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 Table of Contents
 Tobacco transplant water addit...
 Tobacco settlements
 Tobacco plant bed maintenance during...
 Spanish peanuts
 Lime for peanuts
 Control spring weeds in hay...
 Warm season annual grasses and...
 Grazing management
 Field crops report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00007
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: March 1999
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00007

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Tobacco transplant water additives
        Page 2
    Tobacco settlements
        Page 2
    Tobacco plant bed maintenance during transplanting
        Page 2
    Spanish peanuts
        Page 2
    Lime for peanuts
        Page 2
    Control spring weeds in hay fields
        Page 3
    Warm season annual grasses and pasture renovation
        Page 3
    Grazing management
        Page 3
    Field crops report
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


NOTES


DATES TO REMEMBER


July 6-8
July 25-27


IN THIS ISSUE


Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture Tifton, GA
Southern Peanut Growers Conference Panama City


PAGE


TOBACCO
Tobacco Transplant W after A additives ...................................... ................................................ 2
Tobacco Settlem ents ................................................... .......................................................... 2
Tobacco Plant Bed Maintenance During Transplanting ................................................................ 2

PEANUT
Spanish Peanuts .......................................... .......... ............. 2
L im e fo r P eanu ts ........................................................................................ .............................. 2

FORAGE
Control Spring Weeds in Hay Fields ............................ .... ........................................... 3
Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture Renovation ....................................................... 3
G razing M anagem ent ................................................................................. .............................. 3

MISCELLANEOUS
F ield C rops A annual R report ...................................................... ................................................ 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









TOBACCO TRA i:,':, i i T WATER ADDITIVES

Several chemicals, ....... :i insecticides and fertilizers, are
': : i i.the: : :ir .... .. : ..: ... : A major
problem that can be encountered is nonunifomn i i: :::.::
of the chemicals because there is usually no means of
. :: :. ".. water to keep the products thoroughly mixed in
the tank A 1 1 ... canbe in accurately 1 '!- ...
the amount of chemical to add to the tank, because it is rarely
totally empty when more water and chemical are added.
C :... ....-.:... the chemical could either be in excessive
concentration and result in toxicity to the plants or at such a
low concentration that it is not :: ::. To try to prevent
nonuniform mixtures, mix the chemicals with water in a
bucket and then pour into the tank and -:' ....... .1 stir again
and at intervals while transplanting. v .. .. .: i i:. more
material to a : :: H. filled tank, make a good measurement
or estimate of how much water will be added and j .. : the
amount of chemical to add so that there will be no variations
from tank to tank. Two insecticides, Orthene and Admire, are
lab( : : :. : :: either alone or in combination, in transplant
water. If using the new Orthene 97 formulation, be sure to
mix it well, because it does not go into solution as quickly as
the soluble powder .... ::.:: .. .. Read and : : .. all label
instructions. There are a number of high i :::
fertilizer solutions that are sold for use in tobacco transplant
water. These : .:.:- often stimulate early growth, but are
not consistent -** -*..i. .-: '1 If used, be careful not to
use excessive rates as stand loss can occur, : :ii, under
dry conditions.

EBW

TOBACCO SET': i-; .:i:i :. :i

Fanners should I i- ..:.... i about developments in the
tobacco settlement issues, i :. :i as they relate to
reimbursements to them for loss of quota. Farm
in some states are making strong efforts before their
: ".:i: :. ,..,; ... :' : : .... ...... : m ore
than i billion from the Phase I settlement. The Florida
settlement was :..K. .1 from that of most of the other states,
so .::. ..1- ;... .. : of the funds may have tobe :. .- to
the Florida agreement. -. ::i. of the Phase II settlement,
which is much .::::i: : than the Phase I settlement, have not
been reported as yet.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MAINTENANCE DURING
TRANSPLANTING

Several practices can help maintain the. :: :.:: and quantity
of plants until the final i. .1 .. ..-1:.. There may also be the
Sof .::.. excessplants. ...:... irrigate the
beds to settle the soil aroundthe .....:- I.. 1.:.. If
:..:::: :: :: i : .needed,it canbei.i .I: 1:: :. of


irrigation, but be careful not to add excess nitrogen. V i up
with insecticide and fungicide applications, so that aphids,
blue mold, or other problems do not develop. Be sure to
: : pesticide label i* ........ : : those relating to
re-entry : : .. If there is a threat of frost or freeze, be
: ... .. to cover the beds to ;... i. : the remaining plants.
Irrigate as needed to : .. i -1. : :.. good condition, but do
not over-irrigate and cause the plants to be too succulent for


EBW

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be the .... ... ....:: to plant spanish market-type
i : :': in 1999. These small :.**: : ..* .... in
Texas and Oklahoma, :1:1:. :: :. :::::: : :: I : have become
. ... in that area. Spanish .. ..... have been grown in
Florida, but generally on the heavier soils, where the yield
*-i.' .. between the two market types are not as great. In
the peninsular area of Florida, :i :::-1: varieties have
generally yielded only about 65-75 percent of the runner
yields. "'.... 1. varieties usually mature in about 120 days
.:.' planting in May, which could reduce the number of
fungicide .: : :::.::. However the :: : : maturity could
result in harvest during August, when rainfall is more likely
... .: ...:. "-or October. Since there is no donnancy in
S:'- I'. ".:.:: as there is in runners, .:.- can be a
: 1 ::: if harvest is delayed beyond optimum maturity.
Vine growth of the spanish varieties is .... .. less than in
runners, so twin rows or some other form of close rows may
be advantageous when i ':...!-i: these varieties. Be sure
S: :: : ::: : : ( :: :: :: thealtered:. : : .
should be placed 2-3 inches apart, but since the seed are
smaller, spanish l ...... do not require as many :........1 per
acre as runners. T:.' i :' 90 is the most ..:' : : 1'
variety planted in southwestern peanut production area.

EBW

LIME FOR PEA:', i i :

If soil test show that lime is needed to raise the soil pH for
.' :-": broadcast and : .....:i the recommended
amount of lime during soil :: .: :l. :: so that it is mixed
... 1 ... the potential rooting zone. If the lime is being
as a substitute for gypsum, and to some extent for a
soil pH increase, it should be .::.:.: i: i ahead of the pre-
i ::' i:: :i :. herbicides so that it is :::: .::. in the
pegging zone of the peanuts. Calcic lime will .... 1 more
calcium than .:: dolomite, but either may be ..
S" I .. .well as calcium, which may
bei::::...: ..:::: : :: : : grown in rotation ". ::: :::::: If
there is no need for additional magnesium, calcite would be
the ... ... 1 source because of the higher concentration of
calcium.
EBW









TOBACCO TRA i:,':, i i T WATER ADDITIVES

Several chemicals, ....... :i insecticides and fertilizers, are
': : i i.the: : :ir .... .. : ..: ... : A major
problem that can be encountered is nonunifomn i i: :::.::
of the chemicals because there is usually no means of
. :: :. ".. water to keep the products thoroughly mixed in
the tank A 1 1 ... canbe in accurately 1 '!- ...
the amount of chemical to add to the tank, because it is rarely
totally empty when more water and chemical are added.
C :... ....-.:... the chemical could either be in excessive
concentration and result in toxicity to the plants or at such a
low concentration that it is not :: ::. To try to prevent
nonuniform mixtures, mix the chemicals with water in a
bucket and then pour into the tank and -:' ....... .1 stir again
and at intervals while transplanting. v .. .. .: i i:. more
material to a : :: H. filled tank, make a good measurement
or estimate of how much water will be added and j .. : the
amount of chemical to add so that there will be no variations
from tank to tank. Two insecticides, Orthene and Admire, are
lab( : : :. : :: either alone or in combination, in transplant
water. If using the new Orthene 97 formulation, be sure to
mix it well, because it does not go into solution as quickly as
the soluble powder .... ::.:: .. .. Read and : : .. all label
instructions. There are a number of high i :::
fertilizer solutions that are sold for use in tobacco transplant
water. These : .:.:- often stimulate early growth, but are
not consistent -** -*..i. .-: '1 If used, be careful not to
use excessive rates as stand loss can occur, : :ii, under
dry conditions.

EBW

TOBACCO SET': i-; .:i:i :. :i

Fanners should I i- ..:.... i about developments in the
tobacco settlement issues, i :. :i as they relate to
reimbursements to them for loss of quota. Farm
in some states are making strong efforts before their
: ".:i: :. ,..,; ... :' : : .... ...... : m ore
than i billion from the Phase I settlement. The Florida
settlement was :..K. .1 from that of most of the other states,
so .::. ..1- ;... .. : of the funds may have tobe :. .- to
the Florida agreement. -. ::i. of the Phase II settlement,
which is much .::::i: : than the Phase I settlement, have not
been reported as yet.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MAINTENANCE DURING
TRANSPLANTING

Several practices can help maintain the. :: :.:: and quantity
of plants until the final i. .1 .. ..-1:.. There may also be the
Sof .::.. excessplants. ...:... irrigate the
beds to settle the soil aroundthe .....:- I.. 1.:.. If
:..:::: :: :: i : .needed,it canbei.i .I: 1:: :. of


irrigation, but be careful not to add excess nitrogen. V i up
with insecticide and fungicide applications, so that aphids,
blue mold, or other problems do not develop. Be sure to
: : pesticide label i* ........ : : those relating to
re-entry : : .. If there is a threat of frost or freeze, be
: ... .. to cover the beds to ;... i. : the remaining plants.
Irrigate as needed to : .. i -1. : :.. good condition, but do
not over-irrigate and cause the plants to be too succulent for


EBW

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be the .... ... ....:: to plant spanish market-type
i : :': in 1999. These small :.**: : ..* .... in
Texas and Oklahoma, :1:1:. :: :. :::::: : :: I : have become
. ... in that area. Spanish .. ..... have been grown in
Florida, but generally on the heavier soils, where the yield
*-i.' .. between the two market types are not as great. In
the peninsular area of Florida, :i :::-1: varieties have
generally yielded only about 65-75 percent of the runner
yields. "'.... 1. varieties usually mature in about 120 days
.:.' planting in May, which could reduce the number of
fungicide .: : :::.::. However the :: : : maturity could
result in harvest during August, when rainfall is more likely
... .: ...:. "-or October. Since there is no donnancy in
S:'- I'. ".:.:: as there is in runners, .:.- can be a
: 1 ::: if harvest is delayed beyond optimum maturity.
Vine growth of the spanish varieties is .... .. less than in
runners, so twin rows or some other form of close rows may
be advantageous when i ':...!-i: these varieties. Be sure
S: :: : ::: : : ( :: :: :: thealtered:. : : .
should be placed 2-3 inches apart, but since the seed are
smaller, spanish l ...... do not require as many :........1 per
acre as runners. T:.' i :' 90 is the most ..:' : : 1'
variety planted in southwestern peanut production area.

EBW

LIME FOR PEA:', i i :

If soil test show that lime is needed to raise the soil pH for
.' :-": broadcast and : .....:i the recommended
amount of lime during soil :: .: :l. :: so that it is mixed
... 1 ... the potential rooting zone. If the lime is being
as a substitute for gypsum, and to some extent for a
soil pH increase, it should be .::.:.: i: i ahead of the pre-
i ::' i:: :i :. herbicides so that it is :::: .::. in the
pegging zone of the peanuts. Calcic lime will .... 1 more
calcium than .:: dolomite, but either may be ..
S" I .. .well as calcium, which may
bei::::...: ..:::: : :: : : grown in rotation ". ::: :::::: If
there is no need for additional magnesium, calcite would be
the ... ... 1 source because of the higher concentration of
calcium.
EBW









TOBACCO TRA i:,':, i i T WATER ADDITIVES

Several chemicals, ....... :i insecticides and fertilizers, are
': : i i.the: : :ir .... .. : ..: ... : A major
problem that can be encountered is nonunifomn i i: :::.::
of the chemicals because there is usually no means of
. :: :. ".. water to keep the products thoroughly mixed in
the tank A 1 1 ... canbe in accurately 1 '!- ...
the amount of chemical to add to the tank, because it is rarely
totally empty when more water and chemical are added.
C :... ....-.:... the chemical could either be in excessive
concentration and result in toxicity to the plants or at such a
low concentration that it is not :: ::. To try to prevent
nonuniform mixtures, mix the chemicals with water in a
bucket and then pour into the tank and -:' ....... .1 stir again
and at intervals while transplanting. v .. .. .: i i:. more
material to a : :: H. filled tank, make a good measurement
or estimate of how much water will be added and j .. : the
amount of chemical to add so that there will be no variations
from tank to tank. Two insecticides, Orthene and Admire, are
lab( : : :. : :: either alone or in combination, in transplant
water. If using the new Orthene 97 formulation, be sure to
mix it well, because it does not go into solution as quickly as
the soluble powder .... ::.:: .. .. Read and : : .. all label
instructions. There are a number of high i :::
fertilizer solutions that are sold for use in tobacco transplant
water. These : .:.:- often stimulate early growth, but are
not consistent -** -*..i. .-: '1 If used, be careful not to
use excessive rates as stand loss can occur, : :ii, under
dry conditions.

EBW

TOBACCO SET': i-; .:i:i :. :i

Fanners should I i- ..:.... i about developments in the
tobacco settlement issues, i :. :i as they relate to
reimbursements to them for loss of quota. Farm
in some states are making strong efforts before their
: ".:i: :. ,..,; ... :' : : .... ...... : m ore
than i billion from the Phase I settlement. The Florida
settlement was :..K. .1 from that of most of the other states,
so .::. ..1- ;... .. : of the funds may have tobe :. .- to
the Florida agreement. -. ::i. of the Phase II settlement,
which is much .::::i: : than the Phase I settlement, have not
been reported as yet.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MAINTENANCE DURING
TRANSPLANTING

Several practices can help maintain the. :: :.:: and quantity
of plants until the final i. .1 .. ..-1:.. There may also be the
Sof .::.. excessplants. ...:... irrigate the
beds to settle the soil aroundthe .....:- I.. 1.:.. If
:..:::: :: :: i : .needed,it canbei.i .I: 1:: :. of


irrigation, but be careful not to add excess nitrogen. V i up
with insecticide and fungicide applications, so that aphids,
blue mold, or other problems do not develop. Be sure to
: : pesticide label i* ........ : : those relating to
re-entry : : .. If there is a threat of frost or freeze, be
: ... .. to cover the beds to ;... i. : the remaining plants.
Irrigate as needed to : .. i -1. : :.. good condition, but do
not over-irrigate and cause the plants to be too succulent for


EBW

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be the .... ... ....:: to plant spanish market-type
i : :': in 1999. These small :.**: : ..* .... in
Texas and Oklahoma, :1:1:. :: :. :::::: : :: I : have become
. ... in that area. Spanish .. ..... have been grown in
Florida, but generally on the heavier soils, where the yield
*-i.' .. between the two market types are not as great. In
the peninsular area of Florida, :i :::-1: varieties have
generally yielded only about 65-75 percent of the runner
yields. "'.... 1. varieties usually mature in about 120 days
.:.' planting in May, which could reduce the number of
fungicide .: : :::.::. However the :: : : maturity could
result in harvest during August, when rainfall is more likely
... .: ...:. "-or October. Since there is no donnancy in
S:'- I'. ".:.:: as there is in runners, .:.- can be a
: 1 ::: if harvest is delayed beyond optimum maturity.
Vine growth of the spanish varieties is .... .. less than in
runners, so twin rows or some other form of close rows may
be advantageous when i ':...!-i: these varieties. Be sure
S: :: : ::: : : ( :: :: :: thealtered:. : : .
should be placed 2-3 inches apart, but since the seed are
smaller, spanish l ...... do not require as many :........1 per
acre as runners. T:.' i :' 90 is the most ..:' : : 1'
variety planted in southwestern peanut production area.

EBW

LIME FOR PEA:', i i :

If soil test show that lime is needed to raise the soil pH for
.' :-": broadcast and : .....:i the recommended
amount of lime during soil :: .: :l. :: so that it is mixed
... 1 ... the potential rooting zone. If the lime is being
as a substitute for gypsum, and to some extent for a
soil pH increase, it should be .::.:.: i: i ahead of the pre-
i ::' i:: :i :. herbicides so that it is :::: .::. in the
pegging zone of the peanuts. Calcic lime will .... 1 more
calcium than .:: dolomite, but either may be ..
S" I .. .well as calcium, which may
bei::::...: ..:::: : :: : : grown in rotation ". ::: :::::: If
there is no need for additional magnesium, calcite would be
the ... ... 1 source because of the higher concentration of
calcium.
EBW









TOBACCO TRA i:,':, i i T WATER ADDITIVES

Several chemicals, ....... :i insecticides and fertilizers, are
': : i i.the: : :ir .... .. : ..: ... : A major
problem that can be encountered is nonunifomn i i: :::.::
of the chemicals because there is usually no means of
. :: :. ".. water to keep the products thoroughly mixed in
the tank A 1 1 ... canbe in accurately 1 '!- ...
the amount of chemical to add to the tank, because it is rarely
totally empty when more water and chemical are added.
C :... ....-.:... the chemical could either be in excessive
concentration and result in toxicity to the plants or at such a
low concentration that it is not :: ::. To try to prevent
nonuniform mixtures, mix the chemicals with water in a
bucket and then pour into the tank and -:' ....... .1 stir again
and at intervals while transplanting. v .. .. .: i i:. more
material to a : :: H. filled tank, make a good measurement
or estimate of how much water will be added and j .. : the
amount of chemical to add so that there will be no variations
from tank to tank. Two insecticides, Orthene and Admire, are
lab( : : :. : :: either alone or in combination, in transplant
water. If using the new Orthene 97 formulation, be sure to
mix it well, because it does not go into solution as quickly as
the soluble powder .... ::.:: .. .. Read and : : .. all label
instructions. There are a number of high i :::
fertilizer solutions that are sold for use in tobacco transplant
water. These : .:.:- often stimulate early growth, but are
not consistent -** -*..i. .-: '1 If used, be careful not to
use excessive rates as stand loss can occur, : :ii, under
dry conditions.

EBW

TOBACCO SET': i-; .:i:i :. :i

Fanners should I i- ..:.... i about developments in the
tobacco settlement issues, i :. :i as they relate to
reimbursements to them for loss of quota. Farm
in some states are making strong efforts before their
: ".:i: :. ,..,; ... :' : : .... ...... : m ore
than i billion from the Phase I settlement. The Florida
settlement was :..K. .1 from that of most of the other states,
so .::. ..1- ;... .. : of the funds may have tobe :. .- to
the Florida agreement. -. ::i. of the Phase II settlement,
which is much .::::i: : than the Phase I settlement, have not
been reported as yet.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MAINTENANCE DURING
TRANSPLANTING

Several practices can help maintain the. :: :.:: and quantity
of plants until the final i. .1 .. ..-1:.. There may also be the
Sof .::.. excessplants. ...:... irrigate the
beds to settle the soil aroundthe .....:- I.. 1.:.. If
:..:::: :: :: i : .needed,it canbei.i .I: 1:: :. of


irrigation, but be careful not to add excess nitrogen. V i up
with insecticide and fungicide applications, so that aphids,
blue mold, or other problems do not develop. Be sure to
: : pesticide label i* ........ : : those relating to
re-entry : : .. If there is a threat of frost or freeze, be
: ... .. to cover the beds to ;... i. : the remaining plants.
Irrigate as needed to : .. i -1. : :.. good condition, but do
not over-irrigate and cause the plants to be too succulent for


EBW

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be the .... ... ....:: to plant spanish market-type
i : :': in 1999. These small :.**: : ..* .... in
Texas and Oklahoma, :1:1:. :: :. :::::: : :: I : have become
. ... in that area. Spanish .. ..... have been grown in
Florida, but generally on the heavier soils, where the yield
*-i.' .. between the two market types are not as great. In
the peninsular area of Florida, :i :::-1: varieties have
generally yielded only about 65-75 percent of the runner
yields. "'.... 1. varieties usually mature in about 120 days
.:.' planting in May, which could reduce the number of
fungicide .: : :::.::. However the :: : : maturity could
result in harvest during August, when rainfall is more likely
... .: ...:. "-or October. Since there is no donnancy in
S:'- I'. ".:.:: as there is in runners, .:.- can be a
: 1 ::: if harvest is delayed beyond optimum maturity.
Vine growth of the spanish varieties is .... .. less than in
runners, so twin rows or some other form of close rows may
be advantageous when i ':...!-i: these varieties. Be sure
S: :: : ::: : : ( :: :: :: thealtered:. : : .
should be placed 2-3 inches apart, but since the seed are
smaller, spanish l ...... do not require as many :........1 per
acre as runners. T:.' i :' 90 is the most ..:' : : 1'
variety planted in southwestern peanut production area.

EBW

LIME FOR PEA:', i i :

If soil test show that lime is needed to raise the soil pH for
.' :-": broadcast and : .....:i the recommended
amount of lime during soil :: .: :l. :: so that it is mixed
... 1 ... the potential rooting zone. If the lime is being
as a substitute for gypsum, and to some extent for a
soil pH increase, it should be .::.:.: i: i ahead of the pre-
i ::' i:: :i :. herbicides so that it is :::: .::. in the
pegging zone of the peanuts. Calcic lime will .... 1 more
calcium than .:: dolomite, but either may be ..
S" I .. .well as calcium, which may
bei::::...: ..:::: : :: : : grown in rotation ". ::: :::::: If
there is no need for additional magnesium, calcite would be
the ... ... 1 source because of the higher concentration of
calcium.
EBW









TOBACCO TRA i:,':, i i T WATER ADDITIVES

Several chemicals, ....... :i insecticides and fertilizers, are
': : i i.the: : :ir .... .. : ..: ... : A major
problem that can be encountered is nonunifomn i i: :::.::
of the chemicals because there is usually no means of
. :: :. ".. water to keep the products thoroughly mixed in
the tank A 1 1 ... canbe in accurately 1 '!- ...
the amount of chemical to add to the tank, because it is rarely
totally empty when more water and chemical are added.
C :... ....-.:... the chemical could either be in excessive
concentration and result in toxicity to the plants or at such a
low concentration that it is not :: ::. To try to prevent
nonuniform mixtures, mix the chemicals with water in a
bucket and then pour into the tank and -:' ....... .1 stir again
and at intervals while transplanting. v .. .. .: i i:. more
material to a : :: H. filled tank, make a good measurement
or estimate of how much water will be added and j .. : the
amount of chemical to add so that there will be no variations
from tank to tank. Two insecticides, Orthene and Admire, are
lab( : : :. : :: either alone or in combination, in transplant
water. If using the new Orthene 97 formulation, be sure to
mix it well, because it does not go into solution as quickly as
the soluble powder .... ::.:: .. .. Read and : : .. all label
instructions. There are a number of high i :::
fertilizer solutions that are sold for use in tobacco transplant
water. These : .:.:- often stimulate early growth, but are
not consistent -** -*..i. .-: '1 If used, be careful not to
use excessive rates as stand loss can occur, : :ii, under
dry conditions.

EBW

TOBACCO SET': i-; .:i:i :. :i

Fanners should I i- ..:.... i about developments in the
tobacco settlement issues, i :. :i as they relate to
reimbursements to them for loss of quota. Farm
in some states are making strong efforts before their
: ".:i: :. ,..,; ... :' : : .... ...... : m ore
than i billion from the Phase I settlement. The Florida
settlement was :..K. .1 from that of most of the other states,
so .::. ..1- ;... .. : of the funds may have tobe :. .- to
the Florida agreement. -. ::i. of the Phase II settlement,
which is much .::::i: : than the Phase I settlement, have not
been reported as yet.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MAINTENANCE DURING
TRANSPLANTING

Several practices can help maintain the. :: :.:: and quantity
of plants until the final i. .1 .. ..-1:.. There may also be the
Sof .::.. excessplants. ...:... irrigate the
beds to settle the soil aroundthe .....:- I.. 1.:.. If
:..:::: :: :: i : .needed,it canbei.i .I: 1:: :. of


irrigation, but be careful not to add excess nitrogen. V i up
with insecticide and fungicide applications, so that aphids,
blue mold, or other problems do not develop. Be sure to
: : pesticide label i* ........ : : those relating to
re-entry : : .. If there is a threat of frost or freeze, be
: ... .. to cover the beds to ;... i. : the remaining plants.
Irrigate as needed to : .. i -1. : :.. good condition, but do
not over-irrigate and cause the plants to be too succulent for


EBW

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be the .... ... ....:: to plant spanish market-type
i : :': in 1999. These small :.**: : ..* .... in
Texas and Oklahoma, :1:1:. :: :. :::::: : :: I : have become
. ... in that area. Spanish .. ..... have been grown in
Florida, but generally on the heavier soils, where the yield
*-i.' .. between the two market types are not as great. In
the peninsular area of Florida, :i :::-1: varieties have
generally yielded only about 65-75 percent of the runner
yields. "'.... 1. varieties usually mature in about 120 days
.:.' planting in May, which could reduce the number of
fungicide .: : :::.::. However the :: : : maturity could
result in harvest during August, when rainfall is more likely
... .: ...:. "-or October. Since there is no donnancy in
S:'- I'. ".:.:: as there is in runners, .:.- can be a
: 1 ::: if harvest is delayed beyond optimum maturity.
Vine growth of the spanish varieties is .... .. less than in
runners, so twin rows or some other form of close rows may
be advantageous when i ':...!-i: these varieties. Be sure
S: :: : ::: : : ( :: :: :: thealtered:. : : .
should be placed 2-3 inches apart, but since the seed are
smaller, spanish l ...... do not require as many :........1 per
acre as runners. T:.' i :' 90 is the most ..:' : : 1'
variety planted in southwestern peanut production area.

EBW

LIME FOR PEA:', i i :

If soil test show that lime is needed to raise the soil pH for
.' :-": broadcast and : .....:i the recommended
amount of lime during soil :: .: :l. :: so that it is mixed
... 1 ... the potential rooting zone. If the lime is being
as a substitute for gypsum, and to some extent for a
soil pH increase, it should be .::.:.: i: i ahead of the pre-
i ::' i:: :i :. herbicides so that it is :::: .::. in the
pegging zone of the peanuts. Calcic lime will .... 1 more
calcium than .:: dolomite, but either may be ..
S" I .. .well as calcium, which may
bei::::...: ..:::: : :: : : grown in rotation ". ::: :::::: If
there is no need for additional magnesium, calcite would be
the ... ... 1 source because of the higher concentration of
calcium.
EBW









CONTROL SPRING i- i, ': :: IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the :'. : hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Bi :. ..... :: ::. : : i -.. rr controlmany
: : : .w e .i::: i :: : : : I toburn, then
atimcly : .:' .:: .. .:. ". canbeused. Banvel, 2,4-D,
or the combination of the two are available : ... .. on grass
hay fields. Banvel :i.. ...: :, at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75
lbs : : i: :: .:.. gives better control than eitherer herbicide
used alone. Annual weeds should be treated soon after
emergence. Perennial weeds (such as .: : ..... : i should be
i to obtain a leaf :.:': large .. ': 1' to allow
S: : : :: .. coverages(about 12"-18" .: :: .i: :.::
using these herbicides should read the label carefully and
obser .1 .: :.....:: ... These herbicides can drift and
m ay t:o. .: :, ... to : : ., i : If
there is a vegetable crop growing .. : ::: to the hay field, it
may be w. :. i. : ...:.: .:.......:'the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, Weed
Management in Pastures and Rangeland :'.f" for
:..::: information.

CGC

W. i: ,; i .-. .ON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE


The two most :1 : ..:: season annual grasses are : ..
::::i .:i::::: sudangrass. B. :i : : .::i. [ :::i on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass .:
tolerate w et, :.. ... : -.. .
it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. ii: grasses should not be planted until the soil is
wann. ': ... : ,..:.. date .. ...: midMarchtomid


Whenor where 1.. ::1.i: : :. i : i crops can
be useful in a :. .. renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to an
improved and more ..... 1 :: grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the : : .... '. The summer annual
grass can be := .:: :. i in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or;: ::: .: grain. The Tifton- :::.::: :: ie
planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
S.. i .:i :: .. ... beforeeach crop
isplanted. The ....:'! :11.: ; : :: -" should ....... :
most of the old .i::: grass and grass seed. This :.
involves considerable :... therefore, the ....
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow : .:::: i during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized ....:- and can
provide high :.:: i grazing. The most efficient use : ::
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as


developing :: :: : or stockers that require a higher i:: .::.
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
.. .... to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
S. : : 1:--- : until it is 24 inches .::: or taller. This
is due to the i ::: 1 acid (HCN) -. :1 ::::. i : .1 1 ::: that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a .....
pearl millet.

One .::: i .::i about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a :'. : .: and let the
maturecow l.: ::: :: 1 1.1::: them. :::: ::: needtobe
mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. : :.:::: with grasses such as Floralta I ..:
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodcsgrass should be vacated
S:. .. .. ... growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze : .:::: :::i i taking no more than V2 of the top growth.
During the wann season, : : ...;. ...i > always leave some
leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to maintain a
healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass i :' while
other grasses are recovering from winter stress. .:
. .'.: .... .... : .: growth habit and large accumulation of
stolons can withstand greater grazing pressure than many
other grasses.

CGC

FIELD CROPS ANNUAL REPORT

The annual report of field crops acreage. production, and
value by the Florida Agricultural ": .: :. Service shows
the steep decline in value of production; average :
yield per acre and harvested acreage that has been .
enced by many of the field crops :....... in northern
Florida. Hay and sugarcane have not suffered similar
declines. The estimates are shown below:









CONTROL SPRING i- i, ': :: IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the :'. : hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Bi :. ..... :: ::. : : i -.. rr controlmany
: : : .w e .i::: i :: : : : I toburn, then
atimcly : .:' .:: .. .:. ". canbeused. Banvel, 2,4-D,
or the combination of the two are available : ... .. on grass
hay fields. Banvel :i.. ...: :, at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75
lbs : : i: :: .:.. gives better control than eitherer herbicide
used alone. Annual weeds should be treated soon after
emergence. Perennial weeds (such as .: : ..... : i should be
i to obtain a leaf :.:': large .. ': 1' to allow
S: : : :: .. coverages(about 12"-18" .: :: .i: :.::
using these herbicides should read the label carefully and
obser .1 .: :.....:: ... These herbicides can drift and
m ay t:o. .: :, ... to : : ., i : If
there is a vegetable crop growing .. : ::: to the hay field, it
may be w. :. i. : ...:.: .:.......:'the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, Weed
Management in Pastures and Rangeland :'.f" for
:..::: information.

CGC

W. i: ,; i .-. .ON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE


The two most :1 : ..:: season annual grasses are : ..
::::i .:i::::: sudangrass. B. :i : : .::i. [ :::i on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass .:
tolerate w et, :.. ... : -.. .
it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. ii: grasses should not be planted until the soil is
wann. ': ... : ,..:.. date .. ...: midMarchtomid


Whenor where 1.. ::1.i: : :. i : i crops can
be useful in a :. .. renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to an
improved and more ..... 1 :: grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the : : .... '. The summer annual
grass can be := .:: :. i in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or;: ::: .: grain. The Tifton- :::.::: :: ie
planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
S.. i .:i :: .. ... beforeeach crop
isplanted. The ....:'! :11.: ; : :: -" should ....... :
most of the old .i::: grass and grass seed. This :.
involves considerable :... therefore, the ....
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow : .:::: i during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized ....:- and can
provide high :.:: i grazing. The most efficient use : ::
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as


developing :: :: : or stockers that require a higher i:: .::.
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
.. .... to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
S. : : 1:--- : until it is 24 inches .::: or taller. This
is due to the i ::: 1 acid (HCN) -. :1 ::::. i : .1 1 ::: that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a .....
pearl millet.

One .::: i .::i about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a :'. : .: and let the
maturecow l.: ::: :: 1 1.1::: them. :::: ::: needtobe
mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. : :.:::: with grasses such as Floralta I ..:
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodcsgrass should be vacated
S:. .. .. ... growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze : .:::: :::i i taking no more than V2 of the top growth.
During the wann season, : : ...;. ...i > always leave some
leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to maintain a
healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass i :' while
other grasses are recovering from winter stress. .:
. .'.: .... .... : .: growth habit and large accumulation of
stolons can withstand greater grazing pressure than many
other grasses.

CGC

FIELD CROPS ANNUAL REPORT

The annual report of field crops acreage. production, and
value by the Florida Agricultural ": .: :. Service shows
the steep decline in value of production; average :
yield per acre and harvested acreage that has been .
enced by many of the field crops :....... in northern
Florida. Hay and sugarcane have not suffered similar
declines. The estimates are shown below:









CONTROL SPRING i- i, ': :: IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the :'. : hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Bi :. ..... :: ::. : : i -.. rr controlmany
: : : .w e .i::: i :: : : : I toburn, then
atimcly : .:' .:: .. .:. ". canbeused. Banvel, 2,4-D,
or the combination of the two are available : ... .. on grass
hay fields. Banvel :i.. ...: :, at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75
lbs : : i: :: .:.. gives better control than eitherer herbicide
used alone. Annual weeds should be treated soon after
emergence. Perennial weeds (such as .: : ..... : i should be
i to obtain a leaf :.:': large .. ': 1' to allow
S: : : :: .. coverages(about 12"-18" .: :: .i: :.::
using these herbicides should read the label carefully and
obser .1 .: :.....:: ... These herbicides can drift and
m ay t:o. .: :, ... to : : ., i : If
there is a vegetable crop growing .. : ::: to the hay field, it
may be w. :. i. : ...:.: .:.......:'the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, Weed
Management in Pastures and Rangeland :'.f" for
:..::: information.

CGC

W. i: ,; i .-. .ON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE


The two most :1 : ..:: season annual grasses are : ..
::::i .:i::::: sudangrass. B. :i : : .::i. [ :::i on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass .:
tolerate w et, :.. ... : -.. .
it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. ii: grasses should not be planted until the soil is
wann. ': ... : ,..:.. date .. ...: midMarchtomid


Whenor where 1.. ::1.i: : :. i : i crops can
be useful in a :. .. renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to an
improved and more ..... 1 :: grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the : : .... '. The summer annual
grass can be := .:: :. i in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or;: ::: .: grain. The Tifton- :::.::: :: ie
planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
S.. i .:i :: .. ... beforeeach crop
isplanted. The ....:'! :11.: ; : :: -" should ....... :
most of the old .i::: grass and grass seed. This :.
involves considerable :... therefore, the ....
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow : .:::: i during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized ....:- and can
provide high :.:: i grazing. The most efficient use : ::
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as


developing :: :: : or stockers that require a higher i:: .::.
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
.. .... to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
S. : : 1:--- : until it is 24 inches .::: or taller. This
is due to the i ::: 1 acid (HCN) -. :1 ::::. i : .1 1 ::: that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a .....
pearl millet.

One .::: i .::i about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a :'. : .: and let the
maturecow l.: ::: :: 1 1.1::: them. :::: ::: needtobe
mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. : :.:::: with grasses such as Floralta I ..:
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodcsgrass should be vacated
S:. .. .. ... growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze : .:::: :::i i taking no more than V2 of the top growth.
During the wann season, : : ...;. ...i > always leave some
leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to maintain a
healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass i :' while
other grasses are recovering from winter stress. .:
. .'.: .... .... : .: growth habit and large accumulation of
stolons can withstand greater grazing pressure than many
other grasses.

CGC

FIELD CROPS ANNUAL REPORT

The annual report of field crops acreage. production, and
value by the Florida Agricultural ": .: :. Service shows
the steep decline in value of production; average :
yield per acre and harvested acreage that has been .
enced by many of the field crops :....... in northern
Florida. Hay and sugarcane have not suffered similar
declines. The estimates are shown below:











Harvested Season Value of
Acres (xl000) Yield per Average Price Production
Crop Year Acre Unit ($) (xl000$)

1996 112 88 bu 3.80 37,453
Corn for grain
1997 75 80 bu 2.90 17,400

1998 55 62 bu 2.30 7,843

1996 98.2 637 lb 0.686 42,938

Cotton 1997 99 577 lb 0.654 37,388

1998 80 408 lb 0.542 17,691

1996 240 2.6 ton 84 52,416

Hay, all 1997 250 2.6 ton 86 55,900

1998 230 2.5 ton 102 58,650

1996 82 2,880 lb 0.281 66,361

Peanuts 1997 84 2,715 lb 0.280 63,857

1998 88 2,500 lb 0.247 54,340

1996 33 32 bu 7.00 7,392

Soybeans 1997 45 25 bu 7.00 7,875

1998 30 23 bu 5.40 3,726

1996 438 33.1 ton 29.40 426,241

Sugarcane 1997 440 36.9 ton 28.70 465,963

1998 448 38.7 ton NA NA

1996 7.5 2,680 lb 1.808 36,341

Tobacco 1997 7.3 2,610 lb 1.721 32,790

1998 6.8 2,515 lb 1.683 28,783

1996 10 38 bu 4.40 1,672

Wheat 1997 17 39 bu 3.40 2,254

1998 13 43 bu 2.50 1,398


In some instances, harvested acreage was down because of abandonment i .::::: :I :: fields that were destroyed by the dry
weather in 1998. This was especially true for corn. and to some extent for soybeans and cotton.

EBW


The use of tradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to .

Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E. B. Whitty, Professor, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Associate Professor, Extension Agronomist.