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 Table of Contents
 Excellence in tobacco production...
 Fred G. Bond scholarships for students...
 Pelleted or coated tobacco...
 Hybrid tobacco seed
 Final tobacco sales
 Tobacco plant bed fumigation
 Tobacco purchase intentions...
 Seeding tobacco beds
 Peanut quota options
 Peanut planting dates
 Late planted winter pastures
 Managing cool season annual...
 Nitrate toxicity
 Stockpiled forage
 Hay testing
 Perennial peanuts
 Field corn production - plan...
 Poisonous plants
 November field crops report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00004
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: December 1998
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00004

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Excellence in tobacco production award winner
        Page 2
    Fred G. Bond scholarships for students interested in tobacco
        Page 2
    Pelleted or coated tobacco seed
        Page 2
    Hybrid tobacco seed
        Page 2
    Final tobacco sales
        Page 2
    Tobacco plant bed fumigation
        Page 2
    Tobacco purchase intentions report
        Page 2
    Seeding tobacco beds
        Page 3
    Peanut quota options
        Page 3
    Peanut planting dates
        Page 3
    Late planted winter pastures
        Page 3
    Managing cool season annual grasses
        Page 3
    Nitrate toxicity
        Page 4
    Stockpiled forage
        Page 4
    Hay testing
        Page 4
    Perennial peanuts
        Page 4
    Field corn production - plan ahead
        Page 4
    Poisonous plants
        Page 4
    November field crops report
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY


7 UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
stitute of ood and Agricultural SciencesNO Dr 199



DATES TO REMEMBER


December 3 Excellence in Tobacco Awards Program Lake City
January 26 27 Agronomic Crops In-Service Training Quincy
January 30 February 3 Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists Memphis, TN


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE


TOBACCO
Excellence in Tobacco Production Award Winner ............................. ................................. 2
Fred G. Bond Scholarships for Students Interested in Tobacco ................................................. 2
Pelleted or Coated Tobacco Seed .................................................... ................................ 2
H ybrid T tobacco Seed .............................................................................. ....................... 2
F final T ob acco Sales ................................................................................ ........................ 2
T tobacco P lant B ed Fum igation ...................................................................................................... 2
Tobacco Purchase Intentions Report ............................................... ................................ 2
Seeding T ob acco B eds ........................................................... ................................................ 3

PEANUT
P eanut Q uota O options ................................................................ ............................................ 3
P eanut P planting D ates ................................................................ ............................................ 3

FORAGE
L ate P lanted W inter P astures ................................................ .................................................. 3
M managing Cool Season A annual G rasses ............................... .................................................. 3
Nitrate Toxicity .................................................................... 4
Sto ck p iled F o rag e ................................................................................... ................................ 4
H ay T estin g ........................................ ..... ... ..... ..... ......................... .. ... .......... ... ....... 4
P erenn ial P eanu ts ....................................................................... ................. .................. ...... 4
Field Corn Production Plan Ahead ............................ .. .. ......................................... 4
P oisonou s P plants ............... ........................ ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ..... ... .... ....... ...... .... 4

MISCELLANEOUS
N ovem ber Field C rops R report ............................................. ................................................... 5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









EXCELLENCE IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION AWARD
WINNER

: :: )avis of Alachua County is the i .:. winner of
the Excellence in Tobacco Production award for Florida.
S.. grows tobacco in ..:..:.... 1: with the quota owner.
and also grows ,: 1 I :01. custom bales hay,
and has a herd of beef cattle. Steven will be recognized at a
:........ in Lake City on December 3. The Excellence in
Tobacco Production award is sponsored by rI'.:':. Morris
USA in ...: :: -.... with the Extension Service and is de-
signed to recognize and encourage young tobacco fanners.

EBW

FRED G. BOND SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDENTS
INTERESTED IN TOBACCO

The Fred G. Bond 1: K:: .:i Endowment i :. i :.1 .
.. .::. ... ..... ...: or graduate students enrolled
in the( .:: .: ..........::. : and Life Sciences at North Caro-
lina State University. : must be ;' :***"** *
careers in the tobacco industry,. : :: : ::: tobaccofarm-
ing, corporate or university tobacco research or extension
relating to tobacco :. ... 1..." Undergraduate ..:
from tobacco farms in the southeastern United States have
priority in the selection of Bond Scholarship recipients. Stu-
dents must first be accepted into an undergraduate or gradu-
ate program before .:..i : for a scholarship.

EBW

PELLETED OR COATED TOBACCO SEED

Most of the tobacco plants :=. ... !the United .*.
are now grown o:: i : : :: in greenhouses rather than con-
ventional i. .: .i beds. Since tobacco seed are small, they are
: in a clay material to make them large ....... to be
easily : .1 .. 1 : the trays. Due to these changes in plant pro-
duction, seed .*::: :::1 are tending to offer seed only in the
i., 11 i ., ..:::. i. : seed of the newer varieties. Conse-
S... : i:.. ,: ..... m ay have-.: .. ... .. .: or
S seed of certain varieties. Except for commercial
plant f:e T:: I- :: few Florida ::::: : use greenhouses to
:.1 ... tobacco: ..: .. : :.. I: :. r.., .not need pelleted
seed, which is an added expense. Growers that want raw
seed should keep their seed dealer informed as to their needs
and :1::: .the seed companies will reserve some raw seed
for them.

EBW

HYBRID TOBACCO SEED

Many of the newer tobacco varieties are being sold only
as hybrids. Use :. *- :.1 can result in the release of variet-
ies with desirable characteristics : :* :: through conven-


tional : .:::. : i.: :: Also better control of seed sup-
plies and. i :..: ... ... channels can be maintained if only hy-
brid seed are :..... .. 1 Since the making of hybrids requires
hand : ..:::........ considerably more expense is incurred in
the i: 1:: i. :: of hybrid seed. i: costs must be : ?.
on to the buyer, but :.... :..: the .. ... :.: of the variety .
be worth the cost.

EBW

FINAL TOBACCO SALES

The Florida Department of Agriculture has released the
1998 annual report K' : sales. Total :.': i: .::
tobacco sold onbot: i- i ..:. and Georgia markets amounted
to 17,075,710 pounds, which sold for $28.741,225.94 or
$1.6832 per pound. The 1997 production was 18,75
pounds which sold for $32, ;77 or $1.721 per pound.
There were 2,683,392 pounds of Florida-produced tobacco
sold in Georgia, and 3.119 :::"- pounds of Georgia-produced
tobacco sold in Florida. About 92 percent of the effective
quota for Florida was sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED FUMIGATION

Methyl bromide will not be i i: : 1 out ::: as origi-
nally planned, but can be used until 2007. However the total
amount that can be manufactured will have to be reduced,
which means that : .. could increase over this ; :- 1 of
time. Growers should use this fumigant as effectively and
efficiently as ... .i i. The area to be fumigated should be
... -...- ..... .".-. : .. .. : :.. clum ps of trash
and.. : .: .-lodsofdirt. T **' ::i': shouldbe above 55
degrees F and: : i : .: above 60 at the time .: :.
If it has not rained, irrigate the area a few days before fumi-
gation to allow weed seed to soften, which increases the ef-
: .. methyl bromide. Apply the recommended rate
of methyl bromide either by injection in the soil or by releas-
ing it in pans or other containers under the plastic film. Al-
low an exposure ...: of a least two days, or three if it is
cool and cloudy. The plastic cover can be ::: in place until
2-3 days before ::: at which time it should be removed
to .ii... any residues of the fumigant to dissipate.

EBW

TOBACCO PURCHASE INTENTIONS REPORT

The USDA announced that domestic .. r manufac-
turers :.' ... to ....: 327 million i ----.. of flue-cured to-
bacco from the 1999 crop. This figure is used, along with
i..: : .. and stock levels to determine the 1999 quota.
Last year the intended: ..... 1.. amounted to 454.6 ........
SSince the i -" and stock level .. are also
:: i in terms of the amount of quota, there could be a









considerable cut in the .i::. : for 1 -. The :: :- of
S... .... announce the quota by December 15, 1998.

EBW

SEEDING TOBACCO BEDS

Each grower has his I .... method of .:... beds.
whether it be by precision : ... ..: of pelleted seed, ...: :
raw seed .::i : H :::: :, sand, or other material and : =::.
the seed with a mechanical seeder or by hand. Any method
is .:: .. ... as long as it results in a .... ,..... stand of the
i :: : There have been some instances
Sof pelleted seed ::. i : : :: : :: :: : : .. : .. i : ::.
used in plant beds, which results in poor or nonuniform emer-
gence of seed. It may be : .- .:.: to reduce or eliminate this
problem by being sure that the coating has .: ....:. ... .:
:. :: :i i :: if necessary before the plastic is
placed over the beds.


mates of acceptable planting dates can be made by giving
consideration to weather records and the length of the grow-
ing season for green peanuts. Assume that a valencia variety
is to be grown and that it takes about 75-80 days from plant-
ing during a warm period until it will be ready to harvest.
Because plant development is slower during cool weather,
this crop production period should be increased to 90-100 or
more days if the r: :' *:i will be in the field during the late
fall to early :i:: months. Further assume that the date of
the first freeze in the fall is December 1. Using these as-
sumptions, September 1 is about as late as peanuts should be
planted if harvest is expected in about 90 days and :'
frost. The :::.: planting dale in the : :::x would generally
not be before the last ;... freeze. Thus if the latest av-
erage freeze for a particular location is February 1, : ... :.
= .- that date may :- : : I :1.1- risk. : risk to
all concerned should be considered and compared to poten-
tial ...: .: ... deciding on a planting dale.


EBW


EBW


LATE PLANTED WINTER PASTURES


PEANUT QUOTA OPTIONS

The Secretary of Agriculture must announce the 1999
peanut quotaby December 15, 1998. :.........' .. : ....
will be an increase in the quota, ranging from one to :'.
percent above te i: ',i:: ,: i ::: i : : :: i increase is due
to ...- ; :. ..- 1 increased use of peanuts in peanut products
during the current marketing year. Interested parties can pro-
vide comments on the --i' I quota.

EBW

PEANUT PLANTING DATES

The i I:::::::: 1 :::::: dates for :::::: grown for har-
vest as dry nuts in quota i.. ::.... : ..:... 1.: .areas of .. : .
are April 1 to May 15, and when the minimum soil tempera-
ture at the 4-inch depth is 65 degrees F or more for three
consecutive days and a cold front is not i :1 soon after
S. Naturally there have been many ... .:
grownthat were: 1 .' before .. .,r.. dates, although
there is an increased risk of an acceptable yield as the plant-
ing date moves i :: i:: : away from the optimum. :::
grown for harvest while green and to be used for ....:.
present a .:.- .. ..: situation, because they are grown over a
wider area and expected .: may be more : : ...... ....
yield. Growers may be ...ii:::: to accept greater risks be-
cause of potential prices. i :..:: _, some years and in some
locations in southern :i'... :.. peanuts could be planted on
any day of the year and :....f: .:... If the grower is
. ::: : to : i I the entire risk, then the :.. ::: !::: date is up
to him. But if the risk is shared with another ::.. : : : .. i or
agency, they may not be .::... .. take the same level of risk.
Planting date recommendations cannot be based : ..1 ..:.. .
date experiments, because none exist. However some esti-


October and November have been extremely dry and
many producers in North Florida, waiting for rain, have not
I 1::: .1 their ::: :i grains or rvegrass. If you cannot plant
until after mid i ::.i. : the question arises as to whether
or not you would be better off to spend your money on feed
: .. :. : Besides the lost pro-
i::: : 1 .:: ': -. ::: 1 ::: II::: late there is also some risk involved.
Young .i::. just :.. : ::. from the ground, .:.1 1:. be
killed by .1:. And, then there are the usual risks of
slowed growth due to extended periods of cold weather, and
: i ::: :: i drought. On the-other-hand, with a mild winter
and plentiful ..:: .1 in the first three months of the year,
S. : ..... i: .... could be significant. Each :..... ...
likely ......... .. .... : :: ... 1... ontheir aversionto risk.

CGC

MANAGING COOL SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES

Apply :i:.: i. -.:. .. : igento r3. ..: :-. I other cool sea-
son grasses to increase growth. Extra nitrogen for cool sea-
son grasses seeded in a 1... sod is .. :: important
since =:'.: = .. of .. ..... ..... : more nitrogen to get com-
i : 1 growth to that of cool season grasses seeded alone.

Graze cool season grasses when they arc 8-10" tall. Do
not wait for additional growth to accumulate. Grazing at 8-
10" ::= cause the grass to stool out, and will result in a more
S. :: i',::::i::: :. : ,: growth ::: .:: he season. i .
graze cool season grass pastures.: : : -
age is grazed down to a 3" height and rest the pasture for 3-4
weeks : ... grazing.: .:: Other methods of grazing cool
season annual grasses are ::::::: grazing and : i grazing.
Limit grazing is the :.. i: of grazing high quality:,. ..









considerable cut in the .i::. : for 1 -. The :: :- of
S... .... announce the quota by December 15, 1998.

EBW

SEEDING TOBACCO BEDS

Each grower has his I .... method of .:... beds.
whether it be by precision : ... ..: of pelleted seed, ...: :
raw seed .::i : H :::: :, sand, or other material and : =::.
the seed with a mechanical seeder or by hand. Any method
is .:: .. ... as long as it results in a .... ,..... stand of the
i :: : There have been some instances
Sof pelleted seed ::. i : : :: : :: :: : : .. : .. i : ::.
used in plant beds, which results in poor or nonuniform emer-
gence of seed. It may be : .- .:.: to reduce or eliminate this
problem by being sure that the coating has .: ....:. ... .:
:. :: :i i :: if necessary before the plastic is
placed over the beds.


mates of acceptable planting dates can be made by giving
consideration to weather records and the length of the grow-
ing season for green peanuts. Assume that a valencia variety
is to be grown and that it takes about 75-80 days from plant-
ing during a warm period until it will be ready to harvest.
Because plant development is slower during cool weather,
this crop production period should be increased to 90-100 or
more days if the r: :' *:i will be in the field during the late
fall to early :i:: months. Further assume that the date of
the first freeze in the fall is December 1. Using these as-
sumptions, September 1 is about as late as peanuts should be
planted if harvest is expected in about 90 days and :'
frost. The :::.: planting dale in the : :::x would generally
not be before the last ;... freeze. Thus if the latest av-
erage freeze for a particular location is February 1, : ... :.
= .- that date may :- : : I :1.1- risk. : risk to
all concerned should be considered and compared to poten-
tial ...: .: ... deciding on a planting dale.


EBW


EBW


LATE PLANTED WINTER PASTURES


PEANUT QUOTA OPTIONS

The Secretary of Agriculture must announce the 1999
peanut quotaby December 15, 1998. :.........' .. : ....
will be an increase in the quota, ranging from one to :'.
percent above te i: ',i:: ,: i ::: i : : :: i increase is due
to ...- ; :. ..- 1 increased use of peanuts in peanut products
during the current marketing year. Interested parties can pro-
vide comments on the --i' I quota.

EBW

PEANUT PLANTING DATES

The i I:::::::: 1 :::::: dates for :::::: grown for har-
vest as dry nuts in quota i.. ::.... : ..:... 1.: .areas of .. : .
are April 1 to May 15, and when the minimum soil tempera-
ture at the 4-inch depth is 65 degrees F or more for three
consecutive days and a cold front is not i :1 soon after
S. Naturally there have been many ... .:
grownthat were: 1 .' before .. .,r.. dates, although
there is an increased risk of an acceptable yield as the plant-
ing date moves i :: i:: : away from the optimum. :::
grown for harvest while green and to be used for ....:.
present a .:.- .. ..: situation, because they are grown over a
wider area and expected .: may be more : : ...... ....
yield. Growers may be ...ii:::: to accept greater risks be-
cause of potential prices. i :..:: _, some years and in some
locations in southern :i'... :.. peanuts could be planted on
any day of the year and :....f: .:... If the grower is
. ::: : to : i I the entire risk, then the :.. ::: !::: date is up
to him. But if the risk is shared with another ::.. : : : .. i or
agency, they may not be .::... .. take the same level of risk.
Planting date recommendations cannot be based : ..1 ..:.. .
date experiments, because none exist. However some esti-


October and November have been extremely dry and
many producers in North Florida, waiting for rain, have not
I 1::: .1 their ::: :i grains or rvegrass. If you cannot plant
until after mid i ::.i. : the question arises as to whether
or not you would be better off to spend your money on feed
: .. :. : Besides the lost pro-
i::: : 1 .:: ': -. ::: 1 ::: II::: late there is also some risk involved.
Young .i::. just :.. : ::. from the ground, .:.1 1:. be
killed by .1:. And, then there are the usual risks of
slowed growth due to extended periods of cold weather, and
: i ::: :: i drought. On the-other-hand, with a mild winter
and plentiful ..:: .1 in the first three months of the year,
S. : ..... i: .... could be significant. Each :..... ...
likely ......... .. .... : :: ... 1... ontheir aversionto risk.

CGC

MANAGING COOL SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES

Apply :i:.: i. -.:. .. : igento r3. ..: :-. I other cool sea-
son grasses to increase growth. Extra nitrogen for cool sea-
son grasses seeded in a 1... sod is .. :: important
since =:'.: = .. of .. ..... ..... : more nitrogen to get com-
i : 1 growth to that of cool season grasses seeded alone.

Graze cool season grasses when they arc 8-10" tall. Do
not wait for additional growth to accumulate. Grazing at 8-
10" ::= cause the grass to stool out, and will result in a more
S. :: i',::::i::: :. : ,: growth ::: .:: he season. i .
graze cool season grass pastures.: : : -
age is grazed down to a 3" height and rest the pasture for 3-4
weeks : ... grazing.: .:: Other methods of grazing cool
season annual grasses are ::::::: grazing and : i grazing.
Limit grazing is the :.. i: of grazing high quality:,. ..









considerable cut in the .i::. : for 1 -. The :: :- of
S... .... announce the quota by December 15, 1998.

EBW

SEEDING TOBACCO BEDS

Each grower has his I .... method of .:... beds.
whether it be by precision : ... ..: of pelleted seed, ...: :
raw seed .::i : H :::: :, sand, or other material and : =::.
the seed with a mechanical seeder or by hand. Any method
is .:: .. ... as long as it results in a .... ,..... stand of the
i :: : There have been some instances
Sof pelleted seed ::. i : : :: : :: :: : : .. : .. i : ::.
used in plant beds, which results in poor or nonuniform emer-
gence of seed. It may be : .- .:.: to reduce or eliminate this
problem by being sure that the coating has .: ....:. ... .:
:. :: :i i :: if necessary before the plastic is
placed over the beds.


mates of acceptable planting dates can be made by giving
consideration to weather records and the length of the grow-
ing season for green peanuts. Assume that a valencia variety
is to be grown and that it takes about 75-80 days from plant-
ing during a warm period until it will be ready to harvest.
Because plant development is slower during cool weather,
this crop production period should be increased to 90-100 or
more days if the r: :' *:i will be in the field during the late
fall to early :i:: months. Further assume that the date of
the first freeze in the fall is December 1. Using these as-
sumptions, September 1 is about as late as peanuts should be
planted if harvest is expected in about 90 days and :'
frost. The :::.: planting dale in the : :::x would generally
not be before the last ;... freeze. Thus if the latest av-
erage freeze for a particular location is February 1, : ... :.
= .- that date may :- : : I :1.1- risk. : risk to
all concerned should be considered and compared to poten-
tial ...: .: ... deciding on a planting dale.


EBW


EBW


LATE PLANTED WINTER PASTURES


PEANUT QUOTA OPTIONS

The Secretary of Agriculture must announce the 1999
peanut quotaby December 15, 1998. :.........' .. : ....
will be an increase in the quota, ranging from one to :'.
percent above te i: ',i:: ,: i ::: i : : :: i increase is due
to ...- ; :. ..- 1 increased use of peanuts in peanut products
during the current marketing year. Interested parties can pro-
vide comments on the --i' I quota.

EBW

PEANUT PLANTING DATES

The i I:::::::: 1 :::::: dates for :::::: grown for har-
vest as dry nuts in quota i.. ::.... : ..:... 1.: .areas of .. : .
are April 1 to May 15, and when the minimum soil tempera-
ture at the 4-inch depth is 65 degrees F or more for three
consecutive days and a cold front is not i :1 soon after
S. Naturally there have been many ... .:
grownthat were: 1 .' before .. .,r.. dates, although
there is an increased risk of an acceptable yield as the plant-
ing date moves i :: i:: : away from the optimum. :::
grown for harvest while green and to be used for ....:.
present a .:.- .. ..: situation, because they are grown over a
wider area and expected .: may be more : : ...... ....
yield. Growers may be ...ii:::: to accept greater risks be-
cause of potential prices. i :..:: _, some years and in some
locations in southern :i'... :.. peanuts could be planted on
any day of the year and :....f: .:... If the grower is
. ::: : to : i I the entire risk, then the :.. ::: !::: date is up
to him. But if the risk is shared with another ::.. : : : .. i or
agency, they may not be .::... .. take the same level of risk.
Planting date recommendations cannot be based : ..1 ..:.. .
date experiments, because none exist. However some esti-


October and November have been extremely dry and
many producers in North Florida, waiting for rain, have not
I 1::: .1 their ::: :i grains or rvegrass. If you cannot plant
until after mid i ::.i. : the question arises as to whether
or not you would be better off to spend your money on feed
: .. :. : Besides the lost pro-
i::: : 1 .:: ': -. ::: 1 ::: II::: late there is also some risk involved.
Young .i::. just :.. : ::. from the ground, .:.1 1:. be
killed by .1:. And, then there are the usual risks of
slowed growth due to extended periods of cold weather, and
: i ::: :: i drought. On the-other-hand, with a mild winter
and plentiful ..:: .1 in the first three months of the year,
S. : ..... i: .... could be significant. Each :..... ...
likely ......... .. .... : :: ... 1... ontheir aversionto risk.

CGC

MANAGING COOL SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES

Apply :i:.: i. -.:. .. : igento r3. ..: :-. I other cool sea-
son grasses to increase growth. Extra nitrogen for cool sea-
son grasses seeded in a 1... sod is .. :: important
since =:'.: = .. of .. ..... ..... : more nitrogen to get com-
i : 1 growth to that of cool season grasses seeded alone.

Graze cool season grasses when they arc 8-10" tall. Do
not wait for additional growth to accumulate. Grazing at 8-
10" ::= cause the grass to stool out, and will result in a more
S. :: i',::::i::: :. : ,: growth ::: .:: he season. i .
graze cool season grass pastures.: : : -
age is grazed down to a 3" height and rest the pasture for 3-4
weeks : ... grazing.: .:: Other methods of grazing cool
season annual grasses are ::::::: grazing and : i grazing.
Limit grazing is the :.. i: of grazing high quality:,. ..









considerable cut in the .i::. : for 1 -. The :: :- of
S... .... announce the quota by December 15, 1998.

EBW

SEEDING TOBACCO BEDS

Each grower has his I .... method of .:... beds.
whether it be by precision : ... ..: of pelleted seed, ...: :
raw seed .::i : H :::: :, sand, or other material and : =::.
the seed with a mechanical seeder or by hand. Any method
is .:: .. ... as long as it results in a .... ,..... stand of the
i :: : There have been some instances
Sof pelleted seed ::. i : : :: : :: :: : : .. : .. i : ::.
used in plant beds, which results in poor or nonuniform emer-
gence of seed. It may be : .- .:.: to reduce or eliminate this
problem by being sure that the coating has .: ....:. ... .:
:. :: :i i :: if necessary before the plastic is
placed over the beds.


mates of acceptable planting dates can be made by giving
consideration to weather records and the length of the grow-
ing season for green peanuts. Assume that a valencia variety
is to be grown and that it takes about 75-80 days from plant-
ing during a warm period until it will be ready to harvest.
Because plant development is slower during cool weather,
this crop production period should be increased to 90-100 or
more days if the r: :' *:i will be in the field during the late
fall to early :i:: months. Further assume that the date of
the first freeze in the fall is December 1. Using these as-
sumptions, September 1 is about as late as peanuts should be
planted if harvest is expected in about 90 days and :'
frost. The :::.: planting dale in the : :::x would generally
not be before the last ;... freeze. Thus if the latest av-
erage freeze for a particular location is February 1, : ... :.
= .- that date may :- : : I :1.1- risk. : risk to
all concerned should be considered and compared to poten-
tial ...: .: ... deciding on a planting dale.


EBW


EBW


LATE PLANTED WINTER PASTURES


PEANUT QUOTA OPTIONS

The Secretary of Agriculture must announce the 1999
peanut quotaby December 15, 1998. :.........' .. : ....
will be an increase in the quota, ranging from one to :'.
percent above te i: ',i:: ,: i ::: i : : :: i increase is due
to ...- ; :. ..- 1 increased use of peanuts in peanut products
during the current marketing year. Interested parties can pro-
vide comments on the --i' I quota.

EBW

PEANUT PLANTING DATES

The i I:::::::: 1 :::::: dates for :::::: grown for har-
vest as dry nuts in quota i.. ::.... : ..:... 1.: .areas of .. : .
are April 1 to May 15, and when the minimum soil tempera-
ture at the 4-inch depth is 65 degrees F or more for three
consecutive days and a cold front is not i :1 soon after
S. Naturally there have been many ... .:
grownthat were: 1 .' before .. .,r.. dates, although
there is an increased risk of an acceptable yield as the plant-
ing date moves i :: i:: : away from the optimum. :::
grown for harvest while green and to be used for ....:.
present a .:.- .. ..: situation, because they are grown over a
wider area and expected .: may be more : : ...... ....
yield. Growers may be ...ii:::: to accept greater risks be-
cause of potential prices. i :..:: _, some years and in some
locations in southern :i'... :.. peanuts could be planted on
any day of the year and :....f: .:... If the grower is
. ::: : to : i I the entire risk, then the :.. ::: !::: date is up
to him. But if the risk is shared with another ::.. : : : .. i or
agency, they may not be .::... .. take the same level of risk.
Planting date recommendations cannot be based : ..1 ..:.. .
date experiments, because none exist. However some esti-


October and November have been extremely dry and
many producers in North Florida, waiting for rain, have not
I 1::: .1 their ::: :i grains or rvegrass. If you cannot plant
until after mid i ::.i. : the question arises as to whether
or not you would be better off to spend your money on feed
: .. :. : Besides the lost pro-
i::: : 1 .:: ': -. ::: 1 ::: II::: late there is also some risk involved.
Young .i::. just :.. : ::. from the ground, .:.1 1:. be
killed by .1:. And, then there are the usual risks of
slowed growth due to extended periods of cold weather, and
: i ::: :: i drought. On the-other-hand, with a mild winter
and plentiful ..:: .1 in the first three months of the year,
S. : ..... i: .... could be significant. Each :..... ...
likely ......... .. .... : :: ... 1... ontheir aversionto risk.

CGC

MANAGING COOL SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES

Apply :i:.: i. -.:. .. : igento r3. ..: :-. I other cool sea-
son grasses to increase growth. Extra nitrogen for cool sea-
son grasses seeded in a 1... sod is .. :: important
since =:'.: = .. of .. ..... ..... : more nitrogen to get com-
i : 1 growth to that of cool season grasses seeded alone.

Graze cool season grasses when they arc 8-10" tall. Do
not wait for additional growth to accumulate. Grazing at 8-
10" ::= cause the grass to stool out, and will result in a more
S. :: i',::::i::: :. : ,: growth ::: .:: he season. i .
graze cool season grass pastures.: : : -
age is grazed down to a 3" height and rest the pasture for 3-4
weeks : ... grazing.: .:: Other methods of grazing cool
season annual grasses are ::::::: grazing and : i grazing.
Limit grazing is the :.. i: of grazing high quality:,. ..









considerable cut in the .i::. : for 1 -. The :: :- of
S... .... announce the quota by December 15, 1998.

EBW

SEEDING TOBACCO BEDS

Each grower has his I .... method of .:... beds.
whether it be by precision : ... ..: of pelleted seed, ...: :
raw seed .::i : H :::: :, sand, or other material and : =::.
the seed with a mechanical seeder or by hand. Any method
is .:: .. ... as long as it results in a .... ,..... stand of the
i :: : There have been some instances
Sof pelleted seed ::. i : : :: : :: :: : : .. : .. i : ::.
used in plant beds, which results in poor or nonuniform emer-
gence of seed. It may be : .- .:.: to reduce or eliminate this
problem by being sure that the coating has .: ....:. ... .:
:. :: :i i :: if necessary before the plastic is
placed over the beds.


mates of acceptable planting dates can be made by giving
consideration to weather records and the length of the grow-
ing season for green peanuts. Assume that a valencia variety
is to be grown and that it takes about 75-80 days from plant-
ing during a warm period until it will be ready to harvest.
Because plant development is slower during cool weather,
this crop production period should be increased to 90-100 or
more days if the r: :' *:i will be in the field during the late
fall to early :i:: months. Further assume that the date of
the first freeze in the fall is December 1. Using these as-
sumptions, September 1 is about as late as peanuts should be
planted if harvest is expected in about 90 days and :'
frost. The :::.: planting dale in the : :::x would generally
not be before the last ;... freeze. Thus if the latest av-
erage freeze for a particular location is February 1, : ... :.
= .- that date may :- : : I :1.1- risk. : risk to
all concerned should be considered and compared to poten-
tial ...: .: ... deciding on a planting dale.


EBW


EBW


LATE PLANTED WINTER PASTURES


PEANUT QUOTA OPTIONS

The Secretary of Agriculture must announce the 1999
peanut quotaby December 15, 1998. :.........' .. : ....
will be an increase in the quota, ranging from one to :'.
percent above te i: ',i:: ,: i ::: i : : :: i increase is due
to ...- ; :. ..- 1 increased use of peanuts in peanut products
during the current marketing year. Interested parties can pro-
vide comments on the --i' I quota.

EBW

PEANUT PLANTING DATES

The i I:::::::: 1 :::::: dates for :::::: grown for har-
vest as dry nuts in quota i.. ::.... : ..:... 1.: .areas of .. : .
are April 1 to May 15, and when the minimum soil tempera-
ture at the 4-inch depth is 65 degrees F or more for three
consecutive days and a cold front is not i :1 soon after
S. Naturally there have been many ... .:
grownthat were: 1 .' before .. .,r.. dates, although
there is an increased risk of an acceptable yield as the plant-
ing date moves i :: i:: : away from the optimum. :::
grown for harvest while green and to be used for ....:.
present a .:.- .. ..: situation, because they are grown over a
wider area and expected .: may be more : : ...... ....
yield. Growers may be ...ii:::: to accept greater risks be-
cause of potential prices. i :..:: _, some years and in some
locations in southern :i'... :.. peanuts could be planted on
any day of the year and :....f: .:... If the grower is
. ::: : to : i I the entire risk, then the :.. ::: !::: date is up
to him. But if the risk is shared with another ::.. : : : .. i or
agency, they may not be .::... .. take the same level of risk.
Planting date recommendations cannot be based : ..1 ..:.. .
date experiments, because none exist. However some esti-


October and November have been extremely dry and
many producers in North Florida, waiting for rain, have not
I 1::: .1 their ::: :i grains or rvegrass. If you cannot plant
until after mid i ::.i. : the question arises as to whether
or not you would be better off to spend your money on feed
: .. :. : Besides the lost pro-
i::: : 1 .:: ': -. ::: 1 ::: II::: late there is also some risk involved.
Young .i::. just :.. : ::. from the ground, .:.1 1:. be
killed by .1:. And, then there are the usual risks of
slowed growth due to extended periods of cold weather, and
: i ::: :: i drought. On the-other-hand, with a mild winter
and plentiful ..:: .1 in the first three months of the year,
S. : ..... i: .... could be significant. Each :..... ...
likely ......... .. .... : :: ... 1... ontheir aversionto risk.

CGC

MANAGING COOL SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES

Apply :i:.: i. -.:. .. : igento r3. ..: :-. I other cool sea-
son grasses to increase growth. Extra nitrogen for cool sea-
son grasses seeded in a 1... sod is .. :: important
since =:'.: = .. of .. ..... ..... : more nitrogen to get com-
i : 1 growth to that of cool season grasses seeded alone.

Graze cool season grasses when they arc 8-10" tall. Do
not wait for additional growth to accumulate. Grazing at 8-
10" ::= cause the grass to stool out, and will result in a more
S. :: i',::::i::: :. : ,: growth ::: .:: he season. i .
graze cool season grass pastures.: : : -
age is grazed down to a 3" height and rest the pasture for 3-4
weeks : ... grazing.: .:: Other methods of grazing cool
season annual grasses are ::::::: grazing and : i grazing.
Limit grazing is the :.. i: of grazing high quality:,. ..









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









a few hours each day with young beef animals or.! ::: cattle
that need a high level of nutrition. This .. : may bc es-
pecially useful to small land owners :... ...'.. .. own a
S.. .:. :. 1i want to; 1 them with some high qual-
ity forage. During the short grazing : 1 animals may
obtain some or all of I :1.. .. : : .. and vitamin requirement.
When not on the green pasture, animals can graze dry warm
season grass orbe fed hay.

CGC

NITRATE TOXICITY

Excessive amounts of nitrate nitrogen in : can
cause ...i :.:., :i : :. i i : :. taken up by plants is
.. .: intot: .... and nucleoproteins. Un-
der .. .......::.:..... the rate .:..: : may exceed the rate
of : .. ::: :: *:: and can result in a nitrate level high enough
for the forage to be toxic to cattle. Conditions that can cause
higher than normal nitrate-nitrogen levels i. .- ... .. are:

IT :': 1 :vels of soil :::: :: .: :i :i, to plants.
Deficiencies of nutrients other than nitrogen.
: 1...' 1 phosphorus, sulfur and :... :.: others.
Low light intensity. For ... :1.: cloudy daysor
heavy :: :::::
A ny other i::.::: co. :. .. :. :: ,i, .,i :., :
plant growth.

CGC


STOCKPILED FORAGE


In central and South Florida, :.. : ..... .... :::..
grass accumulate in the -: ::- is one way to :'.i'1i winter
feed to cattle. i .: : : ::: i: : : ::i : .- -. (Hemarthria),
Pangola and the other digitgrasses have been used for many
years :. :: ,. .*.. S: Since the .. ... or nutritional value
of :. ":' i -" : continues to i :- with time, it should
be used before hay or other feed sources are :::::: .i Also,
.: .:.. : i-. protein and energy supplements should be fed as
the :... i.. .: grass is grazed.

CGC

HAY TESTING

Don't ... the : .. .. : of Florida. IFAS. Exten-
sion Forage Testing i': L:: You can have your hay ana-
lyzed for its nutritional value for only $8.00. The analysis
includes percent moisture, protein, neutral detergent fiber.
total .:. :. nutrients (TDN) and a.:- .: .: index t: : ... :
cates the relative feed value of a hay. Pick up a test kit at the
county extension office. The test kit contains .:.r. :.:. .::. :. ..:
how to take a sample and where to send it. Sample collec-
tion is critical and must be done correctly. Use a special hay


S.::: ::: :. .' when

CGC

PERENNIAL PEANUTS

Make ,T .:. now for new .1,:.!i:. of the rhizoma pe-
rennial: .....

In December:
1. Select a site rhizoma perennial i...:... should be planted
only on sites that have good .1 : ....
2. Locate and make arrangements to : ? ............' !:. ma-
terial (rhizomes) if you do not have your own.
3. i .. ... a clean, i: : seed bed.

T1 1 1 1

Try to plant when there is .: i.. : moisture in the seed bed.
Do not cover the rhizomes with more than two inches of soil.

CGC

FIELD CORN PRODUCTION PLAN AHEAD

Farmers (in south yi ..1 ..:. .....:.. to grow corn for grain
or :: should make variety selections now. Plan to pur-
chase and lake i:. : of seed in order to plant :: ::::
Past : ".. has shown that early planted corn may es-
cape much of the insect damage that occurs on late planted
corn. Early i-:-: .... i.: also increase the .: .. .... getting
the corn matured and harvested before summer rains start.

CGC

POISONOUS PLANTS

A i... 1, ,.i,:. SP 57. .. : ... 1i .,: of the South-
eastern United States" is ., ,:i .I. from the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the
cost 0' i.00. : :i I- had a question about castor bean in
a %.. ... .. castor bean is :...: ..:.. .. Castor bean is a
.. .. the tropics and subtropics. but acts as an annual
in much of the south (where frost occurs). Found" ... ....-
the Southeast; it is cultivated and : f :::ii escapes and
persists in pine lands, waste places, and roadsides. 1 have
seen it ...... in South Florida along roadsides and on
mounds '.": -. r... ... ;. -. .1 by the highway' a : .

i........: The poisonous :.. i: :i.. i .. totoxin called
ricin. In the southeast, the plant is commonly :.1 ...' .1 not
only as an ornamental but also in vegetable gardens to repel
moles. Horses are i:: .i :: i; .:i i to :::::. but all live-
stock and humans can be .:. : All ..: of the plant are
toxic, : .. .::: the seeds. .. :. :,/ is seen most often in
:.:. and summer.









Control: Mowing of very large plants may provide all
of the control that is needed :.. in the fall. If only a
few plants are : i and if they are carrying seed, removal
byhandwill -ithe ; :i." of seed. Inthe i'" as
seed genninates and new plants .1 .i commonly used
i.. herbicides will likely control small plants.

CGC

NOVEMBER FIELD CROPS REPORT

The tables on below show the November 1 estimates of
field crop production for Florida and the United States that
were made by the i : i: and National Agricultural Statis-
tics

EBW


Acreage (X1000)
Crop
Florida United States

Corn for grain 55 73,789

Cotton, all 80 10,374.5

Hay, all 270 59,819

Peanuts 81 1,475.5

Soybeans 35 71 ..

Sugarcane 448 933.5

Tobacco, all 7 750

,all 13 59,211



Yield per Acre
Crop
Florida United States Unit

Corn for grain 60 133.3 bu

Cotton, all 498 612 Ib

Hay, all 2 2.54 tn

Peanuts 2350 2512 Ib

Soybeans 23 38.6 bu

Sugarcane 36 33.4 tn

Tobacco, all 2440 2064 Ib

Wheat, all 41 43.3 bu


The use of tradenames does not constitute a guarantee orwarrant of products named : ... : ,: :: ::. :.. of similar products.

Prepared by:
J. M. Bennett, Chairman, jmbt@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
E. B. Whitty, Professor, Extension Agronomist, ebw@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
C. G. Chambliss, Associate Professor, Extension Agronomist, cgc@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu