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 Table of Contents
 Extending the peanut harvest...
 On-farm storage of peanuts
 Planting cool season forages
 Cool season forages for grazin...
 New alfalfa varieties
 Small grain plantings for dove...
 Tobacco sales
 Tobacco specific nitrosamines and...
 Nematode management for 2000
 Parchisels offer a good option...
 September field crop estimates


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00011
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 1999
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00011

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Extending the peanut harvest season
        Page 2
    On-farm storage of peanuts
        Page 2
    Planting cool season forages
        Page 2
    Cool season forages for grazing
        Page 2
    New alfalfa varieties
        Page 3
    Small grain plantings for dove hunting
        Page 3
    Tobacco sales
        Page 3
    Tobacco specific nitrosamines and curing
        Page 3
    Nematode management for 2000
        Page 3
    Parchisels offer a good option for applying fumigants
        Page 4
    September field crop estimates
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
i'' FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


NOTES


DATES TO REMEMBER


October 19-21
October 31-November 4


Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition Moultrie, Ga.
American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Salt Lake City, Utah


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

PEANUT
E extending the Peanut H harvest Season .............................................................................................................. 2
O n-F arm Storage of P eanuts ......................................................................................... .............................. 2

FORAGE
Planting C ool Season Forages .................................................................. ............................................... 2
C ool Season F orages for G razing .................................................................................. .............................. 2
New Alfalfa Varieties ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Small Grain Plantings for Dove Hunting ................................................... ................................................. 3

TOBACCO
Tobacco Sales ................................. ........ ................ ....... 3
Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines and Curing ............................................... ................................................ 3

MISCELLANEOUS
Nematode Management for 2000 .......................................................................... .............................. 3
Parachisels Offer a Good Option for Applying Fumigants ............................. ....................................... 4
Septem ber F field C rop E stim ates ................................................................................... .............................. 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








EXTENDING THE PEANUT HARVEST SEASON

Farmers may avoid some of the tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) problems by restricting their planting period to late
April and early May. If this restricted planting period results
in problems of harvesting and drying the peanuts in a short
period of time, they may want to consider using one of the
later maturing varieties next year in order to spread the
harvest season. Southern Runner, MDR 98, and C-99R
could be planted at the same time as Georgia Green, but
would not mature until about two weeks later. This would
provide a longer harvest season and perhaps allow for more
efficient utilization of equipment.


EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF PEANUTS

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm for later sale or use as
seed next year, care should be taken to maintain quality over
the winter. Be sure to dry the peanuts to a moisture content
often percent or less and store them so that they do not gain
moisture while in storage. A good method would be to leave
them in the drying wagons and run the fans, and heat if
needed, to keep the moisture content to a safe level. If the
peanuts are stored in a grain bin or barn, provide ventilation
to prevent moisture accumulation by the kernels. Apply an
insecticide to help prevent infestations during storage.
Avoid damage to the shells and kernels, because insects can
enter broken shells. If it is necessary to walk over the
peanuts, use a board or something similar to prevent
cracking the shells. Protect the peanuts from rats, squirrels,
birds, and other animals that may eat or damage them.


EBW

PLANTING COOL SEASON FORAGES

The traditional window for planting the cool season forages
falls between October 15 and November 15, with planting in
north Florida occurring in the early part of the window and
planting in South Florida occurring in the last half of the
window. This window for planting seems to work well for
crops that are planted on a clean, tilled, seedbed. When no-
till seeding into a bermudagrass sod in north Florida, seeding
should be delayed two to four weeks compared to seeding
into a clean, tilled seedbed. Bahiagrass should be disced
before planting and planting may need to be delayed even
longer than what is suggested for bermudagrass. No-till
seeding into grass sods in South Florida (south of Orlando) is
not recommended unless irrigation is available. More often
than not, soil moisture will be inadequate for successful
production.


COOL SEASON FORAGES FOR GRAZING


As a producer, do you have enough hay or other reserved
summer forage to carry your cattle through the winter? If the
present weather pattern (rain!) continues through October
into November this may be a good year to take a chance on
growing some of the cool season forages to help carry
animals through the winter.

Cool season forages include ryegrass, the small grains (oats,
wheat, rye and triticale), cool season legumes and mixtures.
Ryegrass is the most widely used cool season forage or a
combination of rye and ryegrass. Early planted oats and
ryegrass also make a good combination.

In peninsular Florida most of these forage are planted in late
October through November. With luck, some cattlemen may
be able to start grazing by early December. In the panhandle
planting and grazing will come earlier, with oats planted in
September or early October offering the best opportunity for
early grazing.

Uses Cool season forages can be used to supplement the
cow herd through limit grazing. This is the practice of letting
the cow graze for two to three hours each day in order to
satisfy their protein requirement and some of their energy
requirement. Trampling damage and contamination from
manure is reduced when animals are only allowed to graze
long enough to get their fill. Cool season forages also
provides excellent grazing for young animals such as
stockers or replacement heifer calves that require a high level
of nutrition. Cool season forages are high in quality. They
are also high in moisture and low in fiber; therefore cattle
grazing these forages should receive some hay or other dry
forage to aid in digestion and prevent scouring.

Stocking Rate Well fertilized cool-season annuals can cary
600 pounds of beef per acre. Therefore one acre should be
able to provide grazing for 1.5 calves weighing 400 pounds
each. Growth of the pasture may be slowed and carrying
capacity reduced by severe cold or droughts.

Grazing How soon can you start grazing? Begin grazing
when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall. Grazing too soon reduces
forage production, and in some instances has allowed plants
to be pulled out of the ground. Reduced forage production in
the early part of the season may result in shortages during the
coldest part of the winter (January) when growth may be
slowed. On the other hand, do not allow plants to grow too
tall before grazing since this may result in wasted forage.
Long periods of freezing or dry weather will slow growth
and may cause a shortage of forage. There is a tendency to
continue grazing until the plants are eaten "into the ground."
Grazing the plants shorter than 2 to 3 inches during a period
of slow growth will damage the stand, limit regrowth and


CGC








EXTENDING THE PEANUT HARVEST SEASON

Farmers may avoid some of the tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) problems by restricting their planting period to late
April and early May. If this restricted planting period results
in problems of harvesting and drying the peanuts in a short
period of time, they may want to consider using one of the
later maturing varieties next year in order to spread the
harvest season. Southern Runner, MDR 98, and C-99R
could be planted at the same time as Georgia Green, but
would not mature until about two weeks later. This would
provide a longer harvest season and perhaps allow for more
efficient utilization of equipment.


EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF PEANUTS

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm for later sale or use as
seed next year, care should be taken to maintain quality over
the winter. Be sure to dry the peanuts to a moisture content
often percent or less and store them so that they do not gain
moisture while in storage. A good method would be to leave
them in the drying wagons and run the fans, and heat if
needed, to keep the moisture content to a safe level. If the
peanuts are stored in a grain bin or barn, provide ventilation
to prevent moisture accumulation by the kernels. Apply an
insecticide to help prevent infestations during storage.
Avoid damage to the shells and kernels, because insects can
enter broken shells. If it is necessary to walk over the
peanuts, use a board or something similar to prevent
cracking the shells. Protect the peanuts from rats, squirrels,
birds, and other animals that may eat or damage them.


EBW

PLANTING COOL SEASON FORAGES

The traditional window for planting the cool season forages
falls between October 15 and November 15, with planting in
north Florida occurring in the early part of the window and
planting in South Florida occurring in the last half of the
window. This window for planting seems to work well for
crops that are planted on a clean, tilled, seedbed. When no-
till seeding into a bermudagrass sod in north Florida, seeding
should be delayed two to four weeks compared to seeding
into a clean, tilled seedbed. Bahiagrass should be disced
before planting and planting may need to be delayed even
longer than what is suggested for bermudagrass. No-till
seeding into grass sods in South Florida (south of Orlando) is
not recommended unless irrigation is available. More often
than not, soil moisture will be inadequate for successful
production.


COOL SEASON FORAGES FOR GRAZING


As a producer, do you have enough hay or other reserved
summer forage to carry your cattle through the winter? If the
present weather pattern (rain!) continues through October
into November this may be a good year to take a chance on
growing some of the cool season forages to help carry
animals through the winter.

Cool season forages include ryegrass, the small grains (oats,
wheat, rye and triticale), cool season legumes and mixtures.
Ryegrass is the most widely used cool season forage or a
combination of rye and ryegrass. Early planted oats and
ryegrass also make a good combination.

In peninsular Florida most of these forage are planted in late
October through November. With luck, some cattlemen may
be able to start grazing by early December. In the panhandle
planting and grazing will come earlier, with oats planted in
September or early October offering the best opportunity for
early grazing.

Uses Cool season forages can be used to supplement the
cow herd through limit grazing. This is the practice of letting
the cow graze for two to three hours each day in order to
satisfy their protein requirement and some of their energy
requirement. Trampling damage and contamination from
manure is reduced when animals are only allowed to graze
long enough to get their fill. Cool season forages also
provides excellent grazing for young animals such as
stockers or replacement heifer calves that require a high level
of nutrition. Cool season forages are high in quality. They
are also high in moisture and low in fiber; therefore cattle
grazing these forages should receive some hay or other dry
forage to aid in digestion and prevent scouring.

Stocking Rate Well fertilized cool-season annuals can cary
600 pounds of beef per acre. Therefore one acre should be
able to provide grazing for 1.5 calves weighing 400 pounds
each. Growth of the pasture may be slowed and carrying
capacity reduced by severe cold or droughts.

Grazing How soon can you start grazing? Begin grazing
when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall. Grazing too soon reduces
forage production, and in some instances has allowed plants
to be pulled out of the ground. Reduced forage production in
the early part of the season may result in shortages during the
coldest part of the winter (January) when growth may be
slowed. On the other hand, do not allow plants to grow too
tall before grazing since this may result in wasted forage.
Long periods of freezing or dry weather will slow growth
and may cause a shortage of forage. There is a tendency to
continue grazing until the plants are eaten "into the ground."
Grazing the plants shorter than 2 to 3 inches during a period
of slow growth will damage the stand, limit regrowth and


CGC








EXTENDING THE PEANUT HARVEST SEASON

Farmers may avoid some of the tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) problems by restricting their planting period to late
April and early May. If this restricted planting period results
in problems of harvesting and drying the peanuts in a short
period of time, they may want to consider using one of the
later maturing varieties next year in order to spread the
harvest season. Southern Runner, MDR 98, and C-99R
could be planted at the same time as Georgia Green, but
would not mature until about two weeks later. This would
provide a longer harvest season and perhaps allow for more
efficient utilization of equipment.


EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF PEANUTS

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm for later sale or use as
seed next year, care should be taken to maintain quality over
the winter. Be sure to dry the peanuts to a moisture content
often percent or less and store them so that they do not gain
moisture while in storage. A good method would be to leave
them in the drying wagons and run the fans, and heat if
needed, to keep the moisture content to a safe level. If the
peanuts are stored in a grain bin or barn, provide ventilation
to prevent moisture accumulation by the kernels. Apply an
insecticide to help prevent infestations during storage.
Avoid damage to the shells and kernels, because insects can
enter broken shells. If it is necessary to walk over the
peanuts, use a board or something similar to prevent
cracking the shells. Protect the peanuts from rats, squirrels,
birds, and other animals that may eat or damage them.


EBW

PLANTING COOL SEASON FORAGES

The traditional window for planting the cool season forages
falls between October 15 and November 15, with planting in
north Florida occurring in the early part of the window and
planting in South Florida occurring in the last half of the
window. This window for planting seems to work well for
crops that are planted on a clean, tilled, seedbed. When no-
till seeding into a bermudagrass sod in north Florida, seeding
should be delayed two to four weeks compared to seeding
into a clean, tilled seedbed. Bahiagrass should be disced
before planting and planting may need to be delayed even
longer than what is suggested for bermudagrass. No-till
seeding into grass sods in South Florida (south of Orlando) is
not recommended unless irrigation is available. More often
than not, soil moisture will be inadequate for successful
production.


COOL SEASON FORAGES FOR GRAZING


As a producer, do you have enough hay or other reserved
summer forage to carry your cattle through the winter? If the
present weather pattern (rain!) continues through October
into November this may be a good year to take a chance on
growing some of the cool season forages to help carry
animals through the winter.

Cool season forages include ryegrass, the small grains (oats,
wheat, rye and triticale), cool season legumes and mixtures.
Ryegrass is the most widely used cool season forage or a
combination of rye and ryegrass. Early planted oats and
ryegrass also make a good combination.

In peninsular Florida most of these forage are planted in late
October through November. With luck, some cattlemen may
be able to start grazing by early December. In the panhandle
planting and grazing will come earlier, with oats planted in
September or early October offering the best opportunity for
early grazing.

Uses Cool season forages can be used to supplement the
cow herd through limit grazing. This is the practice of letting
the cow graze for two to three hours each day in order to
satisfy their protein requirement and some of their energy
requirement. Trampling damage and contamination from
manure is reduced when animals are only allowed to graze
long enough to get their fill. Cool season forages also
provides excellent grazing for young animals such as
stockers or replacement heifer calves that require a high level
of nutrition. Cool season forages are high in quality. They
are also high in moisture and low in fiber; therefore cattle
grazing these forages should receive some hay or other dry
forage to aid in digestion and prevent scouring.

Stocking Rate Well fertilized cool-season annuals can cary
600 pounds of beef per acre. Therefore one acre should be
able to provide grazing for 1.5 calves weighing 400 pounds
each. Growth of the pasture may be slowed and carrying
capacity reduced by severe cold or droughts.

Grazing How soon can you start grazing? Begin grazing
when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall. Grazing too soon reduces
forage production, and in some instances has allowed plants
to be pulled out of the ground. Reduced forage production in
the early part of the season may result in shortages during the
coldest part of the winter (January) when growth may be
slowed. On the other hand, do not allow plants to grow too
tall before grazing since this may result in wasted forage.
Long periods of freezing or dry weather will slow growth
and may cause a shortage of forage. There is a tendency to
continue grazing until the plants are eaten "into the ground."
Grazing the plants shorter than 2 to 3 inches during a period
of slow growth will damage the stand, limit regrowth and


CGC








EXTENDING THE PEANUT HARVEST SEASON

Farmers may avoid some of the tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) problems by restricting their planting period to late
April and early May. If this restricted planting period results
in problems of harvesting and drying the peanuts in a short
period of time, they may want to consider using one of the
later maturing varieties next year in order to spread the
harvest season. Southern Runner, MDR 98, and C-99R
could be planted at the same time as Georgia Green, but
would not mature until about two weeks later. This would
provide a longer harvest season and perhaps allow for more
efficient utilization of equipment.


EBW

ON-FARM STORAGE OF PEANUTS

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm for later sale or use as
seed next year, care should be taken to maintain quality over
the winter. Be sure to dry the peanuts to a moisture content
often percent or less and store them so that they do not gain
moisture while in storage. A good method would be to leave
them in the drying wagons and run the fans, and heat if
needed, to keep the moisture content to a safe level. If the
peanuts are stored in a grain bin or barn, provide ventilation
to prevent moisture accumulation by the kernels. Apply an
insecticide to help prevent infestations during storage.
Avoid damage to the shells and kernels, because insects can
enter broken shells. If it is necessary to walk over the
peanuts, use a board or something similar to prevent
cracking the shells. Protect the peanuts from rats, squirrels,
birds, and other animals that may eat or damage them.


EBW

PLANTING COOL SEASON FORAGES

The traditional window for planting the cool season forages
falls between October 15 and November 15, with planting in
north Florida occurring in the early part of the window and
planting in South Florida occurring in the last half of the
window. This window for planting seems to work well for
crops that are planted on a clean, tilled, seedbed. When no-
till seeding into a bermudagrass sod in north Florida, seeding
should be delayed two to four weeks compared to seeding
into a clean, tilled seedbed. Bahiagrass should be disced
before planting and planting may need to be delayed even
longer than what is suggested for bermudagrass. No-till
seeding into grass sods in South Florida (south of Orlando) is
not recommended unless irrigation is available. More often
than not, soil moisture will be inadequate for successful
production.


COOL SEASON FORAGES FOR GRAZING


As a producer, do you have enough hay or other reserved
summer forage to carry your cattle through the winter? If the
present weather pattern (rain!) continues through October
into November this may be a good year to take a chance on
growing some of the cool season forages to help carry
animals through the winter.

Cool season forages include ryegrass, the small grains (oats,
wheat, rye and triticale), cool season legumes and mixtures.
Ryegrass is the most widely used cool season forage or a
combination of rye and ryegrass. Early planted oats and
ryegrass also make a good combination.

In peninsular Florida most of these forage are planted in late
October through November. With luck, some cattlemen may
be able to start grazing by early December. In the panhandle
planting and grazing will come earlier, with oats planted in
September or early October offering the best opportunity for
early grazing.

Uses Cool season forages can be used to supplement the
cow herd through limit grazing. This is the practice of letting
the cow graze for two to three hours each day in order to
satisfy their protein requirement and some of their energy
requirement. Trampling damage and contamination from
manure is reduced when animals are only allowed to graze
long enough to get their fill. Cool season forages also
provides excellent grazing for young animals such as
stockers or replacement heifer calves that require a high level
of nutrition. Cool season forages are high in quality. They
are also high in moisture and low in fiber; therefore cattle
grazing these forages should receive some hay or other dry
forage to aid in digestion and prevent scouring.

Stocking Rate Well fertilized cool-season annuals can cary
600 pounds of beef per acre. Therefore one acre should be
able to provide grazing for 1.5 calves weighing 400 pounds
each. Growth of the pasture may be slowed and carrying
capacity reduced by severe cold or droughts.

Grazing How soon can you start grazing? Begin grazing
when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall. Grazing too soon reduces
forage production, and in some instances has allowed plants
to be pulled out of the ground. Reduced forage production in
the early part of the season may result in shortages during the
coldest part of the winter (January) when growth may be
slowed. On the other hand, do not allow plants to grow too
tall before grazing since this may result in wasted forage.
Long periods of freezing or dry weather will slow growth
and may cause a shortage of forage. There is a tendency to
continue grazing until the plants are eaten "into the ground."
Grazing the plants shorter than 2 to 3 inches during a period
of slow growth will damage the stand, limit regrowth and


CGC








reduce total forage and animal production. When grazing
any forage some green leaf should be left on the plant at all
times.

CGC

NEW ALFALFA VARIETIES

Florida 99 alfalfa is now available. Ask for it. FL-99, with
improvements inyield and nematode resistance replaces FL-
77. It was developed by the Agronomy Department at the
University of Florida for Florida Producers.

University of Georgia has developed two new nondormant,
grazing-type, alfalfa varieties. They were released by the
University of Georgia under the variety names of ABT 805
and AmeriGraze 702. Although these new varieties have not
been tested extensively in Florida, they have the potential to
perform better in Florida than Alfagraze. If anyone is
interested in planting some alfalfa and they cannot get seed
of FL-99, these would probably be the best varieties to try.
Since it is not known how well these varieties will withstand
Florida's insect, disease and nematode pressure; it is
suggested that producers plant only limited acreage. A small
acreage could be planted as a creep graze pasture for calves
or as a supplement for the beef herd.
ABT 805 is marketed by ABT(Agro Biotech) Seed Co., and
AmeriGraze 702 is marketed by America's Alfalfa Seed Co.
Although called a grazing alfalfa these varieties can also be
harvested for hay.

CGC

SMALL GRAIN PLANTINGS FOR DOVE HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production Guide SS-AGR-45. Small grain seeding must be
done as a normal agricultural practice which could include
planting into a prepared seedbed, drilled, harrowed or
dragged after seeding or planting with a no-till drill. The
only time that it is recommended that small grain be surface
seeded is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating
cotton. The normal seeding rates per acre are listed (in SS-
AGR-45) for grain and for grazing. Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal
agricultural practice and would be considered baiting if done
in this manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do
not usually attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it
would be advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet
in the summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of
(dove) hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


CGC


TOBACCO SALES

Due to weather conditions, flue-tobacco auction markets
from Florida to Virginia were closed on September 15 and
remained closed until September 27. Many of the tobacco
processing plants are in eastern North Carolina, where roads
were closed because of flooding. Also some of the
processing plants were severely damaged by the floods.
Tobacco remaining in the field was damaged.

EBW

TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES AND CURING

In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted with several
flue-cured tobacco growers, including some in Florida, to
cure tobacco using barns and procedures designed to reduce
or eliminate compounds referred to as tobacco specific
nitrosamines (TSNA). These barns used heat exchangers to
transfer the heat from the burners to the tobacco rather than
passing the curing air directly through the combustion
chamber. Also the barns have the fan and burner capacity to
quickly dry the leaf after it is yellowed. Fuel costs are higher
than with conventional barns, but curing time may be less.
The growers contracted with the company at a price of $2
per pound for the tobacco, thereby bypassing the auction
markets. The company then further processes the tobacco
using microwave drying after it has been delivered. In
September, another company announced that it has
developed a method to modify conventional barns for such
curing. It has been speculated that TSNA's are harmful to
smokers, thus the desire to greatly reduce or eliminate them
from the cured tobacco.

EBW

NEMATODE MANAGEMENT FOR 2000

While many of you have just finished or in the process of
getting your crops out of the field, believe it or not, it is time
to prepare for nematode management next season. Begin the
new millennium with improved nematode management.
This is especially true for tobacco, peanut and cotton farmers
who often must manage root-knot nematodes in order to
grow a successful crop. If you plan to fumigate for root-knot
nematodes, then consider a fall application. For a heavy
infestation of root-knot nematodes, fumigation offers the
most reliable method for management. A broadcast fall
application offers several advantages over a winter
application. This is especially true for tobacco growers who
plan to transplant by mid-March to early April. Why a fall
application? First the soil temperature and moisture levels in
the fall are more suitable for fumigation than those in the
winter. Research has consistently shown that fumigation in
the fall works well. These are the steps a grower should take.
Prepare the field site by either plowing and disking or








reduce total forage and animal production. When grazing
any forage some green leaf should be left on the plant at all
times.

CGC

NEW ALFALFA VARIETIES

Florida 99 alfalfa is now available. Ask for it. FL-99, with
improvements inyield and nematode resistance replaces FL-
77. It was developed by the Agronomy Department at the
University of Florida for Florida Producers.

University of Georgia has developed two new nondormant,
grazing-type, alfalfa varieties. They were released by the
University of Georgia under the variety names of ABT 805
and AmeriGraze 702. Although these new varieties have not
been tested extensively in Florida, they have the potential to
perform better in Florida than Alfagraze. If anyone is
interested in planting some alfalfa and they cannot get seed
of FL-99, these would probably be the best varieties to try.
Since it is not known how well these varieties will withstand
Florida's insect, disease and nematode pressure; it is
suggested that producers plant only limited acreage. A small
acreage could be planted as a creep graze pasture for calves
or as a supplement for the beef herd.
ABT 805 is marketed by ABT(Agro Biotech) Seed Co., and
AmeriGraze 702 is marketed by America's Alfalfa Seed Co.
Although called a grazing alfalfa these varieties can also be
harvested for hay.

CGC

SMALL GRAIN PLANTINGS FOR DOVE HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production Guide SS-AGR-45. Small grain seeding must be
done as a normal agricultural practice which could include
planting into a prepared seedbed, drilled, harrowed or
dragged after seeding or planting with a no-till drill. The
only time that it is recommended that small grain be surface
seeded is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating
cotton. The normal seeding rates per acre are listed (in SS-
AGR-45) for grain and for grazing. Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal
agricultural practice and would be considered baiting if done
in this manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do
not usually attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it
would be advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet
in the summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of
(dove) hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


CGC


TOBACCO SALES

Due to weather conditions, flue-tobacco auction markets
from Florida to Virginia were closed on September 15 and
remained closed until September 27. Many of the tobacco
processing plants are in eastern North Carolina, where roads
were closed because of flooding. Also some of the
processing plants were severely damaged by the floods.
Tobacco remaining in the field was damaged.

EBW

TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES AND CURING

In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted with several
flue-cured tobacco growers, including some in Florida, to
cure tobacco using barns and procedures designed to reduce
or eliminate compounds referred to as tobacco specific
nitrosamines (TSNA). These barns used heat exchangers to
transfer the heat from the burners to the tobacco rather than
passing the curing air directly through the combustion
chamber. Also the barns have the fan and burner capacity to
quickly dry the leaf after it is yellowed. Fuel costs are higher
than with conventional barns, but curing time may be less.
The growers contracted with the company at a price of $2
per pound for the tobacco, thereby bypassing the auction
markets. The company then further processes the tobacco
using microwave drying after it has been delivered. In
September, another company announced that it has
developed a method to modify conventional barns for such
curing. It has been speculated that TSNA's are harmful to
smokers, thus the desire to greatly reduce or eliminate them
from the cured tobacco.

EBW

NEMATODE MANAGEMENT FOR 2000

While many of you have just finished or in the process of
getting your crops out of the field, believe it or not, it is time
to prepare for nematode management next season. Begin the
new millennium with improved nematode management.
This is especially true for tobacco, peanut and cotton farmers
who often must manage root-knot nematodes in order to
grow a successful crop. If you plan to fumigate for root-knot
nematodes, then consider a fall application. For a heavy
infestation of root-knot nematodes, fumigation offers the
most reliable method for management. A broadcast fall
application offers several advantages over a winter
application. This is especially true for tobacco growers who
plan to transplant by mid-March to early April. Why a fall
application? First the soil temperature and moisture levels in
the fall are more suitable for fumigation than those in the
winter. Research has consistently shown that fumigation in
the fall works well. These are the steps a grower should take.
Prepare the field site by either plowing and disking or








reduce total forage and animal production. When grazing
any forage some green leaf should be left on the plant at all
times.

CGC

NEW ALFALFA VARIETIES

Florida 99 alfalfa is now available. Ask for it. FL-99, with
improvements inyield and nematode resistance replaces FL-
77. It was developed by the Agronomy Department at the
University of Florida for Florida Producers.

University of Georgia has developed two new nondormant,
grazing-type, alfalfa varieties. They were released by the
University of Georgia under the variety names of ABT 805
and AmeriGraze 702. Although these new varieties have not
been tested extensively in Florida, they have the potential to
perform better in Florida than Alfagraze. If anyone is
interested in planting some alfalfa and they cannot get seed
of FL-99, these would probably be the best varieties to try.
Since it is not known how well these varieties will withstand
Florida's insect, disease and nematode pressure; it is
suggested that producers plant only limited acreage. A small
acreage could be planted as a creep graze pasture for calves
or as a supplement for the beef herd.
ABT 805 is marketed by ABT(Agro Biotech) Seed Co., and
AmeriGraze 702 is marketed by America's Alfalfa Seed Co.
Although called a grazing alfalfa these varieties can also be
harvested for hay.

CGC

SMALL GRAIN PLANTINGS FOR DOVE HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production Guide SS-AGR-45. Small grain seeding must be
done as a normal agricultural practice which could include
planting into a prepared seedbed, drilled, harrowed or
dragged after seeding or planting with a no-till drill. The
only time that it is recommended that small grain be surface
seeded is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating
cotton. The normal seeding rates per acre are listed (in SS-
AGR-45) for grain and for grazing. Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal
agricultural practice and would be considered baiting if done
in this manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do
not usually attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it
would be advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet
in the summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of
(dove) hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


CGC


TOBACCO SALES

Due to weather conditions, flue-tobacco auction markets
from Florida to Virginia were closed on September 15 and
remained closed until September 27. Many of the tobacco
processing plants are in eastern North Carolina, where roads
were closed because of flooding. Also some of the
processing plants were severely damaged by the floods.
Tobacco remaining in the field was damaged.

EBW

TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES AND CURING

In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted with several
flue-cured tobacco growers, including some in Florida, to
cure tobacco using barns and procedures designed to reduce
or eliminate compounds referred to as tobacco specific
nitrosamines (TSNA). These barns used heat exchangers to
transfer the heat from the burners to the tobacco rather than
passing the curing air directly through the combustion
chamber. Also the barns have the fan and burner capacity to
quickly dry the leaf after it is yellowed. Fuel costs are higher
than with conventional barns, but curing time may be less.
The growers contracted with the company at a price of $2
per pound for the tobacco, thereby bypassing the auction
markets. The company then further processes the tobacco
using microwave drying after it has been delivered. In
September, another company announced that it has
developed a method to modify conventional barns for such
curing. It has been speculated that TSNA's are harmful to
smokers, thus the desire to greatly reduce or eliminate them
from the cured tobacco.

EBW

NEMATODE MANAGEMENT FOR 2000

While many of you have just finished or in the process of
getting your crops out of the field, believe it or not, it is time
to prepare for nematode management next season. Begin the
new millennium with improved nematode management.
This is especially true for tobacco, peanut and cotton farmers
who often must manage root-knot nematodes in order to
grow a successful crop. If you plan to fumigate for root-knot
nematodes, then consider a fall application. For a heavy
infestation of root-knot nematodes, fumigation offers the
most reliable method for management. A broadcast fall
application offers several advantages over a winter
application. This is especially true for tobacco growers who
plan to transplant by mid-March to early April. Why a fall
application? First the soil temperature and moisture levels in
the fall are more suitable for fumigation than those in the
winter. Research has consistently shown that fumigation in
the fall works well. These are the steps a grower should take.
Prepare the field site by either plowing and disking or








reduce total forage and animal production. When grazing
any forage some green leaf should be left on the plant at all
times.

CGC

NEW ALFALFA VARIETIES

Florida 99 alfalfa is now available. Ask for it. FL-99, with
improvements inyield and nematode resistance replaces FL-
77. It was developed by the Agronomy Department at the
University of Florida for Florida Producers.

University of Georgia has developed two new nondormant,
grazing-type, alfalfa varieties. They were released by the
University of Georgia under the variety names of ABT 805
and AmeriGraze 702. Although these new varieties have not
been tested extensively in Florida, they have the potential to
perform better in Florida than Alfagraze. If anyone is
interested in planting some alfalfa and they cannot get seed
of FL-99, these would probably be the best varieties to try.
Since it is not known how well these varieties will withstand
Florida's insect, disease and nematode pressure; it is
suggested that producers plant only limited acreage. A small
acreage could be planted as a creep graze pasture for calves
or as a supplement for the beef herd.
ABT 805 is marketed by ABT(Agro Biotech) Seed Co., and
AmeriGraze 702 is marketed by America's Alfalfa Seed Co.
Although called a grazing alfalfa these varieties can also be
harvested for hay.

CGC

SMALL GRAIN PLANTINGS FOR DOVE HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production Guide SS-AGR-45. Small grain seeding must be
done as a normal agricultural practice which could include
planting into a prepared seedbed, drilled, harrowed or
dragged after seeding or planting with a no-till drill. The
only time that it is recommended that small grain be surface
seeded is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating
cotton. The normal seeding rates per acre are listed (in SS-
AGR-45) for grain and for grazing. Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal
agricultural practice and would be considered baiting if done
in this manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do
not usually attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it
would be advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet
in the summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of
(dove) hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


CGC


TOBACCO SALES

Due to weather conditions, flue-tobacco auction markets
from Florida to Virginia were closed on September 15 and
remained closed until September 27. Many of the tobacco
processing plants are in eastern North Carolina, where roads
were closed because of flooding. Also some of the
processing plants were severely damaged by the floods.
Tobacco remaining in the field was damaged.

EBW

TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES AND CURING

In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted with several
flue-cured tobacco growers, including some in Florida, to
cure tobacco using barns and procedures designed to reduce
or eliminate compounds referred to as tobacco specific
nitrosamines (TSNA). These barns used heat exchangers to
transfer the heat from the burners to the tobacco rather than
passing the curing air directly through the combustion
chamber. Also the barns have the fan and burner capacity to
quickly dry the leaf after it is yellowed. Fuel costs are higher
than with conventional barns, but curing time may be less.
The growers contracted with the company at a price of $2
per pound for the tobacco, thereby bypassing the auction
markets. The company then further processes the tobacco
using microwave drying after it has been delivered. In
September, another company announced that it has
developed a method to modify conventional barns for such
curing. It has been speculated that TSNA's are harmful to
smokers, thus the desire to greatly reduce or eliminate them
from the cured tobacco.

EBW

NEMATODE MANAGEMENT FOR 2000

While many of you have just finished or in the process of
getting your crops out of the field, believe it or not, it is time
to prepare for nematode management next season. Begin the
new millennium with improved nematode management.
This is especially true for tobacco, peanut and cotton farmers
who often must manage root-knot nematodes in order to
grow a successful crop. If you plan to fumigate for root-knot
nematodes, then consider a fall application. For a heavy
infestation of root-knot nematodes, fumigation offers the
most reliable method for management. A broadcast fall
application offers several advantages over a winter
application. This is especially true for tobacco growers who
plan to transplant by mid-March to early April. Why a fall
application? First the soil temperature and moisture levels in
the fall are more suitable for fumigation than those in the
winter. Research has consistently shown that fumigation in
the fall works well. These are the steps a grower should take.
Prepare the field site by either plowing and disking or








reduce total forage and animal production. When grazing
any forage some green leaf should be left on the plant at all
times.

CGC

NEW ALFALFA VARIETIES

Florida 99 alfalfa is now available. Ask for it. FL-99, with
improvements inyield and nematode resistance replaces FL-
77. It was developed by the Agronomy Department at the
University of Florida for Florida Producers.

University of Georgia has developed two new nondormant,
grazing-type, alfalfa varieties. They were released by the
University of Georgia under the variety names of ABT 805
and AmeriGraze 702. Although these new varieties have not
been tested extensively in Florida, they have the potential to
perform better in Florida than Alfagraze. If anyone is
interested in planting some alfalfa and they cannot get seed
of FL-99, these would probably be the best varieties to try.
Since it is not known how well these varieties will withstand
Florida's insect, disease and nematode pressure; it is
suggested that producers plant only limited acreage. A small
acreage could be planted as a creep graze pasture for calves
or as a supplement for the beef herd.
ABT 805 is marketed by ABT(Agro Biotech) Seed Co., and
AmeriGraze 702 is marketed by America's Alfalfa Seed Co.
Although called a grazing alfalfa these varieties can also be
harvested for hay.

CGC

SMALL GRAIN PLANTINGS FOR DOVE HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production Guide SS-AGR-45. Small grain seeding must be
done as a normal agricultural practice which could include
planting into a prepared seedbed, drilled, harrowed or
dragged after seeding or planting with a no-till drill. The
only time that it is recommended that small grain be surface
seeded is prior to leaf drop of soybean or before defoliating
cotton. The normal seeding rates per acre are listed (in SS-
AGR-45) for grain and for grazing. Surface sowing at high
rates of seed without incorporating is not a normal
agricultural practice and would be considered baiting if done
in this manner. The normal seeding rates of small grain do
not usually attract large numbers of birds. Therefore, it
would be advisable to plant other crops such as corn or millet
in the summer that could be mowed down prior to opening of
(dove) hunting season to have adequate feed to attract birds.


CGC


TOBACCO SALES

Due to weather conditions, flue-tobacco auction markets
from Florida to Virginia were closed on September 15 and
remained closed until September 27. Many of the tobacco
processing plants are in eastern North Carolina, where roads
were closed because of flooding. Also some of the
processing plants were severely damaged by the floods.
Tobacco remaining in the field was damaged.

EBW

TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES AND CURING

In 1999, Star Tobacco Company contracted with several
flue-cured tobacco growers, including some in Florida, to
cure tobacco using barns and procedures designed to reduce
or eliminate compounds referred to as tobacco specific
nitrosamines (TSNA). These barns used heat exchangers to
transfer the heat from the burners to the tobacco rather than
passing the curing air directly through the combustion
chamber. Also the barns have the fan and burner capacity to
quickly dry the leaf after it is yellowed. Fuel costs are higher
than with conventional barns, but curing time may be less.
The growers contracted with the company at a price of $2
per pound for the tobacco, thereby bypassing the auction
markets. The company then further processes the tobacco
using microwave drying after it has been delivered. In
September, another company announced that it has
developed a method to modify conventional barns for such
curing. It has been speculated that TSNA's are harmful to
smokers, thus the desire to greatly reduce or eliminate them
from the cured tobacco.

EBW

NEMATODE MANAGEMENT FOR 2000

While many of you have just finished or in the process of
getting your crops out of the field, believe it or not, it is time
to prepare for nematode management next season. Begin the
new millennium with improved nematode management.
This is especially true for tobacco, peanut and cotton farmers
who often must manage root-knot nematodes in order to
grow a successful crop. If you plan to fumigate for root-knot
nematodes, then consider a fall application. For a heavy
infestation of root-knot nematodes, fumigation offers the
most reliable method for management. A broadcast fall
application offers several advantages over a winter
application. This is especially true for tobacco growers who
plan to transplant by mid-March to early April. Why a fall
application? First the soil temperature and moisture levels in
the fall are more suitable for fumigation than those in the
winter. Research has consistently shown that fumigation in
the fall works well. These are the steps a grower should take.
Prepare the field site by either plowing and disking or








disking alone. Make sure all crop residue and weeds that
may be serving as hosts for nematode reproduction are
killed. This can be a major problem in that soil temperatures
are suitable for nematode infection and reproduction on
plants until the first killing frost. Allow 2 or 3 weeks for the
crop residue to break down before fumigating. A fumigant
nematicide does not work well on nematode juveniles and
eggs that remain inside plant roots. Nor does the fumigant
kill nematode eggs that lie in soil. The eggs must have time
to hatch out before a fumigant nematicide is applied.
Broadcast apply the soil fumigant at least 12 inches deep
with chisels spaced 10 to 12 inches apart. Make absolutely
certain that the type chisel used does not leave an opening
(chisel trace) in the soil (See parachisel below). Any open
space will allow the chemical to rapidly escape and thus the
fumigant will not provide adequate nematode kill. This is
one of the most important aspects of successful soil
fumigation and one that is often ignored by farmers. Failure
to get a good tight seal of the top 4 to 6 inches of soil will lead
to poor nematode control. Following fumigation wait 5 to 7
days before planting a winter cover crop, such as rye.

DWD

PARACHISELS OFFER A GOOD OPTION FOR
APPLYING FUMIGANTS

Research has shown that parachisels are a good option for
applying a soil fumigant nematicide. A parachisel has a 45


degree bend to the side, whereas conventional chisel have no
bend to the side, but rather curve either forward or backward.
A parachisel prototype was build by Dr. Lawrence Shaw,
agricultural engineer, and has been tested for the past 2 years.
The advantage of the parachisel is that if properly installed,
it leaves little or no chisel opening (chisel trace). Thus,
special sealing, or soil compaction immediately after
fumigation is not necessary since the weight of the soil
normally provides sufficient pressure to make a seal after the
blade passes through. The parachisels have been compared
with conventional forward-swept and back-swept chisels
with and without disking to break up the chisels traces and
form a seal. In every test fumigants applied by the
parachisels have provided nematode control equal to or
better then that attained with conventional chisels in which
sealing was done by disking. Parachisels can be attained
from Chemical Containers, Winter Park, FL.

DWD

SEPTEMBER FIELD CROP ESTIMATES

The National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the
following estimates as of September 1, with corn, cotton,
hay, soybeans, and wheat estimates for Florida being carried
over from the August report: (see changes made on the table
in the August issue of Agronomy Notes)

EBW


The National Agricultural Statistics Service made the following October 1 estimates of field crop production:

Florida I

Acreage for Yield per I
Crop Harvest (xl 000) Acre I

Com for grain 40 88 b

Cotton 88 524 lb 1

Hay, all 26 2.4 ton

Peanuts 88 2,600 lb 1

Soybeans 19 30b b

Sugarcane 45 39 to c

Tobacco, all 6 2,600 lb

Wheat, all 9 40 b 5


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Professor, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist and D. W.
Dickson, Professor.








disking alone. Make sure all crop residue and weeds that
may be serving as hosts for nematode reproduction are
killed. This can be a major problem in that soil temperatures
are suitable for nematode infection and reproduction on
plants until the first killing frost. Allow 2 or 3 weeks for the
crop residue to break down before fumigating. A fumigant
nematicide does not work well on nematode juveniles and
eggs that remain inside plant roots. Nor does the fumigant
kill nematode eggs that lie in soil. The eggs must have time
to hatch out before a fumigant nematicide is applied.
Broadcast apply the soil fumigant at least 12 inches deep
with chisels spaced 10 to 12 inches apart. Make absolutely
certain that the type chisel used does not leave an opening
(chisel trace) in the soil (See parachisel below). Any open
space will allow the chemical to rapidly escape and thus the
fumigant will not provide adequate nematode kill. This is
one of the most important aspects of successful soil
fumigation and one that is often ignored by farmers. Failure
to get a good tight seal of the top 4 to 6 inches of soil will lead
to poor nematode control. Following fumigation wait 5 to 7
days before planting a winter cover crop, such as rye.

DWD

PARACHISELS OFFER A GOOD OPTION FOR
APPLYING FUMIGANTS

Research has shown that parachisels are a good option for
applying a soil fumigant nematicide. A parachisel has a 45


degree bend to the side, whereas conventional chisel have no
bend to the side, but rather curve either forward or backward.
A parachisel prototype was build by Dr. Lawrence Shaw,
agricultural engineer, and has been tested for the past 2 years.
The advantage of the parachisel is that if properly installed,
it leaves little or no chisel opening (chisel trace). Thus,
special sealing, or soil compaction immediately after
fumigation is not necessary since the weight of the soil
normally provides sufficient pressure to make a seal after the
blade passes through. The parachisels have been compared
with conventional forward-swept and back-swept chisels
with and without disking to break up the chisels traces and
form a seal. In every test fumigants applied by the
parachisels have provided nematode control equal to or
better then that attained with conventional chisels in which
sealing was done by disking. Parachisels can be attained
from Chemical Containers, Winter Park, FL.

DWD

SEPTEMBER FIELD CROP ESTIMATES

The National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the
following estimates as of September 1, with corn, cotton,
hay, soybeans, and wheat estimates for Florida being carried
over from the August report: (see changes made on the table
in the August issue of Agronomy Notes)

EBW


The National Agricultural Statistics Service made the following October 1 estimates of field crop production:

Florida I

Acreage for Yield per I
Crop Harvest (xl 000) Acre I

Com for grain 40 88 b

Cotton 88 524 lb 1

Hay, all 26 2.4 ton

Peanuts 88 2,600 lb 1

Soybeans 19 30b b

Sugarcane 45 39 to c

Tobacco, all 6 2,600 lb

Wheat, all 9 40 b 5


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Professor, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist and D. W.
Dickson, Professor.