Annual report

Material Information

Annual report
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
United States -- Agency for International Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Farming Systems Support Project.
Creation Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Latin America ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Africa ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Asia ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Issuing Body:
Submitted to the United States Agency for International Development.
General Note:
Description based on: 1983.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: 1985.
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
70867122 ( OCLC )
2006229373 ( LCCN )

Full Text
Farming Systems Support Project
International Programs Office of Agriculture and
Institute of Food and Office of Multisectoral Development
Agricultural Sciences Bureau for Science and Technology
University of Florida Agency for International Development
Gainesville, Florida 32611 Washington, D.C. 20523

Cooperative Agreement No: Dan-4099-A-00-2083-00
Project No: 936-4099 Submitted to
The United States
Agency for International Development
Prepared by
University of Florida in Cooperation with
Support Entities of the Farming Systems Support Project
For the Period Covering
January 1 to December 31, 1985

I. Preface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..1
II. Introduction. ... ....... ........ ...1
III. Regional Support and Delivery
Africa .. ... ....... ....... ......3
Latin America and The Caribbean .. ...... ...6
Asia and The Near East .. ... ....... ....7
IV. Program Development, Synthesis and Support Training Units. .. ..... ........ .....8
Development. .. ..... ...........8
monitoring, Testing and Review ... ......9
Revision. ... ........ .........9
Case Studies .. ... ....... ..........9
Publications. .. ..... ........ .....11
Newsletter .. .......... .. .......11
Bibliography. ... ....... .......11
Papers .. ...... ....... ......11
Reports. .. ..... ........ .....11
Informal Training and Network Support .. ......12
Visitors to FSSP .. ...... .........12
FSSP Annual Meeting. .. ..... .......12
V. The Domestic Support Base
Biodata. .. ..... ........ .....13
Documentation .. .. ........ ......13
Domestic Workshops .. ...... .......14
VI. Evaluation and Reorientation Update/Response to Mid-Term Evaluation. .. .....15
VII. Appendix
1. FSSP Calendar of Project and Related Program
Activities .. ... ....... .........17
2. Visitors to the FSSP. .. ..... .......25
3. Index of Annual meeting Reports. .. ......31 4. Index of Activity Report Abstracts. .. .....33
5. FSSP Core Response to the Mid-Term Evaluation
Recommendations. ... ......... ....35
6. 1985 Farming Systems Support Project Personnel 43 7. Sample Support Entity Reports. ... ......45

The 1985 Annual Work Plan for the FSSP emerged as a summary activity plan with an accompanying implementation plan. Field assessments through ongoing delivery activities in training, technical assistance and networking in 1983 and 1984, provided a basis for state-of-the-art synthesis through development of training materials. The transition from a delivery-assessment orientation to program development-delivery was facilitated by a solid experience and support base with the FSSP Support Entities, International Agricultural Research Centers and National Programs. The process of consensus and synthesis, drawing from several sources, became product oriented through training unit development, a project handbook and publications.
As experienced previously, the 1985 Work Plan provided a general guide to project activity while the on-demand approach continued. Major time delays in gaining USAID approval for the work plan mitigated against optimum utilization of planning as a tool for implementation. FSSP proceded on plans established through mission requests and core management and support entity deliberations. A mid-term evaluation accompanied by a reorientation by Science and Technology of FSSP focus to West Africa generated considerable discussion directed toward planning for 1986.
Most important as an evolving product of FSSP was evidenced by the
strength of the FSSP Support Entity network and its linkages for program development in support of FSR/E activities. This domestic support base now embodies a network of practitioner/peers that interact at the annual symposiums and conferences, and through both program development and delivery activities of the FSSP. The network extends itself through national programs in Africa, Asia and Latin America with important linkages to various international groups. USAID can take pride in the potential established within the FSSP for support to agricultural research and extension in the third world while stimulating unique collaboration in the United States.
An evaluative response to the 1985 Work Plan and 1985 Implementation Plan is provided in the 1985 Annual Report. The planning process, beginning in August 1984 with core staff input and discussion with (Science and Technology) management, proceeded through the FSSP Annual Meeting at Kansas State University to preparation of a document and supporting budget for presentation to USAID-S&T and Regional Bureaus in December. Even with this well-developed strategy response delays by S&T, resulting in only minor adjustments, withheld approval and funding until mid-April 1985 at which time FSSP was operating financially on the good graces of the University of Florida. Resource losses due to those delays became evident in deliverable product.
1985 Annual Report 1

Activities completed as called for in the Work Plan were:
1. Philippines FSR/E Training Needs 1/6 to 1/19/85
2. Honduras FSR/E Methods Short Course 2/4 to 2/15/85
3. Dominican Republic FSR/E Seminar for Decision 3/3 to 3/7/85 Makers
4. Togo Networkshop: Animal Traction 3/4 to 3/8/85
in West Africa
5. Honduras Evaluation of Methodology 3/18 to 3/24/85
of the Rural Technology Project (RPT)
6. Burkina Faso SAFGRAD/FSU Workshop to 4/2 to 4/5/85
Review Research Results
7. Honduras FSR/E Workshop for 4/3 to 4/5/85
Institutional Decision Makers
8. Cameroon USAID Mission sponsored 4/22 to 4/26/85
Technical Assistance Seminar on Agricultural Research in Cameroon
9. Costa Rica FSR Latin America Case 4/22 to 4/26/85
Study Seminar
10. Senegal Training in Design of 5/6 to 5/24/85
On-Farm Trials 11. Cameroon Support IITA On-Farm 5/13 to 5/24/85
Research Workshop 12. Gambia Training in Design of 5/20 to 5/24/85
On-Farm Trials 13. Jamaica Workshop on Institutional- 6/18 to 6/27/85
ization of Farming Systems Research
14. Kenya African Universities- 8/19 to 8/22/85
Regional Farming Systems Research Workshop 15. Visits by FSSP to assess needs in AVRDC Philippines, Thailand,
Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan during the
1985 Annual Report 2

16. Training Unit Development and Project Guideline Development
Workshops were held in Gainesville in January and February.
Detailed plans and summaries of these activities are reported in the 1985 Work Plan and the 1985 quarterly/activity reports. Important results appear not only in the participant/practitioner training and networking interactions that have long-term multiplier effects, but in the collaborative support shown from participating FSSP Support Entities and International Organizations. Seventy-five percent of the Support Entities were involved in assisting with delivery and development work, not including those participating in domestic workshops. Other direct collaborating entities included: USAID missions- Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon, Liberia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Philippines, Thailand; Regional Institutes- ROCAP, CATIE, IICA, AVRDC, SAFGRAD; IARCs- CIMMYT, IITA, ILCA, IRRI; IDRC, Egerton College, Kenya; ISRA, Senegal; KKU, Thailand. Thus 1985 was a year to strengthen network ties and served as a basis for FSR/E consensus and synthsis at the institutional level.
As in the past, this report serves as a reference point in the
continuing process of establishing collaborative support for agricultural research and extension in general and specifically for those programs utilizing an FSR/E approach. Signs on the horizon suggest that funding may be limited or curtailed for this activity because of declining confidence in Washington, D.C. in the FSR/E approach. Research and extension program development is a long-term task of support to national programs. Resources to achieve the task should be firmly committed for best returns to USAID investment in FSR/E.
A reorientation of the FSSP was well underway during 1985 with
support directed primarily toward the Africa program. Major events for the year included the FSSP Animal Traction Networkshop in Togo; a regional FSR/E workshop for sub-saharan African held at Egerton College, Kenya; Farming Systems training in The Gambia; and the meeting of the West African Livestock Systems Network Steering Committee to plan the upcoming Sierra Leone networkshop.
The FSSP sponsored support to the African countries of Senegal, The
Gambia, Ivory Coast, Zambia, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, East Africa, Rwanda and Lesotho, including activities in technical assistance, evaluation, networking and training. A brief synopsis of each of these is given below in chronological order.
Senegal: The FSSP sent a trainer to conduct an MSTAT training course in Dakarat the Finance Ministry Research Center. The MSTAT package and presentation were well received and participants felt they would use MSTAT extensively in their research.
1985 Annual Report 3

Ivory Coast: The FSSP project director attended a conference held in the Ivory Coast that included research and extension representatives from all major West and Central African countries and from the World Bank, FAO and USAID. They met to discuss the research and extension linkages in West and Central Africa, and determine the potential support roles for research and education administration, management and policy with reference to research and extension linkages. Particular emphasis was given to on-farm research methods and identification of extension groups in a context of extension and research reorganization.
Togo: FSSP and USAID/Togo, in collaboration with IDRC, sponsored the networkshop entitled, "Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective". This was one of the major achievements early in the year, establishing an information exchange among animal traction projects in West Africa and a format for the development of problem-oriented networks. As a result of the networkshop, the themes, location and general participants for a 1986 networkshop were established.
Zambia: An FSSP staff member served as an evaluation team participant to carry out a mid-term evaluation of the Zamare Project. The commodity programs of the Zamare Project were reviewed individually and their accomplishments checked against their objectives.
Ethiopia: An FSSP consultant attended a planning meeting of the FSSP-ILCA Regional Workshop on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems Research Methodologies and Priorities to be held in June in Addis Ababa. Plans were finalized for the workshop.
Burkina Faso: An FSSP core staff member attended the workshop, "Technologies Appropriate for Farmers in Semi-Arid West Africa". Interaction took place with representatives from Purdue University, University of Florida and SAFGRAD regarding the upcoming Networkshop III.
Senegal: An FSSP core staff member visited J. Posner in Senegal to discuss upcoming activities including The Gambia Workshop and the Networkshop III. J. Posner would not be able to attend the Gambia workshop. He suggested that Networkshop III be confined to a three-day meeting of Chiefs of Party and host country counterparts to discuss the "impediments to FSR/E project implementation".
Cameroon: The FSSP project director with representatives from the Cameroon AID/Mission, the University Center of Dschang (UCD), the UF Bilateral USAID Contract and the IITA-Bilateral/USAID Contract (National Cereals Research and Extension Project) met to consider establishing an FSSP regional support office in Cameroon. UCD would like to have an FSSP office located there, establish an FSR/E course in their curriculum, and have the FSSP work closely with the two bilateral contracts. The source of funding for such an undertaking was unknown.
1985 Annual Report 4

Senegal: An FSSP consultant participated in a workshop on research for smallfairmers in Senegal, giving a presentaiton on exploratory on-farm trials and carrying on personal consultations with participants.
The Gambia: FSSP core staff members and consultants attended the
FSSP/GARD On-Farm Experimentation Workshop in order to monitor the use of the training unit materials developed in the February workshop. FSSP was responsable for leading the workshop, drawing on Support Entity staff. The group evaluated the workshop, producing a report entitled, "Training Workshop Report: FSSP/GARD On-Farm Experimentation Workshop" that was distributed to the FSSP program leaders, workshop participants and other key personnel.
Ethiopia: An FSSP consultant and the FSSP Editor helped develop and participated in a "Workshop on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research Methodologies and Priorities" held in Ethiopia. Research methods and design techniques used in on-farm and on-station trials were discussed and evaluated in terms of their usefulness and application to FSR in crop/livestock farming systems. Major constraints in such mixed farming systems were also identified, and guidelines and recommendations developed for conducting research on livestock in farming systems.
East Africa: An FSSP core staff member was invited by CIMMYT to
collaborate in the design of several training and networking activities to involve East, West, Central and Southern Africa. Specific collaboration was centered around two upcoming workshops (Egerton College, Kenya and Rwanda).
Kenya: The FSSP supported nine Africans to participate in the Egerton College Workshop on "Methodologies, Practical Approaches and Potential Contribution of FSR to Rural Development". The workshop was sponsored by CIMMYT. Discussion focused on pertinent, common research and training needs. Production constraints for the purpose of research planning were also discussed along with constraints in training.
Zambia: An FSSP consultant and core staff member assisted with the zamb1a-R-alawi Workshop on Research and Extension Linkages held at Kafu, Zambia. The workshop was sponsored by INTERPAKS. Information was gathered on research and extension linkage problems in Malawi and Zambia, and problems identified in the linkage.
Rwanda: An FSSP core staff member assisted with the Rwanda FSR/E
Orientation Workshop sponsored by the CIMMYT East Africa Economics Program. The workshop was hosted by ISAR, Rwanda. The core staff member served as a resource person/facilitator delivering the workshop's methodological presentations, working with the training small group session to determine training recommendations for FSR/E in Rwanda, and assisting the FSIP team in determining how to initiate the diagnostic phase of their work.
1985 Annual Report 5

West Africa: FSSP consultants participated in the steering committee
meeting of the West African Integrated Livestock Systems (WAILS) Network in Senegal/The Gambia. Discussion focused on the future workshop format, logistical considerations, participants and other host country arrangements. A program was prepared for the proposed workshop entitled, "Introduction, Diversification and Intensification of Animal Power Use on Farms in West Africa", to be held in Sierra Leone. A tentative date was set for April, 1986.
Lesotho: An FSSP core staff member attended the third annual meeting of heads of Eastern and Southern African research and extension. The mmeting was sponsored by CIMMYT/East Africa. Technical assistance was provided to 1) USAID/Lesotho by assisting the Washington State University/Lesotho FSR/E Project Officer program the upcoming evaluation, and 2) ARIP/Botswana through the Kansas State University Research Extension Liason Officers.
Latin America and the Caribbean
For reasons of budget and USAID project management directives, the FSSP emphasized the African region over the regions of Latin America and Asia in 1985. The project did, nonetheless, maintain a substantial presence in Latin America and the Caribbean during the period, as the following brief activity descriptions indicate.
Peru: FSSP gave a presentation in an international workshop in February on thE implementation of the FSR/E approach in Peru. The project offered to assist with the organization of an FSR/E training program within INIAP and with the development of a course for practitioners in the La Selva region of the country on diagnosis, design, evaluation, and extension in FSR/E.
Honduras: FSSP was in Honduras on three occasions during the year. A two-week course on the FSR/E approach was prepared and delivered to the Programa de Tecnologias Rurales(PTR) operating out of the Centro de Desarrollo Industrial. Participants in the course identified further training needs, which the FSSP indicated it could fill. The following month the project conducted a three-day workshop in Tegucigalpa, attended by members of PTR regional teams. The workshop assisted the teams in the development of one-year work plans in their regions. Also, in accordance with project policy to strengthen support capacity within the support-entity group, a participant add-on from the University of Hawaii attended and assisted with the workshop. For the third activity in Honduras, the FSSP Associate Director for Latin America visited the Escuela Agricola Panamericana(EAP) at Zamorano to discuss the development of an FSR/E program at the school.
Dominican Republic: FSSP responded in March to a request from USAID/DR, whi ch had been asked in turn for support by the Honduran Secretary of Agriculture. The request was for a plan to support FSR/E training in the country. To draft this plan, the FSSP Associate Director for Latin America met with several officials in the Dominican government and in USAID.
1985 Annual Report 6

CATIE: In April, FSSP assisted CATIE with a seminar entitled, "Farming Systems Research and its Contribution to Rural Development in Latin America: An Analysis of Experiences". The purpose of the seminar was to isolate commonalities and differences. The experiences were provided by CATIE(using its general approach), CIMMYT(using Haiti case), ICTA(using its general approach), ICA(Colombia case), EMBRAPA-CPATSA(Brazil case). The FSSP helped CATIE plan and organize this seminar in Costa Rica by project personnel the previous year, and through the several institutions listed.
Paragua: An FSSP team went to Paraguay for three weeks in April and May to consul t on the computerized interpretation of research and extension data from the Proyecto de Tecnologia Para La Produccion Agricola/Servicio de Extension Agricola. This was one activity among several in Paraguay, where the FSSP has been involved for several months.
Jamaica: FSSP conducted a two-week workshop in Jamaica in June on the diagnostic stage of the FSR/E approach. The workshop was attended by staff from the Ministry of Agriculture. An agronomist from CATIE was on the FSSP team.
CATIE: In July and August, the FSSP did the final evaluation of the CATIE-ROCAP Small Farm Production Systems Project. The FSSP Associate Director for Latin America laid the foundation for this evaluation through a private consultancy with CATIE some weeks before in which he visited project activities in five countries of the region. A team of program associates from FSSP support entities then performed a formal evaluation.
Asia and The Near East
With the focus of FSSP efforts directed toward Africa, service delivery to Asia and the Near East was substantially curtained. Most of the activity for the year was centered in the Philippines. A request for assistance from the Philippine Ministry of Agriculture and Food came early in 1985. They were interested in investigating the Farming Systems approach for their training needs. FSSP core staff assessed the local, individual and institutional training capabilities, and made recommendations for developing a farming systems training model.
In March of 1985, FSSP core staff attended the Second Annual Southeast Asian Universities Network (SUAN) meetings held in the Philippines. Interest was generated in the training units, and FSSP was invited to attend a workshop at Khon Kaen University (KKU) in Thailand on Rapid Rural Appraisal.
The Asian Farming Systems Monitoring/Tour Workshop was held at IRRI, Philippines in September. The training materials developed by the FSSP were presented at the workshop. IRRI staff reviewed the materials and provided feedback to the FSSP, offering some constructive recommendations.
The FSSP also sent representatives to participate in the Second
Crop-Livestock Research Systems Tour in Nepal and Indonesia. The objective of that participation was to observe relevant implications for animal traction programs in West Africa, to build a linkage between ARFSN crop-livestock research and the West African livestock research.
1985 Annual Report 7

Three other Asian countries were visited during 1985. The first was an exploratory visit to the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) in Taiwan. The second, a follow-up visit to Thailand to meet with staff members from Farming Systems Research Institute, CIMMYT, KKU and North Eastern Researach and Development Project (Thailand). Discussion centered around the means to continue coordination efforts between the various institutions. The final Asian visit was to Mainland China to participate in the International Multiple Cropping Conference. The Chinese are working in conjunction with IRRI and expressed interest in being included on the FSSP Newsletter mailing list.
Materials Development
The year began with a major focus on the development of training
materials. The FSSP moved away from the development of training "courses" toward the development of training "units" based on experiences and discussions occuring in 1984 as well as the conclusions of an FSSP "Training for Trainers Workshop". The development of training materials is following a three stage process: initial development, testing and refinement, and distribution.
The "unit" concept differs from that of standard courses in its flexibility of design. Each training unit is composed of a number of sub-units, each addressing specific topics within the unit. By providing discrete, teachable sub-units, this format provides the opportunity for trainers to develop a variety of courses tailored to the needs of a particular audience. Each unit contains an array of information from which trainers can draw to develop courses for training researchers in developing countries. "Unit" is not synonomous with "course": the "units" provide the menu from which a trainer can create courses which vary in emphasis, level, or length.
FSSP Training Units fall into three broad groups: FSR/E concepts, FSR/E skills, and FSR/E implementation. First priority was placed with FSR/E skills. These units were given priority since they are needed to train developing country research and extension practitioners in the range of skills required to carry out the farming systems research and extension process at the field level.
In February, a Training Units Development Workshop was held. The
twenty-six participants included members of the FSSP core staff, members of the informal training advisory group, and individuals selected for their subject expertise. Among the latter were representative from the FSSP Support Network, CIMMYT,IRRI, CARDI, and USAID/Washington. Also present were professional trainers from OICD/USDA who served as training consultants. This enabled optimization of OICD's involvement in the initial Training for Trainers activity held in 1984 and the planned development of materials.
The Training Units Development Workshop provided a basis for the
1985 Annual Report 8

continuing development of FSR/E skills training units in 1) diagnosis, 2) agronomic experimental design and analysis, 3) socioeconomic analysis, and 4) management and administration. These units have been designed such that trainers independent of the FSSP can employ them to develop courses to train developing country researchers in the skills of farming systems research. The workshop resulted in three units: 1) Diagnosis, 2) Agronomic Experimental Design and Analysis, and 3) Management and Administration; the socioeconomic supporting materials were incorporated within the other units.
Each unit consists of an outline, an overview, and sub-units with
associated activities. The unit overview gives the goals, rationale, and key points for that unit, and also contains a bibliography and a short text summarizing the unit. Each sub-unit provides learning objectives, definitions, key points, a short text, suggested training activities, a bibliography and in some cases the actual supplemental readings that support the sub-unit activities.
During March and April, the training units were edited and remaining work was solicited from developers. Initial production of the units was completed by the end of April.
Monitoring, Testing and Review
In May, initial testing of the units began. They were used and
evaluated in a workshop on the design and analysis of on-farm trials held in the Gambia as well as in a workshop on the management and administration of FSR/E held in Gainesville. A short course on diagnosis held in Jamaica in June and a course delivered in Gainesville addressing design and analysis of on-farm experiments in July also provided opportunities to use and obtain feedback for the planned revision of the units.
In September, the units were presented at the Asian Farming Systems
monitoring Tour/,Workshop, sponsored by IRRI. This resulted in a number of recommendations useful in their revision.
Analysis of evaluation comments and plans for revisions of the unit on experimental design were made in October. The last months of 1985 were spent busily revising this unit including restructuring the order of presentation, simplification of terminology, and change in title to reflect the recommendations collected during the use and monitoring stage.
Plans for revision of the unit addressing diagnosis were made in December. A meeting is planned for January, 1986 to implement the recommendations.
Case Studies
Paraguay Case Study
The experience of the trainers in the Gambia led to the development of a case study on the design of on-farm trials in Paraguay. This case study
1985 Annual Report 9

was used as the basis for the July workshop held in Gainesville. It provides data for simulating group activities in diagnosis, design and analysis.
FSSP/Population Council Case Studies
The eight cases being developed were selected because they represent
ongoing field projects which have reached a level of development through at least the first three stages of FSR/E (1. diagnosis, 2. design, 3. testing and evaluation) and demonstrate a positive incorporation of either intraor inter-household and gender analysis within their ongoing activities. The cases also include considerable project and institutional background and setting. When completed, the cases should serve as useful training materials for teaching concepts and methods of FSR/E, intra/inter-household analysis, gender analysis, and institutional analysis for management and administration. The following countries are represented in the eight cases: Botswana, Burkina Faso, St. Lucia, Colombia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Zambia and Kenya.
The following chronology of events summarizes FSSP/Population Council Case Study project activity in 1985:
January 1985: The advisory committee met in New York and drafted the guidelines or the case study project, the outline for the case study format, and a request for expressions of interest in writing a case study. Following the meeting, 6000 announcements and expressions of interest forms were mailed out via FSSP, Population Council and Ford Foundation mailing lists.
February 1985: The draft of the case study format was completed.
March 1985: By this cut-off date, 72 expressions of interest have been received. These were reviewed by the advisory committee and catalogued as "potential", "maybe" or "rejections".
April 1985: Two presentations on the case study project were made at Association of Women In Development and further input was received on the format and an analytical framework for the series. The advisory committee met in New York and selected the six best case proposals. The Ford Foundation, impressed with the quantity and quality of the submissions, invited the project to request further funding to expand the original three cases to a total of eight. An additional five cases were identified.
June 1985: Case writers and advisory committee representatives attended a casewriters' workshop to develop outlines, pedagogical objectives and teaching notes for each case. Cases were throughly reviewed for agronomic, FSR/E and socio-economic content. A case study specialist from Harvard Institute for International Development led several sessions on how to write effective cases.
July-December 1985: Each case writer developed a plan of work for delivery of drafts.
1985 Annual Report 10

Twelve issues of the FSSP newsletter were published and distributed in 1985. Issues were published quarterly in English, Spanish and French. A mailing list circulation of more than 5000 was maintained on a regular basis. The process of computerizing the mailing list was begun with a reader survey soliciting practitioners to indicate their experience and most pressing problems. Responses were computer-coded and the mailing list was purged. Contributions to the newletter indicate growing participation from field practitioners.
Bibliographies continued to be published in English, Spanish and
French, and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume II of the 100-item bibliography was issued in 1985. It is evident that tighter scheduling through the Document Information and Handling AID/DIHF will be necessary if future publication goals are to be achieved in a timely manner. Access and use of the facility should be assessed.
On Networking Newsletter continued to be issued during 1985. Twelve issues were released in the course of the year. They reached the 600 program associates at the FSSP Support Entities. Thirteen papers were also issued in the Networking Papers series during 1985. Distribution ranged from 500 to 2500 copies.
Additional reports were issued in support of training and other project activities. Two such reports were, the Gambia training report and the sondeo report on Liberia. The Network Report Number 1 was issued in 1985, focusing on the FSSP Networkshop held in March in Togo. The networkshop was entitled, "Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective".
Two other publications of importance were issued in 1985. The first was a Project Handbook issued as Working Draft #3 which described the guidelines for establishing an FSR/E project. The second publication, Procedural Manual: Operational Guidelines for the FSSP set forth guidelines for the Support Entities to follow in working together through the FSSP. Topics covered in the manual included FSSP mandate and organization, university support base, AID demand and program implementation, fiscal process and implementation, access support entities, and management procedures.
1985 Annual Report 11

Informal Training and Network Support
Visitors Program and Training
During 1985, more than ninety visitors from twenty-five countries came to the University of Florida to meet with the FSSP and other affiliated University staff. Since each visitor group is distinct, the FSSP attempted to tailor the nature of the visits to meet their needs. Visits during 1985 included simple appointment making with UF faculty of FSSP Core Staff, intensive short-courses in farming systems methodology, and tours/field trips of Florida Agri-businesses, Research Centers and the North Florida FSR/E Project.
FSSP also conducted custom tailored training during 1985. The sessions were either informal presentations and meetings to orient the visitors to the FSR/E approach, or formal intensive short courses in FSR/E methodology. During 1985 nine visitor groups participated in informal training activities, while three groups participated in formal training activities. These activities involved twenty-three individuals from seven different countries.
FSSP Annual Meeting
The Annual Meeting of FSSP Support Entities was held October 14-18, 1985 in conjunction with the FSR/E Symposium at Kansas State University. Major topical areas for discussion were livestock in farming systems, economic analysis of FSR/E, bilateral contract linkages and complementarities, the FSSP mid-term evaluation and program plans for 1986. All Support Entities were represented. It is clear that three years of collaborative involvement have created a vibrant US support network that contributes to both international and national programs. Resource support for this network comes predominantly (nearly exclusively) from the Support Entities. The FSSP has stimulated reporting and planning for broad-based FSR/E programs on a volunteer basis at the Support Entities. Sample plans and reports are presented in Appendix 7.
Some of the principal benefits from the FSSP network illustrated by Support Entity involvement are:
1. Participation in the development of training units and training
2. Advisory and technical committees;
3. Development of the presentation of domestic workshops;
4. Assistance with the presentation of international networkshops and
training short courses;
5. Participation in add-on faculty improvement experiences;
6. Development of new courses and revision of FSR/E curriculum within
the universities;
7. Participation in major subject matter task force activity; and
8. Conducting FS research at the state level.
1985 Annual Report 12

Biodata Service
The FSSP continued to maintain the biodata service during 1985. The database presently contains specific information on 565 Program Associates and 233 independents. There are 94 languages and 451 distinct disciplines (divided into 24 major categories) included within the database.
Analysis of FSSP biodata requests for 1985 shows a total of 53 requests made. Over 40 percent (22) of the requests were from consulting firms or private volunteer organizations. The remainder came mainly from USAID or bilateral contracts. Only twelve percent were by Core FSSP (3) or NARs and IARCs (3). The FSSP biodata files have provided a significant service to these organizations and agencies by providing access to a pool of knowledgeable and experienced FSR/E practitioners.
FSSP documentation activities during the past year have included: 1. The cataloging of Dr. Peter Hildebrand's collection of FSR/E
materials for the KSU collection of "fugitive" FSR/E literature.
2. The documentation of materials concerning animal traction, a
bibliography of which was published as an appendix to the
proceedings of the 1985 Togo workshop, Animal Traction in a
Farming Systems Perspective.
3. The collection and documentation of materials linking Women in
Agriculture with FSR/E (a selection of these materials is being
annotated for eventual publication).
4. A bibliography of materials written in French has been prepared to
assist in the training of Francophone FSR/E practitioners.
MSTAT, the microcomputer software package developed by Michigan State University to facilitate effective agricultural research, was able to move into an active dissemination program during 1985. A newsletter, "MSTAT User News", began circulation among MSTAT users, designed to deliver current information and to provide a forum for users' experiences and comments.
FSSP funding has been a major source of support for the development of the updated MSTAT 3.0 package. This new version of MSTAT has increased user-friendliness, is more flexible relative to available hardware, and incorporates new stat routines among other improvements. This new version has also been translated into Spanish and French.
The first MSTAT workshop of 1985 was held in Senegal at the Institut Senegalais Agricole in January 15-27. Fifteen researchers attended the course which supported the work being done in a USAID/Senegal farming systems project.
Workshops have recently been conducted in Swaziland, Pakistan and
1985 Annual Report 13

Bangladesh. Additional workshops are ready to go in Turkey, Ghana and Ecuador as soon as arrangements can be made and/or equipment put in place. A recent count indicates that copies of MSTAT have been sent to 60 individual countries with 500-600 copies being provided. This has resulted in significant linkages among FSSP, IARCs, CRSPs, universities and national research programs.
The Fifth Annual FSR/E Symposium was held at Kansas State University October 13-16, 1985. The theme of the symposium was "Management and methodology". The goal of the symposium was to address major methodological issues in FSR/E from the point of view of management and implementation in project and institutional settings. While a few case studies were presented (particularly those that focused on management and methodological issues), the sessions emphasized project experiences in a comparative fashion to evaluate management and methodological techniques.
major topics covered during the symposium included the following:
1. Management issues in institutionalization;
2. FSR design strategies;
3. Farmer participation;
4. Management of team building;
5. on-farm research methodology; 6. Crops and animal integration;
7. Designing on-farm trials;
8. Training; and
9. Intra-household issues.
There were more than 220 participants attending the symposium from 25 countries. It is anticipated that the proceedings of the symposium will be issued as the collection of papers presented there.
Domestic Workshops
Four domestic workshops were held during 1985. Two took place at the University of Florida, and two at other universities. A four-day workshop on Farming Systems Research and Extension was held on the University of Arizona campus March 4-7, 1985. Faculty, extension personnel and students from Arizona, Arkansas, California, Oregon, and Texas, (a total of 44 participants) attended the workshop. The workshop familiarized the participants with the FSR/E approach to agricultural development in developing countries. Topics covered at the workshop included the characterization of farming systems, design and analysis of on-farm research, farmer participation in FSR/E, linkages between research and extension, interdisciplinary team building, and institutionalization of FSR/E. Numerous short case studies, mainly drawn from sub-Saharan Africa, were used during the workshop. The use of the Cape Verde Case Study gave participants the opportunity to apply some of their newly learned FSR/E concepts.
A second workshop held at a Support Entity took place October 23-24 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. There were more than 20 participants attending the workshop, which was designed to introduce
1985 Annual Report 14

participants to FSR/E concepts and methodology.
The first domestic workshop at the University of Florida in 1985 was
held July 14-19. This Agronomic Experimental Design and Analysis workshop was the initial test of the the training unit materials developed by the FSSP. Sixteen participants, mainly biological scientists, attended. The workshop objectives were to train participants to:
1. understand the value of on-farm research and its use in technology
development and dissemination;
2. Design, analyze and interpret on-farm trials; and
3. Present farm trial design and analysis workshops based on relevant
information and, as appropriate, materials acquired during this
The workshop was designed around the Paraguay Case Study. This case study was divided into sections and presented as practicums, building on information gained from the previous practicum. This gave participants a simulated first-hand experience in applying FSR/E principles and methods. Participant response was favorable overall, and the workshop was successful in meeting the objectives.
The second domestic workshop at the University of Florida may 20-24, 1985 dealt with management and Administration. This was another first presentation of training materials. Fourteen participants attended the workshop, mostly agricultural faculty from land grant institutions. The general objectives of the workshop were:
1. To develop an understanding of how management of agricultural
research/extension can contribute to the process of technology
innovation, with emphasis on the developing countries; and
2. To enable workshop participants to counsel developing country
research and extension personnel in management techniques better
suited to the development and dissemination of technologies
appropriate to small farmers.
Update/Response to Mid-Term Evaluation
in June of 1985 the FSSP underwent a mid-term evaluation by an external evaluation team. An evaluation report was issued early in October, and included a list of thirty -one recommendations. By the end of November the FSSP had responded to the mid-term evaluation, discussing each of the thirty -one recommendations in detail (see Appendix 6). An update on the progress of the FSSP since the mid-term evaluation follows, covering many of the major concerns brought out in the recommendations.
Since mid-1985, project focus has been directed entirely to Africa
training and networking with all work in Asia, Latin America, and African technical assistance on a 100 percent buym-in basis. Staff ing has been reduced by 2.5 full-time equivalents from core, including those which were directed early in the project toward the programs that are now excluded. Training materials including training units, case studies and networking publications are being developed and published in both English and French with content relevance to Africa.
1985 Annual Report 15

The networking strategy for West Africa has emerged to support the West African Farming Systems Network, help establish a Mixed Crop and Livestock Network, and facilitate an overall regional training strategy with regional courses provided in French and English. The regional strategy is complementary to national FSR/E training programs such as those emerging in Niger, Mali and Mauritania.
The overall FSSP training and networking strategy is designed
specifically to support and complement the AID/Africa "Plan for Supporting Agricultural Research and Facilities of Agriculture in Africa." Shortcourse and networkshop content is based on applications of FSR/E methodologies directed to a problem and commodity focus through the training units, case studies from the region and participant research experience.
These areas of emphasis are in response to evaluation recommendations and constitute a redesign of various aspects of the project as called for. In addition, an output-oriented work plan was prepared for 1986 with implications for 1987 as both funding and program delivery activities for the two years are integrated. The FSSP Africa Training Strategy is being molded to complement the redesign.
The overall training strategy for Africa emphasizes training in FSR/E diagnostics and design and analysis of on-farm trials. The program has evolved with learning needs ranging from an orientation of the approach to application of FSR/E methodologies. It draws heavily on Africans as co-leaders in training efforts and attempts to broaden national training capabilities.
Programs either completed, phased out or on a phase out path include the biodata services, the Evaluation Task Force, the FSR/E Project Handbook, and core funded technical assistance.
Improvements in budgeting and planning through Advisory Council, S&T Project Management and Core deliberations have been attempted with generally good results, given the significant funding cuts since the time of the mid-term evaluation. Collaboration with support entities is declining primarily due to budget cuts. Subcontracting draws heavily on managerial and financial resources. Thus, it may become more common to operate on an individual Program Associate basis than on an institutional subcontract basis. Given core management reduction, Support Entity involvement in delivery activities is essential and virtually all delivery of training programs must be by non-core people.
1985 Annual Report 16

1985 FSSP Calendar of Project and Related Program Activities
January 1985
3 4 Annual Leave S. Poats.
6 9 Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Annual Review, Atlanta, GA P. Hildebrand.
7 19 John Caldwell (VPI) and Larry Zuidema (CU) to the Philippines to
conduct a CU/FSSP co-sponsored FSR training needs assessment
(including the FSDP-EV AID Project).
10 11 Gambia Team Briefing, Washington D.C. D. Galt (on 11th only). 12 24 CIMMYT training for WSARP (Western Sudan Agricultural Research
Project); Ed Reeves to participate for FSSP. 14 27 MSTAT in Senegal J. Tohme/FSSP. 14-Feb.15 Gambia ARD Project Design (Univ. Wisconsin, CRED/Univ. Michigan,
Virginia State Univ.) FSSP supplies FSR/E expert/horticulturalist:
Dr. Ray William (Oregon State Univ.)
19 20 Soil Management CRSP/ERP in Gainesville P. Hildebrand. 21 24 J. Caldwell to Taiwan to visit AVRDC. 25 Planning meeting with OICD training coordinators J. Jones,
L. Walecka.
29 Feb.l FSSP Briefing Debriefing Handbook Workshop (Jim Meiman, leader)FSSP Core Staff.
February 1985
1 15 F. Poey to Honduras to conduct two-week course on FSR/D approach and methodology.
4 5 Washington, discuss workplan and budget with S&T and Africa Bureau
- C. Andrew.
6 7 F. Poey to Peru to participate in "International Workshop on the
Implementation of FSR/E Approach".
11 29 Project evaluation, Philippines (one month). FSSP provided
extensive search.
1985 Annual Report 17

14 15 Training Unit IIB, "Agronomic Trial Design and Analysis"
development group meets prior to the Training Units Development
Workshop D. Galt.
17 23 Ivory Coast Meeting of representative from FAO, USAID and the
World Bank to discuss research and extension linkages in West
Africa. C. Andrew.
18 22 Training Units Development Workshops: Units IIa, "design", IIb,
"Agronomic Experimental Design & Analysis", lid, "Socioeconomic
analysis, and Ilf, "Management and Administration". 18 Mar.8 CIMMYT training in Harare, Zimbabwe 25 Togo Networkshop #1: Animal Systems in FSR/E. S. Poats.
March 16
26 27 Washington discuss Work plan and budget with S&T C. Andrew. 29 31 State-of-the-Art Handbook Workshop I K. McDermott.
-- ---------------------------------------March 1985
1 23 Zambia Mid-term evaluation of the Zamare Project. E. Martinez.
3 7 Dominican Republic Training/technical assistance needs
assessment for AID/Dominican Republic J. Jones.
4 7 Domestic Workshop for Orientation to FSR, Univ. of Arizona,
Tucson. J. Dean.
4 8 FSSP/CATIE Workshop, Costa Rica J. Jones, E. Martinez.
15 21 Ethiopia Planning Meeting for FSSP/ILCA Regional Workshop on
Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems. J. Oxley.
16 17 Society for Applied Anthropology meetings, Washington, D.C.
P. Hildebrand.
17 23 Honduras Participation in Evaluation and Training Team on role
of social scientists and interdisciplinary teams on FSR/E
projects. H. McArthur.
18 23 Honduras Organize three-day workshop on Farming Systems
Approach. F. Poey.
18 25 2nd Annual SUAN (South East Asian Universities Agroecosystems
Network) meetings, UPLB, Philippines D. Galt.
20 22 Nutrition Concerns in Farming Systems Research Workshop. UF and
SE Program Associates.
22 29 Syria Regional Workshop Planning on "Research Methodology for
1985 Annual Report 18

Livestock On-Farm Trials", sponsored by ICAR. J. Oxley. 25 28 ICARDA Livestock Workshop, Aleppo, Syria. 25 29 MSTAT workshop at MSU. 26 28 AID/Thailand and CIMMYT Outreach follow-up visit D. Galt.
April 1985
1 5 SAFGRAD/Purdue Univ. Workshop on results of Farming Systems Unit
in Burkina Faso. FSSP supported 10 W. Africans participants.
D. Galt.
8 22 Cameroon Technical Assistance Seminar, USAID/Yaounde; FSR
Workshop, University Center Dschang S. Poats, Steve Franzel, and
Louise Fresco.
13 17 Kenya Workshop Planning Edgertown College John Caldwell. 14 19 Rwanda/Univ. Arkansas Orientation (with possible attendance by
Burundi Team) by CIMMYT in Nairobi. Juan Carlos Martinez,
CIMMYT/Mexico and Richard Swanson, Univ.Arkansas/Haiti attended. 18 19 Univ. Hawaii/E-W Center for FSR/Agroecosystems meetings. D. Galt. 20 27 Costa Rica Seminar on FSR's contribution to rural development in
Latin America. J. Jones.
20 Paraguay Consultation for computer use in research. Rohrman and
May 10 Herrera.
22 24 Asia ADO/RDO Conference D. Galt. 22 26 CATIE, Costa Rica Case Studies Workshop J. Jones and
E. Martinez.
25 27 Washington, D.C./AWID Conference S. Poats. 26 May 4 Exploratory visit, USAID/Nepal and IADS Cropping Pattern trials
D. Galt.
29 May 5 Gambia Workshop Planning Steve Franzel.
May 1985
3 Auburn University FSR seminar presentation. J.K. McDermott.
3 12 Senegal Workshop on Research for Small Farmers. F. Poey.
1985 Annual Report 19

5 7 Senegal Meeting with J. Posner about the Gambia workshop and
Networkshop III. D. Galt.
6 10 Annual Leave D. Galt.
6 12 Cameroon Discussion of Cameroon as base for FSSP Office.
C. Andrew.
12 to
June 9 Evaluation of CATIE-ROCAP FSR Project. J. Jones.
13 25 Soils Management CRSP Review, Hawaii/Indonesia- P. Hildebrand. 17 29 Gambia Workshop on the Design of On-Farm Trials. Steve Franzel,
L. Walecka.
20 24 DW III University of Florida J.K. McDermott.
June 1985
5 Committee in Alternative Farming Systems, National Research
Council, Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand.
6 FSSP/Title XII Universities Bilateral Contractors' Campus Backstop
Meeting, Chicago D. Galt, S. Poats.
6 7 Evaluation Task Force Meeting Morrilton (Winrock), Arkansas
Dan Galt, Jim Henson, Jan Noel, Rick Bernsten, Don Voth, Tom Cook
and Mike Patton.
10 12 FSR/E Case Studies Writers' Orientation Workshop FSSP/Population
Council, in Boston S. Poats.
15 28 Jamaica Introduction to FSR/E Short Course (9 days)
Steve Franzel, J. Dean, Emmanuel Acquah and Donald Kass (CATIE). 17 FSSP/ILCA Workshop on Livestock in mixed Farming Systems
July 1 Research Methodologies and Priorities in Addis Ababa, Jim Oxley (CSU), S. Kearl, Lee McDowell (U of F), and Howard Olson (SIU). 20 ADO/RDO Training Conference Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand
July 1985
13 Visit to CIMMYT East, Central and Southern Africa Economics
Aug 5 Programme Nairobi, Kenya to discuss training and networking to
be held Aug. 19-23, 1985, to plan CIMMYT/FSSP Rwanda-Burundi-Zaire
FSR Orientation Workshop Nov. 4-10, 1985, and to attend the
Egerton FSR Workshop.
S. Poats.
1985 Annual Report 20

13 23 Rwanda FSR/E Orientation Workshop and Networkshop planning
P. Anandajanasekeram, CIMMYT, S. Poats, FSSP, and Joachin Voss,
15 19 Domestic Workshop for Agronomic Trial Design and Analysis
D. Galt, P. Hildebrand, J. Dean.
15 23 Hawaii US Land Grant Ag. Deans Conference for presentation on
FSR/E methodology C. Andrew.
23 CATIE Evaluation of Small Farm Production Systems. FSSP.
Aug 8
23 Burundi FSR/E Training and networking planning
Aug 5 P. Anandajanasekeram, CIMMYT, and S. Poats, FSSP.
August 1985
August Senegal FSR Workshop Oct. 1984: support for publication and
distribution of workshop proceedings. S. Poats.
12 15 Seminar on development oriented research, Montpellier, France.
P. Hildebrand.
12 16 East-West Center FSR/E Agroecosystems workshop, Honolulu
D. Galt, John Caldwell, Rick Bernsten and Larry Zuidema.
12 23 Asian crop-livestock monitoring tour-sponsored by IRRI and AFSN.
FSSP sponsoring three African participants from the Steering
Committee for West African Animal Systems networking P. Starkey,
B. Kanu and K. Apetofia.
18 23 Regional FSR Workshop for Sub-Saharan Africa at Egerton College,
Kenya co-sponsored by CIMMYT and FSSP. FSSP funded 10 W.
African participants. S. Poats.
21 22 Committee on Alternative Farming Systems, NRC, Washington,D.C.,
P. Hildebrand.
27 World Bank Seminar Presentation on FSR/E Methodologies and
Meetings P. Hildebrand and C. Andrew.
28 30 Annual Core Planning Meetings FSSP Core Staff.
September 1985
2 5 Khon Kaen University Rapid Rural Appraisal Conference D. Galt.
8 13 Honduras Consult at EAP, Zamorano and visit USAID/H office.
J. Jones.
1985 Annual Report 21

12 FSSP meeting with Africa Bureau (Cal Martin, Pat Fleuret, Gloria
Steele) C. Andrew, D. Galt.
13 FSSP Advisory Council Meeting in Washington, D.C.- C. Andrew,
D. Galt.
17 30 Nepal Second Crop-Livestock Research Systems Tour of Nepal and
Indonesia. P. Starkey and K. Apetofia.
18 University of Hawaii Concept of Difussion Domains
P. Hildebrand.
21 Philippines Asian Farming Systems Monitoring Tour/Workshop. R.
Oct 3 Bernsten.
October 1985
7 15 International Cropping Systems Workshop, Nanjing, Peoples'
Republic of China P. Hildebrand
13 16 KSU Farming Systems Symposium C. Andrew, J. Jones, D. Galt,
S. Poats, J. Dean, S. Kearl, L. Walecka.
17 18 FSSP Annual Meeting C. Andrew, J. Jones, D. Galt, S. Poats,
J. Dean, S. Kearl, L. Walecka.
21 24 Introduction to FSR/E Domestic Workshop Virginia State
University hosts J. Dean.
27 Nov.1 Zambia/Malawi INTERPAKS/FSSP/CIMMYT Workshop on R&E linkages
J. Jones (Vickie Sigman as PAO, UOH).
28 Nov.l Domestic Workshop on Agronomic Trial Design and Analysis hosted
by University of Arizona around the Arid Lands Research and
Development Conference (Sahelien) of October 21-25. J. Dean.
31 Meeting on FSSP Evaluation and work plan (Galt and Andrew); S&T
(Osburn, Wadly, Church, Swamberg, Morse); AF Bureau (Prussner,
Martin); and PPC (Fleuret).
November 1985
1 12 Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern Zaire FSR/E Orientation Workshop and
Overview Workshop (in French) CIMMYT/CIAT/ISAR/FSSP. S. Poats.
8 20 West Africa Animal Systems Networking Steering Committee meeting
in Banjul, The Gambia with monitoring tours of Senegal and Gambia
Animal Traction activities. John Lichte and A.N. Atta-Krah.
15 FSSP Advisory Council. Washington, D.C. (C. Andrew,
J.K. McDermott, Curtis, Morse, Harpstead, Keens, Raun).
1985 Annual Report 22

20 30 Committee on Alternative Farming Systems, NRC, Washington, D.C.
P. Hildebrand.
25 28 Agricultural Research and Extension in African Universities
workshop for 17 E. and S. African countries hosted by CIMMYT in
Lesotho D. Galt.
December 1985
5 6 FSSP/S&T/AFR Task Force Meeting, Washington, D.C. D. Galt and
C. Andrew.
1985 Annual Report 23

1985 Annual Report 24

January 1985
9-12 Dr. Hubert Zandstra: Director, IDRC. To visit FSSP and
meet with Core.
10 Dr. Bob House: FSSP Management Consultant; Vanderbilt
11 Hubert Humphrey Fellows from the University of
Maryland: Dr. Dave Sammons, Univ. of Maryland;
Dr. Patric Eennett, Industrial Development Corp. of
Jamaica; Ms. Augusta Sena Dye-Sharp, Ministry of
Agriculture, Ghana; Mr. Roy McDonald, Central Bank of Costa Rica; Mr. Rolanao Pinzon, Center of Industrial
Development, Honduras. Introduction to FSR/E and
FSSP, meet with faculty of the Center for Latin American Studies, Center for African Studies and
Vegetable Crops Dept. J. Dean
29- "De-Briefing Workshop", at the Holiday Inn-University 1
Feb 1 Center Hotel. Richard Harwood, Bob Hart, Cal Martin,
Bob Tripp, Earl Kellogg, Jay Arti, Don Vot, Jac k
Cnar, and J.Meiman. From FSSP: ChDisl-ndrew, an
Gat, Jim Jones, Susan Poats, Bob Waugh and Ken
February 1985
4 8 Mr. Paul Mkhatshwa; University of Georgia and the
Swazland Ministry of Agriculture. One week short
course; "Introduction to FSR/D". Sponsored by
Pennsylvania State University's Swaziland Project.
J. Dean.
8 Dr. Billie Dewalt: Program associate and program
leader University of Kentucky.
11 Mr. Gene Pilgram, Extension Specialist from University
oT-- i-esota to visit FSSP.
14 Mr. Ken Laurent: Retired US/AID to discuss FSR/E and
Agricultural Marketing Policy. Chris Andrew and
Pete Hildebrand.
1985 Annual Report 25

February 1985 (cont'ed)
18-23 Training Unit Development Workshop: To develop
training materials for FSR courses and workshops.
Participants: Steve Franzel, Neal Flora, Ramiro Ortiz, Ron Knapp, Rob Tripp, Fe ic-oPoey, John
Caldwell,-~JonHammerton, Dan Minnick, Kenneth Saer, Lorna Butler, Emmanuel Acquah, Malcolm
del, Don Osburn, Jay Artes, Jlm Meiman, Jerry
Van Sant, Rober Waugh, K-a y MIson, Pe _aYvey,
Pete HIdebrand, Dan Galt, Jim Jones, Susan Poats,
Ken McDermott, Lisette Walecka.
25 Mr. Richard Sider; Director of Personnel Development
a Latin Amr~FTian Programs, Mennonite Central
Committee. Introduction to FSR/D and FSSP. Jim Dean
and Dr. Peter Hildebrand.
March 1985
8 Ms. Maleloka Mokalayne; Lesotho Ministry of
Agriculture, through The Graduate School; USDA.
Introduction to FSR/E and the FSSP. Jim Dean.
20 Dr. Kamal Dow: Chief of Party, UF/Ecuador/USAID
Project. Discuss oncoming FSR/E training. Chris
Andrew and Jim Jones.
28 29 Sierra Leone Ministry of Agriculture administrators,
(5). Meet with Dr. N. Thompson, Asst. Dean for
Research; Dr. Jim App, Asst. Dean for Agriculture and Rural Development Programs; Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director
of International Programs. Introduction to FSR/D and
FSSP. Meet with Dr. Chris Andrew, Director of FSSP and
FSSP personnel. Visit the N. Fla. Project and M.
Swisher. The visitors are:
R. A. D. Jones Research Coordinator and
Secretary of the National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council (NARCC) Willie Ta blor Director of the Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (ACRE) Project Julius Sand Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MANR) D. A. Tur Director, Northern Regional Office of the Integrated Agricultural Development Project (IADP)
A. B. Sesay Chief Agriculturist, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MANR)
1985 Annual Report 26

April 1985
4 Julio Echevarria: Peru to review FSR/E methodology.
Dean and Andrew.
11 Donald S. Humpal; Development Alternatives Inc. Meet
with FSSP Core, review training material and modules,
meet. R. K. Waugh.
17 Roger Perez, Eddie Chu, and Bong Bolo; Philipines,
associatedwi-ttlfe-Rain Fed Agricul-tural Project in the Bicol region. To investigate possible long and short term programs for Project staff, to ascertain
short term training possibilities through FSSP and meet with U of Florida administrators and faculty to discuss
degree, short term training, and FSR minor for
Philippine personnel. Through IADS, Washington, D.C.
J. Dean.
17-19 Don Osburn; US/AID S&T. Meet with FSSP Core to discuss
al aspects of FSSP for mid-term evaluation to be held
in June, 1985.
17-22 Dr. Jean Ongla; Director, National Advanced School of
X-Eiculture, Yaounde, Cameroon. Meet with U of Fla.
Administrators to discuss UF/USAID/Cameroon Project.
Participate in "Food in Africa" Conference. FSSP.
28-May 2 Joseh Casas, ISNAR. P. Hildebrand and FSSP Core. Dr.
Niblett, Chair, Plant Pathology. Presented seminar
"The Cuban Socialist Agricultural Strategy and Its
Results". Viewed Training Modules and discussed with
J. Dean.
May 1985
6 8 Zaire Ministry of Agriculture administrators, (3) from
tEE Applied Agrhultural Research and Outreach Project.
Hon. Kembola, Hon. Bewa: Government of Zaire and Mr.
Dave Atteberry; USAID/Zaire. Meet with FSSP Core, Visit the N. Fla. FSR/E Project and meet with IFAS
personnel to discuss possibilities of graduate training
for Zaire personnel. J. Dean.
15-17 Rita Gallin and Ann Ferpsen: Michigan State University
andPat Garrett and Shelly Feldman: Cornell
University; Visit FSSP and WIA/UF. S. Poats.
21 Jay Johnson: USAID Mission Director/Cameroon; Discuss
FSR/E, generally, and FSSP support to Cameroon.
C. Andrew.
1985 Annual Report 27

May 1985 (cont'ed)
23 -24 Nadingar Alladoumnque; Director General of Agriculture
and Gabriel Mikail; Director of Extension, Government of CEhad. Meet wth IFAS Editorial faculty and with Dr.
James App, Assoc. Dean for Extension; Dr. Jim Rich,
Director of the Live Oak AREC; and James Dean of the
FSSP to discuss the Farming Systems approach to
agricultural development.
27- Doug Chandler, Animal Scientist with IFPP to visit
June 3 FSSP and Animal Science faculty.
June, 1985
6 Dr. Les Swindale: Director-General of ICRISAT.
Di-cuss Farming Systems and FSSP. Chris Andrew
and Pete Hildebrand.
24-28 FSSP Mid-Project Evaluation: USAID S&T Evaluation
Team: Raymond Kitchell, Don Winkelmann, Pat Fleuret,
Chuck Francis, and Ed Price.
July, 1985
2 Mario Ozaeta: Paraguay; to work on Agronomic Workshop
8-12 Mr. Doug Gama: Pennsylvania State University and the
Swaziland Ministry of Agriculture. "Introduction to
Farming Systems Research/Extension". Discussions with
FSSP personnel, view audio-visual Training Module
Series, individual study. Also attended the "Agronomic
Experimental Design and Analysis" workshop July 15-19,
1985. Sponsored by Pennsylvania State University's
Swaziland Project. J. Dean
25 LarrStifel: Director-General of IITA; Discussion
ofFarming Systems with Pete Hildebrand, also
discussions of IITA-FSR/E. Dan Galt, Pete
Hildebrand and Hugh Poponoe.
8-9 Dr. Joe Seepersad; Head, Communications Unit of the
Caribbean Area Extension Project (CAEP) at the
University of the West Indies, Trinidad. Discussions
about FSR/E and FSSP, view training materials. J.
1985 Annual Report 28

August 1985 (cont'ed)
15-16 Dr. Richard L. Phillips: Horticultural Advisor and Training & Extension Coordinator with the Yemen Arab
Republic Fruit Crops Project. Chris 0. Andrew.
September, 1985
1-14 Dr. Mahgoub Gaafar El Hag: Project Leader-By Products;
Institute of Animal Production; University of Khartoum;
Khartoum, Sudan. Visit UF, FSSP, and livestock
producers in the State of Florida. Dr. Joe Conrad.
?-? Evan J. Frost: Visit FSSP. Peter Hildebrand.
4-7 Gerald Williams and Roer Woodsworth: Tennessee
Valle Authority (TVA). Discussions with FSSP and
UF/IP personnel. Short introduction to FSR/E and
discussion of N. Fla. FSR/E Project. J. Dean.
9 Mr. Freddy Murillo: Secretary General; Grecia,
Alajuela, Costa Rica Farmer's Cooperativa and Mr.
Jose Jimenez: Translator/Interpretor. Visit FSSP,
meet with selected staff at UF. Sponsored by
Meridian House Int'l. of Washington, D.C. J. Dean
9-13 Pennsylvania State University personnel (2 Swaziland
students and 1 PSU faculty member) for "Introduction to Farming Systems Research/Extension" workshop. J. Dean
Harry Carey: Agricultural Information faculty at PSU.
Donald Hlope: Information Unit of the Swazi MinAg.
Magalela Ngwenya: Soil Testing Unit-Swazi MinAg.
October, 1985
8 Dr. James Beebe: ADO/USAID/Philippines. Meet with
FSSP Core, review training materials and meet with
UF/Int'l Programs personnel to discuss posibility of Reverse Joint Career Corps appointment with U of Fla.
- J. Dean
18-23 Dr. Quesi Atta-Krah: ILCA Alley Cropping Project;
IITA; I-adan, Nigeria. FSSP Core and
other UF faculty.
1985 Annual Report 29

October, 1985 (cont.)
18-25 Dr. Pascal Fotzo: University Centre, Dschang (UCD)
Cameroon. To visit FSSP and the University of Florida
for curriculum development between FSSP,
UF/Cameroon/USAID, and UCD and present seminar.
21-25 Dr. John Caldwell: VPI; To work on the agronomic
t-aning unit. L. Walecka.
24 Mr. Larry Heilman: USAID/Washington; To discuss FSR
ana FSSP generally.
28 Mr. Ralph Cummings Jr. and Ms. Margaret Sarles to
TIscuss Ag. Researciin Central America. FSSP Core.
November, 1985
2-14 Dr. Howard Fube: Plant Physiologist on Faculty at
unlv rsity Centre, Dschang (UCD); Dschanj, Cameroon.
Attend International Horticultural Science meetings in
Tampa, tour of Florida Agricultural Research Centers,
meet with selected UF Faculty, meet with FSSP personnel
to discuss future FSSP/UCD activities, visit N.Fla.
FSR/E Project. S. Pasley & J. Dean
4-5 Dr. Vickie Si n: University of Hawaii. To report on
tEe Zam ba an Malawi workshop.
12-15 Dr. Tom K. Golder: Senior Research Scientist, Tsetse
Program, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. Visiting lecturer for
Poats/Barfield course on the 13th and 15th.
Co-sponsored by the Center for Tropical Agriculture and
the Department of Entomology and Nematology.
13 Dr. Joe Free: International Fertilizer Development
Center. To consider FSR/E an approach to TVA,IFDC
domestic farm programs in the Tenn. Valley.
December, 1985
10-12 Mr. Alberto M. Vargas Prieto: Barbara Ward Fellow with
te Internatlon-6naI-nstitute for Environment and
Development (IIED)and the Ministry of Agriculture;
State of Yucatan, Mexico. Introduction to FSR/E and orientation to U of Fla/FSSP/IP. Meet with selected
IFAS faculty. J. Dean
1985 Annual Report 30

Index of FSSP Annual Meeting Summary Reports
(full reports found in Fourth Quarterly Report 1985)
Advisory Council: Dale Harpstead Technical Committee: John Caldwell
Agronomic: Larry Nelson
Economic: Don Osburn
Evaluation Task Force: Jim Henson
FSR Association
Livestock: Jim Oxley
NEAAC: Hal McArthur
Domestic Workshop: Jim Dean and Mike Norvelle
MSTAT: Dale Harpstead
FSSP Busness Meeting: Participant List
1985 Annual Report 31

1985 Amual Report 32

Index of Activity Reports
1st Quarter 1985 (01/01 to 03/31/85)
Tohme (MSU)/Senegal/01/14 to 01/27/8 5 Zuidenia/Philippines/01/07 to 01/19/85 Caldwell/faiwan-AVRDC/01/21 to 01/24/85 Poey/Peru/02/06 to 02/09/85 Poey/Honduras/02/01 to 02/15/85 Andrew/Ivory Coast/02/17 to 02/23/85 Poats/Togo/02/25 to 03/16/85 (Starkey, Lichte, Russo, Barrett) Oxley/Togo/02/24 to 03/14/8 5 Martinez/Zaxubia/02/27 to 03/23/85 Jones/Dominican Republic/03/03/ to 03/07/85 Oxley/Ethiopia/03/15 to 03/21/85 McArthur/Honduras/03/17 to 03/23/85 Galt/Philippines/03/18 to 03/25/85 Poey/Honduras/03/18 to 03/22/85 Oxley/Syria/03/22 to 03/29/85 Galt/Whailand/03/26 to 03/28/85 Galt/Burkino Faso/03/29 to 04/05/85
2nd Quarter 1985 (04/85 to 06/31/85)
Galt/Senegal/04/05 to 04/07/85 Galt/Asia-tJOH/04/18 to 05/8/85 Jones/Costa Rica/04/20 to 04/27/85 Rohran and Herrara/Paraguay/04/20 to 05/10/85 Andrew/Cameroon/05/06/ to 05/12/85 Poey/Senegal/05/03 to 05/12/85 Walecka/Ihe Ganibia/05/17 to 05/29/85 Dean and Franzel/Jamaica/06/15 to 06/28/85 Oxley/Ethiopia/06/17/ to 07/01/85
3rd Quarter 1985 (07/01 to 09/30)
Poats/East Africa/07/13 to 08/05/85) Andrew/Hawaii/07/15 to 07/23/85 FSSP/Costa Rica-CATIE/07/23 to 08/31/85 (Zimet; Conrad; French; Poey) Fotzo/Ege rton-Kenya/08/19 to 08/23/85 (Poats; Taal-The Gambia; Ongla-Cameroon;
Aithnard-Togo; Dahniya-Sierra Leone; DoumbiaIvory Coast; Abain, Olunga, Oludosi-Nigeria) Jones/Honduras/09/08 to 09/13/8 5 Starkey and ApetofiaA/Tepa1-Irndonesia/09/17 to 09/30/85 Bernsten./Philippines/09/21 to 10/03/85
1985 Annual Report 33

4th Quarter 1985 (10/01-12/31)
Hildebrand/China/10/07 to 10/15/85 Sigman/Zambia/10/24 to 11/01/85 Jones/Zambia/10/27 to 11/01/85 Poats/Rwanda/11/01 to 11/12/8 5 Atta-Krah/West Africa/11/08 to 11/20/85 Lichte/Senegal-The Gambia/li/lO to 11/15/85 (Apetofia-report in French) Galt/Lesotho/11/25 to 11/30/85 (Appendix) FSSP Annual Meeting Summary Reports
1985 Annual Report 34

FSSP Core Response to the Mid-Term Evaluation Recommendations
Technical Assistance
1. Provide future technical assistance to non-Africa Regions through
"buy-ins only.
Core comment:
High priority for 1985 and presently underway.
Further clarification
a. Asia (1) a memo to Asia missions has announced FSSP
capability and (2) 10% of one FTE from core to coordinate
present financial resources.
b. Latin America recommend same as for Asia.
c. Bring world wide expertise to bear through the FSSP Africa
2. Handle bio-data services on a more cost effective and
comprehensive basis, e.g., merge with WI system and add additional
Core comment:
High priority for 1986 but needs further study. Bio-data systems
simply are not cost effective. Transfer of the bio-data system to
an SE is not cost effective in the short run and would cause
conflict of interest concerns among other SEs. A bio-data system
is indispensable for FSSP Technical Assistance Program to
3. Include AID evaluation community participation in the Evaluation
Task Force.
Core comment:
Not relevant. AID participation has been invited in all task
forces but attendance has been sporadic. Continued participation
is encouraged. EFT representation did exist initially, meetings
announced to representatives since that time (attendance took
lower priority) and early in November 1985 a meeting did include
PPC representation.
4. Distribute current version of draft FSR/E project handbook in
loose-leaf form. Do not allocate additional resources of staff
time to this or similar activities of this type.
Core comment:
Is completed.
1985 Annual Report 35

5. A careful review of documentation efforts should be undertaken by
FSSP management, in collaboration with the APMT, to reduce
considerably the number, conserve core funding and prioritize
staff time.
Core comment:
Needs clarification on term "documentation". If reference is to
bibliography then task is accomplished.
6. Annotation services now provided by AID/PPC/CDIE should be done by
FSSP, through an SE. S&T should address this problem as soon as
Core comment:
Disagree. Part of initial agreement and problem is resolved.
7. Continue KSU publication of key papers and its documentation
center role.
8. Continue support of annual KSU-FSR/E symposium.
Core comment:
Rec 7&8 High long term priority and agree with recommendations. Training
9. FSSP management, on a priority basis, should address the
identified weakness in current training methodology and materials
- particularly for relevance to Africa by drawing on the
technical resources of SEs and others actively engaged in FSR/E
related activities.
Core comment:
High long term priority and process has been and is continuously
10. Develop an overall training strategy which, inter alia:
withdraws from "sensitizing" type workshops;
emphasizes international training workshops with specific focus on
priority African agricultural problems;
concentrates on development and refinement of priority training
modules using the technical resources of the entire SE network and
other institutions and individuals with unique capabilities; and re-thinks miscellaneous training activities and reduces level of
1985 Annual Report 36

Core comment:
FSSP has had a training strategy since inception of the project
and has revised same as needed.
a. Low priority but disagree with recommendation. Process of FSR/E
training requires participants to first understand the fundamental
concepts and methodology of FSR/E. Training in this basic
understanding represents very low cost to the project.
b. High priority. Represents past and present policy. Agree with
c. High priority. Agree but prefer use of the terms "development,
refinement and delivery" and use of the term "units" instead of
"modules". Represents past and present policy.
d. Statement unclear.
11. A specfic plan for SOTA activities leading to a useful synthesis
of experience in a small number of priority areas should be formulatd in collaboration with AID, which will include an
identification of resources and (at least preliminary) assignment
of responsiblitiies among SEs.
12. This plan should include a strategy statement which defined what
SOTA/synthesis activities involve within the FSR/E framework, who
are the target users or clients for its products and for what
purpose, and where this program is headed, both in the short and
long-term time frame.
13. As methodological and conceptual issues are resolved, SOTA
activities should shift to technical issues of relevance to
developing countries where FSSP-associated projects are conducted.
14. Encourage joint efforts involving outside support (e.g.,
Population Council).
Core comment on 11-14:
Refer to 11 a general statement and 12, 13 & 14 as "a, b & c" and pull 24 up as "d". Project relies on voluntary cooperation: does
not have mandate to assign representation. FSSP core refers to
state-of-the-art as synthesis and analysis, and believes it is
best to speak of the Technical Committee in the same contest as
FSR/E synthesis and analysis. Point "a" (or Rec 12) needs further
clarification but "b,c & d" are basically sound and have been
implemented. Core qualifies by saying further implementation is
subject to adequate funding.
1985 Annual Report 37

15. As in training and SOTA, and in collaboration with AID and the
SEs, FSSP management should establish an overall strategy for
networking activities in FSR/E, which includes:
concentrating on problem and technical-oriented networking
activities within the developing countries;
the results of a careful review of the AID/AFR "Plan for
Supporting Agricultural Research and Facilities of Agriculture in
Africa", particularly in relation to a problem and commodity
focus; and
continue networking activities at the current level but in support
of existing viable networks.
Core comment:
High priority in 1986 and in long term. Agree except that "c"
might read "with emphasis on" in place of "but in support of".
Program Development and Project Redesign
16. As mentioned in several categories above, there is an urgent need
to relate the principal activities of FSSP, i.e., networking,
SOTA/synthesis, training and technical assistance to technical problems critically affecting food production, particularly in
Africa. FSSP management, in collaboration with S&T, AFR, the
Advisory Council and the Technical Committee, after review of the conclusions and recommendations in this report, should embark as
soon as possible on a strategizing process leading to a project
redesign in early 1986 for the remainder of the existing
agreement. This redesign and/or respecification should include:
revision of the logical framework, including a verification or
change in the project purpose and approach;
rationalization of the research (SOTA/synthesis and methodology)
versus project-cycle support focus;
selection of regional (Africa) v. global scope, or some reasonable
combination of both;
resolution of the role of core management vis-a-vis the APMT and
the SEs; and
determining desired interface with other AID centrally and
field-managed projects.
1985 Annual Report 38

Core comment:
Recognize high priority. This entire recommendation needs further
clarification, consideration and negotiation for 16, 16a-e, and
including as part of 16 Recs 17, 18, 19, 22 and 26.
17. Within the context of the above actions, redefine the major
project design elements, i.e., develop clearer statements of
project purpose and approach specification of desired end-results
(major outputs) of FSSP activities, explicit statements of critical assumptions, and provision of performance and EOPS
Core comment:
Is redundant and should be included with 16a. Also the
recommendation needs further clarification.
18. Based on the results of this collaborative strategizing and
planning exercise, an output-oriented work plan should be jointly
developed for the remainder of the current agreement term, limited
to SOTA/synthesis, development of related training modules, and
problem-oriented networking and support activities.
Core comment:
Should be included as part of 16 for re-neotiation. Should become
16 f and be rewritten as "A collaborative annual output-oriented
work to synthesis and analysis, development and
delivery of training units, and problem oriented..."
19. A special review should take place within the next 12 months to
assess the results of this strategizing and planning and its
impact on performance, including the quality and relevance of
activities, for the purpose of recommending extension or phase-out
of the project.
Core comment:
Should be included as part of 16 as 16g. Generally agree but
should be reviewed in total context of 16. Review should be part
of an on-going evaluation process involving those members of the
first evaluation team who have knowledge of FSR/E, FSSP and
current Africa Bureau programs. One of the team should serve on
the task force considering short and long range plans for the
20. The collaborative strategizing and program development process
should be an annual and evolving one, needed to keep FSSP
activities sensitive and relevant to the current needs of client
groups, the thinking of AID, and the growing capacities of the
1985 Annual Report 39

Core comment:
Redundant. Rec 18 is sufficient.
21. Core management staff should be reduced in size with a change in
duties to involve more planning, coordinating and facilitative
effort while transferring implementation/delivery responsibilities to selected SEs and task groups, providing support to them through liaison and backstopping services, and allocating FSSP seed and/or
supplemental funding.
Core comment:
Generally complete or underway. However, the recommendation
contains a dilemma. We assume the intent is to move more delivery
to SEs. More management, however, will be required of core, at
least in the short run, and delivery will be less cost effective.
Seed funding insufficient for implementation. Further discussion
22. Greater recognition needs to be given by FSSP management and core
staff to the "partnership" role of AID in this cooperative venture. As part of an effort to increase the desired and
necessary collaborative relationship, there should be ex-officio
AID policy level representation on Advisory Council and formal
APMT representation on the Technical Committee.
Core comment:
23. The Advisory Council should assist the Director of FSSP in further
elaboration of the FSSP/FSR/E approach and in multi-year
Core comment:
Meaning unclear (posibly referring to Technical Committee which is
activity involved in this way).
24. The Technical Committee should be revitalized, with help from core
staff and the APMT, to serve as the mechanism for (a)
supplementing and expanding the interdisciplinary base necessary
to carry out basic functions, (b) to serve as the nexus between
the core, AID, and SEs on technical matters, and (c) to accelerate
the more effective use of SEs in problem-oriented FSR/E
Core comment:
Agree. Point should be moved to Rec 11 d.
1985 Annual Report 40

25. In pursuing the above, greater use should be made of SEs and
others, through problem or technically oriented task groups, led
by selected SEs with core support. AID staff participation at the
working level should be encouraged and facilitated.
Core comment:
Concept is fine but points are redundant and dilemma in Rec 21
26. Senior management in S&T, and in AFR if a regional focus is
decreed, should provide clearer guidelines to the AMPT, ensure
that an effective intra-agency consensus process is working,
allocate the necessary priority and resources (time and travel funds) necessary to operate in a collaborative and partnership
mode, and closely monitor progress over the next 12
months--particularly the implementation of recommendations in this
report which are acceptable to them.
Core comment:
Core agrees but it should coincide with 19. Clarify in particular
the ending statement..."acceptable to them".
27. Unified agency project management responsibility should be
maintained in one office, viz, S&T/AGR/ and with one, and only
one, project manager throug--which all communications to and from
FSSP must pass. This should be made abundantly clear to the Director of FSSP and core staff, including those problems or
subjects in which higher level agency management participation may
be appropriate.
Core comment:
Core agrees with sentence one. However, FSSP's successful
experience to date shows that the project manager must have
foreign service expertise grounded in extensive capability to
handle fiscal transactions, negotiations and communications for
USAID bureau to mission collaborations with FSSP delivery.
28. Deriving from the steps recommended for strategizing and program
development, an improved and more useful reporting system for
management purposes should be installed which would, inter alia:
focus on progress (through use of milestone events) in producing
major results and solving problems encountered;
provide more information on the plans, activities and achievements of the Advisory Council, Technical Committee, Support Entities and
task groups;
provide feedback on the impact of FSSP in involving the SEs in
particular, and the US FSR/E comunity in general; and
1985 Annual Report 41

discuss the results of the annual KSU-FSR/E symposium and plans
for the next one.
Core comment:
Agree. Not short on official, administrative and activity
reporting. Need for greater publicity through impact reporting is
under consideration.
29. Budget and fiscal data should be repackaged to provide more
programmatic information, e.g.,.
the purpose, cost and results of FSSP activities carried out by
SEs task groups, core staff and others; and
actual and/or projected costs to produce major products such as
training modules, management manuals, evaluation methodology.
Core comment:
Disagree unless specific needs can be detailed. on-demand support
nature of project has limited detail. Items listed have been
budgeted. Recommendation "b" needs further consideration.
30. High level representation to the appropriate authorities of the
State of Florida should be made by the University of Florida for
appropriate relief from State contracting and similar regulations
which impede FSSP activities involving a nationwide as well as
international dimension.
Core comment:
High priority in 1986 and long term.
31. Necessary changes in budget categories and allocations should be
made to cover the high transaction costs involved in a cooperative
agreement of this nature and to implement these recommendations.
Core comment:
Needs clarification. Seems inconsistent with earlier
recommendations concerning transfer of activity to 555.
1985 Annual Report 42

1985 Farming Systems Project Personnel
Advisory Council Technical Committee
Dale Harpstead, Chair Cornelia Flora, Chair
Jean Kearns John Caldwell
Larry Zuidema Jim Oxley
Jim ThUrsten
Core Administration Mimi Gaudreau
Pascal Fotzo, Cameroon/Africa
Chris Andrew, Director Estolfo Fumagali, Guatemala/LA &
Judy Meline, Senior Secretary Caribbean
Margarita Rodriguez, Secretary Dr. Terd C., Thailand/NE &
Lana Bayles, Secretary Asia
Core Management Senior Council in Residence
Susan Poats, Associate Director Peter Hildebrand
Dan Galt, Associate Director Eugenio Martinez
Jim Jones, Associate Director Robert Waugh
Ken McDermott, Associate Director Steve Kearl, Editor USAID/S & T Management
James Dean, Assistant to Director Wendel Morse, Project Manager
Lisette Walecka, Assistant to Director Don Osburn, Project Manager
1985 Annual Report 43

1985 Amual Report 44

Sample Support Entity Reports
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI)
FSSP activities at VPI in 1985 covered five major areas:
1. Development of Training Materials
2. Training Materials Delivery in West Africa
3. Asia Training Needs Assessment and Networking
4. Technical Committee
5. Domestic Workshop Support
Development of Training Materials
VPI contributed to the drafting of the training manual on design and analysis techniques for on-farm trials and editing of the preliminary edition. Two papers, applying new analytical techniques to survey and on-farm trial data, were presented at an annual meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
A VPI program associate also participated in the FSSP/Population
council intra-household dynamics task force. The task force identified potential case studies for development into training materials.
Training Material Delivery in West Africa
The VPI program leader served as overall coordinator for the Gambia farming systems workshop. Experience gained from the 1984 workshop on diagnostic techniques helped facilitate this first field-testing of the design and analysis of on-farm trials manual.
Asia Training Assessment and Networking
In January, the VPI program leader helped conduct a training needs assessment at the request of USAID/Philippines in Eastern Visayas. The results of the assessment were disseminated through reports to apprpriate personnel in the Phillipines and NEAAC and through a slide presentation at the East-West Center in Hawaii in August. VPI was also represented at the visit to AVRDC and the NEAAC meetings held during the Hawaii workshop and KSU Symposium.
Technical Committee
The VPI program leader served as Technical Committee member from January to August 1985. From September 1985 he took over as chair following the completion by Cornelia Flora of her term as chair.
1985 Annual Report 45

Domestic Worksho
The VPI program leader provided backstopping consultation and training materials in rapid rural appraisal to Virginia State University in their domestic workshop in October. A VPI graduate student participated in a session at the workshop on the in-state projects experience. VPI was also represented at the first domestic workshop on management and administration of farming systems projects held at the University of Florida in May.
1985 Annual Report 46

Southern Illinois University (SIU)
FSSP activities at SIU in 1985 included five major areas:
1. Domestc workshops and Courses
2. Technical Assistance and Training Teams
3. Task Force Activities
4. Bilateral Contract Activities
5. Program Strengthening Activities
Domestic Workshops and Courses
SIU faculty attended various domestic farming systems workshops during FY 1985. These included the KSU Symposium in October, the "Agronomic Experimental Design and Analysis 11 workshop at the University of Florida in July, and the "Management in Agricultural Research and Extension" workshop also held at the University of Florida in May.
In addition, the School of Agriculture adopted a new course entitled, "Introduction to Farming Systems Research and Development". Twelve students were enrolled during the fall semester of 1985.
Technical Assistance and Training Teams
SIU was represented at the "Livestock and Mixed Farming Systems:
Research methodologies and Priorities" workshop sponsored by ILCA and FSSP in June. An SIU faculty member is preparing for an assignment in a farming systems project in Zambia to begin in January 1986 when he will join the Agricultural Research Production Team (ARPT) at Kobwe.
Task Force Activities
Another SIU faculty member on assignment in Zambia participated in the FSSP/INTERPAKS workshop on "Research-Extension Linkages in Farming Systems Programs"
Bilateral Contract Activities
The Zambia Agricultural Research and Extension Project was represented by an SIU faculty member at the bilateral contractors meeting held in Chicago in June. An SIU faculty member has served as coordinator of ARPT in Zambia since 1982. This activity is supported by an AID contract for development of the Zambia Agricultural Research and Extension Project.
Program Strengthening Activities
In an effort to strengthen the faculty's involvement in farming systems research, three research projects on small farms in Southern Illinois have been undertaken. The three projects work with small fruit growers in woodland areas. They focus on integrating the farming systems approach to fruit growing operations.
1985 Annual Report 47

1985 Annual Report 48

Michigan State University (MSU)
FSSP activities at MSU in 1985 included four major areas:
1. MSU Meetings and Seminars
2. Direct Interface with FSSP Activities
3. Bilateral Contract Activities
4. Program Strengthening Activities
MSU Meetings and Seminars
MSU held a number of meetings for program associates and interested faculty throughout the year. Topics of discussion ranged from domestic workshops and joint activities with other US universities to planning possible MSU involvement in activities in Africa, Philippines and Jamaica.
Direct Interface with FSSP Activities
MSU was represented at three domestic workshops during 1985. All took place at the University of Florida and included a training program to test training unit materials, development of a state-of-the-art handbook, and a workshop on management and administration training. In addition, an FSR/E symposium was held at MSU in October. MSU faculty participated in the symposium and facilitated a working group on economic analysis of FSR/E trials. MSU was also represented at the IRRI workshop in the Philippines where training unit materials were reviewed. An MSU faculty member was chair of the FSSP Advisory Council during the 1984-85 year.
Bilateral Contract Activities
An MSU faculty member attended the Chicago meeting in June of twelve US Title XII representatives backstopping FSR/E projects in Africa. MSU also has three farming systems team members in the field in Senegal.
Program Strengthening Activities
Three courses with FSR/E content were taught by FSP program associates at MSU. They are;
1. Organization and Management of Agricultural Research Systems in
Developing Countries.
2. Special Problems in Rural Sociology
3. Appropriate Agricultural Mechanization in Developing Countries
1985 Annual Report 49

1985 Annual Report 50

Colorado State University (CSU)
FSSP Activities at CSU in 1985 included three major areas:
1. Enriching Activities
2. Direct Interface with FSSP Activities
3. Bilateral Contract Activities
Enriching Activities
A slide-tape training module entitled, "Interdisciplinary Research" was prepared by a CSU graduate student presented guidelines for conducting such research. it complements the workshop series developed at UF.
The San Luis Valley Project continued through 1985 with significant research activity in the project area. The project is an application of farming systems methodology to an integrated agricultural system. Efforts are directed to increased productivity and improved marketing of products as well as more effective management of family resources. CSU faculty and graduate students from five academic disciplines are involved in the project. An evaluation of the project was initiated late in 1985.
Direct Interface with FSSP Activities
One CSU faculty member taught a course in "Research Extension
management" at the University of Florida during the Spring Term 1985. He helped develop and present a short course in management, and also served as an FSSP/UF consultant for the Honduran Agricultural R/E Program.
Another CSU faculty member led the workshop activity at the University of Florida to review draft materials for the Project Guidelines Handbook. He also attended the training materials development workshop at UF in February and helped develop and present the management materials.
A CSU faculty member collaborated with Dr. P. Hildebrand of the
University of Florida on a training monograph on the economics of small farm agriculture. A first draft is expected in 1986.
One CSU faculty member served as chair for the Livestock Task Force,
participating and assisting in conducting the Togo workshop. He was invited as a discussant/participant in the Research methodology workshop in Syria, and visited Addis Ababa to finalize plans for the Livestock and Mixed Farming Systems June workshop. He also served as a member of the FSSP Technical Committee at the KSU Annual Meeting, chairing the working group on livestock and serving as a discussant for the session on Crops and Animal Interactions.
Bilateral Contract Activit
The major focus for bilateral contracts in farming systems activities continued to be the Gambia Project. CSU's project leader has helped promote interactions between farming systems, FSSP and the Gambia.
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1985 Annual Report 52