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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Introduction
 Regional support and delivery
 Program development
 Maintaining a domestic support...
 FSSP calender of project and related...
 Visitors to the FSSP, 1986
 FSSP annual meeting reports (minutes...
 Index of activity report abstr...
 1985 farming systems support project...
 FSSP buy-in summary


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066218/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
United States -- Agency for International Development
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Farming Systems Support Project.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1986
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Asia   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Submitted to the United States Agency for International Development.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1985.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70867122
lccn - 2006229373
System ID: UF00066218:00003

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Regional support and delivery
        Page 9
        Asia/near east
            Page 9
        Latin America/Caribbean
            Page 9
        Africa program
            Page 10
            Training
                Page 10
                Page 11
            Networking
                Page 12
                Page 13
                Page 14
    Program development
        Page 15
        Training units
            Page 15
            Development
                Page 15
        Case studies
            Page 16
        Training of trainers
            Page 17
        Training delivery
            Page 18
            Institutionalization (Cameroon)
                Page 18
            Florida short course
                Page 19
        Informal training and network support
            Page 20
            Bio-data service
                Page 20
            Visitors
                Page 21
            Farming system symposium
                Page 22
            FSSP annual meeting
                Page 23
        Publications
            Page 23
            Newsletter
                Page 23
            Bibliography
                Page 23
            Papers
                Page 23
            Reports
                Page 23
            OTA report
                Page 23
                Page 24
    Maintaining a domestic support base
        Page 25
        Project status
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Structured response from support entities
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    FSSP calender of project and related program activities
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Visitors to the FSSP, 1986
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    FSSP annual meeting reports (minutes of annual meeting)
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Index of activity report abstracts
        Page 53
        Page 54
    1985 farming systems support project personnel
        Page 55
        Page 56
    FSSP buy-in summary
        Page 57
        Page 58
Full Text











1986
ANNUAL REPORT
FARMING SYSTEMS SUPPORT PROJECT


Cooperative Agreement No.:
Project No.:


Dan-4099-A-00-2083-00
936-4099


Submitted to

The United States
Agency for International Development



Prepared by

University of Florida in cooperation with
Support Entities of the Farming Systems Support Project








For the period covering
January 1 to December 31, 1986















INDEX


I. Preface . . . .


. . . . 1


II. Introduction . . . . . . 3


III. Regional Support and Delivery
Asia and the Near East . .
Latin America and the Caribbean
Africa
Training . . .
Networking . . .

IV. Program Development
Training Units . . .
Case Studies . . .
Training of Trainers . .
Training Delivery
Institutionalization .
Florida Short Course .


. . . . 9
. . . . 9

. . . . 10
S . . . 1
..12


. . 18
. . 19


Informal Training and Network Support
Bio Data Service . .
Visitors . . .
Farming Systems Symposium .
FSSP Annual Meeting . .
Publications
Newsletter. . . .
Bibliography . . .
Papers . . .
Reports . . .
OTA . . .


V. Maintaining a Domestic Support Base
Project Status . . ....
Structured Response from Support Enities


. . . 25
. . . 27


VI. Appendix
1. FSSP Calendar of Project and Related Program Activities
2. Visitors to the FSSP . . . . .
3. FSSP Annual Meeting Reports (Minutes of Annual Meeting)
4. Index of Activity Report Abstracts. . .
5. 1985 Farming Systems Support Project Personnel .
6. FSSP Buy-in Summary . . . . .


. 33
. 37
. 43
. 53
* 55
. 57











I. PREFACE

The 1986 Annual Work Plan of the FSSP evolved from efforts to reorient
project activity suggested by the project evaluation in mid-1985. Those
evaluation recommendations and FSSP actions are spelled out in the 1985
Annual Report. Program activities in 1986 reflect those changes with
nearly exclusive emphasis on West Africa and de-emphasis on technical
assistance activities. Along with networking, the training development and
delivery program activities were focused on West Africa and drew from a
worldwide experiential and support base.

Training program development activities achieved worldwide attention
through publication and review of two training volumes: I- Diagnosis and
II- On-Farm Experimentation. Emphasis on planning for Volume III-
Management of Research and Extension, as well as complementary units on
livestock systems and economic analysis for integration into Volumes I and
II has focused further development work in 1987. The technical assistance
community at large has taken interest in the training materials also
inclusive of the FSSP/Population Council case studies on gender and
intra-household issues in FSR/E. Both the process and product of these
training material development efforts are considered to be at the cutting
edge of agricultural education for adaptive research and technology
development. Delivery of the training materials through two three-week
courses in French and English respectively for West Africa proved how
significant the unfulfilled demand is for training in FSR/E methods.

Networking accomplishments too were significant with the emergence of a
viable West African Farming Systems Research Network. Multiple donor and
country interests contributed to a second networkshop for more than sixty
West African participants with future program and funding support secured
beyond the potential FSSP contribution.

The year was one of concern for the future of programs established by
FSSP. With both USAID mission and FSSP Support Entity demands for
continuance along with IARC and other donor expressions of concern,
management of FSSP is challenged to anticipate alternatives for
continuation of the US network and support base. Expressed desires for
continuance coincide with the initial interest by USAID in developing a
ten-year support effort that would ultimately institutionalize the
short-term training and support base at regional locations.

USAID/Science and Technology Bureau is to be congratulated on
establishing, through the FSSP, several unique and highly credible
activities and output streams. A careful assessment of these activities
would clarify the value and consequences of continuing selected efforts and
discontinuing others. The AID dimension in this assessment should be the
next FSSP evaluation.

This report is functional for the calendar year 1986. To address major
program achievements over time, a complete project report on activities,
processes, results and FSR/E methodological advances will be prepared for
release in early 1987.


1986 Annual Report





























































1986 Annual Report 2













II. INTRODUCTION


Program objectives for FSSP in 1986 included:
1. Synthesis and analysis (state-of-the-art) directed to priority
training materials and support of problem-oriented networking
activities.
2. Delivery and support for West Africa training and networking.
3. Worldwide program development and networking support
activities.

These objectives represented a change in focus by de-emphasizing work
in the Latin American and Asian/Near Eastern regions along with de-emphasis
on technical assistance support. Now the FSSP prepares for further
potential change as funding expires for the First Cooperative Agreement in
September 1987. Desires expressed by both clients and support entities of
the FSSP suggest that a transition should be accomplished if possible to a
sustained network and support program with long term potential.

FSSP Status Summary

As 1986 closes, project uncertainty particularly related to FSSP Core
funding suggests that significant change is to come at the close of FY
1987. Any project transition or termination requires that some activities
will be reduced in scope or eliminated. Discussions within the extensive
FSSP organization are underway considering the future of the FSSP Support
Entity network and the programs in training, technical assistance and
networking that FSSP supports. Activities that will leave the greatest
voids in present programs or affect potential program development are
summarized below.

Optimal returns from activities and projects occur with differing time
dimensions. Some of FSSP's work has been completed, some has been
redirected through internal and external evaluation. Other project
activities are only beginning to show their potential, while considerable
time and support are needed if they are to mature and produce at an
optimum. For some of these activities USAID now stands at a threshold of
returns on earlier investments, which can only be realized if a minimum
critical mass of support can be sustained. Other donors recognize the
situation and will likely contribute where possible.

The FSSP was conceived and operates in an open framework to address
support needs, on-demand and with flexibility, while encouraging an
institutional context for sustained results. Program activities resulting
from this work are prescribed in the Log Frame (prepared on March 15, 1982)
but also embody emerging opportunities.

Priority program activities considered in the transition or termination
assessments follow:


1986 Annual Report










1. Training support base


a. Courses. Short courses as prescribed in the Log Frame have
been developed and delivered for practitioners and managers.
Practitioner course demand has exceeded expectations while
manager course demand is emerging but cannot be fulfilled
without sustained support through field use of the
forthcoming materials in Volume III of the training units.

b. Development of training materials. The initial development of
three training volumes (I- Diagnosis, II- On-Farm
Experimentation, and III- Management and Administration of R/E
Institutions) is nearly complete. Translation of materials
into French is completed in support of the training effort in
West Africa. Newly revised and translated units will be
forthcoming to strengthen these state-of-the-art synthesis
and training documents if funding provides for a core unit to
manage the process. The MSTAT program has been developed for
statistical and data management training in FSR/E and has been
delivered in numerous countries in French, Spanish and
English. Eight case studies, from Africa (4), Latin America
(2) and Asia (2) are complete and ready for adaptation and use
in numerous training situations. Follow-up and revision along
with additions of new material are desired periodically for
best use of the training units and case studies.

c. Training of trainers. The need for qualified, capable
trainers prevails, a need which is especially apparent in West
Africa. The process of training began in the second year of
the project as a method for providing a multiplier to the
national training efforts through both formal training for
trainers activities and with a participant add-on program as a
part of FSSP strategy in its course delivery. This effort is
part of a process of institutionalization, viewed by FSSP to
be within a second, five-year activity. It builds upon and
follows the training materials development work. The activity
is essential for long-term success in West Africa.

d. Institutionalization of training. West African AID Missions
and attendant national programs both stand to benefit from an
institutionalized regional training program. Discussions are
underway with USAID-Cameroon, IDRC-East Africa and Cameroon
officials concerning establishment of a continuing education
effort for FSR/E at the University Center Dschang, (UCD)
Cameroon. FSSP was invited by UCD officials to help prepare a
program strategy for this effort.
A viable transition from FSSP to the UCD of training
capability and support will be a process requiring at least
two years beyond the current FSSP Cooperative Agreement. A
methodical phase-in process will be essential to ensure that a
viable program emerges to support an expanding West Africa
demand.


1986 Annual Report










e. National training program development. The demand for
regional training courses will exceed FSSP's scaled-down
capability to respond in 1986-87. This is in spite of the
fact that FSSP no longer subsidizes participants, who are
finding support through their home organizations and through
donors. The Mali regional workshop illustrated this as
applicants exceeded available place by several fold.
New FSR/E projects in Mali, Mauritiania, Niger and Rwanda
have all been assisted through FSSP with project design or in
training of field teams. FSSP is helping schedule and will
deliver country-level training along with people prepared
(trainer of trainers program) to co-lead such efforts. Again,
this is a second phase FSSP activity that will not be covered
in the future and a one- or two-year gap between support
efforts would create serious limitations to potential success
of bilateral contracts in those countries.

f. Worldwide training base. While a training base has potential
for strengthening training in Latin American and Asian farming
systems efforts, this potential lies beyond the reach of the
present FSSP Cooperative Agreement or the project's present
scope of work. The opportunity, while currently available,
will be reduced with time. Even though development of FSSP
training materials has drawn upon worldwide experience,
application is no longer provided on that basis through the
FSSP.

2. Network Support Base

a. Information programs

1). Newsletter. The worldwide French, English and Spanish
language newsletters each were produced quarterly with
some common messages and some unique messages designed
for and drawn from the audiences served. This technical
assistance instrument, oriented to multidisciplinary
involvements and interdisciplinary results, serves the
world's adaptive agricultural research community. The
5,000 recipients depend upon the FSSP Newsletter to
convey brief articles on FSR/E methodological advances
and to share common FSR/E experiences. The letter is
attracting participation by numerous practitioners with
recent and emerging FSR/E experience.
2). Publications. Numerous publications resulted from the
FSSP to support networking goals. FSSP has used the
publication effort to support ongoing programs and
budgeted it accordingly. Thus, it is a part of those
programs as evidenced by the report series on Livestock
and Cropping Systems.
3). Documentation. Collection, cataloging, microfiching,
abstracting and distribution activities relative to
FSR/E documents continued in 1986. As FSSP anticipates
close out support to the activity, the overall research


1986 Annual Report










and extension communtiy will have less access to FSR/E
literature unless further support is obtained. This
will impact future adaptive research and extension
endeavors.

b. Symposium. The "Annual Farming Systems Symposium" was held at
Kansas State University. It has become recognized worldwide
and is the preeminant place for international FSR/E
practitioners from all countries to exchange information.
FSSP has contributed significantly of time and funds to the
most recent four meetings of the six held. The 1986 meeting
provided a forum for more than 280 practitioners from more
than 30 countries to exchange FSR/E experience.

c. Regional Networks. Both the WAFSRN and Animal Traction
networks held meetings with FSSP support in 1986. The
opportunity for information and experience exchange coupled
with planning for similar future exchanges provided a solid
base for future work. Seven donor agencies recognized this
potential as evidenced by their presence, and several
indicated interest in supporting future networkshops.

3. Technical Assistance Support Base. Given the de-emphasis on
technical assistance resulting from the mid-term evaluation, and reduced
emphasis on Latin America and Asia except for 100 percent buy-ins,
technical assistance activity was reduced in 1986 compared to previous
years. Assistance with biodata searches and with team orientation
continued while complete delivery of design and evaluation assistance with
FSR/E projects declined.

FSSP 1986 Outputs

AS specified in the 1986 work plan nearly all of the fifteen projected
outputs have been or soon will be accomplished as publications are
completed. Activities completed include:
1. Two training volumes;
2. Two three-week FSR/E methods courses in French and English for West
African practitioners;
3. The worldwide KSU symposium;
4. Volume III of the bibliography;
5. Various publications (newsletters, network papers, case studies,
networkshop proceedings);
6. Purged newsletter mailing list;
7. Published the revised project inventory;
8. Report on pressing technical problems worldwide facing
practitioners;
9. Second WAFSRN conference;
10. Reviewed and tested FSR/E-intrahousehold cases; and
11. Response to on-demand mission requests for FSR/E assistance in
Haiti.
Not completed are:
1. Networkshop in West Africa with universities on improved research
and evaluation training with a farming systems perspective (not
approved by AID management);


1986 Annual Report









2. A report on use of rapid rural appraisal; and
3. Report by the evaluation task force and a summary of bilateral
project technical successes.
It is anticipated that these reports will be completed but delayed to
near term of the current Cooperative Agreement.


1986 Annual Report





























































1986 Annual Report 8












III. REGIONAL SUPPORT AND DELIVERY


Asia/Near East

The shift in emphasis from a three region project to one focused on
West Africa reduced Latin American/Caribbean and Asian/Near Eastern
activity to a complete buy-in basis (a general summary of FSSP buy-ins is
provided in Appendix 7). No program activity occurred directly in the Asia
sphere. The FSSP/Near East and Asia Advisory Committee continues to
communicate. A representive from Kohn Kaen University, Thailand served on
the Technical Committee and contributed to program recommendations that
feed into training unit development, the annual symposium and future FSSP
strategies.

In July an FSSP/NEAAC meeting was held at Colorado State to discuss the
future role of FSSP and the NEAAC. The NEAAC members generally felt that
there was value in maintaining the FSSP presence initiated in Asia and that
FSSP could learn much from and contribute to existing networks in the
region. Several Support Entity institutions represented on the NEAAC
indicated their willingness to do what they can to support FSSP activities
with Matching Support Grant funds. This is valuable but does not replace
the need for an FSSP Core commitment of interest and resources.

This FSSP Core commitment, based on USAID directions, was not
forthcoming, and consequently, if NEAAC is to propose any type of
continuing activity in the region it will have to be funded from sources
outside of USAID/FSSP. At the present time the Southeast Asian
Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN) and the Program on Environmental
Sciences and Management (PESAM) at the University of the Philippines, Los
Banos are interested in exploring the possibility of a jointly sponsored
workshop on the application of agro-ecology type research on development
programs. One suggestion is that ongoing farming systems projects be
identified in Asia as the basis for the development of case examples of how
increasing knowledge of the interaction between social and bio-physical
systems can influence the priorities and directions of technical assistance
and development programs. If there is sufficient support for such an
activity among the institutions represented on the NEAAC it may be possible
to consider developing an external funding proposal. Any future steps
along these lines will also depend on the continuing status of FSSP after
September, 1987.

Latin America/Caribbean

Effort in Latin America was confined to completion of the Paraguay
training and technical assistance effort and to a Haiti project evaluation.
The Paraguay program, one of FSSP's major successes generally and in Latin
America specifically, was initiated early as a training effort that
ultimately brought research and extension together for a substantial
on-farm research effort. FSSP, through a USAID mission buy-in, then
provided in-country technical assistance for two years in establishment of


1986 Annual Report












III. REGIONAL SUPPORT AND DELIVERY


Asia/Near East

The shift in emphasis from a three region project to one focused on
West Africa reduced Latin American/Caribbean and Asian/Near Eastern
activity to a complete buy-in basis (a general summary of FSSP buy-ins is
provided in Appendix 7). No program activity occurred directly in the Asia
sphere. The FSSP/Near East and Asia Advisory Committee continues to
communicate. A representive from Kohn Kaen University, Thailand served on
the Technical Committee and contributed to program recommendations that
feed into training unit development, the annual symposium and future FSSP
strategies.

In July an FSSP/NEAAC meeting was held at Colorado State to discuss the
future role of FSSP and the NEAAC. The NEAAC members generally felt that
there was value in maintaining the FSSP presence initiated in Asia and that
FSSP could learn much from and contribute to existing networks in the
region. Several Support Entity institutions represented on the NEAAC
indicated their willingness to do what they can to support FSSP activities
with Matching Support Grant funds. This is valuable but does not replace
the need for an FSSP Core commitment of interest and resources.

This FSSP Core commitment, based on USAID directions, was not
forthcoming, and consequently, if NEAAC is to propose any type of
continuing activity in the region it will have to be funded from sources
outside of USAID/FSSP. At the present time the Southeast Asian
Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN) and the Program on Environmental
Sciences and Management (PESAM) at the University of the Philippines, Los
Banos are interested in exploring the possibility of a jointly sponsored
workshop on the application of agro-ecology type research on development
programs. One suggestion is that ongoing farming systems projects be
identified in Asia as the basis for the development of case examples of how
increasing knowledge of the interaction between social and bio-physical
systems can influence the priorities and directions of technical assistance
and development programs. If there is sufficient support for such an
activity among the institutions represented on the NEAAC it may be possible
to consider developing an external funding proposal. Any future steps
along these lines will also depend on the continuing status of FSSP after
September, 1987.

Latin America/Caribbean

Effort in Latin America was confined to completion of the Paraguay
training and technical assistance effort and to a Haiti project evaluation.
The Paraguay program, one of FSSP's major successes generally and in Latin
America specifically, was initiated early as a training effort that
ultimately brought research and extension together for a substantial
on-farm research effort. FSSP, through a USAID mission buy-in, then
provided in-country technical assistance for two years in establishment of


1986 Annual Report












III. REGIONAL SUPPORT AND DELIVERY


Asia/Near East

The shift in emphasis from a three region project to one focused on
West Africa reduced Latin American/Caribbean and Asian/Near Eastern
activity to a complete buy-in basis (a general summary of FSSP buy-ins is
provided in Appendix 7). No program activity occurred directly in the Asia
sphere. The FSSP/Near East and Asia Advisory Committee continues to
communicate. A representive from Kohn Kaen University, Thailand served on
the Technical Committee and contributed to program recommendations that
feed into training unit development, the annual symposium and future FSSP
strategies.

In July an FSSP/NEAAC meeting was held at Colorado State to discuss the
future role of FSSP and the NEAAC. The NEAAC members generally felt that
there was value in maintaining the FSSP presence initiated in Asia and that
FSSP could learn much from and contribute to existing networks in the
region. Several Support Entity institutions represented on the NEAAC
indicated their willingness to do what they can to support FSSP activities
with Matching Support Grant funds. This is valuable but does not replace
the need for an FSSP Core commitment of interest and resources.

This FSSP Core commitment, based on USAID directions, was not
forthcoming, and consequently, if NEAAC is to propose any type of
continuing activity in the region it will have to be funded from sources
outside of USAID/FSSP. At the present time the Southeast Asian
Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN) and the Program on Environmental
Sciences and Management (PESAM) at the University of the Philippines, Los
Banos are interested in exploring the possibility of a jointly sponsored
workshop on the application of agro-ecology type research on development
programs. One suggestion is that ongoing farming systems projects be
identified in Asia as the basis for the development of case examples of how
increasing knowledge of the interaction between social and bio-physical
systems can influence the priorities and directions of technical assistance
and development programs. If there is sufficient support for such an
activity among the institutions represented on the NEAAC it may be possible
to consider developing an external funding proposal. Any future steps
along these lines will also depend on the continuing status of FSSP after
September, 1987.

Latin America/Caribbean

Effort in Latin America was confined to completion of the Paraguay
training and technical assistance effort and to a Haiti project evaluation.
The Paraguay program, one of FSSP's major successes generally and in Latin
America specifically, was initiated early as a training effort that
ultimately brought research and extension together for a substantial
on-farm research effort. FSSP, through a USAID mission buy-in, then
provided in-country technical assistance for two years in establishment of


1986 Annual Report











the on-farm research effort. The technology development and testing
process was well underway at the time of FSSP departure from the effort.

FSSP also conducted an evaluation of the ADS-11 Project in Haiti, with
special emphasis on that project's scheme to use the farming systems
approach to develop and extend technologies to farmers on the badly-eroded
Haitian hillsides. The activity, including core management, was financed
entirely through a Haiti mission buy-in. The FSSP also assisted with the
Rural Technology Transfer System Project in Ecuador, where the FSSP Latin
American coordinator worked for nearly five months in an
integrated-pest-management effort on the coast.

Africa Program

Training

The FSSP training strategy is focused on the West and Central Africa
region and designed to initiate and implement regional and national
practitioner-level short term Farming Systems Research and Extension
(FSR/E) training in English and French. Though the objectives of the
strategy relate to specific FSSP activities in West and Central Africa,
they indicate directions for a long-term training program for the region.
FSSP coordinates its training activities through networking with other
organizations such as the West African Farming Systems Research Network
(WAFSRN), the West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network, and the
various formal and informal commodity-oriented networking activities of
SAFGRAD, ICRISAT, ILCA, and IITA in the region.

A primary objective of the FSSP training program is to provide the
basic foundations for development of indigenous training capacity in FSR/E
within national institutions. While the FSSP is not specifically directed
toward institutionalizing training capability, it supports bilateral
contracts and other entities that work with national programs in Africa
establishing integrated research and extension efforts that utilize a
farming systems perspective. The FSSP has followed this approach since its
inception. Specific emphasis at this time is being given to three areas:
1) developing materials, 2) enhancing the skills of existing trainers or
training new trainers, and 3) delivering short courses to West and Central
African FSR/E practitioners. The three areas are linked, and many
activities benefit more than just one area of development. The first two
are discussed under a following section on program development. The third
area is the subject of the remainder of this section.

The FSSP has drawn upon the materials and trainer base in the delivery
of a number of training activities in the West and Central African region.
Because FSSP did not have the luxury to develop the materials and train
trainers before needing to embark on the delivery of some training
workshops, the latter have served as a type of testing ground for
developing an appropriate strategy for a training program. In fact, the
delivery of training was often simultaneous with materials development and
training of trainers so that the three were mutually supportive.

Initially, the FSSP was engaged in conducting short (4-7 day) workshops
aimed at providing an overview or introduction to the basic concepts,


1986 Annual Report











the on-farm research effort. The technology development and testing
process was well underway at the time of FSSP departure from the effort.

FSSP also conducted an evaluation of the ADS-11 Project in Haiti, with
special emphasis on that project's scheme to use the farming systems
approach to develop and extend technologies to farmers on the badly-eroded
Haitian hillsides. The activity, including core management, was financed
entirely through a Haiti mission buy-in. The FSSP also assisted with the
Rural Technology Transfer System Project in Ecuador, where the FSSP Latin
American coordinator worked for nearly five months in an
integrated-pest-management effort on the coast.

Africa Program

Training

The FSSP training strategy is focused on the West and Central Africa
region and designed to initiate and implement regional and national
practitioner-level short term Farming Systems Research and Extension
(FSR/E) training in English and French. Though the objectives of the
strategy relate to specific FSSP activities in West and Central Africa,
they indicate directions for a long-term training program for the region.
FSSP coordinates its training activities through networking with other
organizations such as the West African Farming Systems Research Network
(WAFSRN), the West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network, and the
various formal and informal commodity-oriented networking activities of
SAFGRAD, ICRISAT, ILCA, and IITA in the region.

A primary objective of the FSSP training program is to provide the
basic foundations for development of indigenous training capacity in FSR/E
within national institutions. While the FSSP is not specifically directed
toward institutionalizing training capability, it supports bilateral
contracts and other entities that work with national programs in Africa
establishing integrated research and extension efforts that utilize a
farming systems perspective. The FSSP has followed this approach since its
inception. Specific emphasis at this time is being given to three areas:
1) developing materials, 2) enhancing the skills of existing trainers or
training new trainers, and 3) delivering short courses to West and Central
African FSR/E practitioners. The three areas are linked, and many
activities benefit more than just one area of development. The first two
are discussed under a following section on program development. The third
area is the subject of the remainder of this section.

The FSSP has drawn upon the materials and trainer base in the delivery
of a number of training activities in the West and Central African region.
Because FSSP did not have the luxury to develop the materials and train
trainers before needing to embark on the delivery of some training
workshops, the latter have served as a type of testing ground for
developing an appropriate strategy for a training program. In fact, the
delivery of training was often simultaneous with materials development and
training of trainers so that the three were mutually supportive.

Initially, the FSSP was engaged in conducting short (4-7 day) workshops
aimed at providing an overview or introduction to the basic concepts,


1986 Annual Report









philosophy and skills of FSR/E. These were conducted on a regional basis
or among a specific target group within a single country. FSSP then
focused on diagnostic skills, and followed by the skills associated with
the design and analysis of on-farm research. In 1986 with the completion
of the first two volumes of the training units and the completion of
several of the case studies, the FSSP had a solid base for delivering a
three week course at the regional level. The first of these was conducted
in the Gambia in April 1986, in English, for participants from the
Anglophone countries or English speakers from the French speaking nations.
The training workshop was attended by thirty-one participants representing
The Gambia and five other African countries: Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana,
Mauritania and Botswana. Resource persons from The Gambia, Senegal,
Nigeria, the Philippines, and Latin American provided firsthand case study
examples of farming systems research and extension.

The training materials (Volumes I and II plus the Burkina Faso case
study) were then translated into French and used in the second regional
course held November 1986 in Mali. The regional course conducted in
English and French, focused on building the methodological skills necessary
to conduct FSR/E within a national program context. The FSSP has drawn
considerably upon the CIMMYT experience in East and Southern Africa in the
development of a three-week training course.

The Gambia course followed two previous FSSP sponsored training
activities in the country. The first was a regional orientation workshop
and the second was a week-long course focused on the design and analysis of
on-farm research. Each of the earlier workshops and the more recent
three-week regional course incorporated participants from the various
network organizations such as WAFSRN, SAFGRAD, IITA, and the emerging West
African Integrated Livestock Cropping Systems Network. An interface with
CRSP institutions is expected in the future.

Participation in the second regional course, held in Mali November
3-21, brought together participants from Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Cameroon,
Senegal, Rwanda, Burundi and Burkina Faso. The course was divided into
three sections: 1) diagnostic skills; 2) design, analysis and evaluation
of on-farm experiments and interventions; and 3) issues of implementation
and institutionalization of the FSR/E approach. Participants received
practical, "hands-on" training in conducting interdisciplinary informal
surveys, and learned what kinds of analytical tools to apply in the
analysis of on-farm experimental results. Participant small group
discussions focused on the linkages between commodity research and
area-focused (FSR/E) research, gender analysis and FSR/E, the
research-extension linkages, and the policy implications of FSR/E.
Resource persons from the University Centre at Dschang, Cameroon, IITA and
the SAFGRAD program in Benin, in addition to several Malien researchers,
provided additional input to the course. Participants also discussed
strategies for FSR/E training at the national level among researchers and
extension workers.

The regional training course serves as a complement to the development
of national training strategies for which FSSP materials and training
support can be requested. Several countries are already making plans to do
this in 1987. Two USAID supported projects in Niger are developing a


1986 Annual Report









strategy for a training program to complement the regional course. They
plan to involve the FSSP. They will target training for extension workers
and trainers in the extension training institute, and hope to have their
first training course by mid-1987.

The Mauritania program anticipates a number of training efforts
as part of the USAID bilateral contract led by the University of Arizona.
The FSSP has provided orientation and training assistance to the University
of Arizona on preparing for this activity. Follow-up work will occur in
1987 with the team in the field along with contribution of materials and
support for a continual short term training effort.

In Mali, the FSSP has been involved since the inception of the design
effort for the present USAID contract led by Auburn University/SECID.
Orientation of design team members, implementation team members, and now
plans for future training efforts are well underway. These will complement
the regional program as well as be specific to national program needs.
The participation of ten Maliens in the November regional course provides a
good base for future training efforts. Also, the FSSP has provided Mali
with an MSTAT training course in statistical methods particularly oriented
to farming systems research and extension. Through support from FSSP to
Michigan State University, one of the FSSP support entities, the materials
for the MSTAT effort were further refined and translated to French, and
tested in courses such as this one. Now information on MSTAT and its
applications is available on a broad scale basis to West Africa and the
rest of the world.

In addition to continuing FSSP training efforts on a regional basis,
and support to national programs, the FSSP has fostered a working
relationship and collaborated in a number of activities with the major
International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs) in the region. FSSP is
currently working with the IARC and other major research network groups in
Africa, such as CRSPs, WAFSRN, and SAFGRAD to inform them of training
programs and to collaborate with their training efforts. Other donors such
as IDRC and World Bank have become familiar with the training approach of
the FSSP and are considering possible future collaboration. Private
voluntary organizations will also be contacted concerning training
information. This approach, followed in 1986, will continue in 1987 as the
materials and training experiences are evaluated in direct use.

Networking

Two major networking activities took place during FY 1986. Out of the
November 1985 networkshop at Egerton College, Kenya, which brought together
researchers and practitioners from projects in East, South and West Africa,
a need for further networking emerged. In March of 1986, FSSP co-sponsored
the West African Farming Systems Research Network (WAFSRN) meeting in
Dakar, Senegal. This was the first meeting that brought together all of
the member countries of West Africa. Fourteen of the seventeen WAFSRN
member nations sent representatives to the meeting which was attended by
more than 60 participants under the sponsorship of seven donors. Also, a
sub-network meeting on livestock was held to continue plans for the next
networkshop on the issue, following the initial networkshop on animal
traction held in Togo in March 1985.


1986 Annual Report









Working sessions for the WAFSRN meeting included the following topics:

1. Linkages between FSR and component research;
2. Linkages between research and development activities;
3. Sequencing of field activities and the roles of various
disciplines;
4. Coordination of donor assistance for national FSR activities.

While cautious optimism was the main tone set by the donors at this
networkshop, it was repeatedly pointed out that most donors have been
seriously affected by recent funding cutbacks or shifting agricultural
research priorities. The FSSP will continue to actively cooperate and
network with WAFSRN.

The second networking activity in which FSSP played a participatory
role took place during September, 1986. The FSSP, in collaboration with
IDRC, ILCA, and IITA, sponsored a second regional networkshop on draught
animal power entitled, "The Introduction, Intensification and
Diversification of the Use of Animal Power in West African Farming Systems:
Implications at the Farm Level". The networkshop was held in Freetown,
Sierra Leone from September 19-25. It was held under the auspices of the
West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Committee, an associate body of
the WAFSRN. The host organization was the Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project.
Four major sub-themes were included in paper presentations and small group
discussions:

1. Animal power equipment at the farm level;
2. Animal utilization and management at the farm level;
3. Economic implications of animal power at the small farm level and
village level finance; and
4. Social implications of animal power at the farm level.

In summary,FSSP's networking thrust in West Africa is directed to three
major goals, spelled out early in the project:
Thrust I Problem area focus (animal systems and other crop and
commodity networks) through the already implemented animal systems
network established at the Togo networkshop. Other crop/commodity
themes can be identified and linked with regional and international
center interests.

Thrust II Methodological focus (on-farm experimentation) comprises
the entire FSR/E community in the region and focuses episodically on
themes of interest to that community. Themes have been identified by
FSSP and WAFSRN and would be jointly sponsored as discrete
networkshops, not necessarily to be on-going with a separate steering
committee, such as was established with animal systems Thrust I.

Thrust III Training/teaching (FSR in the university context) entails
the establishment of a network among African universities. Groundwork
for such a network was laid at the Egerton Workshop, August 1985, and
would constitute a pan-African dialogue. Joint support for this would
come principally through the CIMMYT program.


1986 Annual Report





























































1986 Annual Report 14










IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


Training Units

Development

A major effort of the FSSP training thrust since mid-1984 has been
focused on the development of several in-depth volumes of training materials
which represent the methodological breakdown of the FSR/E process into
specific training units. The decision to divide the materials into units
came as a result of recommendations from the FSSP Training Task Force and a
Training for Trainers Workshop, as well as from practical experience in
delivering numerous training short courses. This was followed by the
gathering of existing FSR/E materials from around the world from experienced
FSR/E practitioners and persons with training expertise. Key IARCs-such as
IRRI, CIMMYT, CIAT, CIP, IITA, and ICRISAT became involved in the effort as
well as numerous members of both U.S. institutions and national programs in
developing countries. Several training unit development workshops were held
at the University of Florida, and initial unit drafts were tested in various
shortcourses held during 1985.
Early in 1986, final revisions were completed on both volumes. By
mid-1986, the first edition of two volumes of the training units was finished
and ready for production and distribution. Each of the volumes is not to be
considered as a self-contained course, but rather as an organized collection
of units which can be put together by a training team based upon the needs of
the target group of trainees. Each unit provides specific learning
objectives, key points, definitions of terms, a brief text, suggested
training activities and practical exercises, and trainer's notes.
Each unit within each volume is complete with separate instructions for
trainers, and each includes text material written for trainees, and hands-on
training exercises. The two completed volumes, which have been both
university- and field-tested, are described below.

Volume I, Diagnosis in FSR/E (published in 1986), contains nine units
(212 pages) which introduce trainees to various diagnostic steps in the FSR/E
approach. Volume I stresses, but is not limited to, initial diagnosis. Its
units also detail ongoing or continuous diagnosis throughout the FSR/E
process. Links between social and biological science disciplines are
stressed, as are considerations of intra-household and socio-cultural issues.
Supplementary materials included in Volume I are (1) "Anatomy of On-Farm
Trials: A Case Study From Paraguay" and (2) Bibiliography of Readings in
Farming Systems Research and Extension, Volumes 1 and 2.

Volume II, Techniques for Design and Analysis of On-Farm Experimentation
(published in 1986), contains six units (367 pages) which detail the farm
trial design and analysis process. A statistical analysis unit is included
so that trainers do not need to depend on outside materials in this critical
area of trial design and analysis. Volume II also contains three documents
which support the units: (1) On-Farm Agronomic Trials in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, by Peter E. Hildebrand and Federico Poey, (2)
"On-Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested Experimental Procedures", by
CARDI (the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute) staff,


1986 Annual Report










IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


Training Units

Development

A major effort of the FSSP training thrust since mid-1984 has been
focused on the development of several in-depth volumes of training materials
which represent the methodological breakdown of the FSR/E process into
specific training units. The decision to divide the materials into units
came as a result of recommendations from the FSSP Training Task Force and a
Training for Trainers Workshop, as well as from practical experience in
delivering numerous training short courses. This was followed by the
gathering of existing FSR/E materials from around the world from experienced
FSR/E practitioners and persons with training expertise. Key IARCs-such as
IRRI, CIMMYT, CIAT, CIP, IITA, and ICRISAT became involved in the effort as
well as numerous members of both U.S. institutions and national programs in
developing countries. Several training unit development workshops were held
at the University of Florida, and initial unit drafts were tested in various
shortcourses held during 1985.
Early in 1986, final revisions were completed on both volumes. By
mid-1986, the first edition of two volumes of the training units was finished
and ready for production and distribution. Each of the volumes is not to be
considered as a self-contained course, but rather as an organized collection
of units which can be put together by a training team based upon the needs of
the target group of trainees. Each unit provides specific learning
objectives, key points, definitions of terms, a brief text, suggested
training activities and practical exercises, and trainer's notes.
Each unit within each volume is complete with separate instructions for
trainers, and each includes text material written for trainees, and hands-on
training exercises. The two completed volumes, which have been both
university- and field-tested, are described below.

Volume I, Diagnosis in FSR/E (published in 1986), contains nine units
(212 pages) which introduce trainees to various diagnostic steps in the FSR/E
approach. Volume I stresses, but is not limited to, initial diagnosis. Its
units also detail ongoing or continuous diagnosis throughout the FSR/E
process. Links between social and biological science disciplines are
stressed, as are considerations of intra-household and socio-cultural issues.
Supplementary materials included in Volume I are (1) "Anatomy of On-Farm
Trials: A Case Study From Paraguay" and (2) Bibiliography of Readings in
Farming Systems Research and Extension, Volumes 1 and 2.

Volume II, Techniques for Design and Analysis of On-Farm Experimentation
(published in 1986), contains six units (367 pages) which detail the farm
trial design and analysis process. A statistical analysis unit is included
so that trainers do not need to depend on outside materials in this critical
area of trial design and analysis. Volume II also contains three documents
which support the units: (1) On-Farm Agronomic Trials in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, by Peter E. Hildebrand and Federico Poey, (2)
"On-Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested Experimental Procedures", by
CARDI (the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute) staff,


1986 Annual Report










IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


Training Units

Development

A major effort of the FSSP training thrust since mid-1984 has been
focused on the development of several in-depth volumes of training materials
which represent the methodological breakdown of the FSR/E process into
specific training units. The decision to divide the materials into units
came as a result of recommendations from the FSSP Training Task Force and a
Training for Trainers Workshop, as well as from practical experience in
delivering numerous training short courses. This was followed by the
gathering of existing FSR/E materials from around the world from experienced
FSR/E practitioners and persons with training expertise. Key IARCs-such as
IRRI, CIMMYT, CIAT, CIP, IITA, and ICRISAT became involved in the effort as
well as numerous members of both U.S. institutions and national programs in
developing countries. Several training unit development workshops were held
at the University of Florida, and initial unit drafts were tested in various
shortcourses held during 1985.
Early in 1986, final revisions were completed on both volumes. By
mid-1986, the first edition of two volumes of the training units was finished
and ready for production and distribution. Each of the volumes is not to be
considered as a self-contained course, but rather as an organized collection
of units which can be put together by a training team based upon the needs of
the target group of trainees. Each unit provides specific learning
objectives, key points, definitions of terms, a brief text, suggested
training activities and practical exercises, and trainer's notes.
Each unit within each volume is complete with separate instructions for
trainers, and each includes text material written for trainees, and hands-on
training exercises. The two completed volumes, which have been both
university- and field-tested, are described below.

Volume I, Diagnosis in FSR/E (published in 1986), contains nine units
(212 pages) which introduce trainees to various diagnostic steps in the FSR/E
approach. Volume I stresses, but is not limited to, initial diagnosis. Its
units also detail ongoing or continuous diagnosis throughout the FSR/E
process. Links between social and biological science disciplines are
stressed, as are considerations of intra-household and socio-cultural issues.
Supplementary materials included in Volume I are (1) "Anatomy of On-Farm
Trials: A Case Study From Paraguay" and (2) Bibiliography of Readings in
Farming Systems Research and Extension, Volumes 1 and 2.

Volume II, Techniques for Design and Analysis of On-Farm Experimentation
(published in 1986), contains six units (367 pages) which detail the farm
trial design and analysis process. A statistical analysis unit is included
so that trainers do not need to depend on outside materials in this critical
area of trial design and analysis. Volume II also contains three documents
which support the units: (1) On-Farm Agronomic Trials in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, by Peter E. Hildebrand and Federico Poey, (2)
"On-Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested Experimental Procedures", by
CARDI (the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute) staff,


1986 Annual Report









and (3) "Introduction to Economic Analysis of On-Farm Experiments", a draft
workbook by CIMMYT's Economics Program.

Distribution

Distribution of the training units began in July. The set of FSR/E
Training Units (two volumes and all supplementary materials) were mailed free
of charge to institutions and individuals who cooperated in their development
and appropriate representatives of national programs and institutions engaged
in FSR/E. To date, approximately 120 copies have been distributed worldwide.
For those who may wish to purchase the volumes, they are available for
$175.00 U.S. prepaid (includes postage and handling). To date, eighteen
copies have been ordered from a variety of institutions and individuals
throughout the world. The two volumes of FSR/E Training Units are mailed out
as a complete set only, containing the two volumes and all support documents.

Each volume is sent out in a loose-leaf binder, to allow for ease of
access and use, and to allow each volume to be updated (with trainer's notes,
etc.). As each volume of training units is used, users are encouraged to
notify FSSP of any adaptations, or new material developed by the users so
that this information can be considered for future editions. Comments
received are used in the review and revision process.

Translation

Translation of both volumes into French was completed in October. These
materials were used in the FSSP Regional Workshop held in Mali on November
3-21. The volumes were produced as separate participant and instructor
manuals based on feedback recommendations on the English volumes. General
distribution of the French versions began in December. The French version is
available at the same cost as the English version.

Case Studies

FSSP Training Case Studies

FSSP is engaged in developing case studies which can be used to explore
the actual process of FSR/E within an existing national program. One such
case study uses survey background data from an area of the Dominican Republic
to simulate a sondeo or diagnostic survey. Another uses data from Paraguay
to demonstrate the process of designing on-farm trials and explains how to
conduct the analysis of the results.

In January, the Dominican Republic case was synthesized and developed
from previously administered surveys in the study area. This set of
materials was tested in a university class on FSR/E and used during a
shortcourse delivered in August at the University of Florida.

Final revisions on the Paraguay case study, prepared and initially used
in the summer of 1985, were completed in early 1986. The case study is
included in the training unit package, and has been used in a variety of
short courses.


1986 Annual Report











FSSP/Population Council Case Studies


FSSP has been working jointly with the Population Council, using outside
funding from the Ford Foundation, to develop eight training case studies.
These follow a format similar to the Harvard Business School case studies in
that they present data without analysis; analysis becomes a training activity
done in small groups by the trainees. The case studies were selected from
nearly eighty proposals. Cases were selected in order to specifically
present issues of gender and household analysis in FSR/E. This area was
targeted earlier by the FSSP as an area for greater analytical attention. In
addition to providing considerable depth in specific FSR/E field activities
and problems, these cases will train practitioners of FSR/E to use gender and
household concepts and analysis in the diagnosis and prioritization of
problems, and in the design and analysis of on-farm research.

Of the eight cases selected two, Zambia and Burkina Faso, were completed
in 1986 and tested in various settings. The remaining six cases are nearing
completion. The Zambia Central Providence case study, written by Charles
Chabala and Roert Nguiru, was used in a variety of ways in a short course in
The Gambia, a short course and a University level course at the University of
Florida. The Burkina Faso case was developed by Joe Nagy and Herb Ohm,
Purdue University and Sibiri Samadogo, IBRAZ, Burkina Faso. Other case
studies scheduled for completion in the near future deal with FSR/E
activities in the Philippines, Indonesia, the Eastern Caribbean, Colombia,
Botswana and Kenya.

In January of 1986, four members of the Advisory Board met with Mary
Anderson, an experienced case writer and teacher, to develop the teaching
plan for the Zambia case and prepare for its presentation. The first run of
the Zambia case study (part 1 only) was at the University of Florida's
Conference on Gender Roles and FSR/E in February 1986. Sixty people
participated under the leadership of three trainers--Kate Cloud, Hilary
Feldstein and Rosalie Norem. Fifty participants completed an evaluation of
the case studies. On the whole, the test and evaluation provided both
satisfaction with the method and some useful experience and feedback.

The completion of two case studies has taken more time than envisioned in
editing and rewriting. An addition to the original grant was requested and
approved in July and August of 1986. During the next year, the balance of
the cases will be completed and tested before submitting them for publication
in July of 1987.

Training of Trainers

A training-for-trainers effort began early in the FSSP with a two-week
training workshop held at Iowa State University. Included among the
participants were practitioners and graduate students from Africa. These
individuals are now in a position to assist with training on a regional
basis and participated in 1986 (and previously in various FSSP network
activities) to further familiarize themselves with the overall program
efforts. FSSP recommends and encourages bilateral contract people within
the region, key AID staff and national counterparts, to participate in both
country level and regional level training programs. Individuals who do


1986 Annual Report









participate in these overall efforts and utilize the materials provided by
the FSSP can become a multiplier force for training in the region. FSSP
cannot train all of the people that need access to FSR/E methodology. The
FSSP is prepared to provide a basis for a training effort and serve as a
point for learning and consensus relative to state-of-the-art synthesis and
further development of appropriate training materials for trainers.

The overall training of trainers includes not only consideration of the
needs for training in methodology but also for pedigogical skills as well
as the planning and organizational skills necessary to design and run
training workshops and courses that will facilitate learning and synthesis
opportunities. FSSP is prepared to offer another training-for-trainers
workshop, however, in order to provide in-service training to potential new
trainers, FSSP includes non-trainer resource persons in training courses.
These persons add their skills and knowledge of content issues to the FSR/E
course while learning new training skills from the trainer team. Often
persons who wish to become better trainers in FSR/E or who are learning to
be trainers are added to a training team composed of individuals who have
already conducted similar training activities. This type of "participant
add-on" has been a strategy of the FSSP since its inception and has proven
effective in expanding the base of skilled practitioners as well as
trainers.

The evaluation, documentation and communication of the FSSP training
activities has been another way in which trainers have been able to
strengthen their own FSR/E training skills. Training activities are
usually reported in the FSSP Newletter in addition to activity reports and
sometimes in proceedings. Those planning their own training courses have
found it useful to review the evaluation reports of FSSP's training courses
and workshops. These reports are often made by a skilled individual who is
not responsible for actual delivery of the course material. They represent
a significant attempt to identify what works, what does not, and why.
Being able to identify and understand why certain things do not work in
specific situations helps to continually improve the material, the course
design, and the trainer skills.

On another level, FSSP has also worked to expand the foundation of
persons knowledgeable about FSR/E within the support entity structure. As
early as 1983, FSSP began a series of domestic introductory workshops the
were funded primarily by the support entities. These focused on the basic
FSR/E concepts and an overview of the methods and stages of the process.
U.S. based faculty, international participants studying in the U.S., as
well as USAID staff and personnel made up a large part of the workshop
participants. These persons then became part of a multiplier effect which
has furthered the network of FSR/E practitioners.

Training Delivery

Institutionalization (Cameroon)

Dr. Pascal Fotzo, University Center Dschang, has been consulting with
his superiors, Dr. Owona and Djouban, to develop a strategy associated with
establishing a training support base for Farming Systems at UCD to service
continuing education needs of the country of Cameroon and countries in West


1986 Annual Report









participate in these overall efforts and utilize the materials provided by
the FSSP can become a multiplier force for training in the region. FSSP
cannot train all of the people that need access to FSR/E methodology. The
FSSP is prepared to provide a basis for a training effort and serve as a
point for learning and consensus relative to state-of-the-art synthesis and
further development of appropriate training materials for trainers.

The overall training of trainers includes not only consideration of the
needs for training in methodology but also for pedigogical skills as well
as the planning and organizational skills necessary to design and run
training workshops and courses that will facilitate learning and synthesis
opportunities. FSSP is prepared to offer another training-for-trainers
workshop, however, in order to provide in-service training to potential new
trainers, FSSP includes non-trainer resource persons in training courses.
These persons add their skills and knowledge of content issues to the FSR/E
course while learning new training skills from the trainer team. Often
persons who wish to become better trainers in FSR/E or who are learning to
be trainers are added to a training team composed of individuals who have
already conducted similar training activities. This type of "participant
add-on" has been a strategy of the FSSP since its inception and has proven
effective in expanding the base of skilled practitioners as well as
trainers.

The evaluation, documentation and communication of the FSSP training
activities has been another way in which trainers have been able to
strengthen their own FSR/E training skills. Training activities are
usually reported in the FSSP Newletter in addition to activity reports and
sometimes in proceedings. Those planning their own training courses have
found it useful to review the evaluation reports of FSSP's training courses
and workshops. These reports are often made by a skilled individual who is
not responsible for actual delivery of the course material. They represent
a significant attempt to identify what works, what does not, and why.
Being able to identify and understand why certain things do not work in
specific situations helps to continually improve the material, the course
design, and the trainer skills.

On another level, FSSP has also worked to expand the foundation of
persons knowledgeable about FSR/E within the support entity structure. As
early as 1983, FSSP began a series of domestic introductory workshops the
were funded primarily by the support entities. These focused on the basic
FSR/E concepts and an overview of the methods and stages of the process.
U.S. based faculty, international participants studying in the U.S., as
well as USAID staff and personnel made up a large part of the workshop
participants. These persons then became part of a multiplier effect which
has furthered the network of FSR/E practitioners.

Training Delivery

Institutionalization (Cameroon)

Dr. Pascal Fotzo, University Center Dschang, has been consulting with
his superiors, Dr. Owona and Djouban, to develop a strategy associated with
establishing a training support base for Farming Systems at UCD to service
continuing education needs of the country of Cameroon and countries in West


1986 Annual Report









Africa. The overall purpose was to prioritize alternative strategies and
goals with time dimensions and direction relative to current capability and
interest in FSR/E training and support. The overall proposal is important
to AID and the FSSP as well as to UCD because of the impending change in
funding status for the FSSP. It is not expected that this program would
carry the FSSP funding needs, but it is important to consider what parts of
the FSSP may be appropriately institutionalized in West Africa and need
attention prior to phase down of the project.

The program to emerge must assume a purpose, posture and program status
to complement UCD. It should first satisfy training support needs directly
and on a continuing education basis for Cameroon in research, extension and
training. Questions concerning a support role for West Africa will be
appropriate when these needs are met. As a starting point for considering
program development, the 1987 FSSP training strategy indicates what some of
the opportunities may include. Particular emphasis must be given to
linkages with the ongoing IITA Technical Liason Unit activity while
considering documentation, library, training materials and trainer training
needs.

University of Florida/FSR/E Short Courses

In August 1986, the University of Florida, with support from the FSSP,
offered a three-week practitioner training course focused primarily on
design and analysis of on-farm trails (Volume II of the training units).
Introductory material was covered in various diagnostic techniques (Volume
I of the training units) and the course concluded with emphasis on
management of research and extension programs (the Zambia case study was
utilized). Participants attended from several countries primarily through
bilaterial contract affiliations. There were ten participants in all, two
from Honduras and the remainder from Tanzania, Cameroon, Mauritania, Niger
and Uganda. The majority of the participants were agronomists.

An administration and management of research and extension course,
taught over a five week period in June-July, was offered for graduate
credit to University of Florida students. Emphasis was on how to
effectively serve a technology innovation process that included a farming
systems perspective. Experiential learning techniques were applied to
various case and problem situations. Students were from Cameroom, Mali,
Zaire, Thailand, Indonesia, India, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica and US
representing six disciplines.

Both of the above courses are offered as short courses by the
University of Florida with support from the FSSP through staff and/or
materials. Participants can elect (not required) to come to the University
of Florida from abroad or another University and register for credit in
these courses with transfer of credit back to their home institution. The
objective in particular is to broaden training opportunities for third
world scientists presently studying in the US. A growing number of support
entities offer degree courses to support FSR/E training.


1986 Annual Report










Informal Training and Network Support


Bio-Data Service

The FSSP, as an organization made up of 20 U.S. institutions and 5
private consulting firms, encompasses many individuals as Program
Associates. At the beginning of the Project, these Program Associates sent
their Curriculum Vitae and other professional information to the University
of Florida to establish the bio-data base for the FSSP.

The FSSP offices were almost immediately inundated with piles of CV's.
Simultaneously, as the word spread that the FSSP had the most comprehensive
list of FSR practitioners available, requests for personnel information
became commonplace. It rapidly became apparent that a better system of
filing and classifying this information needed to be developed and
implemented. The Core devised a functional method of entering the required
personnel information into the computer.

As the numbers of individuals grew, both Program Associates and
independent professionals wishing to be included in the database, a more
sophisticated method of ordering the database was devised. The database
presently contains specific information on 565 Program Associates and 233
independents. There are 94 languages and 451 distinct disciplines (divided
into 24 major categories) included within the database.

Analysis of FSSP biodata requests shows that well over 80 percent of
all requests related directly to USAID activities. (See Table 1). The
FSSP biodata files have provided a significant service to bi-lateral
contractors, the FSR/E community and to USAID itself by providing access to
a knowledgeable and experienced pool of FSR/E practitioners. Additionally,
by making names and contacts available, networking within the FSR/E
community has been substantially enhanced.

TABLE 1

FSSP BIO-DATA SEARCH BREAKDOWN

Year Total AID Core Bi-Lateral Consulting NARs Other
FSSP Contractors Firms,PVOs IARCs

1983 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

1984 59 14 10 16 15 3 1

1985 53 12 3 13 22 3 0

1986 29 1 2 5 17 2 2*

*US Congress and FAO


1986 Annual Report










Informal Training and Network Support


Bio-Data Service

The FSSP, as an organization made up of 20 U.S. institutions and 5
private consulting firms, encompasses many individuals as Program
Associates. At the beginning of the Project, these Program Associates sent
their Curriculum Vitae and other professional information to the University
of Florida to establish the bio-data base for the FSSP.

The FSSP offices were almost immediately inundated with piles of CV's.
Simultaneously, as the word spread that the FSSP had the most comprehensive
list of FSR practitioners available, requests for personnel information
became commonplace. It rapidly became apparent that a better system of
filing and classifying this information needed to be developed and
implemented. The Core devised a functional method of entering the required
personnel information into the computer.

As the numbers of individuals grew, both Program Associates and
independent professionals wishing to be included in the database, a more
sophisticated method of ordering the database was devised. The database
presently contains specific information on 565 Program Associates and 233
independents. There are 94 languages and 451 distinct disciplines (divided
into 24 major categories) included within the database.

Analysis of FSSP biodata requests shows that well over 80 percent of
all requests related directly to USAID activities. (See Table 1). The
FSSP biodata files have provided a significant service to bi-lateral
contractors, the FSR/E community and to USAID itself by providing access to
a knowledgeable and experienced pool of FSR/E practitioners. Additionally,
by making names and contacts available, networking within the FSR/E
community has been substantially enhanced.

TABLE 1

FSSP BIO-DATA SEARCH BREAKDOWN

Year Total AID Core Bi-Lateral Consulting NARs Other
FSSP Contractors Firms,PVOs IARCs

1983 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

1984 59 14 10 16 15 3 1

1985 53 12 3 13 22 3 0

1986 29 1 2 5 17 2 2*

*US Congress and FAO


1986 Annual Report










Visitors Program and Training


FSSP visitors have ranged from U.S. and international graduate students
to directors of national programs and ministers of national governments.
They have included many university faculty and FSR practitioners from
international research centers, bilateral contract and national research
programs.

FSSP has endeavored to tailor its program to address individual or
group needs. Visitors' programs have ranged from simple appointment making
with university faculty to intensive orientation and training in farming
systems methodology and field trips to Florida agri-business concerns,
agricultural research centers and to the North Florida FSR/E Project.


TABLE 1

Visitors to the FSSP


Visitors Days Countries Person-days* Visits

1983 67 146 17 252 45

1984 140 262 36 539 67

1985 91 114 25 330 38

1986** 82 145 37 352 36

380 667 115 1,473 186


*(This number represents the total number of days spent with the FSSP; one
person/one day = one person-day. Large groups and/or longer visits
inflate this figure).

**(Confirmed to date; 22 Oct, 86)

The visitor program has been closely affiliated with training. In
response to demand from U.S. universities, bi-lateral contractors and
national research programs, the FSSP has endeavored to tailor training
activities for visitors.

These training experiences can be roughly divided into two distinct
classes: informal presentations and meetings which serve the purpose of
generally orienting visitors to the concepts and methodology of the FSR/E
approach, and intensive short-courses, with structured training activities,
which introduce participants to the philosophy, perspective and methodology
of FSR/E and prepare them to begin work within an FSR/E framework. The
concepts covered and the materials used during these short courses are the
same as those used in domestic and overseas training courses.


1986 Annual Report









To date, 47 distinct, customized training activities have been carried
out by the FSSP. Visitors' length of stay in Gainesville ranged from 1 to
38 days, with an average stay of 3.89 days. Visitors' group size ranged
from 1 to 22 persons, with an average of 3 persons. There were 134
individuals who received either formal or informal FSR/E training.
Thirty-two separate countries were represented.

TABLE 1

FSSP "CUSTOM" TRAINING ACTIVITIES

Informal Formal Total
Training Training
Year Activity Activity # Persons # Days # Countries

1983 5 0 7 20 5

1984 11 1 56 69 9

1985 9 3 23 27 7

1986 16 2 48 59 11

41 6 134 175 32


Farming Systems Symposium

The Sixth Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium was
held at Kansas State University in October. The FSSP has provided support
to the symposium since 1983. The theme for this year's symposium was,
"Farming Systems Research and Extension: Food and Feed". Attendees at the
symposium were exposed to papers presented by FSR/E practioners from around
the world. Results presented from ongoing FSR/E efforts document the value
of the learning/training process and the importance of this activity.
Attendance at the 1986 symposium totaled more than 280 from more than
thirty countries. More than thirty states of the U.S. were also
represented. Proceedings of the 1986 symposium were issued before the
close of the symposium.

This was the final year that the Farming Systems symposium will be held
at Kansas State University. During the symposium KSU was officially
recognized and commended for its contribution to farming systems research
and extension. An award was presented by the FSSP acknowledging the work
done by KSU for all six symposia.

The University of Arkansas submitted a proposal to the Advisory
Council to host the 1987 Farming Systems Symposium (in cooperation with
Winrock International). The proposal was accepted and a date set for the
Seventh Annual Farming Systems Symposium. It will be held October 18-21,
1987.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report










FSSP Annual Meeting


The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming
Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One
was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further
development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of
emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation,
livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research
and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages.
The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following
termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987.
(Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)

Publications

Newsletter

Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter
has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation
exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully
computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline
and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the
mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.

Bibliography

Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French,
and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a
100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986.
FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to
microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their
basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.

Papers

On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of
five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in
1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.

Reports

Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series
of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the
issue of livestock in farming systems research.

OTA Report

A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical
Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource
Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper
was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.


1986 Annual Report








Walecka with the help of C. Andrew and P. Hildebrand. It is anticipated
that the OTA will issue the full report this year.


1986 Annual Report









V. MAINTAINING A DOMESTIC SUPPORT BASE


Project Status

Future funding of the FSSP beyond September, 1987, remains uncertain.
However, a consensus of support entity representatives at the AUSUDIAP
meetings in July, the FSSP Annual Meetings in early October and the NASULGC
meetings in November is that FSSP should be continued. As FSR/E and FSSP
mature it is becoming more obvious that efforts must focus on technology
diffusion, policy linkages and overall R/E management of the on-farm and
adaptive research work if FSR/E is to achieve full potential as a solid
adaptive complement to commodity and discipline research. Agricultural
success is at stake and FSR/E methodology is evolving to assist with both
technology development and institutional accommodation for agricultural
research and extension.

Reponse to FSSP needs at the Mission level is being assessed through
formal and informal channels. Particularly, interest is high for continued
program support in several West African countries where FSSP involvement
has been greatest and/or where major bilateral FSR/E projects are
under-way. Desires for continued program development and support to Latin
America/Caribbean and Asia/Near East efforts remain strong but without
budget support.

USAID funding for the FSSP is not certain. Several scenarios and
scales of operation have emerged from the meetings as options for
continuation. The process underway builds on the following circumstances
and plans:

1. USAID mission response to the 1985 FSSP evaluation cable sent by the
Science and Technology Bureau (S&T) indicated early positive
response to FSSP interventions and a desire for further support from
missions where the project had been most involved.

2. S&T and Africa Bureau responses to FSSP reveal confusion about
the role of FSR/E, changing emphasis to biotechnology research,
serious budget constraints and little consensus about future
emphasis on FSR/E. The project budget has been substantially reduced
and fiscal '86-'87 operations for FSSP presently show a $210,000
shortfall.

3. During April-May 1986, FSSP Advisory Council members encouraged the
Director and Core staff to establish a planning/decision time frame
for considering the continuation of the FSSP, based upon their
assessment that SEs and AID missions want the project to continue.
The time frame included :

a) gathering information, planning and consensus building with
Administrative Coordinators in early July at AUSUDIAP;

b) a two day core and S&T management planning meeting in early
September;


1986 Annual Report









V. MAINTAINING A DOMESTIC SUPPORT BASE


Project Status

Future funding of the FSSP beyond September, 1987, remains uncertain.
However, a consensus of support entity representatives at the AUSUDIAP
meetings in July, the FSSP Annual Meetings in early October and the NASULGC
meetings in November is that FSSP should be continued. As FSR/E and FSSP
mature it is becoming more obvious that efforts must focus on technology
diffusion, policy linkages and overall R/E management of the on-farm and
adaptive research work if FSR/E is to achieve full potential as a solid
adaptive complement to commodity and discipline research. Agricultural
success is at stake and FSR/E methodology is evolving to assist with both
technology development and institutional accommodation for agricultural
research and extension.

Reponse to FSSP needs at the Mission level is being assessed through
formal and informal channels. Particularly, interest is high for continued
program support in several West African countries where FSSP involvement
has been greatest and/or where major bilateral FSR/E projects are
under-way. Desires for continued program development and support to Latin
America/Caribbean and Asia/Near East efforts remain strong but without
budget support.

USAID funding for the FSSP is not certain. Several scenarios and
scales of operation have emerged from the meetings as options for
continuation. The process underway builds on the following circumstances
and plans:

1. USAID mission response to the 1985 FSSP evaluation cable sent by the
Science and Technology Bureau (S&T) indicated early positive
response to FSSP interventions and a desire for further support from
missions where the project had been most involved.

2. S&T and Africa Bureau responses to FSSP reveal confusion about
the role of FSR/E, changing emphasis to biotechnology research,
serious budget constraints and little consensus about future
emphasis on FSR/E. The project budget has been substantially reduced
and fiscal '86-'87 operations for FSSP presently show a $210,000
shortfall.

3. During April-May 1986, FSSP Advisory Council members encouraged the
Director and Core staff to establish a planning/decision time frame
for considering the continuation of the FSSP, based upon their
assessment that SEs and AID missions want the project to continue.
The time frame included :

a) gathering information, planning and consensus building with
Administrative Coordinators in early July at AUSUDIAP;

b) a two day core and S&T management planning meeting in early
September;


1986 Annual Report










c) University of Florida decisions and plans for future leadership
and transition support to FSSP, SE program and project management
contributions at the FSSP Annual Meeting in early October;

d) Administrative Coordinator reactions and consensus concerning
options at the NASULGC meeting in early November;

e) core restructuring of options and presentation by mail to SEs in
late November;

f) SE decisions on degree of participation based on selection from
options in December; and

g) Core and Advisory Council in collaboration with SE development
and presentation of proposals for consideration by USAID and
other funding agencies.

4. Administrative Coordinators, in July, endorsed continuation of the
FSSP. They encouraged consideration of diverse funding options by
various agencies as well as consideration of SE member fees, and
suggested an "umbrella type" program that would stimulate one or
more SEs to tackle program leadership and funding similar to the
aspirations of the FSSP/NEAAC (Near East & Asia Advisory Committee).

5. During the September planning meeting, FSSP Core staff prepared and
discussed an activity/decision/objective tree for consideration by
representatives at the Annual Meetings and to assist with proposal
development. Plans were initiated for new approaches to the S&T and
Africa Bureaus for core financing. Time and financial constraints,
which forced core staff reductions (loss of 2.0 FTEs) coupled with a
need to deliver on an expanded West Africa program in '86 and '87,
were a planning reality, influencing decision processes for
continuation of the FSSP.

6. At the KSU Annual Meeting the transitional IFAS/UF commitment to
FSSP after September 1987 was spelled out and included a director, a
secretary, and an editor for up to one year. However, every effort
should be made by UF, FSSP and SEs to gain support so that this
fallback position is not called upon.

7. The FSSP Annual Meeting provided numerous expanded options and
further support for continuation of FSSP. The consensus was that
the FSSP must continue, but the level of activity would be
contingent upon funded program options (the meeting minutes are
summarized in an October 20, 1986 memo from Andrew to FSSP Advisory
Council, Technical Committee, Administrative Coordinators and
Program Leaders).

8. Official Support Entity representatives met at the NASULGC meetings,
again confirming the desire for FSSP to continue and committing to a
response to the following questions and program options. They
encouraged more formal bilateral contract linkages with FSSP
including subcontracts for training assistance and ultimately


1986 Annual Report









contracting procedures inclusive of FSSP at the onset of a bilateral
project.

Structured Response from Support Entities

FSSP Support Entities assessed their interests and commitments relative
to the future activities of the FSSP, and started to take steps toward
future involvement. The options were considered under twelve activities
suggesting several scales of FSSP operation and entry points for SE
participation and donor or external funding. Not all SEs would be
compelled to enter with the same degree of participation. They are
summarized in the following presentation termed Potential FSSP II
Activities. SEs and/or donors should be able to share in lower scale
benefits while higher involvement would require greater commitment to
program and funding development. Some SEs might joing together to assist
with development of the program and funding base for one of the potential
program packages as well as participate in implementation.

The questions SEs were asked to respond to were:

1. Does the configuration of potential FSSP activities conform with
your perception of needs and potentials and to our combined ability
to respond?

2. Where and how will your SE want to commit to involvement with the
FSSP?

A complete response to these options was not available at the close
of 1986.

The presentation of potential program activities is in terms of
potential program packages. Both SE commitment/involvement and donor
support can be addressed to combinations of activities. As originally
conceived, FSSP would include all 12 activities. The following potential
program packages taken from the 12 activities are most evident as additive
components of FSSP II:

A. Minimum Networking 1
B. Base for Worldwide Network 1,2,3
C. Regionally Extended Worldwide network 1,2,3,4
D. Minimum US Training Base 9
E. Minimum Training and Network Base 1,9
F. Worldwide Training Development Base 5,6,9
G. Worldwide Formal Training Base 9,10
H. Regionally Extended Worldwide
Formal and Informal Training Base 5,6,7,8,9,10
I. State-of-the-Art Synthesis Base 1,2,3,5
J. Minimum Technical Assistance 11
K. Worldwide Technical Assistance 11,12
L. Total Worldwide Farming Systems Support Program 1 through 12

Donors or other funding sources can be approached to support everything
as in 1-12, total programs such as 1-4 or 5-10, or parts of programs such
as 5 or single units in 5. The managerial preference is to gain as broad a


1986 Annual Report









base as possible in support funding but to make entry points flexible
enough to allow participation for special interest or where there is
restricted funding.

Unit and core base requirements can be somewhat discrete for each of
the activities but an overall core is necessary, or a secured minimum core
funding base, because funding will rise and fall from program activities
over time. The overall effort cannot function on stand-by status. Thus,
core operations, regardless of location (at SE, FSSP lead entity or a
regional site) must have sustained support but can be partially nurtured
through activity fees for administration and management.


1986 Annual Report










Potential FSSP II Activities


Activity Levels
1. Informal communication
clearing house -


2. Newsletter & Publication/
Information Service-
Current FSSP Newsletter,
Documentation and
publication program



3. Symposia for workshop
and experience exchange
Current FSR/E Symposium
(US) & possible regional
affiliates through
region based networks


4. Regional Networking
support and US Network
Organization unit and
and core base required.






5. Centralized training
materials development
and state-of-the-art
symthesis-unit and
core base required.


SE Involvement
1. Network mem
small fee, pro
information to
NETWORKING" t
instruments


bership-
vide
"ON-
ype


Network user fees
if necessary, assist
with proposal develop-
ment, provide FSR/E
state-of-the-art and
program information/
knowledge

3. Participant and
institutional user fees
along with commitments
to assist in proposal
and fund development,
hosting, committee
actions, etc.

4. Commitment to assist
in proposal and fund
development,
participation with
technical and advisory
committees, and in
program delivery.
Possible institutional
membership fee in US
network if necessary.

5. Commitment to assist
in proposal and fund
development,
participation and/or
lead in task forces
(varied degrees of
funding)for training
unit development &
delivery (testing).


Donor Involvement &
External Funding
1. Minor funding.


2. Proposal to funding
agency for information
package (editor&support)
to maintain worldwide
FS network (5 year term)



3. Proposal to funding
agency for secretariat
support to complement
user fees (5 year term)




4. Proposal to funding
agency for core support
and assist with proposals
to various funding
agencies for regional
secretariat support.
(Varied term).



5. Proposals (group of
units or unit by unit)
to potential user
agencies such as donors,
IARCs, national programs
for funding core
(administrative/manage-
ment fees) and develop-
ment costs for each unit
(varied term).


1986 Annual Report










6. Training of Trainers
program and centralized
support network for
trainers. Unit and core
base required.



7. Regional training
programs (W. AF for
example) Unit and
core base required.


8. National Training
program support service
unit and core base
required.


6. Commitment to assist
in proposal and fund
development,
participation and /or
lead in development and
delivery of short
courses.


6. Proposals (series of
courses or course by
course) to potential user
agencies for regional and
national support to
trainers (varied term).


7. Commitment by SEs 7. AID mission leadership
with bilateral and other donor
contracts to collabor- participation in
ate in program develop- committing general support
ment and funding as well through participant fees
as delivery through to nourish program core/
fully funded participant development & delivery.
fees (including General donor collabor-
administrative management ation in achieving
fees) integrated regional
training support.

8. Commitment by SEs 8. Action by donor
with bilateral contracts agencies on funding
to achievement of needs for national
national "training informal training
Programs" with planning programs and support
for support interventions to long term ventures
on a program and fund drawing on worldwide
basis. Commitment by training support
all SEs to strengthen intervention as
support capability and appropriate. Some
to lead and/or core funding required
participate assignments. (5 year term)
Assist with proposal and
fund development for
core base.


9. Formal U.S. Training
(BS, MS & PhD)


9. Commitment to
curriculum development
in FSR/ E as complement
to majors in bio-physics
and Soc. Sci. Provide
assistantships or other
stimuli to augment
participation


9. Prescription by
donors in funding
student programs
requiring some FSR/E
course work. Either
added funding or some
reallocation to
stimulate balanced
training. (long term).


1986 Annual Report










10. Institutionalization
Regional training and
support established
through core transition
unit.





11. Limited technical
assistance support-
and core base
required.




12. Technical assistance
support for FSR/ E team
development and de-ploy-
ment unit and core base
required.


10.Collaborative support
of bilateral contractors
and other national
support projects to
participation with the
selected institutions.
SE commitment to
proposal and fund
development.

11. Utilization by Se's
in orientation/training
/participant add on
services for TA part-
ticipation and/or
leadership in program
delivery.

12. Commitment to sub-
contracting from central
unit to deliver services
to USAID. Commitment to
lean and uncomplicated
procurement process.
Contributions to devel-
opment and maintainance
of a bio data service.


10. Core support by
donors to a selected
region based university
to assume functions
similar to FSSP. Core
support to FSSP necessary
in transition. (5 to 10
year term).


11. Increased sensitivity
and commitment to unit
strengthening TA
human resource base.




12. Commitment by USAID
missions to actual
timing and planning
framework (past
experience is good).
Commitment by USAID
Bureaus to core manage-
ment fund as well as fee
or mission delivery to
sustain core.


1986 Annual Report





























































1986 Annual Report 32










APPENDIX 1

FSSP Calendaar of Project and Related Program Activities


January 1986

8 10 Diagnostic Training Unit Meeting in Washington, D. C. -
L. Walecka.

19 -25 Development Agricole Caribe (DAC) Univ. Antilles Guyana -
Training Seminar on Recherche-Development and FSR/E S. Poats.

20 24 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Annual Review (E. Lansing, Michigan) P.
Hildebrand.

23 Board of Regents Review

27 -
March 3 Evaluation of two projects OCQA y LAS CUEVAS for the National
Research Project (NARMA)

28 29 Soils Management CRSP External Evaluation Panel Meeting,
Washington P. Hildebrand.



February 1986

4 6 International Conference on Computers in Agricultural Extension
Programs Orlando, FL J. Dean.

7 15 Strategic Planning meeting Farming Systems, IITA Ibadan,
Nigeria P. Hildebrand.

12 15 Planning session for case study trainers to do case study sessions
at Gender issues conference. Boston. S. Poats, Hilary
Feldstein, Kate Cloud, Rosalie Norem.

17 21 IARC Farming Systems Conference, Hyderabad, India C. Andrew.

26 -
March 1 Gender Issues in FSR, University of Florida conference,
Gainesville S. Poats, P. Hildebrand, and core.


March 1986

8 10


10 14


Orientation of SECID/Mali bilateral contract team J. Dean,
P. Hildebrand, C. Andrew.

First WAFSRN Network Meeting, Dakar, Senegal S. Poats, D. Gait,
D. Reboussin, K. Buhr.


1986 Annual Report









15 17 Follow-up meetings with WAFSRN steering committee S. Poats.

18 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Kearns, D. Harpstead, N. Raun, J. Caldwell.

18 21 Planning for Animal Systems Networkshop, Freetown, Sierra Leone -
S. Poats, Paul Starkey.

19 21 National Research Council Committee on Alternative Farming Systesm
for Commercial Agriculture. NAS, Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand.

20 ETF Meeting, Washington, D.C. D. Gait.

24 Project Management Meeting, Washington, DC C. Andrew.


April 1986

3

7 25


13 I1

19 2!

20 2:

26 -
May 17


May 1986

1 30


20


27 -31


Advisory Council meets in Washington C. Andrew, K. McDermott.

FSSP Regional FSR/E Training Course Gambia (English). J.
Caldwell, Dan Taylor, Carl Barfield, Federico Poey, Rosalie Norem,
L. Walecka.

Latin American Communications Network, Cali, Colombia. S. Kearl.

RTTS, Quito, Ecuador S. Kearl.

Soils Management CRSP, Annual Review. Atlanta.- P. Hildebrand.


Equador FS activity under RTTS J. Jones, K. Buhr.


Development of OTA report S. Poats, D. Gait, L. Walecka, C.
Andrew, P. Hildebrand.

Conference on Information Transfer. North Carolina A & T
University P. Hildebrand.

Haiti Evaluation Report and final preparation, John Lichte and Uli
Locher.


1986 Annual Report


June 1986

6 Oct 10 (3 5 months) FSR/E Consultation by J. Jones with Ecuador RTTS
project.









6


6 12

11 13

12 13


24 -25


25


D. Gait departs FSSP for assignment with Winrock International -
Nepal.

Project Management Meetings, Washington, DC C. Andrew.

IPM/FSR Seminar at Purdue S. Poats.

OTA Workshop on Low Resource Agriculture in Developing Countries:
Implication for Africa. Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand.

Mimi Gaudreau to Gainesville to plan Mali FSR/E training for W&C
Africa. (Cancelled)

Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, D.
Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.


July 1986

8 11 AUSUDIAP Annual Meetings and SE/FSSP meeting, Ft. Collins, CO C.
Andrew.

14 23 Evaluation of Soils Management CRSP Niger, W. Africa P.
Hildebrand.

20 29 Collaboration on ISNAR FSR Case Studies Project S. Poats.

27 30 AAEA Annual Meetings, Reno P. Hildebrand.



August 1986

6 8 Communications Task Force, Columbia, MO S. Kearl

10 29 Farming Systems Short Course, Gainesville P. Hildebrand, C.
Andrew, J. Dean, L. Walecka, S. Poats.

13 Symposium on Extension Systems. International Horticultural
Congress. Davis, California P. Hildebrand.

17 20 Mimi Gaudreau and John Lichte in Gainesville to plan Mali Regional
Training Course. S. Poats.

20 21 Planning Meetings with SECID Project Management on frame work for
Mali FSR/E Project. Washington, DC C. Andrew, S. Poats.

27 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, D. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.


September

2-3


1986 Annual Report


1986

Cedar Key Planning Conference, FSSP Core S. Poats, P.










Hildebrand, S. Kearl, J. Dean, L. Walecka, K. McDermott, C.
Andrew, R. Castro, D. Osburn, H. Popenoe.

11 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, D. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.

19 25 2nd West African Integrated Livestock Systems Networkshop: "The
Introduction, Intensification and Diversification of the Use of
Animal Power in West African Farming Systems: Implications at
Farm Level", Freetown, Sierra Leone. S. Poats, P. Starkey.

26 30 Training consultation with APS Project/Labalt-Anderson USAID in
Namey, Niger S. Poats.



October 1986

1 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, d. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.

1 4 ISNAR case writers and advisers workshop, The Hague, Netherlands.
S. Poats.

6 8 KSU FSR/E Symposium, Manhattan, KS

8 10 FSSP Business Mtg., Manhattan, KS D. Awker.

27 28 Project Management, Washington, DC C. Andrew.

29 Telephone meeting with John Bayles, AID Cameroon concerning FSR/E
programs in Cameroon and the NCRE/IITA contract C. Andrew.



November 1986

3 21 Three week French FSR/E Training course in Mali, S. Poats, J.
Lichte, M. Gaudreau.

9 12 NASULGC meeting and SE/FSSP Planning Meeting, Phoenix, AR C.
Andrew.
---------------------------------------

December 1986

1 15 W. Africa Training in Cameroon, UCD C. Andrew.

8 11 Working Session on Economic Analysis Training Unit L. Walecka,
Dan Taylor, Henk Knipscheer, Al Hagan, P. Hildebrand, Peter
Wotoweic (open to Core)


1986 Annual Report










APPENDIX 2


1986 FSSP VISITORS
January, 1986

7-10 Mr. Maurice Peiris-Tavarayan; Hubert H. Humphrey
Fellow, American University. Project Director, World
Bank Kurunegala Project, Sri Lanka. Orientation to
FSR/E and the FSSP. Meet with various UF faculty and
P. Hildebrand. J. Dean

10 Dr. Dave Sammons and Dr. Bob Hill (University of
Maryland), Mr. Kwesi Ahwoi-TGhana), Mrs. Mary Ruby
Beltran (Philippines), Mr. Megnath Boodhna
(Mauritius), Mr. Paul Ibeka (Nigeria), Mr. Lemore
Jones (JamaicaT, Mr. Jen-Sen Lim (TaiwanT, Mr.
Anandan Narayanan Talaysia), Mr. Ale Ndiaye
(Senegal): Hubert H. Humphrey Fellows and advisors
from the University of Maryland. Orientation to
FSR/E and FSSP J. Dean. Meet with S. Poats. Meet
with Dr. Hunt Davis; Director, Center for African
Studies and interested faculty and staff.

15 Dr. Grace Goodell; Harvard Institute of Development
Studies. General discussions about FSR/E and
Intra-household issues. FSSP Core.

22-24 Dr. Aaron Zazueta; Meals for Millions; Freedom from
Hunger Foundation. Meet with C 0 Andrew, P.E.
Hildebrand and J. Dean. Orientation to FSR/E and
FSSP. Review TMS Training Materials.

30-31 Dr. Ron Pollock ; ADO USAID/INDIA, Dr. Verma, Dr.
Misra and Dr. Mehrotra; Deans of 3 Indian
AgriculturalT-Univeristies. Travel to N. Fla. FSR/E
Project; meet with J. Rich and M. Swisher. Visit
on-farm trials. Meet with IFAS Deans, various
Departmental Chairmen, Dr. E.T. York, Dr. J. Koran;
Assoc. Dean for International Studies and Programs
and Ms. Pat Rambo. J. Dean.

February, 1986

5 Dr. Ed Farris; Director of International Agricultural
Programs, Cemson University. Discussions concerning
organization of FSSP within the University.-C.Andrew.


1986 Annual Report










February, 1986 (cont'd)


5 Mr. Al Theisen and Mr. Victor Labat; SALUT, Inc. and
Labat Associates, Inc. Discuss FSSP collaboration
with training in Niger, through a forthcoming
bilateral contract. Also, interview with Gonzalo
Romero for position with Niger Project. C. Andrew,
S. Poats and P. Hildebrand.

20 Dr. John Holik; University of Missouri-Columbia.
Orientation to FSR/E and FSSP. Discussions with
J. Dean.

23-
Mar 7 Mr. Patricio Espinosa; Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow,
Cornell University and Nat'l. Chief of Planning and
Agricultural Economics; INIAP, Ecuador. Work with P
E Hildebrand in FSR/E Course, attend "Gender Issues
in FSR" Conference, meet with FSSP Core and other UF
faculty.

24 Dr. Don Esslinger; University of Missouri-Columbia,
(Program Leader for UMC/FSSP) Attend "Gender Issues
in FSR" Conference, meet with FSSP Core and other UF
faculty.


March, 1986


2-7 Mr. Yonke; Minister of Agriculture, Cameroon and
Dr. Rene Owona; Director General, University
Centre-Dschang, Cameroon. Visit UF, meet with
various administrators, faculty, staff and
Cameroonian students. Travel to Tallahassee to meet
with the Commissioner of Agriculture and various
dignitaries. Travel to Lake Alfred and EPCOT. -
K. Tefertiller, H. Popenoe, C. Eno, J. Dean, D.
Baldwin, S. Pasley.

8-10 Mali/SECID Team Pre-Departure Briefing C.A.F.S. and
J. Dean, C. Adrew, P. Hildebrand.


April, 1986

22-24 Mr. Adama Sy; Director of Agriculture, Government of
Mauritania. (USAID/CID/Mauritania FSR Project).
Visit FSSP and UF personnel. Discussions about FSR/E
and the University of Florida. Through Mike Norvelle,
University of Arizona. J. Dean


1986 Annual Report









April, 1986 (cont'd)


28-29 The Honorable Utula Samana; Premier of Morobe
Province, Mr. Victor-alpadado; Director of the
International Institute of Subsistence Eco-Farming,
Mr. Joshua Hagai; Member of the Morobe Provincial
Parl-iamen~- t, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. "To
study the University of Florida tropical agriculture
program". Discussions of the Land Grant University
concept, FSR/E approach to agricultural development,
meet with UF faculty and staff. J. Dean, M. Cruz

May, 1986

4-7 Ms. Zodwa Mamba, Mr. Edgar Nxumalo, Mr. Rogers
Matsebua; Ministry of Agriculture, Swazilad,
through Penn. State University. "Introduction to
Farming Systems Research/Extension" Short Course.
J. Dean
15 Dr. Jefferey White; Plant Physiologist with CIAT,
Columbia. Met with S. Poats.

15- Mr. Andres Aristides; Head: Staff Training and
June 6 Program Evaluation, Department of Agriculture,
Nicosia, Cyprus. Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow at
Cornell University. M. Cruz, J. Dean

26- Dr. John Lichte and Dr. Uli Locher; FSSP/USAID/Haiti
June 1 Project Evaluation Team. Write final evaluation
report.


June, 1986


3-14 Mr. Patricio Espinosa; Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow,
Cornell University and Nat'l. Chief of Planning and
Agricultural Economics; INIAP, Ecuador. Collaborate
with P.E. Hildebrand on paper detailing
institutionalization of FSR/E within INIAP, meet with
WSU Extension personnel, visit Live Oak AREC.- J.
Dean, P.E. Hildebrand.

5-9 Mr. Mamadou Diarra; Director of CNRADA (Nat'l.
Institute of Research and Rural Development),
Mauritania. Univ. of Arizona/USAID/Mauritiania
Project. Meet with S. Poats, C. Andrew and UF
personnel, travel to EPCOT. J. Dean, through
Bilingual, Ink. (Louise Emenhiser).


1986 Annual Report









June, 1986 (cont'd)

9-13 Christopher Feise, Martha Goodlett, Louise Parker
Hovde, Curtis J. Moulton and Sharon Collman;
Wasington State Cooperative Extension Service, King
County Washington. Orientation to FSR/E, visit N.
Fla. FSR/E Project. Meetings with UF faculty, staff,
and Extension personnel. Give seminar "King County,
Washington Extension and FSR/E" J. Dean, E.C.
French, and other UF personnel.

15-17 Dr. David Miller; USAID/Kinsasha, Zaire and Ms. Musu
Clemens; USDA/OICD. Meet with P. E. Hildebra-i, C.
O. Andrew, Dean Jack Fry, Zairois graduate students
and other UF faculty. Discuss possibility of Zairois
students doing graduate research in Zaire.

30- Mr. Hamath N'Gaide; Deputy Director, CNRADA (Nat'l.
July 3 Insttute of Research and Rural Development),
Mauritiania. Univ. of Arizona/USAID/Mauritania.
Meet with FSSP and UF personnel. J. Dean

July, 1986

7-8 Ms. Pat Miller: Meet with H. Popenoe, Dr. W. Cripe;
Asst. Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Joe
Conrad; Professor, Dept. of Animal Science, Dr. S.
Poats; FSSP. J. Dean

16 USAID Training Course Group (12 ea. names unknown):
SoilScience focus; coordinated by Aiiurn University.
Local coordination by Mr. Bill Easterwood; PhD
candidate, Soil Science. Discuss FSR/E and FSSP;
show TMS 201. J. Dean

21-24 Mr. Bakajika Mota: Project Director; National FSR/E
Project and Dr. Shabani Salumu: Director; Council of
Scientific Research; Ministry of Agriculture;
Government of Zaire. Meet with C.O. Andrew, J. Dean,
H. Davis and Dean Zachariah. Discuss FSR/E, FSSP and
coordinate Zairois graduate students' research in
Zaire. J. Dean
August, 1986

1 Darrell Watts; COP, Dryland Project; Morocco. To
discuss project implementation and FSSP TA and
Training.

6 Dr. Pat Barnes-McCounel; discussions concerning Women
in Agricultural Development, FSR/E. FSSP and The
Bean Cowpea CRSP C. Andrew.


1986 Annual Report









September, 1986

1 Dr. Christopher L. Delgado, IFPRI, visit to FSSP to
discuss Farming Systems Research and Agricultural
Policy.

1-5 Mr. Cesar A. Vismara; Chief of Regional Extension,
Balcarce Region, Argentina. Meet with UF
administration, faculty and staff regarding FSR/E and
its institutionalization within the research and
extension structure of Argentina (Edgardo Moscardi).

2-3 Dr. Don Osborne and Dr. Roberto Castro; USADI/S&T,
Outgoing and Incoming FSSP Project Manager. Attended
Cedar Key FSSP Planning Session.

13-17 Inq. Luis Rosero; RTTS Project, Ecuador. Visit UF
and FSSP.

17-19 Madame Aissatou Yaou; Minister of Women's Affairs and
Mrs. Theresa Teh;Director of Research Programs,
Ministry of Women's Affairs: Government of Cameroon.
Visit UF. Meet with faculty and staff. Hosted by the
Home Economics Program and Women in Agriculture
Group. J. Dean

18-19 Dr. Michael Collinson; CIMMYT, East Africa. Will
visitt UF and FSSP.

October, 1986

12-14 Mr. Hamady Lam; Director, Mr. Harouna N'Dongo; Chief
of Divsion -of Animal Husbandry, and Mr. Mohammed
Habib Bal; Chief of Division of Environmental Studies
Ecole Nationale de Formation et de Vulgarisation
Agricoles (Nat'l. School of Agricultural Extension),
Kaedi, Mauritania. Visit UF to establish with eye
towards possible short course collaboration. J.
Dean.

29 Dr. Dennis Ignastas; Maryland-Eastern Shore to
discuss UF/cameroon project evaluation and FSR/E C.
Andrew.

November, 1986

3 Mr. Dato Kahalil; Head, Agricultural Economics Unit
of-Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Malaysia.
Meet with faculty of FRED. Orientation to FSR/E.
J. Dean.


1986 Annual Report










6 Ms. Inez Perroso; Farming Systems Specialist,
Dominican Republic, to discuss training progress.

24-26 Mr. Nestor Migasso; Ministry of Agriculture,
Government of Argentina. Meet with FSSP and UF
faculty regarding FSR/E. (Edgardo Moscardi) J. Dean
and P. Hildebrand.


1986 Annual Report










APPENDIX 3


MEMO

TO: FSSP Advisory Council, Technical Committee, Administrative
Coordinators, & Program Leaders

FROM: Chris O. Andrew

RE: Minutes of Annual Meeting Advisory Council (pp 1), Business Meeting
(pp 2-3), Administrative Coordinators (pp 3-6), and Advisory Council
(pp 6-9).

A. Advisory Council Meeting (October 8, 1986)

1. Attendees: Drs. Jean Kearns, Dale Harpstead, Ned Raun, Chris Andrew
(with Ken Tefertiller, Vice President Agricultural Affairs, IFAS/UF
and Roberto Castro FSSP Project Manager, USAID/S&T, Washington,
D. C.).

2. Discussions with Dr. Tefertiller included concerns for an approach
to stimulating AID financing for the FSSP. Alternatives for core
support include the S&T and the Africa Bureaus but funding
constraints limit in particular the S&T Bureau's ability to fund the
project. The desire to continue the project is strong among AID
missions but less so in AID Washington. Strategies for making AID
Washington more aware of mission needs and FSSP/SE capability
relative to FSR/E were discussed.

3. Dr. Castro's concern focused on the possibility of obtaining funding
to the FSSP authorization limit of an additional two million
dollars. The Advisory Council believes that the probability of
garnering this funding through the S&T budget is not likely with
present constraints placed on the appropriation and obligation
process in Congress and AID. The Council suggests that meetings
with Dr. Duane Acker followed by a meeting with Dr. Nyle Brady is
essential to ascertain the S&T position relative to obligating
funding for use by the FSSP. Similarly, the Council suggests
meetings at the K. Sherper and C. Martin level to establish Africa
Bureau knowledge of West African Mission interest in the FSSP.

B. FSSP Business Meeting (October 10, 1986).

1. Tom Sutherland. The FSSP went on record in support of the Kansas
State University FSR/E Symposium with an unequivocal request for
immediate US government action on the release of Dr. Tom Sutherland,
Colorado State University, who is a hostage in Lebanon. An overall
letter is being drafted for the record by Dr. Jim Oxley for use as
appropriate by individuals with their state legislative delegations
in support of this important cause. Dr. Sutherland is a colleague
who has contributed significantly to improved agricultural
education, research and extension.


1986 Annual Report









2. Technical Committee membership. Appointees to the Technical
Committee are on hold until all input is available relative to
forward planning and until desires of representatives at the
KSU-FSR/E Symposium and FSSP Annual meeting are specified. A
recommendation will be considered by the Advisory Council at its
forthcoming meeting.

3. Advisory Council membership. The three-year rotation for Council
membership dictates that Dr. Dale Harpstead will complete his term
with the Advisory Council in December. Dale was thanked for his
significant contributions to the Council. Dr. Jim Meiman was
recognized as the first Advisory Council Chair and for his
contribution to the FSSP. Dr. Ned Raun will become Council Chair in
January as Dr. Jean Kearns enters her third and final year of
membership. Dr. Delane Welsch, Director of International
Agricultural Programs, University of Minnesota and an active
contributor to the FSSP through Minnesota as a support entity, was
recommended for Council membership to replace Dr. Dale Harpstead.
This recommendation was unanimously affirmed by SE representatives.
Dr. Welsch will assume his position in January of 1987.

4. Location of the FSR/E Symposium. Dr. Tom Westing, University of
Arkansas, presented a proposal and invitation to host the FSR/E
Symposium October 18 through 21, 1987. The FSSP annual network
meetings will follow this session. The proposal recommends that
four committees be established within the network and in
collaboration with the FSSP to support continuation of the
symposium. They are: a Program Committee to interface with the FSSP
Technical Committee; a Host Committee; a Funding Committee; and a
Steering Committee to interface with the FSSP Advisory Council. A
Proceeding Publication Committee was recommended as a sub-committee
of the Program Committee. Kansas State University graciously
volunteered to provide files and consultation relative to relocation
of the symposium to Arkansas. It was agreed that the symposium
would be held in Arkansas in 1987 with deliberations relative to
further positioning of the symposium on a rotation basis at other
universities and or international locations. The proposal
recommended that the rotation be on a two or three year basis so
that hosting institutions might take advantage of the experience to
further strengthen the program. An interface within a rotation
between a US hosting institution and an international hosting
institution was considered but tabled for further discussion by the
overall Steering Committee and the FSSP Advisory Council. KSU was
commended for establishing the Symposium and leading it successfully
through significant growth for six years. FSSP presented a plaque
to KSU recognizing this important service to FSR/E and US assistance
programs.

5. Announcements.

a) Promotional materials for the FSSP training program are
available, including a flyer on training units and a flyer on the
training program.


1986 Annual Report











b) A forthcoming FSSP project report will feature major articles on
events and activities of the FSSP from inception to present with
a format very similar to the newsletter including process,
product, use and content relative to FSSP operations and FSR/E
methodologies.

c) The NEAAC group is actively considering a proposal for the FSSP
in the future.

d) The forthcoming NASULGC meeting with International Programs
Directors will be part of the continuing process of refinements
in programs for the FSSP beyond 1987 and will be announced when
scheduled.

e) Advice is sought relative to future program and management
activities of the FSSP from program associates, program leaders
and others in the FSSP network. Recommendations should be made
to Dr. Jean Kearns, Chair of the Advisory Council and/or Dr. John
Caldwell, Chair of the Technical Committee.

f) Summary commitments to the FSSP: Dr. Ken Tefertiller announced
in the opening session that the University of Florida is prepared
to support an FSSP transition either to a new network or a
rational phaseout. This support is not to exceed one year of
commitments including a director, a secretary and the editor,
with limited support funds. The intent of Dr. Tefertiller is
that activities through 1987 would make this support unnecessary
but, should some transitional continuity be necessary, the
University of Florida is committed to assistance, assuming strong
interest and collaboration by Support Entities. He also
indicated that the University of Florida is willing to relax the
lead entity concept as appropriate to further involve the support
entity community in decision processes.

6. Consensus. General consensus by other speakers at the opening
session was directed to continuation of the FSSP as a support
structure for training activities and networking and that a core
operation is necessary to centrally provide overall leadership and
guidance to program development and delivery. Summary reports will
be available from that session.

C. Meeting of Advisory Council and SE Administrative Coordinators
(October 10, 1986).

1. Attendees included: University of Arkansas, Washington State
University, University of Kentucky, University of Hawaii, University
of Southern Illinois, Kansas State University, Michigan State
University, Colorado State University, University of Florida,
University of Arizona, Virginia State University, and Winrock
International (Other SEs participating in the FSSP Annual Meetings
but not in attendance at this meeting included: Iowa State
University, AGRIDEC, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Cornell
University, University of Missouri and Research Triangle Institute.
SEs not represented at the FSSP Annual Meeting included: Lincoln


1986 Annual Report









University, University of Minnesota, University of Illinois,
Development Alternatives Inc., Penn State University, and North
Carolina State University).

2. The University of Florida FSSP core was asked to prescribe an
overall program and plan of action based upon SE input and consensus
to date. This statement should include continuation of the SE
network and emphasis on training programs and concerns for regional
specification. The discussion involved delineation of regional
focus such that SEs could decide whether to continue and how to
continue with the FSSP. Sufficient information for SE discussions
at home is needed so input can be available for the November NASULGC
meeting with FSSP/SE administrative representatives. Questions to
be answered are: What are the expected results in the future of the
FSSP? What types of involvements might emerge for SEs? Responses
to these questions will be necessary to obtain renewed commitments.
It was suggested that the commitment by SEs should not necessarily
be based upon dollar volume but upon access to the various benefits
from the FSSP such as interinstitutional collaboration, training
materials, network contacts and communication relative to experience
in methodology and management.

3. Concerns relative to funding were discussed and it was recommended
that the overall financial support base be considered as broader
than USAID. Several institutions indicated commitment in helping
develop proposals and stimulate funding support. The question of
whether the support entities would be called upon to supplement the
1987 budget to cover the shortfall of two hundred and ten thousand
dollars ($210,000.00) was answered in the negative. It has been
suggested by some institutions that in the future an institutional
membership fee might be considered to help supplement core.

4. Bilateral contract support linkages with the FSSP were encouraged as
a source for establishing long-term collaborative support.
Administrative management and development fees for services rendered
by FSSP to bilateral contracts, shared with core funding could be
dedicated to core training and other support needs. The decreasing
nature of Title XII funding support establishes the need for funding
mechanisms where broad based (multi-institutional) backstop is
essential to bilateral technical assistance and training programs in
areas as pervasive as FSR/E. Programming to include support from
the FSSP network to a bilateral contract could be spelled out in the
initial scope of work with a timeframe sufficient to benefit the
national program and bilateral contractors' FSR/E efforts.
Bilateral contractors could thereby call upon a broader community of
interest and support for development of training materials and their
delivery in a national training program. This advanced planning
would also help stabilize the FSSP as a sustained support service.

5. The FSSP Director was encouraged to contact non-FSSP member
universities for consideration of involvement after 1987 under new
program guidelines. Several other major institutions working in
farming systems research and extension might desire to participate
with the program. Future emphasis may look to those institutions


1986 Annual Report









which are heavily involved with major FSR/E projects in the third
world. Several non FSSP entities are in this category and are
already significant users of FSSP services.

6. Terms of reference for a new scope under the FSSP might include
several scales of activity such as:

Scale 1- Minimum level of management/coordination with a body that
would receive and distribute network information.

Scale 2- A networking body similar to a consortium involving various
network support activities (symposium, in-house newsletter,
in-house briefing/training) support activities and possible
membership fees.

Scale 3- Some intermediate activity including parts of a full
program such as the present FSSP but "activity" focused
with direct involvement by SE institutions on carefully
defined networking, training and similar technical
assistance activities.

Scale 4- A full fledged program similar to present FSSP operations
wih broad based development and delivery alternatives on a
worldwide basis and seeking funding to maintain such a
program.

Each of the scale alternatives should be considered relative to a
regional specification of interest, program interest and degree of
interest relative to resource commitments.

7. Discussion stimulated by Herb Massey included several suggestions:

a) A modified funding base with various donors, USAID bureaus and
missions is essential.

b) Collective buy-ins by bilateral contractors on a regional
basis might provide for training program development and
regional delivery with specific bilateral buy-ins for national
program development.

c) Utilization of the FSSP umbrella for regionally focused
"organizations" of support entities, such as the present
NEAAC, is encouraged as a means to strengthen delivery and
response capability.

d) The reconstituted FSSP should allow for expansion and
contraction such that changes in regional and topical
orientations would not preclude reintroduction of discontinued
programs as need and funding would dictate.

e) Financing of a "new" FSSP network should be done on a
diversified component basis, integrated through a central core
operation.


1986 Annual Report









f) In all program planning cases the core should look at what is
essential for a basic unit or minimum critical mass and rank
these activities accordingly. Within networking for example
ranking considerations might include the symposium, the
newsletter, the documentation program, the regional base
networks, etc.

D. Advisory Council Meeting (October 10, 1986).

1. Attendees: Jean Kearns, Dale Harpstead, Ned Raun, John Caldwell, Ken
McDermott, and Chris Andrew.

2. Recommendations concerning negotiations and discussions with AID
include:

a) In discussing mission buy-ins, emphasize that people cannot
stand-by in preparation for rapid response without a core support
base. Mission buy-ins are essential but can only be effective if
there is a nucleus of management and well developed plans to
provide for immediate turnaround.

b) Introduce the concept of ongoing program support such that
program development can also accompany program delivery.

c) Consider building into mission buy-ins a surcharge for
administration to help with part of the core operating costs and
to supplement either bureau or other donor core support. This
could be done on a direct cost basis associated with delivery of
specific activities to the mission and directly related to the
scope of the mission program.

3. SE consensus at present is clear: a combination of funding is
needed for the FSSP both within AID and with a broader based donor
community.

4. An FSSP organization is important in supporting and stimulating
networking as a way for non-US scientists to link with US and other
scientists for further strengthening agricultural research and
extension programs. Training is an essential complement to this
activity.

5. Relative to institutional linkages with the FSSP lead entity,
University of Florida, the following consensus points were stated:

a) Consortium groupings are essential but depend heavily upon a
strong lead institution concept. The suggestion that the lead
nature of the program be relaxed is not one with which the
Advisory Council feels at ease. It believes that a strong but
collaborative lead entity concept is essential.

b) Relative to funding, the lead institution in collaboration with
SEs should approach the Foundations and governmental donor
sources to strengthen the core of the FSSP. It is assumed that
activity funding for items such as the newsletter, the symposium,


1986 Annual Report








the documentation program and specific delivery activities will
be forthcoming but that the core must be nurtured directly.

c) Program activity funding should be sought at present to maintain
priority activities and to institutionalize this funding over a
period of time appropriate to the specific activity needs and
opportunities.

6. The importance of core funding cannot be overstated and the concept
of an administrative fee cannot be the sole source for core funding.
The administrative fee concept can spread funds some but
underwriting continuity with direct core support is essential to
program stability.

7. The Technical Committee report was made by Dr. John Caldwell based
upon various deliberations at Kansas State University by the
Committee and drawing from major technical input provided by the
Symposium and workgroup sessions within the FSSP annual meeting.
Specific recommendations include:

a) Membership of the Technical Committee was set for 1986-87
inclusive of an extension of Dr. John Caldwell's appointment for
one year to Chair the committee. John has served his three year
term but continuity is important and several members have dropped
from the committee due to international assignments. His
leadership is considered essential and John agreed to continue in
this responsibility. Dr. Don Voth, University of Arkansas, was
recommended to replace Dr. Neal Flora on the committee as a
social scientist and because he will chair the 1987 symposium at
the University of Arkansas. Dr. Rick Bernsten an agricultural
economist, will be asked to join the committee to fill the
position vacated by Dr. Sam Johnson. Also continuing with the
committee will be Dr. Jim Oxley in the livestock systems area and
Dr. David Thurston, a biological scientist.

b) It is recommended that the Technical Committee interact
with the University of Arkansas program committee for development
of the 1987 FSR/E Symposium, a pattern set by Kansas State
University.

c) With reference to the FSR/E symposium becoming a basis for a
professional society, the Technical Committee raises several
questions. Their feeing at present is that a journal is not
needed because outlets are improving for publication of
interdisciplinary work such as that found in FSR/E. It is
recommended, however, that a home to support ongoing secretariat
needs of the symposium is essential. FSSP meets many of those
functions and needs at present but consideration should be given
to alternatives such as a semi-professional society, an
affiliation with other general societies such as SID or a
professional society. Also, affiliation with a network or
networks should be considered. Probably the optimum would be
some type of organization between a network and a formal society.
A suggestion was made that the FSSP should be maintained in its


1986 Annual Report









acronym but reworded as the Farming Systems Society of
Practitioners.

8. Africa Strategy considerations led to the following recommendations
by the Advisory Council:

a) Encourage Dr. Roberto Castro to obtain approval through the
S&T Bureau, with collaboration from the African Bureau, for a
cable directed to the West Africa AID Missions most directly
involved with FSSP and/or FSR/E project. This cable might say
that USAID/S&T is considering major changes in funding and
support of the FSSP and desires to learn if there is any need
for FSSP support at the mission level. This official channel
is recommended by S. K. Reddy, USAID Mali, who believes that
several West Africa Missions and SAFGRAD definitely desire
FSSP services on a continuing basis.

b) Upon receipt of the response from the Missions Dr. Roberto
Castro can then ascertain what the possibility is of obtaining
the two million dollars remaining in the FSSP authorization.

c) The overall strategy within S&T is to discuss programming with
Dr. Duane Acker at a meeting including Dr. Hugh Popenoe and
Dr. Chris Andrew and possibly Dr. Jean Kearns at the time of
the BIFAD meetings in October. From there Dr. Acker, if in
support of the effort and if he believes it appropriate, could
lead a delegation to visit Nyle Brady. Given that there is
not much chance that S&T has the money, then a strategy must
be developed that will include Africa Bureau input into the
opportunity for further support to selected West Africa
missions such as Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso, Togo
and Cameroon. The cable from the Washington office must
include an overall proposition for the Missions, background of
the program and a request for response.

d) Dr. Andrew was encouraged to consider calling several key
actors in the IARC community and in some of the AID Missions
in West Africa relative to overall interest in continuation of
the program.

9. The meeting was adjourned with a recommendation that the FSSP
Administrative Coordinators meet to discuss progress toward the
future of the Support Entity Network on Tuesday afternoon, November
11 or Wednesday, November 12 immediately following the NASULGC
meetings. Dr. Andrew will determine if this will be possible.

E. SUMMARY. The KSU Annual Meetings adjourned with enthusiasm for
continuing the process spelled out by the FSSP for arriving at
decisions concerning future viability of the overall SE network and its
future potential. Encouragement was given to approach organizations
such as World Bank, IDRC, the foundations as well as the several
bureaus in USAID and the AID Missions themselves. Above all, the KSU
Symposium and the FSSP Annual Meetings, with combined representation
and reports from 280 people from over thirty countries and over thirty


1986 Annual Report









states, are testimony that the FSR/E approach,to technology development
and utilization, is alive and well.


1986 Annual Report






























































1986 Annual Report 52










APPENDIX 4


Index of Activity Reports for FY 1986

First Quarter
Hildebrand/Nigeria/02/07 to 02/16/86
Andrew/India/02/13 to 02/22/86
Poats and Galt/Senegal/03/01 to 03/19/86
(Tony, Fotzo, Unamma, Olunuga, Fakambia, Adjahossou,
Kwami, Aithnard, Apetofia, Swadogo, Firmin)
Reboussin/Senegal/03/12 to 04/08/86

Second Quarter
Walecka/The Gambia/04/07 to 04/21/86
Jones/Haiti/04/20 to 04/26/86
(Gaudreau, Broekhuuse, Lichte, Locker)

Third Quarter
Starkey/Sierra Leone/07/11 to 07/18/86
Gaudreau, Lichte/Bamako/08/09 to 08/16/86
Poats, Lichte, Andrew/Wash, D.C.-SECID/08/20 to 08/22/86
Poats and Starkey/Sierra Leone/09/14 to 09/26/86
Oxley/Sierra Leone/09/19 to 09/25/86

Fourth Quarter
Jones/Ecuador/06/06 to 10/10/86


1986 Annual Report































































1986 Annual Report 54














APPENDIX 5
1986 Farming Systems Project Personnel


Advisory Council
Jean Kearns, Chair
Dale Harpstead
Ned Raun

Core Administration
Chris Andrew, Director
Judy Meline, Senior Secretary
Margarita Rodriguez, Secretary
(resigned July 1986)
Lana Bayles, Secretary
Kenna Huey, Secretary
(half time)

Core Management
Susan Poats, Associate Director
Dan Gait, Associate Director
(resigned June 1986)
Jim Jones, Associate Director
(quarter time)
Ken McDermott, Associate Director
(quarter time)
Steve Kearl, Editor
(half time)
James Dean, Assistant to Director
(half time)
Lisette Walecka, Assistant to Direct(


Technical Committee
John Caldwell, Chair
Cornelia Flora
Jim Oxley
Jim Thursten
Pascal Fotzo, Cameroon/Africa
Patricio Espinosa, Ecuador/LA &
Caribbean
Dr. Terd C., Thailand/NE &
Asia

Senior Council in Residence
Peter Hildebrand


USAID/S & T Management
Don Osburn, Project Manager
Roberto Castro, Project Manager


1986 Annual Report





























































1986 Annual Report 56













APPENDIX 6


Country

Honduras
Dominican Republic
Guatemala (ROCAP)
Paraguay

Jamaica
Jordan
Kenya
CARDI


FSSP Buy-In Summary





TABLE A

Activity Description

Workshops and evaluation
Workshop planning
Review/Evaluation CATIE
Technical Assistance and
In-Service Training
Workshop
Technical Assistance-Design
Technical Assistance for NARS
Technical Assistence-Design


1986 Annual Report


$ Amount

43,284.00
2,214.00
46,431.00
87,454.58

12,000.00
94,299.00
10,744.00
10,525.00












TABLE B


Since much of FSSP's buy-in support cannot be effectively measured
based on dollar volume, a complete accounting is not possible. Many of the
buy-ins are handled directly by the missions making money available to
participants to work with FSSP. This type of buy-in is more significant
than that of Table A because, 1) it helps begin institutionalizing the
activities in the region, and 2) it makes for more efficient administraiton
and management when the mission can give direct payments to
participants/consultants without transferring funds through AID Washington
or the FSSP.


Country


Togo


Gambia


Upper Volta/Togo


Africa


Activity Description

Networkshop

Workshop


Exchange Networking

Egerton Workshop


Rwanda/Burundi
WAFSRN


Zambia/Malawi

Sierra Leone



Mali


Translation of Report


Match


Paid for 10 participants
@$800=about $8,000
Paid for 30 Gambians
(travel, room, lodging
and all logistics)
One person two weeks or
exchange
Co-sponsored, AID and
CIMMYT helped
FSSP sponsored 8 or 25
participants
Not buy-in (consultation)
$12,000 FSSP
$ 6,000 UF without salary
(15 out of about 30)
10 of 20 participants
3 Course leaders
$ 5,000 ILCA
$10,000 IDRC
11-12 participants of 60
Buy-in for about 50
$52,000 buy-in indirect
for participant fees
$50,000
$ 500 on top of other
costs


1986 Annual Report