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 Table of Contents
 Tobacco settlements
 Preparing tobacco fields
 Tobacco plant bed management
 Peanut varieties
 Cool season forages
 When to harvest small grains for...
 Grazing management for perennial...
 Armyworms
 Fertilization of grass-legume pastures...
 Field crop production statistics...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00006
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: February 1999
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00006

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Tobacco settlements
        Page 2
    Preparing tobacco fields
        Page 2
    Tobacco plant bed management
        Page 2
    Peanut varieties
        Page 2
    Cool season forages
        Page 2
    When to harvest small grains for forage
        Page 3
    Grazing management for perennial grasses
        Page 3
    Armyworms
        Page 3
    Fertilization of grass-legume pastures this Spring
        Page 3
    Field crop production statistics for 1998
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


NOTES


February 1999


February 19
July 6-8


North Central Florida Peanut Short Course Bronson
Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustanable Agriculture Tifton, GA


PAGE


TOBACCO
T ob acco Settlem ents ................................................................................. ....................... 2
Preparing Tobacco Fields ....................................................................... .......................... 2
Tobacco Plant B ed M anagem ent ............................................. ................................................ 2

PEANUT
P eanu t V varieties .................................................................... .................................... ............ 2

FORAGE
C ool Season F orages .................................................................. .............................................. 2
When to Harvest Small Grains for Forage ........................................... .............................. 3
Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses ............................ ................................................ 3
Armyworms ................................................................................. 3
Fertilization of Grass-Legume Pastures this Spring............................... .......................... 3

MISCELLANEOUS
Field Crop Production Statistics for 1998 ...................................... ......................................... 4


DATES TO REMEMBER


IN THIS ISSUE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director








TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


There are many news reports about the so-called tobacco
settlements and their effects on tobacco production. Most
attention has been given to the agreement between the major
cigarette manufacturers and the attorney generals and
governors of 46 states for over $200 billion inpayments inthe
next 25 years. Florida and three other states were not included
in this agreement because earlier settlements had been
reached. The settlement withthe 46 states has been labeled as
Phase I. A second settlement, termed Phase II, has been
reached by the cigarette manufacturers and the tobacco-
producing states to reimburse tobacco farmers for losses in
quota due to less demand as a result of higher prices for
cigarettes. Over the last two years quotas for flue-cured and
burley tobacco have been reduced over 30 percent. A trust
fund is being established and payments to growers will be
made over the next 12 years. Some states may propose
legislation to also secure payments to the agricultural
community by using state funds from the Phase I settlement,
but there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful.
There is some doubt that the terms of the Florida settlement
would allow any payments to Florida growers. There are
many details to be worked out before any payments are made
from the Phase II settlement, but it appears that the 1998 basic
quota will be the basis for calculating payments and Florida
growers will get 1.16 percent of the Phase II settlement. The
payments will not be uniform from year to year, and the first
payment should be made later this year. More details will be
provided as they develop.

EBW


PREPARING TOBACCO FIELDS

The sequence and methods of preparing fields for tobacco are
important to obtain effective use of pesticides. If the soil
fumigant, usually Telone II or perhaps Telone C-17, is to be
injected in the row, then it should be preceded by the
broadcast application of herbicides, such as Prowl, and
insecticides, such as Lorsban. This sequence prevents the
mixing of untreated soil in the row middles with the treated
soil. A result could be poor nematode control. If a subsoil
shank or other equipment is used to inject the fumigant in the
row, be sure that soil below the incorporation depth for the
herbicide is not brought to the surface. Otherwise poor weed
control could be a result, because of untreated soil near the
surface. However if the fumigant is applied broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide application should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be applied before
transplanting, wait as late as possible before transplanting to
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.

EBW


Removal of plastic covers will soon be necessary if warm
weather persists. It may also be necessary to remove the
covers to clip the plants even if cooler weather arrives. Do
not allow either heat or cold to damage the plants. Clip the
plants as needed to allow for more uniform size and more
efficient pulling. Clipping the plants only when they are
almost of transplanting size is not nearly as effective as
starting the clipping process earlier. Inspect the beds for
insect and disease problems when the covers are removed
and apply any needed pesticides. Consider application of a
fungicide to prevent blue mold even if the disease is not
present. It is far less expensive to spray plant beds than the
fields after transplanting. Also consider application of an
insecticide to the beds for the same reason.

EBW


PEANUT VARIETIES

The major change in peanut varieties for 1999 is increased
availability of seed of Florida MDR 98. This variety has
resistance to major diseases, suchas tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), late leaf spot, white mold, and rust. It also has a mid
oleic acid content. Plant MDR 98 during early May when
conditions are favorable for rapid seed germination and plant
emergence. There is some indicationthat this variety may not
produce a stand quickly under cool and or dry conditions.
Since MDR 98 requires 150-160 days to mature, planting in
late May could result in poor pod fill if there is dry weather in
October. Georgia Green will probably continue to be popular
because of resistance to TSWV and good yields. Seed
supplies should be adequate. A new large-seeded runner
variety, Georgia Bold, has been released, but seed supplies
are limited. Southern Runner, Andru 93, GK 7, and the high
oleic varieties, such as SunOleic 97R, are available and
should be considered if they are useful to the grower.

EBW


COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred lb of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium sulphate is
21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per
acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N after a
grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed down and apply
later in the day when the dew has dried.


TOBACCO SETTLEMENTS








TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


There are many news reports about the so-called tobacco
settlements and their effects on tobacco production. Most
attention has been given to the agreement between the major
cigarette manufacturers and the attorney generals and
governors of 46 states for over $200 billion inpayments inthe
next 25 years. Florida and three other states were not included
in this agreement because earlier settlements had been
reached. The settlement withthe 46 states has been labeled as
Phase I. A second settlement, termed Phase II, has been
reached by the cigarette manufacturers and the tobacco-
producing states to reimburse tobacco farmers for losses in
quota due to less demand as a result of higher prices for
cigarettes. Over the last two years quotas for flue-cured and
burley tobacco have been reduced over 30 percent. A trust
fund is being established and payments to growers will be
made over the next 12 years. Some states may propose
legislation to also secure payments to the agricultural
community by using state funds from the Phase I settlement,
but there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful.
There is some doubt that the terms of the Florida settlement
would allow any payments to Florida growers. There are
many details to be worked out before any payments are made
from the Phase II settlement, but it appears that the 1998 basic
quota will be the basis for calculating payments and Florida
growers will get 1.16 percent of the Phase II settlement. The
payments will not be uniform from year to year, and the first
payment should be made later this year. More details will be
provided as they develop.

EBW


PREPARING TOBACCO FIELDS

The sequence and methods of preparing fields for tobacco are
important to obtain effective use of pesticides. If the soil
fumigant, usually Telone II or perhaps Telone C-17, is to be
injected in the row, then it should be preceded by the
broadcast application of herbicides, such as Prowl, and
insecticides, such as Lorsban. This sequence prevents the
mixing of untreated soil in the row middles with the treated
soil. A result could be poor nematode control. If a subsoil
shank or other equipment is used to inject the fumigant in the
row, be sure that soil below the incorporation depth for the
herbicide is not brought to the surface. Otherwise poor weed
control could be a result, because of untreated soil near the
surface. However if the fumigant is applied broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide application should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be applied before
transplanting, wait as late as possible before transplanting to
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.

EBW


Removal of plastic covers will soon be necessary if warm
weather persists. It may also be necessary to remove the
covers to clip the plants even if cooler weather arrives. Do
not allow either heat or cold to damage the plants. Clip the
plants as needed to allow for more uniform size and more
efficient pulling. Clipping the plants only when they are
almost of transplanting size is not nearly as effective as
starting the clipping process earlier. Inspect the beds for
insect and disease problems when the covers are removed
and apply any needed pesticides. Consider application of a
fungicide to prevent blue mold even if the disease is not
present. It is far less expensive to spray plant beds than the
fields after transplanting. Also consider application of an
insecticide to the beds for the same reason.

EBW


PEANUT VARIETIES

The major change in peanut varieties for 1999 is increased
availability of seed of Florida MDR 98. This variety has
resistance to major diseases, suchas tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), late leaf spot, white mold, and rust. It also has a mid
oleic acid content. Plant MDR 98 during early May when
conditions are favorable for rapid seed germination and plant
emergence. There is some indicationthat this variety may not
produce a stand quickly under cool and or dry conditions.
Since MDR 98 requires 150-160 days to mature, planting in
late May could result in poor pod fill if there is dry weather in
October. Georgia Green will probably continue to be popular
because of resistance to TSWV and good yields. Seed
supplies should be adequate. A new large-seeded runner
variety, Georgia Bold, has been released, but seed supplies
are limited. Southern Runner, Andru 93, GK 7, and the high
oleic varieties, such as SunOleic 97R, are available and
should be considered if they are useful to the grower.

EBW


COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred lb of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium sulphate is
21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per
acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N after a
grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed down and apply
later in the day when the dew has dried.


TOBACCO SETTLEMENTS








TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


There are many news reports about the so-called tobacco
settlements and their effects on tobacco production. Most
attention has been given to the agreement between the major
cigarette manufacturers and the attorney generals and
governors of 46 states for over $200 billion inpayments inthe
next 25 years. Florida and three other states were not included
in this agreement because earlier settlements had been
reached. The settlement withthe 46 states has been labeled as
Phase I. A second settlement, termed Phase II, has been
reached by the cigarette manufacturers and the tobacco-
producing states to reimburse tobacco farmers for losses in
quota due to less demand as a result of higher prices for
cigarettes. Over the last two years quotas for flue-cured and
burley tobacco have been reduced over 30 percent. A trust
fund is being established and payments to growers will be
made over the next 12 years. Some states may propose
legislation to also secure payments to the agricultural
community by using state funds from the Phase I settlement,
but there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful.
There is some doubt that the terms of the Florida settlement
would allow any payments to Florida growers. There are
many details to be worked out before any payments are made
from the Phase II settlement, but it appears that the 1998 basic
quota will be the basis for calculating payments and Florida
growers will get 1.16 percent of the Phase II settlement. The
payments will not be uniform from year to year, and the first
payment should be made later this year. More details will be
provided as they develop.

EBW


PREPARING TOBACCO FIELDS

The sequence and methods of preparing fields for tobacco are
important to obtain effective use of pesticides. If the soil
fumigant, usually Telone II or perhaps Telone C-17, is to be
injected in the row, then it should be preceded by the
broadcast application of herbicides, such as Prowl, and
insecticides, such as Lorsban. This sequence prevents the
mixing of untreated soil in the row middles with the treated
soil. A result could be poor nematode control. If a subsoil
shank or other equipment is used to inject the fumigant in the
row, be sure that soil below the incorporation depth for the
herbicide is not brought to the surface. Otherwise poor weed
control could be a result, because of untreated soil near the
surface. However if the fumigant is applied broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide application should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be applied before
transplanting, wait as late as possible before transplanting to
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.

EBW


Removal of plastic covers will soon be necessary if warm
weather persists. It may also be necessary to remove the
covers to clip the plants even if cooler weather arrives. Do
not allow either heat or cold to damage the plants. Clip the
plants as needed to allow for more uniform size and more
efficient pulling. Clipping the plants only when they are
almost of transplanting size is not nearly as effective as
starting the clipping process earlier. Inspect the beds for
insect and disease problems when the covers are removed
and apply any needed pesticides. Consider application of a
fungicide to prevent blue mold even if the disease is not
present. It is far less expensive to spray plant beds than the
fields after transplanting. Also consider application of an
insecticide to the beds for the same reason.

EBW


PEANUT VARIETIES

The major change in peanut varieties for 1999 is increased
availability of seed of Florida MDR 98. This variety has
resistance to major diseases, suchas tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), late leaf spot, white mold, and rust. It also has a mid
oleic acid content. Plant MDR 98 during early May when
conditions are favorable for rapid seed germination and plant
emergence. There is some indicationthat this variety may not
produce a stand quickly under cool and or dry conditions.
Since MDR 98 requires 150-160 days to mature, planting in
late May could result in poor pod fill if there is dry weather in
October. Georgia Green will probably continue to be popular
because of resistance to TSWV and good yields. Seed
supplies should be adequate. A new large-seeded runner
variety, Georgia Bold, has been released, but seed supplies
are limited. Southern Runner, Andru 93, GK 7, and the high
oleic varieties, such as SunOleic 97R, are available and
should be considered if they are useful to the grower.

EBW


COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred lb of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium sulphate is
21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per
acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N after a
grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed down and apply
later in the day when the dew has dried.


TOBACCO SETTLEMENTS








TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


There are many news reports about the so-called tobacco
settlements and their effects on tobacco production. Most
attention has been given to the agreement between the major
cigarette manufacturers and the attorney generals and
governors of 46 states for over $200 billion inpayments inthe
next 25 years. Florida and three other states were not included
in this agreement because earlier settlements had been
reached. The settlement withthe 46 states has been labeled as
Phase I. A second settlement, termed Phase II, has been
reached by the cigarette manufacturers and the tobacco-
producing states to reimburse tobacco farmers for losses in
quota due to less demand as a result of higher prices for
cigarettes. Over the last two years quotas for flue-cured and
burley tobacco have been reduced over 30 percent. A trust
fund is being established and payments to growers will be
made over the next 12 years. Some states may propose
legislation to also secure payments to the agricultural
community by using state funds from the Phase I settlement,
but there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful.
There is some doubt that the terms of the Florida settlement
would allow any payments to Florida growers. There are
many details to be worked out before any payments are made
from the Phase II settlement, but it appears that the 1998 basic
quota will be the basis for calculating payments and Florida
growers will get 1.16 percent of the Phase II settlement. The
payments will not be uniform from year to year, and the first
payment should be made later this year. More details will be
provided as they develop.

EBW


PREPARING TOBACCO FIELDS

The sequence and methods of preparing fields for tobacco are
important to obtain effective use of pesticides. If the soil
fumigant, usually Telone II or perhaps Telone C-17, is to be
injected in the row, then it should be preceded by the
broadcast application of herbicides, such as Prowl, and
insecticides, such as Lorsban. This sequence prevents the
mixing of untreated soil in the row middles with the treated
soil. A result could be poor nematode control. If a subsoil
shank or other equipment is used to inject the fumigant in the
row, be sure that soil below the incorporation depth for the
herbicide is not brought to the surface. Otherwise poor weed
control could be a result, because of untreated soil near the
surface. However if the fumigant is applied broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide application should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be applied before
transplanting, wait as late as possible before transplanting to
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.

EBW


Removal of plastic covers will soon be necessary if warm
weather persists. It may also be necessary to remove the
covers to clip the plants even if cooler weather arrives. Do
not allow either heat or cold to damage the plants. Clip the
plants as needed to allow for more uniform size and more
efficient pulling. Clipping the plants only when they are
almost of transplanting size is not nearly as effective as
starting the clipping process earlier. Inspect the beds for
insect and disease problems when the covers are removed
and apply any needed pesticides. Consider application of a
fungicide to prevent blue mold even if the disease is not
present. It is far less expensive to spray plant beds than the
fields after transplanting. Also consider application of an
insecticide to the beds for the same reason.

EBW


PEANUT VARIETIES

The major change in peanut varieties for 1999 is increased
availability of seed of Florida MDR 98. This variety has
resistance to major diseases, suchas tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), late leaf spot, white mold, and rust. It also has a mid
oleic acid content. Plant MDR 98 during early May when
conditions are favorable for rapid seed germination and plant
emergence. There is some indicationthat this variety may not
produce a stand quickly under cool and or dry conditions.
Since MDR 98 requires 150-160 days to mature, planting in
late May could result in poor pod fill if there is dry weather in
October. Georgia Green will probably continue to be popular
because of resistance to TSWV and good yields. Seed
supplies should be adequate. A new large-seeded runner
variety, Georgia Bold, has been released, but seed supplies
are limited. Southern Runner, Andru 93, GK 7, and the high
oleic varieties, such as SunOleic 97R, are available and
should be considered if they are useful to the grower.

EBW


COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred lb of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium sulphate is
21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per
acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N after a
grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed down and apply
later in the day when the dew has dried.


TOBACCO SETTLEMENTS








TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


There are many news reports about the so-called tobacco
settlements and their effects on tobacco production. Most
attention has been given to the agreement between the major
cigarette manufacturers and the attorney generals and
governors of 46 states for over $200 billion inpayments inthe
next 25 years. Florida and three other states were not included
in this agreement because earlier settlements had been
reached. The settlement withthe 46 states has been labeled as
Phase I. A second settlement, termed Phase II, has been
reached by the cigarette manufacturers and the tobacco-
producing states to reimburse tobacco farmers for losses in
quota due to less demand as a result of higher prices for
cigarettes. Over the last two years quotas for flue-cured and
burley tobacco have been reduced over 30 percent. A trust
fund is being established and payments to growers will be
made over the next 12 years. Some states may propose
legislation to also secure payments to the agricultural
community by using state funds from the Phase I settlement,
but there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful.
There is some doubt that the terms of the Florida settlement
would allow any payments to Florida growers. There are
many details to be worked out before any payments are made
from the Phase II settlement, but it appears that the 1998 basic
quota will be the basis for calculating payments and Florida
growers will get 1.16 percent of the Phase II settlement. The
payments will not be uniform from year to year, and the first
payment should be made later this year. More details will be
provided as they develop.

EBW


PREPARING TOBACCO FIELDS

The sequence and methods of preparing fields for tobacco are
important to obtain effective use of pesticides. If the soil
fumigant, usually Telone II or perhaps Telone C-17, is to be
injected in the row, then it should be preceded by the
broadcast application of herbicides, such as Prowl, and
insecticides, such as Lorsban. This sequence prevents the
mixing of untreated soil in the row middles with the treated
soil. A result could be poor nematode control. If a subsoil
shank or other equipment is used to inject the fumigant in the
row, be sure that soil below the incorporation depth for the
herbicide is not brought to the surface. Otherwise poor weed
control could be a result, because of untreated soil near the
surface. However if the fumigant is applied broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide application should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be applied before
transplanting, wait as late as possible before transplanting to
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.

EBW


Removal of plastic covers will soon be necessary if warm
weather persists. It may also be necessary to remove the
covers to clip the plants even if cooler weather arrives. Do
not allow either heat or cold to damage the plants. Clip the
plants as needed to allow for more uniform size and more
efficient pulling. Clipping the plants only when they are
almost of transplanting size is not nearly as effective as
starting the clipping process earlier. Inspect the beds for
insect and disease problems when the covers are removed
and apply any needed pesticides. Consider application of a
fungicide to prevent blue mold even if the disease is not
present. It is far less expensive to spray plant beds than the
fields after transplanting. Also consider application of an
insecticide to the beds for the same reason.

EBW


PEANUT VARIETIES

The major change in peanut varieties for 1999 is increased
availability of seed of Florida MDR 98. This variety has
resistance to major diseases, suchas tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), late leaf spot, white mold, and rust. It also has a mid
oleic acid content. Plant MDR 98 during early May when
conditions are favorable for rapid seed germination and plant
emergence. There is some indicationthat this variety may not
produce a stand quickly under cool and or dry conditions.
Since MDR 98 requires 150-160 days to mature, planting in
late May could result in poor pod fill if there is dry weather in
October. Georgia Green will probably continue to be popular
because of resistance to TSWV and good yields. Seed
supplies should be adequate. A new large-seeded runner
variety, Georgia Bold, has been released, but seed supplies
are limited. Southern Runner, Andru 93, GK 7, and the high
oleic varieties, such as SunOleic 97R, are available and
should be considered if they are useful to the grower.

EBW


COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred lb of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium sulphate is
21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per
acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N after a
grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed down and apply
later in the day when the dew has dried.


TOBACCO SETTLEMENTS








*::::. : However if the fumigant is i : i broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide ..: .:.. ... should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be .*...: .: before
'.:" ".'.:": w aitas : : : -.' before i- :-: :-
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.


EBW


WHEN TO HARVEST -. : : GRAINS FOR
FORAGE

Forage .:.. i: of small grains (oats, wheat, re, triticale)
m.. naturee from theboot to:'. ... '.
stage. o: _...: : ...... of the stem tissue ( the stem becomes
more woody) ::i .:. to be the main reason for reduced
i. :.: ..: of the forage. If the .. .. is to be fed to high-
producing dairy cows., ": ..... .: :1.. ... .' grain crop
be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a : i value
close to that of top i:: ::::: alfalfa. ::: ::: grain :. :
harvested at the dough stage .... .'1... the most digestible
nutrients andproteinper acre, it ..... ,: :''. -.,
be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is intended for
animals that do not: .:::: top .:: ::. forage.


CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL
GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build .. reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy .::. :::. :: :::::i them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass -.: i have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. i:..... 1. bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount ofovergrazing, :. ....
cannot. When wann weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

.. :1:........: :'" : .(hem arthria) are *: i.. .
to overgrazing, i : ,K. the :- : :: : cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these :.. ... once they are
grazeddown.:'.. : '. winter. Cattle shouldnotbe .--- '...
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational graz-
ing can be started with cattle being removed when the grass
has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
: : : should also be allowed to regrow to a height of


10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a .. ... (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In mid-summer,
these : need a minimum of one week and r -r
three weeks rest between -: : 1::. i ::. 1- Three to four weeks
of rest between grazing periods is needed before and after
mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing is
needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb : half, leave :::

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle ....... .. .. : .: .* ,that a pasture can be grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC





In case you missed it: The .. .: .1 Local Need registration
for Dupont's Lannate (methomyl) insecticide, used to man-
age fall armyworms and striped grass ? : on
bennudagrass in Florida, has been ... .. :1..: registrant.
The identification number associated with this 24 was FL
780037. [-source :(. .::' ": :.


CGC


FERTILIZATION OF GRASS-LEGUME PASTURES
THIS SPRING

IFAS :- -. ... .. : :. ..i .:. bahiagrass pastures
south of Orlando remains 60 lb N/A. It may be .i : i: any-
time between late February and end of March. This fertilizer
recommendation excludes ::. .. ..:. -- of any P or K. How-
ever, 1': should be aware ofi ..: .
.i: ::i: ::: ::. between pure bahiagrass i : ::: and those
containing grass-legume associations such as with carpon
! ......:...... or aesclhnomene. For a grass-legume associa-
tion to function '' legume growth must be promoted
to provide nitrogen for the whole system.

We conducted a two-year fertilization 1...1 on bahiagrass-
carpon I I.......: i : .:. inOsceola County. Total (grass
+ legume) annual dry matter yield (DMY) for the pasture
ranged from 2.8 to 3.5 ton/A and there were no :.. .. ...
between friiertilizertreatments. The grass:legumie DMY ratio
w-xi :... :. ...: : : ..:: ..... e .:..i constant at 60:40
each year. The :.i: .:: ::of N :::i: : alone increased
bahiagrass DMY by 20% and decreased carpon desmodium
DMY by the same margin. On the contrary, the
of P + K + S + micronutrients together increased carpon
. :::. ..:::::: i )MY and decreased bahiagrass DMY by '"








*::::. : However if the fumigant is i : i broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide ..: .:.. ... should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be .*...: .: before
'.:" ".'.:": w aitas : : : -.' before i- :-: :-
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.


EBW


WHEN TO HARVEST -. : : GRAINS FOR
FORAGE

Forage .:.. i: of small grains (oats, wheat, re, triticale)
m.. naturee from theboot to:'. ... '.
stage. o: _...: : ...... of the stem tissue ( the stem becomes
more woody) ::i .:. to be the main reason for reduced
i. :.: ..: of the forage. If the .. .. is to be fed to high-
producing dairy cows., ": ..... .: :1.. ... .' grain crop
be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a : i value
close to that of top i:: ::::: alfalfa. ::: ::: grain :. :
harvested at the dough stage .... .'1... the most digestible
nutrients andproteinper acre, it ..... ,: :''. -.,
be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is intended for
animals that do not: .:::: top .:: ::. forage.


CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL
GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build .. reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy .::. :::. :: :::::i them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass -.: i have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. i:..... 1. bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount ofovergrazing, :. ....
cannot. When wann weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

.. :1:........: :'" : .(hem arthria) are *: i.. .
to overgrazing, i : ,K. the :- : :: : cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these :.. ... once they are
grazeddown.:'.. : '. winter. Cattle shouldnotbe .--- '...
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational graz-
ing can be started with cattle being removed when the grass
has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
: : : should also be allowed to regrow to a height of


10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a .. ... (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In mid-summer,
these : need a minimum of one week and r -r
three weeks rest between -: : 1::. i ::. 1- Three to four weeks
of rest between grazing periods is needed before and after
mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing is
needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb : half, leave :::

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle ....... .. .. : .: .* ,that a pasture can be grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC





In case you missed it: The .. .: .1 Local Need registration
for Dupont's Lannate (methomyl) insecticide, used to man-
age fall armyworms and striped grass ? : on
bennudagrass in Florida, has been ... .. :1..: registrant.
The identification number associated with this 24 was FL
780037. [-source :(. .::' ": :.


CGC


FERTILIZATION OF GRASS-LEGUME PASTURES
THIS SPRING

IFAS :- -. ... .. : :. ..i .:. bahiagrass pastures
south of Orlando remains 60 lb N/A. It may be .i : i: any-
time between late February and end of March. This fertilizer
recommendation excludes ::. .. ..:. -- of any P or K. How-
ever, 1': should be aware ofi ..: .
.i: ::i: ::: ::. between pure bahiagrass i : ::: and those
containing grass-legume associations such as with carpon
! ......:...... or aesclhnomene. For a grass-legume associa-
tion to function '' legume growth must be promoted
to provide nitrogen for the whole system.

We conducted a two-year fertilization 1...1 on bahiagrass-
carpon I I.......: i : .:. inOsceola County. Total (grass
+ legume) annual dry matter yield (DMY) for the pasture
ranged from 2.8 to 3.5 ton/A and there were no :.. .. ...
between friiertilizertreatments. The grass:legumie DMY ratio
w-xi :... :. ...: : : ..:: ..... e .:..i constant at 60:40
each year. The :.i: .:: ::of N :::i: : alone increased
bahiagrass DMY by 20% and decreased carpon desmodium
DMY by the same margin. On the contrary, the
of P + K + S + micronutrients together increased carpon
. :::. ..:::::: i )MY and decreased bahiagrass DMY by '"








*::::. : However if the fumigant is i : i broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide ..: .:.. ... should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be .*...: .: before
'.:" ".'.:": w aitas : : : -.' before i- :-: :-
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.


EBW


WHEN TO HARVEST -. : : GRAINS FOR
FORAGE

Forage .:.. i: of small grains (oats, wheat, re, triticale)
m.. naturee from theboot to:'. ... '.
stage. o: _...: : ...... of the stem tissue ( the stem becomes
more woody) ::i .:. to be the main reason for reduced
i. :.: ..: of the forage. If the .. .. is to be fed to high-
producing dairy cows., ": ..... .: :1.. ... .' grain crop
be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a : i value
close to that of top i:: ::::: alfalfa. ::: ::: grain :. :
harvested at the dough stage .... .'1... the most digestible
nutrients andproteinper acre, it ..... ,: :''. -.,
be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is intended for
animals that do not: .:::: top .:: ::. forage.


CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL
GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build .. reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy .::. :::. :: :::::i them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass -.: i have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. i:..... 1. bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount ofovergrazing, :. ....
cannot. When wann weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

.. :1:........: :'" : .(hem arthria) are *: i.. .
to overgrazing, i : ,K. the :- : :: : cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these :.. ... once they are
grazeddown.:'.. : '. winter. Cattle shouldnotbe .--- '...
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational graz-
ing can be started with cattle being removed when the grass
has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
: : : should also be allowed to regrow to a height of


10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a .. ... (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In mid-summer,
these : need a minimum of one week and r -r
three weeks rest between -: : 1::. i ::. 1- Three to four weeks
of rest between grazing periods is needed before and after
mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing is
needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb : half, leave :::

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle ....... .. .. : .: .* ,that a pasture can be grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC





In case you missed it: The .. .: .1 Local Need registration
for Dupont's Lannate (methomyl) insecticide, used to man-
age fall armyworms and striped grass ? : on
bennudagrass in Florida, has been ... .. :1..: registrant.
The identification number associated with this 24 was FL
780037. [-source :(. .::' ": :.


CGC


FERTILIZATION OF GRASS-LEGUME PASTURES
THIS SPRING

IFAS :- -. ... .. : :. ..i .:. bahiagrass pastures
south of Orlando remains 60 lb N/A. It may be .i : i: any-
time between late February and end of March. This fertilizer
recommendation excludes ::. .. ..:. -- of any P or K. How-
ever, 1': should be aware ofi ..: .
.i: ::i: ::: ::. between pure bahiagrass i : ::: and those
containing grass-legume associations such as with carpon
! ......:...... or aesclhnomene. For a grass-legume associa-
tion to function '' legume growth must be promoted
to provide nitrogen for the whole system.

We conducted a two-year fertilization 1...1 on bahiagrass-
carpon I I.......: i : .:. inOsceola County. Total (grass
+ legume) annual dry matter yield (DMY) for the pasture
ranged from 2.8 to 3.5 ton/A and there were no :.. .. ...
between friiertilizertreatments. The grass:legumie DMY ratio
w-xi :... :. ...: : : ..:: ..... e .:..i constant at 60:40
each year. The :.i: .:: ::of N :::i: : alone increased
bahiagrass DMY by 20% and decreased carpon desmodium
DMY by the same margin. On the contrary, the
of P + K + S + micronutrients together increased carpon
. :::. ..:::::: i )MY and decreased bahiagrass DMY by '"








*::::. : However if the fumigant is i : i broadcast, the
herbicide and insecticide ..: .:.. ... should follow the
fumigation. If Ridomil Gold is to be .*...: .: before
'.:" ".'.:": w aitas : : : -.' before i- :-: :-
help insure that there are no losses by leaching by rain.


EBW


WHEN TO HARVEST -. : : GRAINS FOR
FORAGE

Forage .:.. i: of small grains (oats, wheat, re, triticale)
m.. naturee from theboot to:'. ... '.
stage. o: _...: : ...... of the stem tissue ( the stem becomes
more woody) ::i .:. to be the main reason for reduced
i. :.: ..: of the forage. If the .. .. is to be fed to high-
producing dairy cows., ": ..... .: :1.. ... .' grain crop
be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a : i value
close to that of top i:: ::::: alfalfa. ::: ::: grain :. :
harvested at the dough stage .... .'1... the most digestible
nutrients andproteinper acre, it ..... ,: :''. -.,
be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is intended for
animals that do not: .:::: top .:: ::. forage.


CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL
GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build .. reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy .::. :::. :: :::::i them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass -.: i have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. i:..... 1. bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount ofovergrazing, :. ....
cannot. When wann weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

.. :1:........: :'" : .(hem arthria) are *: i.. .
to overgrazing, i : ,K. the :- : :: : cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these :.. ... once they are
grazeddown.:'.. : '. winter. Cattle shouldnotbe .--- '...
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational graz-
ing can be started with cattle being removed when the grass
has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
: : : should also be allowed to regrow to a height of


10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a .. ... (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In mid-summer,
these : need a minimum of one week and r -r
three weeks rest between -: : 1::. i ::. 1- Three to four weeks
of rest between grazing periods is needed before and after
mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing is
needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb : half, leave :::

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle ....... .. .. : .: .* ,that a pasture can be grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC





In case you missed it: The .. .: .1 Local Need registration
for Dupont's Lannate (methomyl) insecticide, used to man-
age fall armyworms and striped grass ? : on
bennudagrass in Florida, has been ... .. :1..: registrant.
The identification number associated with this 24 was FL
780037. [-source :(. .::' ": :.


CGC


FERTILIZATION OF GRASS-LEGUME PASTURES
THIS SPRING

IFAS :- -. ... .. : :. ..i .:. bahiagrass pastures
south of Orlando remains 60 lb N/A. It may be .i : i: any-
time between late February and end of March. This fertilizer
recommendation excludes ::. .. ..:. -- of any P or K. How-
ever, 1': should be aware ofi ..: .
.i: ::i: ::: ::. between pure bahiagrass i : ::: and those
containing grass-legume associations such as with carpon
! ......:...... or aesclhnomene. For a grass-legume associa-
tion to function '' legume growth must be promoted
to provide nitrogen for the whole system.

We conducted a two-year fertilization 1...1 on bahiagrass-
carpon I I.......: i : .:. inOsceola County. Total (grass
+ legume) annual dry matter yield (DMY) for the pasture
ranged from 2.8 to 3.5 ton/A and there were no :.. .. ...
between friiertilizertreatments. The grass:legumie DMY ratio
w-xi :... :. ...: : : ..:: ..... e .:..i constant at 60:40
each year. The :.i: .:: ::of N :::i: : alone increased
bahiagrass DMY by 20% and decreased carpon desmodium
DMY by the same margin. On the contrary, the
of P + K + S + micronutrients together increased carpon
. :::. ..:::::: i )MY and decreased bahiagrass DMY by '"









Both grass and legume tissue P and K were increased each
year by the inclusion of these nutrients in the fertilizer. Al-
though, .:...:..... rates of P, K and micronutrients used in
this i:. 1 were 60 lb P20,/A, 60 lb K O/A and 40 lb TEM
300/A, : i :i i. further -:::.: -. are in i : .: to refine
these rates before any :..... recommendations can be made.
Meanwhile for this season, we :' .
lures containing warm season legumes are : .:= with N
in ::1 : : ::- pastures should be heavily grazed to open up
grass sward. They should then be fertilized with some P and
K in late -. :. sustain legume growth.



MBA





FIELD CROP PRODUCE i ;:', STATISTICS FOR 1998


TheN :i : :. .. : ::li::::i "i. : i Service hasissuedthef 1- i-i : :: .i::::: F:' : : andS i. F ::1 :: .; :' cropsin1998:



Florida US

Crop Planted liarvested d P arrested
Yield Planted Yield per
Acres Acres Acres
per acre Acres acre
(1000) (1000) acre Aces (1000)

Corn, all 160 80,187
purpose

Corn, grain 55 62.0 bu 72,604 134.4 bu

Corn, silage 35 13.0 ton 5,919 16.0 ton

Wheat, all 15 13 43.0 bu 65,871 59,002 43.2 bu

Peanuts 96 88 2500 lb 1511.0 1465.5 2683 lb

Soybeans 35 30 23.0 bu 72,375 70,811 38.9 bu

Cotton, all 89 80 408 lb 13,417.9 10,722.5 618 lb

Slay, all 230 2.50 ton 60,016 -2.52 ton

Tobacco, all 6.8 2515 lb 726.91 2104 lb

Tobacco, flue
Tobacco flue 6.8 2515 lb 369.8 2253 lb
cured

Sugarcane 448.0 38.7 ton 949.5 35.5 ton
sugar, & seed


The use of tradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar products.

Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E. B. Whitty, Professor, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Associate Professor, Extension Agronomist, M.D. Adjei,
Assistant Professor, Extension Agronomist.