANUT ASSESSMENTS

Peanut farmers pay various assessments when they sell their
peanuts. There is a marketing assessment that is used offset
losses that may occur when peanuts under loan are sold for
crushing. The grower assessment in 1999 is 0.65 percent of
the average quota or additional loan rate, while the buyer
pays 0.55 percent of the applicable average loan rate, for a
total of 1.20 percent. Florida growers pay a second assess-
ment of $3 per ton check-off that is used for promotion and
research on peanuts. These check-off funds are adminis-
tered by a committee of Florida farmers. A third and new
assessment in 1999, is the national check-off, which was
enacted after farmers voted in favor of the proposal to assess
themselves for national promotion and research. The na-
tional check-off is an assessment of 1 percent of the price
paid for all peanuts that the farmer sells. Thus if a grower
receives $610 per ton for quota peanuts, the assessment would
be $6.10 per ton. The national check-off will be adminis-
tered by a national board of farmers.

EBW


WHAT ABOUT LUPINES?

Why don't we grow more lupine? Blue and white lupines
can be a very valuable forage and green manure crop for the
Northern Peninsular and Panhandle of Florida. The prob-
lem is they are susceptible to severe freezes, when the grow-
ing period preceding the freeze is warm. At Gainesville we
had our lupine plots frozen 4 times in the decade of 1980's.
If cold weather precedes the freezes, the lupine will harden
off and can survive very cold temperatures. In Gainesville,
the weather too often stays warm right up to the time a freeze
occurs and the plants have not hardened off, and therefore
are killed by the freeze. Another problem has been the spotty
seed supply, also partly due to the freeze damage in seed
production areas.


If growers want to grow lupine they should find cold hardy
types such as Frost, Tiftwhite 78, and Tiftblue 78. If forage
is desired, be sure to get sweet types as some of the bitter
types may still be around and they are not eaten by live-
stock. Lupine should be planted from mid October through
mid November.

Lupines are attacked by root-knot nematodes and several
diseases. These problems can be minimized by not planting
the lupine on the same land more than once every four years.

Lupine seed production in Florida can be very variable. Good
flowering and seed production of many lupine cultivars de-
pends upon plants growing under a longer cold period than
often occurs in Florida winters.

GMP


NEW TETRAPLOID RYEGRASS

The IFAS Cultivar Release Committee Released 'Jumbo'
tetraploid ryegrass as a new cultivar. Jumbo was developed
by doubling the chromosomes of an advanced and improved
population of the diploid cultivar Surrey. Tetraploid cells
are larger than diploid cells so Jumbo has larger seed, stems
and leaves than Surrey and other diploids. It is also later
maturing. The doubling increased the disease resistance of
Jumbo so that it has the best crown rust resistance available.
Jumbo also has good resistance to stem rust, the most dam-
aging disease in the Willamette Valley of Oregon where most
ryegrass seed are produced. Jumbo has some resistance to
gray leaf spot and helminthosporium leaf spot.

Jumbo has equal or higher forage yield compared to the lead-
ing diploid ryegrass cultivars. It also has very high seed
yields so the price of seed should be more comparable to the
seed of improved diploid ryegrass cultivars. European
ryegrass growers prefer the tetraploid ryegrasses, especially
dairy farmers. Tetraploid ryegrasses have been less popular
in the US but this is due to absence of good adapted high
yielding and disease-resistant tetraploids and reasonably
priced seed. Jumbo should overcome these objections and
make in-roads into the annual ryegrass market.

Smith Seed Services Inc. of Halsey, OR has an exclusive
license to produce seed of Jumbo, and should have substan-
tial amounts of seed available to Florida growers by the start
of 2000 growing season.

GMP








PEANUT MARKETING

In 1998 over 200,000 tons of peanuts were transferred from
the additional category to the domestic edible group through
the buyback procedure. There was also a small quota in-
crease for 1999. Consequently, it appears that all 1999 quota
peanuts may not be bought for domestic edible uses and the
excess may have to be crushed for oil. Quota peanuts that
are under loan and are crushed for oil represent a consider-
able loss in value. Since peanuts are under a no-net-cost
program, growers may have to make up for the losses through
additional marketing assessments on the 2000 crop.

EBW


PEANUT ASSESSMENTS

Peanut farmers pay various assessments when they sell their
peanuts. There is a marketing assessment that is used offset
losses that may occur when peanuts under loan are sold for
crushing. The grower assessment in 1999 is 0.65 percent of
the average quota or additional loan rate, while the buyer
pays 0.55 percent of the applicable average loan rate, for a
total of 1.20 percent. Florida growers pay a second assess-
ment of $3 per ton check-off that is used for promotion and
research on peanuts. These check-off funds are adminis-
tered by a committee of Florida farmers. A third and new
assessment in 1999, is the national check-off, which was
enacted after farmers voted in favor of the proposal to assess
themselves for national promotion and research. The na-
tional check-off is an assessment of 1 percent of the price
paid for all peanuts that the farmer sells. Thus if a grower
receives $610 per ton for quota peanuts, the assessment would
be $6.10 per ton. The national check-off will be adminis-
tered by a national board of farmers.

EBW


WHAT ABOUT LUPINES?

Why don't we grow more lupine? Blue and white lupines
can be a very valuable forage and green manure crop for the
Northern Peninsular and Panhandle of Florida. The prob-
lem is they are susceptible to severe freezes, when the grow-
ing period preceding the freeze is warm. At Gainesville we
had our lupine plots frozen 4 times in the decade of 1980's.
If cold weather precedes the freezes, the lupine will harden
off and can survive very cold temperatures. In Gainesville,
the weather too often stays warm right up to the time a freeze
occurs and the plants have not hardened off, and therefore
are killed by the freeze. Another problem has been the spotty
seed supply, also partly due to the freeze damage in seed
production areas.


If growers want to grow lupine they should find cold hardy
types such as Frost, Tiftwhite 78, and Tiftblue 78. If forage
is desired, be sure to get sweet types as some of the bitter
types may still be around and they are not eaten by live-
stock. Lupine should be planted from mid October through
mid November.

Lupines are attacked by root-knot nematodes and several
diseases. These problems can be minimized by not planting
the lupine on the same land more than once every four years.

Lupine seed production in Florida can be very variable. Good
flowering and seed production of many lupine cultivars de-
pends upon plants growing under a longer cold period than
often occurs in Florida winters.

GMP


NEW TETRAPLOID RYEGRASS

The IFAS Cultivar Release Committee Released 'Jumbo'
tetraploid ryegrass as a new cultivar. Jumbo was developed
by doubling the chromosomes of an advanced and improved
population of the diploid cultivar Surrey. Tetraploid cells
are larger than diploid cells so Jumbo has larger seed, stems
and leaves than Surrey and other diploids. It is also later
maturing. The doubling increased the disease resistance of
Jumbo so that it has the best crown rust resistance available.
Jumbo also has good resistance to stem rust, the most dam-
aging disease in the Willamette Valley of Oregon where most
ryegrass seed are produced. Jumbo has some resistance to
gray leaf spot and helminthosporium leaf spot.

Jumbo has equal or higher forage yield compared to the lead-
ing diploid ryegrass cultivars. It also has very high seed
yields so the price of seed should be more comparable to the
seed of improved diploid ryegrass cultivars. European
ryegrass growers prefer the tetraploid ryegrasses, especially
dairy farmers. Tetraploid ryegrasses have been less popular
in the US but this is due to absence of good adapted high
yielding and disease-resistant tetraploids and reasonably
priced seed. Jumbo should overcome these objections and
make in-roads into the annual ryegrass market.

Smith Seed Services Inc. of Halsey, OR has an exclusive
license to produce seed of Jumbo, and should have substan-
tial amounts of seed available to Florida growers by the start
of 2000 growing season.

GMP








PEANUT MARKETING

In 1998 over 200,000 tons of peanuts were transferred from
the additional category to the domestic edible group through
the buyback procedure. There was also a small quota in-
crease for 1999. Consequently, it appears that all 1999 quota
peanuts may not be bought for domestic edible uses and the
excess may have to be crushed for oil. Quota peanuts that
are under loan and are crushed for oil represent a consider-
able loss in value. Since peanuts are under a no-net-cost
program, growers may have to make up for the losses through
additional marketing assessments on the 2000 crop.

EBW


PEANUT ASSESSMENTS

Peanut farmers pay various assessments when they sell their
peanuts. There is a marketing assessment that is used offset
losses that may occur when peanuts under loan are sold for
crushing. The grower assessment in 1999 is 0.65 percent of
the average quota or additional loan rate, while the buyer
pays 0.55 percent of the applicable average loan rate, for a
total of 1.20 percent. Florida growers pay a second assess-
ment of $3 per ton check-off that is used for promotion and
research on peanuts. These check-off funds are adminis-
tered by a committee of Florida farmers. A third and new
assessment in 1999, is the national check-off, which was
enacted after farmers voted in favor of the proposal to assess
themselves for national promotion and research. The na-
tional check-off is an assessment of 1 percent of the price
paid for all peanuts that the farmer sells. Thus if a grower
receives $610 per ton for quota peanuts, the assessment would
be $6.10 per ton. The national check-off will be adminis-
tered by a national board of farmers.

EBW


WHAT ABOUT LUPINES?

Why don't we grow more lupine? Blue and white lupines
can be a very valuable forage and green manure crop for the
Northern Peninsular and Panhandle of Florida. The prob-
lem is they are susceptible to severe freezes, when the grow-
ing period preceding the freeze is warm. At Gainesville we
had our lupine plots frozen 4 times in the decade of 1980's.
If cold weather precedes the freezes, the lupine will harden
off and can survive very cold temperatures. In Gainesville,
the weather too often stays warm right up to the time a freeze
occurs and the plants have not hardened off, and therefore
are killed by the freeze. Another problem has been the spotty
seed supply, also partly due to the freeze damage in seed
production areas.


If growers want to grow lupine they should find cold hardy
types such as Frost, Tiftwhite 78, and Tiftblue 78. If forage
is desired, be sure to get sweet types as some of the bitter
types may still be around and they are not eaten by live-
stock. Lupine should be planted from mid October through
mid November.

Lupines are attacked by root-knot nematodes and several
diseases. These problems can be minimized by not planting
the lupine on the same land more than once every four years.

Lupine seed production in Florida can be very variable. Good
flowering and seed production of many lupine cultivars de-
pends upon plants growing under a longer cold period than
often occurs in Florida winters.

GMP


NEW TETRAPLOID RYEGRASS

The IFAS Cultivar Release Committee Released 'Jumbo'
tetraploid ryegrass as a new cultivar. Jumbo was developed
by doubling the chromosomes of an advanced and improved
population of the diploid cultivar Surrey. Tetraploid cells
are larger than diploid cells so Jumbo has larger seed, stems
and leaves than Surrey and other diploids. It is also later
maturing. The doubling increased the disease resistance of
Jumbo so that it has the best crown rust resistance available.
Jumbo also has good resistance to stem rust, the most dam-
aging disease in the Willamette Valley of Oregon where most
ryegrass seed are produced. Jumbo has some resistance to
gray leaf spot and helminthosporium leaf spot.

Jumbo has equal or higher forage yield compared to the lead-
ing diploid ryegrass cultivars. It also has very high seed
yields so the price of seed should be more comparable to the
seed of improved diploid ryegrass cultivars. European
ryegrass growers prefer the tetraploid ryegrasses, especially
dairy farmers. Tetraploid ryegrasses have been less popular
in the US but this is due to absence of good adapted high
yielding and disease-resistant tetraploids and reasonably
priced seed. Jumbo should overcome these objections and
make in-roads into the annual ryegrass market.

Smith Seed Services Inc. of Halsey, OR has an exclusive
license to produce seed of Jumbo, and should have substan-
tial amounts of seed available to Florida growers by the start
of 2000 growing season.

GMP








PEANUT MARKETING

In 1998 over 200,000 tons of peanuts were transferred from
the additional category to the domestic edible group through
the buyback procedure. There was also a small quota in-
crease for 1999. Consequently, it appears that all 1999 quota
peanuts may not be bought for domestic edible uses and the
excess may have to be crushed for oil. Quota peanuts that
are under loan and are crushed for oil represent a consider-
able loss in value. Since peanuts are under a no-net-cost
program, growers may have to make up for the losses through
additional marketing assessments on the 2000 crop.

EBW


PEANUT ASSESSMENTS

Peanut farmers pay various assessments when they sell their
peanuts. There is a marketing assessment that is used offset
losses that may occur when peanuts under loan are sold for
crushing. The grower assessment in 1999 is 0.65 percent of
the average quota or additional loan rate, while the buyer
pays 0.55 percent of the applicable average loan rate, for a
total of 1.20 percent. Florida growers pay a second assess-
ment of $3 per ton check-off that is used for promotion and
research on peanuts. These check-off funds are adminis-
tered by a committee of Florida farmers. A third and new
assessment in 1999, is the national check-off, which was
enacted after farmers voted in favor of the proposal to assess
themselves for national promotion and research. The na-
tional check-off is an assessment of 1 percent of the price
paid for all peanuts that the farmer sells. Thus if a grower
receives $610 per ton for quota peanuts, the assessment would
be $6.10 per ton. The national check-off will be adminis-
tered by a national board of farmers.

EBW


WHAT ABOUT LUPINES?

Why don't we grow more lupine? Blue and white lupines
can be a very valuable forage and green manure crop for the
Northern Peninsular and Panhandle of Florida. The prob-
lem is they are susceptible to severe freezes, when the grow-
ing period preceding the freeze is warm. At Gainesville we
had our lupine plots frozen 4 times in the decade of 1980's.
If cold weather precedes the freezes, the lupine will harden
off and can survive very cold temperatures. In Gainesville,
the weather too often stays warm right up to the time a freeze
occurs and the plants have not hardened off, and therefore
are killed by the freeze. Another problem has been the spotty
seed supply, also partly due to the freeze damage in seed
production areas.


If growers want to grow lupine they should find cold hardy
types such as Frost, Tiftwhite 78, and Tiftblue 78. If forage
is desired, be sure to get sweet types as some of the bitter
types may still be around and they are not eaten by live-
stock. Lupine should be planted from mid October through
mid November.

Lupines are attacked by root-knot nematodes and several
diseases. These problems can be minimized by not planting
the lupine on the same land more than once every four years.

Lupine seed production in Florida can be very variable. Good
flowering and seed production of many lupine cultivars de-
pends upon plants growing under a longer cold period than
often occurs in Florida winters.

GMP


NEW TETRAPLOID RYEGRASS

The IFAS Cultivar Release Committee Released 'Jumbo'
tetraploid ryegrass as a new cultivar. Jumbo was developed
by doubling the chromosomes of an advanced and improved
population of the diploid cultivar Surrey. Tetraploid cells
are larger than diploid cells so Jumbo has larger seed, stems
and leaves than Surrey and other diploids. It is also later
maturing. The doubling increased the disease resistance of
Jumbo so that it has the best crown rust resistance available.
Jumbo also has good resistance to stem rust, the most dam-
aging disease in the Willamette Valley of Oregon where most
ryegrass seed are produced. Jumbo has some resistance to
gray leaf spot and helminthosporium leaf spot.

Jumbo has equal or higher forage yield compared to the lead-
ing diploid ryegrass cultivars. It also has very high seed
yields so the price of seed should be more comparable to the
seed of improved diploid ryegrass cultivars. European
ryegrass growers prefer the tetraploid ryegrasses, especially
dairy farmers. Tetraploid ryegrasses have been less popular
in the US but this is due to absence of good adapted high
yielding and disease-resistant tetraploids and reasonably
priced seed. Jumbo should overcome these objections and
make in-roads into the annual ryegrass market.

Smith Seed Services Inc. of Halsey, OR has an exclusive
license to produce seed of Jumbo, and should have substan-
tial amounts of seed available to Florida growers by the start
of 2000 growing season.

GMP








FLORIDA CARPON DESMODIUM IMPACTS PASTURE
PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

Florida carpon desmodium is a warm season, grazing-toler-
ant, perennial legume which was released in 1979. It is
adapted to extensive areas of moist flatwood soils. Once
established, carpon desmodium will tolerate saturated soil
in summer and drought in spring, and it is very competitive
with bahiagrass. It has the advantage of being a truly long-
term perennial. There are about 5,000 ha (12,500 acres) of
carpon desmodium-bahiagrass pasture in central and south
Florida and the figure is growing. As a component of grass
pastures, carpon desmodium is managed to provide a rela-
tively high-protein forage supplement to the grass and to
supply biologically fixed N to the system.

My recent visit with Mike Milicevic (General Manager of
Cattle Operations) of Lykes Ranch in Lake Placid Florida
was an eye opener as to the success of carpon desmodium in
the Okeechobee area. Incorporation of carpon desmodium
into forage systems on the ranch has enabled significant im-
provement in cattle reproductive rates, which stands at 85%,
and in calf weaning weights. Last year alone, Mike and his
men established 4,000 acres of excellent carpon desmodium-
Tifton 9 bahiagrass pastures. Part of their success relates to
the location of the site. The ranch lies in a number of river
beds including the Okeechobee Plain, the Caloosahatchee
Valley, the Caloosahatchee Incline, and the Desoto Plain.
The combination of proximity to water, somewhat low per-
meability and relatively flat topography results in a high per-
centage of the ranch land (approximately 23% of the ranch)
having good soil moisture year-round.

Management has also played a key role in this success story.
Lykes Agriculture, of which the ranch is a subsidiary, main-
tains and operates several thousand miles of ditches and ca-
nals with associated culverts, pumps and water control struc-
tures as well as over 10,000 acres of water retention reser-
voirs to facilitate drainage and irrigation land for sugarcane,
citrus and pasture crops. Soil fertility is important to persis-
tence of carpon desmodium. At Lykes Ranch, soil pH is
maintained above 5.2 via constant monitoring and dolomitic
liming. All bahiagrass based pastures on the ranch are fer-
tilized with only 50 lb N/A, annually, although it is gener-
ally recommended that 0-30-60 N-P2-O0 be applied to warm
season legume-grass mixtures when Mehlich-1 extractable
soil test indicates P and K levels are below 30 and 60 ppm,
respectively. Grazing management is another critical factor
for botanical stability in a carpon desmodium-bahiagrass
mixed pasture. During periods of limited moisture when
grass growth is substantially greater than that of the legume,
which is characteristic of Florida springs, heavy utilization
of grass growth is advantageous to carpon desmodium. From
mid-summer through fall, lighter grazing pressure or peri-
ods of deferred grazing will allow some seed set which is
beneficial to the vigor of carpon desmodium. The carpon


desmodium on Lykes Ranch is usually allowed to seed in
October and seed is harvested in November.

Ecological sites similar to Lykes ranch exist in central Florida
where carpon desmodium will fit into pasture systems with
little managerial effort. Interested producers should obtain
information on the legume from their county extension of-
fice.

MBA


PASTURE RENOVATION

Pasture renovation has been defined as "The improvement
of a pasture by partial or complete destruction of the sod,
plus liming, fertilizing, weed control, and seeding as may be
required to establish desirable forage plants." In Florida,
our pasture renovation programs usually start in the fall with
the plowing and planting of a cool season annual such as
ryegrass, small grain, clover, or a combination of these. The
permanent pasture grass is then planted the next year at the
beginning of or during the summer rainy season. The plow-
ing or primary tillage done in the fall allows the cool season
forage crop to be planted on a clean, tilled seed bed which
usually means more and earlier production as compared to
over seeding on a sod. Tillage in the fall and again after the
cool season forage has stopped growing (May) provides for
more complete destruction of any weeds and remnants of
the old pasture sod. This type of strategy should result in a
clean, smooth, well-prepared site for planting of the new
pasture.

A similar strategy has incorporated the use of a herbicide in
an attempt to insure complete kill of certain weedy grasses.
The herbicide Roundup has been used in late summer to kill
the old pasture sod and weedy plants such as smutgrass and
common bermudagrass. To be effective, the herbicide must
be applied before plant growth slows. In the fall, a no-till
pasture drill is then used to plant the cool season forage into
the killed sod. This practice would conserve soil moisture
as compared to tillage, which could be an advantage in get-
ting the cool season crop started. Producers should weigh
the costs and advantages before choosing one system over
another.

CGC


CHANGES IN THE IFAS FORAGE EXTENSION
TESTING PROGRAM

In the recent past some forage samples were analyzed using
wet chemistry if a reliable NIR (near infrared reflectance)
equation was not available. Wet chemistry analysis is no
longer available. Of course using wet chemistry, just about








FLORIDA CARPON DESMODIUM IMPACTS PASTURE
PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

Florida carpon desmodium is a warm season, grazing-toler-
ant, perennial legume which was released in 1979. It is
adapted to extensive areas of moist flatwood soils. Once
established, carpon desmodium will tolerate saturated soil
in summer and drought in spring, and it is very competitive
with bahiagrass. It has the advantage of being a truly long-
term perennial. There are about 5,000 ha (12,500 acres) of
carpon desmodium-bahiagrass pasture in central and south
Florida and the figure is growing. As a component of grass
pastures, carpon desmodium is managed to provide a rela-
tively high-protein forage supplement to the grass and to
supply biologically fixed N to the system.

My recent visit with Mike Milicevic (General Manager of
Cattle Operations) of Lykes Ranch in Lake Placid Florida
was an eye opener as to the success of carpon desmodium in
the Okeechobee area. Incorporation of carpon desmodium
into forage systems on the ranch has enabled significant im-
provement in cattle reproductive rates, which stands at 85%,
and in calf weaning weights. Last year alone, Mike and his
men established 4,000 acres of excellent carpon desmodium-
Tifton 9 bahiagrass pastures. Part of their success relates to
the location of the site. The ranch lies in a number of river
beds including the Okeechobee Plain, the Caloosahatchee
Valley, the Caloosahatchee Incline, and the Desoto Plain.
The combination of proximity to water, somewhat low per-
meability and relatively flat topography results in a high per-
centage of the ranch land (approximately 23% of the ranch)
having good soil moisture year-round.

Management has also played a key role in this success story.
Lykes Agriculture, of which the ranch is a subsidiary, main-
tains and operates several thousand miles of ditches and ca-
nals with associated culverts, pumps and water control struc-
tures as well as over 10,000 acres of water retention reser-
voirs to facilitate drainage and irrigation land for sugarcane,
citrus and pasture crops. Soil fertility is important to persis-
tence of carpon desmodium. At Lykes Ranch, soil pH is
maintained above 5.2 via constant monitoring and dolomitic
liming. All bahiagrass based pastures on the ranch are fer-
tilized with only 50 lb N/A, annually, although it is gener-
ally recommended that 0-30-60 N-P2-O0 be applied to warm
season legume-grass mixtures when Mehlich-1 extractable
soil test indicates P and K levels are below 30 and 60 ppm,
respectively. Grazing management is another critical factor
for botanical stability in a carpon desmodium-bahiagrass
mixed pasture. During periods of limited moisture when
grass growth is substantially greater than that of the legume,
which is characteristic of Florida springs, heavy utilization
of grass growth is advantageous to carpon desmodium. From
mid-summer through fall, lighter grazing pressure or peri-
ods of deferred grazing will allow some seed set which is
beneficial to the vigor of carpon desmodium. The carpon


desmodium on Lykes Ranch is usually allowed to seed in
October and seed is harvested in November.

Ecological sites similar to Lykes ranch exist in central Florida
where carpon desmodium will fit into pasture systems with
little managerial effort. Interested producers should obtain
information on the legume from their county extension of-
fice.

MBA


PASTURE RENOVATION

Pasture renovation has been defined as "The improvement
of a pasture by partial or complete destruction of the sod,
plus liming, fertilizing, weed control, and seeding as may be
required to establish desirable forage plants." In Florida,
our pasture renovation programs usually start in the fall with
the plowing and planting of a cool season annual such as
ryegrass, small grain, clover, or a combination of these. The
permanent pasture grass is then planted the next year at the
beginning of or during the summer rainy season. The plow-
ing or primary tillage done in the fall allows the cool season
forage crop to be planted on a clean, tilled seed bed which
usually means more and earlier production as compared to
over seeding on a sod. Tillage in the fall and again after the
cool season forage has stopped growing (May) provides for
more complete destruction of any weeds and remnants of
the old pasture sod. This type of strategy should result in a
clean, smooth, well-prepared site for planting of the new
pasture.

A similar strategy has incorporated the use of a herbicide in
an attempt to insure complete kill of certain weedy grasses.
The herbicide Roundup has been used in late summer to kill
the old pasture sod and weedy plants such as smutgrass and
common bermudagrass. To be effective, the herbicide must
be applied before plant growth slows. In the fall, a no-till
pasture drill is then used to plant the cool season forage into
the killed sod. This practice would conserve soil moisture
as compared to tillage, which could be an advantage in get-
ting the cool season crop started. Producers should weigh
the costs and advantages before choosing one system over
another.

CGC


CHANGES IN THE IFAS FORAGE EXTENSION
TESTING PROGRAM

In the recent past some forage samples were analyzed using
wet chemistry if a reliable NIR (near infrared reflectance)
equation was not available. Wet chemistry analysis is no
longer available. Of course using wet chemistry, just about








FLORIDA CARPON DESMODIUM IMPACTS PASTURE
PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

Florida carpon desmodium is a warm season, grazing-toler-
ant, perennial legume which was released in 1979. It is
adapted to extensive areas of moist flatwood soils. Once
established, carpon desmodium will tolerate saturated soil
in summer and drought in spring, and it is very competitive
with bahiagrass. It has the advantage of being a truly long-
term perennial. There are about 5,000 ha (12,500 acres) of
carpon desmodium-bahiagrass pasture in central and south
Florida and the figure is growing. As a component of grass
pastures, carpon desmodium is managed to provide a rela-
tively high-protein forage supplement to the grass and to
supply biologically fixed N to the system.

My recent visit with Mike Milicevic (General Manager of
Cattle Operations) of Lykes Ranch in Lake Placid Florida
was an eye opener as to the success of carpon desmodium in
the Okeechobee area. Incorporation of carpon desmodium
into forage systems on the ranch has enabled significant im-
provement in cattle reproductive rates, which stands at 85%,
and in calf weaning weights. Last year alone, Mike and his
men established 4,000 acres of excellent carpon desmodium-
Tifton 9 bahiagrass pastures. Part of their success relates to
the location of the site. The ranch lies in a number of river
beds including the Okeechobee Plain, the Caloosahatchee
Valley, the Caloosahatchee Incline, and the Desoto Plain.
The combination of proximity to water, somewhat low per-
meability and relatively flat topography results in a high per-
centage of the ranch land (approximately 23% of the ranch)
having good soil moisture year-round.

Management has also played a key role in this success story.
Lykes Agriculture, of which the ranch is a subsidiary, main-
tains and operates several thousand miles of ditches and ca-
nals with associated culverts, pumps and water control struc-
tures as well as over 10,000 acres of water retention reser-
voirs to facilitate drainage and irrigation land for sugarcane,
citrus and pasture crops. Soil fertility is important to persis-
tence of carpon desmodium. At Lykes Ranch, soil pH is
maintained above 5.2 via constant monitoring and dolomitic
liming. All bahiagrass based pastures on the ranch are fer-
tilized with only 50 lb N/A, annually, although it is gener-
ally recommended that 0-30-60 N-P2-O0 be applied to warm
season legume-grass mixtures when Mehlich-1 extractable
soil test indicates P and K levels are below 30 and 60 ppm,
respectively. Grazing management is another critical factor
for botanical stability in a carpon desmodium-bahiagrass
mixed pasture. During periods of limited moisture when
grass growth is substantially greater than that of the legume,
which is characteristic of Florida springs, heavy utilization
of grass growth is advantageous to carpon desmodium. From
mid-summer through fall, lighter grazing pressure or peri-
ods of deferred grazing will allow some seed set which is
beneficial to the vigor of carpon desmodium. The carpon


desmodium on Lykes Ranch is usually allowed to seed in
October and seed is harvested in November.

Ecological sites similar to Lykes ranch exist in central Florida
where carpon desmodium will fit into pasture systems with
little managerial effort. Interested producers should obtain
information on the legume from their county extension of-
fice.

MBA


PASTURE RENOVATION

Pasture renovation has been defined as "The improvement
of a pasture by partial or complete destruction of the sod,
plus liming, fertilizing, weed control, and seeding as may be
required to establish desirable forage plants." In Florida,
our pasture renovation programs usually start in the fall with
the plowing and planting of a cool season annual such as
ryegrass, small grain, clover, or a combination of these. The
permanent pasture grass is then planted the next year at the
beginning of or during the summer rainy season. The plow-
ing or primary tillage done in the fall allows the cool season
forage crop to be planted on a clean, tilled seed bed which
usually means more and earlier production as compared to
over seeding on a sod. Tillage in the fall and again after the
cool season forage has stopped growing (May) provides for
more complete destruction of any weeds and remnants of
the old pasture sod. This type of strategy should result in a
clean, smooth, well-prepared site for planting of the new
pasture.

A similar strategy has incorporated the use of a herbicide in
an attempt to insure complete kill of certain weedy grasses.
The herbicide Roundup has been used in late summer to kill
the old pasture sod and weedy plants such as smutgrass and
common bermudagrass. To be effective, the herbicide must
be applied before plant growth slows. In the fall, a no-till
pasture drill is then used to plant the cool season forage into
the killed sod. This practice would conserve soil moisture
as compared to tillage, which could be an advantage in get-
ting the cool season crop started. Producers should weigh
the costs and advantages before choosing one system over
another.

CGC


CHANGES IN THE IFAS FORAGE EXTENSION
TESTING PROGRAM

In the recent past some forage samples were analyzed using
wet chemistry if a reliable NIR (near infrared reflectance)
equation was not available. Wet chemistry analysis is no
longer available. Of course using wet chemistry, just about








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








any kind of sample could be analyzed. Now, only certain
forages will be analyzed. These are the ones where we have
a good and reliable prediction equation to use with the NIR
method. These forages are: bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
stargrass, limpograss (hemarthria), digitgrass, rhodesgrass,
and perennial peanut. Samples of hay, pasture, greenchop,
or silage of these forages can be sent to the laboratory at the
Range Cattle Station for nutritional analysis. All other
samples will be discarded or returned.

CGC


PHASE II TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

Tobacco growers will receive payments late this year from
the Phase II settlement funds. These funds came from ciga-
rette manufacturers to help offset the loss of income that
growers are experiencing as a result of the tobacco settle-
ments. There will be approximately $4,000,000 dispersed
to Florida growers, at a rate of about 25 cents per pound of
1998 basic quota. The quota owner will receive 2/3 of the
payment and quota renters would receive the remaining 1/3.
All tobacco-producing states share equally on a per pound
basis in the fund payments, but the rate may be expressed on
the difference in basic quota in 1977 and 1998. Also other
states may decide on different shares between quota owners
and renters. Each state has a committee to decide the details
of the payments.

EBW


PESTICIDE LEVELS ON TOBACCO

Samples for pesticide analyses are taken each season from
tobacco being offered for sale on the warehouse floor. In
1999, maleic hydrazide residue levels were determined on
nine samples from Florida warehouses. Three of the samples
had no residues of the sucker control chemical, five samples
showed less than 80 ppm, and one sample had a level of 244
ppm. The average maleic hydrazide level of the nine samples
was 44 ppm, which is well below the national average for
flue cured tobacco. Eight samples were analyzed for certain
insecticide residues and nine for herbicide residues. All
samples were free of these residues.


EBW


TOBACCO BALING REPORT

In 1999 there were 8910 bales of tobacco sold on the Florida
warehouses. The weight of the tobacco in bales amounted
to 42 percent of the 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco sold
in Florida. The Lake City market sold 63 percent of their


tobacco inbales. Thus far, all flue-cured tobacco warehouses
in the country have sold 482,643 bales, which accounts for
53 percent of the gross pounds sold through October 21.

EBW


TOBACCO MARKET REPORT

The Type 14 (Florida and Georgia) tobacco markets com-
pleted the 1999 sales on October 21. The Florida markets
sold 15,642,220 gross pounds of tobacco for an average price
of $172.77 per cwt, while the total Type 14 gross sales were
87,121,875 pounds. Almost 13 percent of the sales went
into the loan program administered by the Flue-Cured To-
bacco Stabilization Corporation. Through October 21, all
flue-cured markets had sold 648,970, 892 pounds of tobacco.
There have been a total of over nine million pounds of non-
quota sales so far in 1999, with almost 60 thousand pounds
being from Florida.

EBW


OUTLOOK FOR 2000 TOBACCO QUOTA

It appears likely that the flue-cured tobacco quota may be
reduced again next year. The quota is determined primarily
by a formula that includes buying intentions by the domestic
cigarette manufacturers, the average export volume for the
last three years, and the amount of tobacco held in storage.
Even if the first two components do not change from last
year, the amount of tobacco in storage may reduce the quota.
The formula requires that the quota be reduced proportion-
ally for poundage stored in excess of 15 percent of the previ-
ous year's basic quota. Since the 1999 basic quota was about
667 million pounds, about 100 million pounds is all that could
be in storage without requiring a reduction in quota. Through
October 21, over 110 million pounds of 1999 tobacco has
been placed in the loan program, while there are over 145
million pounds from the 1997 and 1998 crops in storage.
Any sales of stored tobacco up until the quota is determined
would help reduce the possible quota cut.

EBW


TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES


There appear to be plans to increase the number of tobacco
curing barns that can be used for the production of tobacco
that will be free of nitrosamines. These barns use heat ex-
changers to move the heated air through the tobacco rather
than passing the air directly from the combustion chamber
to the tobacco. Trials are being conducted on retrofitting
current bars to those that can be used to cure nitrosamine-








free tobacco. Thus far, all nitrosamine-free tobacco has been
grown under contract.

EBW


WHAT IS A WEED? WHAT MAKES IT A WEED?

Through the years we often forget the basic principles which
were taught to us and enabled us to build further knowledge.
As a weed scientist, a common question includes the defini-
tion of a weed. Simply put, a weed is a plant out of place. It
can be a rosebush in vegetable garden, a cotton plant in a
peanut field, or a corn stalk in a field of sorghum. Weeds
are described as plants that are competitive, persistent, and
pernicious.

Weeds exhibit certain characteristics enabling them to exist
when other plants could not. Weeds are prolific seed pro-
ducers. Studies have shown that not only do weeds in gen-
eral produce large numbers of seeds, but also the seeds re-
main viable for many years (70+). Weed seeds are often
very similar in size to crop seeds and therefore go undetec-
ted. When this occurs, the weed seed is spread and thus
becomes a persistent problem. Weed fruits and seeds are
pubescence of the seeds make them capable of traveling
adapted for dispersal ease. The spines, hooks, and
by wind, water, or simply by contact.

Weeds can cause many problems for farmers, homeowners,
golf course personnel, nursery owners, and park officials.


Weeds can cause significant crop yield loss as well as crop
quality. Dockage can result due to the presence of foreign
materials such as weed seeds in the harvested crop. Weeds
attract insects, plant pathogens, and nematodes causing the
field to be less manageable for crops. Weeds interfere with
crop harvesting. For example, morningglory can cause sig-
nificant problems in a cotton picker by wrapping around the
spindles.

When discussing the problems that weeds may cause pre-
vention methods must also be mentioned. Do not let plants
reproduce by letting them go to seed. If they do produce
seed, don't bury it in areas that have not been infested. Clean
your equipment so that reproductive structures of weeds can-
not be spread to another area. Do not bring weed-infested
hay, seed, or soil to clean areas. Kill weeds in areas sur-
rounding fields so that seeds cannot be blown into cultivated
areas. Participate in weed control efforts so that weeds can
be controlled prior to seeding.


JAT


OCTOBER FIELD CROP ESTIMATES

The National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the fol-
lowing estimates as of October 1, with corn, cotton, hay,
soybean, and wheat estimates for Florida being carried over
from the September report:








free tobacco. Thus far, all nitrosamine-free tobacco has been
grown under contract.

EBW


WHAT IS A WEED? WHAT MAKES IT A WEED?

Through the years we often forget the basic principles which
were taught to us and enabled us to build further knowledge.
As a weed scientist, a common question includes the defini-
tion of a weed. Simply put, a weed is a plant out of place. It
can be a rosebush in vegetable garden, a cotton plant in a
peanut field, or a corn stalk in a field of sorghum. Weeds
are described as plants that are competitive, persistent, and
pernicious.

Weeds exhibit certain characteristics enabling them to exist
when other plants could not. Weeds are prolific seed pro-
ducers. Studies have shown that not only do weeds in gen-
eral produce large numbers of seeds, but also the seeds re-
main viable for many years (70+). Weed seeds are often
very similar in size to crop seeds and therefore go undetec-
ted. When this occurs, the weed seed is spread and thus
becomes a persistent problem. Weed fruits and seeds are
pubescence of the seeds make them capable of traveling
adapted for dispersal ease. The spines, hooks, and
by wind, water, or simply by contact.

Weeds can cause many problems for farmers, homeowners,
golf course personnel, nursery owners, and park officials.


Weeds can cause significant crop yield loss as well as crop
quality. Dockage can result due to the presence of foreign
materials such as weed seeds in the harvested crop. Weeds
attract insects, plant pathogens, and nematodes causing the
field to be less manageable for crops. Weeds interfere with
crop harvesting. For example, morningglory can cause sig-
nificant problems in a cotton picker by wrapping around the
spindles.

When discussing the problems that weeds may cause pre-
vention methods must also be mentioned. Do not let plants
reproduce by letting them go to seed. If they do produce
seed, don't bury it in areas that have not been infested. Clean
your equipment so that reproductive structures of weeds can-
not be spread to another area. Do not bring weed-infested
hay, seed, or soil to clean areas. Kill weeds in areas sur-
rounding fields so that seeds cannot be blown into cultivated
areas. Participate in weed control efforts so that weeds can
be controlled prior to seeding.


JAT


OCTOBER FIELD CROP ESTIMATES

The National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the fol-
lowing estimates as of October 1, with corn, cotton, hay,
soybean, and wheat estimates for Florida being carried over
from the September report: