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 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Reference






Title: Response of broiler breeder females to feed restriction below recommended levels
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066211/00001
 Material Information
Title: Response of broiler breeder females to feed restriction below recommended levels
Uniform Title: Poultry Science
Alternate Title: Economics of breeder grower programs
Physical Description: p. 489-498 : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fattori, Thomas Richard, 1950-
Hildebrand, Peter E
Wilson, Henry R ( Henry Russell )
Publisher: Poultry Science Association
Place of Publication: Champaign Ill
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Broilers (Poultry) -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Broiler breeder, feed restriction, economics, rearing cost, hatching egg count
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: "An economic analysis of the growth and production response to feed restriction was made for broiler breeder females."
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 498).
Statement of Responsibility: T.R. Fattori, P.E. Hildebrand and H.R. Wilson.
General Note: Reprinted from: 1991 Poultry Science 70:489-498.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066211
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71035780

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 489
    Materials and methods
        Page 490
        Page 491
    Results and discussion
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
    Reference
        Page 498
Full Text

?o. oL/


Response of Broiler Breeder Females to Feed Restriction
Below Recommended Levels. 2. Economic Analysis1

T. R. FATrORI,2 P. E. HILDEBRAND,3 and H. R. WILSON2
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Poultry Science Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
(Received for publication March 5, 1990)

ABSTRACT An economic analysis of the growth and production response to feed restriction was made for
broiler breeder females. Experimental response data were used 1) to examine the effect of feed restriction on
pullet rearing, breeder hen, and hatching egg cost components, 2) to evaluate the effect of feeding program on
the average total cost of rearing a pullet (TCP), maintaining a breeder hen (TCB) and producing a dozen
hatching eggs (TCE), 3) to test the sensitivity of the TCP to changes in component costs, and 4) to estimate the
change in TCP and TCE, to changes in pullet rearing density.
Each week of delayed maturity increased TCP by approximately 1%. Reduced pullet feed costs resulting
from feed restriction did not offset increased service and grower payment costs at 5% production. Increased
pullet rearing costs were offset by breeder feed savings and increased production by approximately 67 wk of
age. Projected TCE beyond 67 wk indicates severe feed restriction to be more economical (lower TCE) than
standard feeding practices. The TCP was most sensitive to changes in chick, feed, and grower payment costs.
Projected increased pullet housing density lowered TCP, which lowered the TCE even further for the more
restricted feeding programs.
(Key words: broiler breeder, feed restriction, economics, rearing cost, hatching egg cost)
1991 Poultry Science 70:489-498


INTRODUCTION
Growth and reproductive performance of
broiler breeder parent flocks have a direct
impact on net returns to a broiler integrator.
Economic gains from increased broiler breeder
reproductive efficiency can be significant
given the scale of the broiler industry today.
Research on the biological effects of feed
restriction on female broiler breeder growth
and reproduction has indicated a number of
technical advantages to such feeding programs
(review, Fattori et al., 1990). Unfortunately,
the economic consequences of these effects are
rarely determined. Proudfoot and Lamoreaux
(1973) compared "monetary returns" resulting
from full feeding, restricted feeding (75% of
full feed), and full feeding low-protein diets
(12.3%) during the rearing period, as well as
feed restriction during the laying period of
different meat-type strains. They found that
feed treatments used during the rearing period
had a significant effect on "monetary returns"
from hatching egg production with the re-


IFlorida Agcl Exricultural Experiment Station Journal Series
Number R-00513.
Poultry Science Department.
3Food and Resource Economics Department


stricted feeding program resulting in higher
monetary gains. The adult breeder feed treat-
ment (full fed versus 90% of full fed)
exhibited no significant effect on either gross
revenue or profit.
Proudfoot et al. (1984) evaluated the
economic effect of feed restriction during the
laying period on the performance of dwarf and
normal broiler breeder hens. Monetary returns
per hen housed for normal breeder hens were
significantly higher than for dwarf breeders.
This was true despite a significantly lower
dwarf breeder level of feed consumption per
dozen hatching eggs produced. No difference
in returns due to a level of feed restriction 5%
below standard could be detected. Those
authors noted that if dwarf females would be
housed more densely than normal females,
fixed costs of production could be less per bird
and may provide greater "total returns" to the
hatching egg producer than normal broiler
breeder strains.
The hypothesis to be tested in the present
analysis is as follows. If broiler breeders are
severely feed restricted (levels below current
recommendations) during the rearing period
and the resulting biological response is an
equivalent but delayed reproductive perform-
ance relative to standard practices (Fattori et






FATTORI ET AL.


al., 1990), then economic benefits, from a
lowered average total cost of production,
would accrue to the pullet grower, hatching
egg producer, and broiler integrator. The
specific objectives were 1) to examine the
effect of feed restriction on pullet rearing cost
structure, 2) to determine the cost of extending
the rearing period (delayed sexual maturity)
resulting from various levels of feed restric-
tion, 3) to test the sensitivity of the average
total cost of rearing a pullet (TCP) to changes
in component costs, 4) to compare average
total costs of hatching egg production (TCE)
for various degrees of feed restriction; 5) to
derive the change in cost structure during the
rearing period from changes in the density of
pullets per unit area; and 6) to derive the
change in breeder hen laying cost structure
(TCB) resulting from increased pullet rearing
density.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Feeding Programs and
Production Coefficients
The present analysis utilized experimental
data (feed consumption, body weight, and
hatching egg production) obtained from a broiler
breeder female feed restriction experiment
(Fattori et al., 1990) that formed the basis of the
biological response to severe feed restriction.
The five feeding programs used in this experi-
ment were 8% above the breeder recommenda-
tions (+8%); standard (STD), which approxi-
mated the breeder's guidelines; and severe feed
restrictions of 8 (-8%), 16 (-16%), and 24
(-24%) % below standard. The present study
emphasizes the comparison of the most severe
level of restriction (-24%) with the STD feeding
program.
The broiler breeder life cycle was divided
into two distinct accounting periods. The pullet
rearing period began at 1 day of age and ended at
5% production. The breeder hen laying period
began at 5% production and continued until
flock liquidation.
Mortality and Culling. Results of the feed
restriction experiment indicated no significant
differences in either rearing or laying period
mortality due to feed treatment (feeding pro-
grams). Therefore, a common cumulative mor-
tality, at a linear rate, for both pullets and breeder
hens was used for all feeding programs. Pullet
mortality and culling during rearing was estab-


lished at the estimated base rate of .2%/wk
starting from 1 wk of age and resulting in 4, 5,
and 6% cumulative mortality at 20, 25, and 30
wk of age, respectively. Similarly, breeder hen
mortality and culling was set at the base rate of
.175%/wk from the appropriate age at 5%
production and equated to 7, 7.9, and 8.7%
cumulative mortality after 40,45, and 50 wk of
production, respectively.
Sensitivity Analysis and Prices. Sensitivity
analysis indicated change in the average TCP in
response to a 20% change in a component cost,
with all other costs held constant. The base price
situation used in the present analysis was
consistent with commercial prices found in the
Southeastern United States in 1988. The base
price estimates and the corresponding 20%
adjustment made to the base prices are listed in
Table 1.

Fixed Costs
Pullet Rearing. Base female and male chick
costs were estimated to be $1.70 and $2.95,
respectively. Initial quantity purchased was
adjusted for expected mortality and a 9:1 female
to male ratio of survivors at 25 wk of age.
Breeder Hens. The TCP survivor reared to
5% production became the fixed cost in the
laying accounting period. Table 2 lists the TCP
for each level of feed restriction based on pullet
rearing costs detailed in Table 1.

Variable Costs
Feed Costs. Pullet and breeder hen feed costs
for a particular age were determined by accumu-
lating the product of the base feed cost for
pullets ($.135/kg) or for breeder hens ($.125/kg)
and the appropriate quantity of feed consumed
by birds on a particular feeding program (Fattori
et al., 1990). Cumulative feed consumption was
obtained from experimental data, and feed costs
included a provision for medication and delivery
costs.
Service and Supervision Costs. Pullet and
breeder hen service and supervision costs were
determined for a particular age by projecting a
linear increase in cumulative costs at the
estimated base rate of $.013 per pullet per week
for the pullet rearing enterprise or $.0075 per
dozen hatching eggs for the breeder hen laying
enterprise (Tables 1 and 2). At these rates, the
TCP reared from 1 wk through 25 wk of age was







ECONOMICS OF BREEDER GROWER PROGRAMS


TABLE 1. Base costs, production coefficients, and adjustments ( 20%)
used in sensitivity analysis of a pullet rearing enterprise

Costs and Price situations
production parameters1 -20% Base +20%
Mortality
Pullet, %/wk .16 .20 .24
Cockerel, %/wk .40 .50 .60
Chick cost,2 $/pullet 1.621 2.026 2.431
Rearing feed, $/kg .108 .135 .162
Service and supervision, $/wk .0104 .0130 .0156
Pullet density, m2apullet .1301 .1626 .1951
Grower rate, $/mn per wk .2368 .2960 .3552
1Grower payment = (pullet density x grower rate).
2Combined pullet ($1.70) and cockerel ($2.95) chick costs at a 9:1 female to male ratio.



$.325 per pullet survivor and the total cost per yolked eggs (Fattori et al., 1990). A further
dozen hatching eggs (TCE) through 40 wk of adjustment was then made for commercial eggs,
production was $.30. e.g., undersized, dirty, or cracked eggs, at an
Pullet Contract Costs. Pullet-grower pay- equivalent rate (.08%/wk) for all feeding pro-
ment cost was predicated on contractual arrange- grams, which allowed the removal of 3.2%
ments. Using the base rate of $.296/m2 per week commercial eggs after 40 wk of production.
for each flock and that chicks would be housed at Cumulative production of hatching eggs was
the base pullet density of .1626 m2 per bird, then adjusted for breeder hen mortality and
cumulative pullet grower payments increased at expressed as dozens of hatching eggs per
the rate of $.04812 per pullet per week. breeder hen survivor. This value for each
Breeder Hen Contract Costs. Cumulative feeding program represents the output in the
hatching egg data were obtained from each production process. Payments to the hatching
experimental treatment by subtracting the dou- egg producer were based on the estimated
ble-yolked eggs from total eggs and then contractual rate of $.30 per dozen hatching eggs,
averaging the data into a weekly value. This which included payment to the producer for
procedure was used due to a significant feeding commercial eggs (egg salvage at $.10 per dozen)
program effect on the incidence of double- and any potential bonus.



TABLE 2. Base pullet rearing cost per survivor (at 5% production), production coefficients,
and adjustments ( 20%) used in sensitivity analysis of a breeder hen enterprise

Costs and Price situations
production coefficients -20% Base +20%
Feeding programs1
+8%, $ 4.596 5.745 6.894
STD, $ 4.667 5.834 7.001
-8%, $ 4.721 5.901 7.081
-16%, $ 4.766 5.958 7.150
-24%, $ 4.804 6.005 7.206
Breeder mortality, %/wk .140 .175 .210
Breeder feed, $/kg .100 .125 .150
Producer pay, $/doz. .24 .30 .36
Adjustment for commercial eggs, %/wk .064 .080 .096
Service and supervision, $/doz. .0060 .0075 .0090
Bird salvage, S/kg .229 .286 .343
Egg salvage, $/doz. .08 .10 .12
1Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).







FATTORI ET AL.


Vaccination, Beak Trimming, and Blood
Testing Costs. Pullet vaccination, beak trim-
ming, blood testing, and miscellaneous costs
were determined by increasing these costs
linearly from 1 wk of age at the rate of $.012 per
pullet. At this rate, the cumulative miscellaneous
costs amounted to $.32 per pullet at 25 wk of age
(Table 3).
Salvage Prices. Commercial egg salvage
values received by the integrator were deter-
mined for each feeding program by multiplying
cumulative commercial egg quantities at a given
age by the estimated salvage base price of $.10
per dozen (Table 2). Bird salvage values were
determined for each feeding program by mul-
tiplying the estimated salvage base price of
$.286/kg (Table 2) of live bird by the average
live body weight of birds at a salvage age
(Fattori et al., 1990).

Total Cost

Pullet Rearing Period. The TCP was equal to
the summation of fixed costs (chick) and
variable costs (pullet feed costs, pullet payment,
pullet service and support costs, and vaccina-
tion, beak trimming, blood testing, and miscel-
laneous costs) for a particular age. Because the
technical output of the pullet rearing process is
numbers of live pullets, livability data derived
from the linear pullet mortality function were
used to calculate average TCP. This analysis
projected the average total cost and its compo-
nent costs for each feeding program through 30
wk of age. This time frame captured the changes
in cost structure that occurred until birds on all
feeding programs achieved 5% production.


5 10 15 20 25 30
AGE (WEEKS)


FIGURE 1. Total (TCP), fixed (FCP), and variable
(VCIP and VC2P) costs of a pullet survivor on a standard
rearing program at base prices.


Breeder Hen Period. Economic evaluation of
the breeder hen period was made from two
perspectives. The first examined TCB so that
cost could be examined independently of
production performance. Second, total cost was
evaluated on the basis of TCE.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Pullet Rearing Period

The typical cost structure of a STD pullet
rearing feeding program is illustrated in Figure
1. Fixed costs per pullet represents the pullet and
cockerel chick cost at day of age adjusted for
pullet mortality. Variable costs per pullet for
payment, service and support, and vaccination
increased linearly through 30 wk of age, whereas
the variable cost per pullet for the feed
component increased linearly to 20 wk and then
increased at a relatively more rapid rate and
surpassed all other average cost groups by 29 wk
of age.
The effect of feeding program on pullet
feeding costs through 30 wk of age is depicted in
Figure 2. The feeding program effect on the TCP
was a proportional reduction in pullet feeding
costs at a common age. However, the magnitude
of this reduction was not as great when pullet
feeding costs and TCP were calculated to a
common physiological age, i.e., 5% production.
The 5% production occurred at ca. 24, 25, 26,
27, and 28 wk of age for the +8%, STD, -8, -16,
and -24% feeding programs, respectively.


a: 4 STO
-8%
20- 16%
) 24%



0 ,5% PRODUCTION

o 04

1 5 10 15 20 25 30
AGE, (WEEKS)
FIGURE 2. Average cumulative feed cost for various
pullet feeding programs. Feeding programs = 8% above
standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below
STD (-8, -16, and -24%, respectively).







ECONOMICS OF BREEDER GROWER PROGRAMS


TABLE 3. Effect of feeding program on pullet rearing average cost budget
through 5% production, calculated at base prices

Costs and Feeding program1
production parameters +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
Performance factors
Age at 5% production, wk 24 25 26 27 28
Lvability
Pullet, % 95.2 95.0 94.8 94.6 94.4
Cockerel, % 88.0 87.5 87.0 86.5 86.0
Feed per survivor, kg 12.96 12.98 12.83 12.61 12.31
Fixed costs per pullet survivor
Chick, $ 2.152 2.158 2.163 2.169 2.173
Variable costs per pullet survivor
Feed, $ 1.750 1.752 1.732 1.702 1.662
Grower pay, $ 1.213 1.266 1.320 1.373 1.427
PVAC,2 $ .303 .316 .329 .343 .356
Service and supervision, $ .328 .342 .357 .371 .386
Total cost per pullet survivor (TCP)
TCP, $ 5.745 5.834 5.901 5.958 6.005
'Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).
2PVAC = pullet vaccination, beak trimming, blood testing, and miscellaneous costs.


When TCP for each feeding program was
evaluated to a common age (Table 4), propor-
tional decreases in total costs occurred. Even
though pullets were a common chronological
age they were not the same in terms of
physiological development. For example,
pullets reared on the STD feeding program were
at 5% production at 25 wk of age and at a TCP of
$5.834. Pullets reared on the -24% program
incurred a lower TCP of $5.436 at 25 wk of age,
but these pullets were 3 wk away from
production. The cost of delaying sexual maturity
relates to holding pullets for this additional time.
Enterprise budgets for each feeding program
are presented in Table 3, with detailed average
component costs for rearing pullets to 5%
production. The cost of delaying sexual maturity
by ca. 3 wk (-24% feeding program) was $.171
per pullet survivor or an average cost that was


ca. 3% greater than STD (ca. l%/wk). Although
the delay caused by feed restriction decreased
the pullet feed cost by $.090, increased grower
payment costs ($.161), miscellaneous costs
($.040), service and supervision costs ($.044)
and chick cost ($.015) totaling $.261 resulted in
the net increase of $.171 per survivor. The time
value of money may modify these numerical
values slightly for the integrator. The magnitude
of this modification would depend upon the cost
of money and the length of the delay in sexual
maturity for a particular flock
The major cost items in a pullet rearing
enterprise at 5% production were chick costs,
feed costs, and grower payment costs in that
order (Table 3). Grower payments are fixed
contractually on a square footage basis. There-
fore, any increase in pullet housing density will
not affect grower payments and should lower the


TABLE 4. Average total cost of a pullet survivor reared to common age on five feeding programs

Feeding program1
Age +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
($)
20 wk 4.881 4.796 4.711 4.627 4.544
25 wk 5.967 5.834 5.700 5.567 5.436
30 wk 7.125 6.948 6.780 6.597 6.423
1Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).






FATTORI ET AL.


average TCP for the integrator, unless pullet
density is increased beyond some tolerance limit
and results in increased mortality.
Sensitivity of TCP to a 20% change in a
component cost at 20, 25, and 30 wk of age
while on a STD feeding program is illustrated in
Figure 3. At 20 wk of age TCP is more sensitive
to changes in chick cost than pullet feed cost. At
30 wk of age the sensitivity of TCP to these
components was reversed. Increased pullet
housing density had an important positive
impact (lowered) on TCP. Also, TCP became
more sensitive to changes in pullet housing
density with age.
The change in magnitude of TCP to a 20%
increase in mortality, grower, feed, and chick
costs at 5% production for each feeding program
is illustrated in Figure 4. Also plotted is the
derived decrease in TCP resulting from a 20%
increase in pullet housing density. For example,
at 28 wk of age, the TCP for the -24% program
was $5.720, and lower than the $5.834 TCP


7.2-


r- 6.8-




I 6-



0 5.6-
6.4
- 6.0




0
O 5.2


4.8-


4.4 i I I I I I |
-20% BASE +20%
PRICE SITUATIONS

FIGURE 3. Sensitivity of the total cost of a pullet
survivor to changes in component costs at 20, 25, and 30 wk
of age for the standard feeding program, CHK = chick, PFD
= pullet feed, PPAY = grower pay, PMRT = pullet mortality,
DENSITY = pullet housing density.


when the STD program reached 5% production
at 25 wk of age. Savings from a derived 20%
increase in pullet density offset the cost of
delayed pullet maturity.


Breeder Hen Period

Comparison of the breeder hen cost budgets
for the STD and -24% feeding programs (Table
5), shows a $.056 lower TCB before salvage
adjustments for the STD program. The $.172
savings in breeder feed cost offset the added
pullet rearing cost for the -24% program
($.171). The $.056 difference resulted from
higher producer payments for the production of
hatching eggs. However, the $.056 difference
increased to $.128 when salvage adjustments
were made, reflecting the heavier average body
weight of breeder hens on the STD program after
40 wk of production.
After 40 wk of production the TCB for the
STD and -24% programs were $15.704 and
$15.760, respectively, before salvage adjust-
ments were made (Table 5). Generally, the TCB
can be partitioned into 40% for TCP, 34% for
breeder feed, 24% for breeder grower payments,
and 2% for breeder service costs. Salvage
adjustments represented a potential recuperation
of ca. 7 to 8% of the TCB. The combined
average TCP and breeder feed cost accounted for
74% of the TCB. Mortality in the breeder house
increased TCB by $1.10 through lost feed, while
lowering producer payments. The breeder mor-
tality rate was costly on two accounts: first, by
raising the TCB; and second, by lowering
average production per breeder hen housed.



64 +20% CHICK COST
+20% PULLET FEED
06 3 +20% GROWER PAY

: -" +20% PULLET MORT
U 0 BASE COST
S- NU 5% PRODUCTION
S|- +20% PULLET
57- HOUSING DENSITY
56 -
5.5 -
24 25 26 27 28
AGE AT 5% PRODUCTION, (WEEKS)

FIGURE 4. Effect of a 20% change in component costs
on the total cost per pullet survivor at 5% production. Mort =
mortality.


30 WK









25 WK







20 WK


CHK
PFD
PPAY
PMRT

DENSITY








ECONOMICS OF BREEDER GROWER PROGRAMS


TABLE 5. Effect of feeding program on breeder hen average cost budget through 40 wk of production,
calculated at base prices and expressed as dollars per survivor

Costs and Feeding program1
production parameters +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
Performance factors
Age, wk 64 65 66 67 68
Livability,2 % 93 93 93 93 93
Feed, kg per survivor 45.40 44.65 44.33 43.72 4328
Fixed costs per breeder hen survivor
Pullet rearing cost, $ 5.745 5.834 5.901 5.958 6.005
Variable costs per breeder hen survivor
Feed, $ 5.674 5.582 5.541 5.464 5.410
Producer pay, $ 3.900 3.988 4.092 3.939 4.044
Service and supervision, $ .300 .300 .300 .300 .300
Total cost per breeder hen survivor (TCB), $ 15.619 15.704 15.834 15.661 15.760
Salvage adjustment per breeder hen survivor
Egg salvage, $ .131 .131 .131 .131 .131
Hen salvage, $ 1.075 1.050 1.021 .981 .978
Adjusted TCB, $ 14.413 14.523 14.682 14549 14.651
'Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).
2Breeder hen mortality begins at 5% production and not a common age.


The TCE for various feeding programs is
presented in Table 6. Relationships among cost
components are similar to those discussed on a
breeder hen basis. The slightly higher level of
cumulative hatching eggs for the -24% program
offset previous differences in feeding programs
due to salvage adjustments. Essentially, the TCE
for the STD and -24% programs were the same.


This implies that by ca. 67 wk of age the
additional 3 wk pullet rearing charges resulting
from the -24% program can be offset by breeder
feed savings and increased production despite
the salvage advantage for the STD program. A
major difference between these two feeding
programs at this age was the level of egg
production. Experimental data resulted in a


TABLE 6. Effect of feeding program on breeder hen average cost budget through 40 wk of production,
calculated at base prices and expressed as dollars per dozen hatching eggs

Costs and Feeding program1
production parameters +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
Performance factors
Age, wk 64 65 66 67 68
Livability, % 93 93 93 93 93
Feed, kg per dozen hatching eggs 3.49 3.36 3.25 3.33 3.21
Hatching eggs, dozen per survivor 13.000 13.295 13.640 13.130 13.480
Fixed costs per dozen hatching eggs
Pullet rearing cost, $ .442 .439 .435 .454 .445
Variable costs per dozen hatching eggs
Feed, $ .436 .420 .406 .477 .401
Producer pay, $ .300 .300 .300 .300 .300
Service and supervision, $ .023 .023 .022 .023 .022
Total cost per dozen hatching eggs (TCE), $ 1.201 1.181 1.161 1.193 1.169
Salvage adjustment per dozen hatching eggs
Egg salvage, $ .010 .010 .010 .010 .010
Hen salvage, $ .083 .079 .075 .075 .073
Adjusted TCE, $ 1.109 1.092 1.076 1.108 1.087
IFeeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).







FATTORI ET AL.


TABLE 7. Total cost of a dozen hatching eggs produced to a common age by feeding program,
calculated at base prices and before salvage adjustment

Feeding program1

Age +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
($)
50 wk 1.395 1.371 1.386 1.508 1.508
55 wk 1.297 1.280 1.276 1.350 1.354
60 wk 1.233 1.216 1.206 1.257 1.253
65 wk 1.197 1.181 1.165 1.205 1.192
Projected
70 wk 1.186 1.171 1.150 1.181 1.158
75 wk 1.185 1.172 1.148 1.171 1.138
'Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).


significantly higher rate of production for the
-24% program (63.4%) than STD (51.9%) at 64
wk of age (Fattori et al., 1990). Prediction
equations based on these experimental data
projected economically sound (decreasing total
costs) levels of production for the -24%
program beyond 78 wk of age.
The changing relationship between TCP and
production (TCE) with age is illustrated in
Figure 5. This figure demonstrates that the TCE
for the STD program reached a minimum ca.
$1.17 per dozen hatching eggs at ca. 72 wk of
age. After this age, the projected TCE for STD
turned upward as continued expenses overtook
reduced production; whereas, TCE continued to
fall through 78 wk of age for the -24% program.
The effect of feeding program on TCE before
salvage adjustments were made is presented in
Table 7 on a chronological age basis. Differ-


1 25
w PROJECTED



z 119
0 < STD
117


o -24%
119
60 62 64 66 68 72 74 76 78
AGE (WEEKS)

FIGURE 5. Total cost of a dozen hatching eggs for the
standard (STD) and below standard (-24%) feeding
programs by age.


ences among feeding programs represent the
TCE for delayed sexual maturity, which were
progressively overcome as the hen aged. Der-
ived TCE for 70 and 75 wk of age suggest that
the -24% program could become more econom-
ical (lower TCE) than the STD program by 70
wk. Under the assumptions made in this
analysis, the -24% program achieved an equal
TCE to the STD program at approximately 67
wk of age (data projected for 1 wk) and resulted
in a lower TCE than STD when production was
projected beyond this age.


Pullet Housing Density

Justification for increasing the density of
pullets in a rearing house can be made for the
more restricted feeding programs on the basis of
maintaining an equivalent biomass (total live-



602"
S BASE DENSITY
E 598 -6
r 594
W 590-
I-
586 U 0 T 5% PRODUCTION
582-
578
0 574 1 *-
'7 ADJUSTED DENSITY

24 25 26 27 28
AGE AT 5% PRODUCTION, (WEEKS)

FIGURE 6. Effect of changes in pullet housing density
on the total cost per pullet at 5% production. STD = standard
feeding program.







ECONOMICS OF BREEDER GROWER PROGRAMS


TABLE 8. Live body weight by feeding program at various transfer (laying house)
ages and the relative differences among programs

Body weight Feeding program1
and bird density +8% STD -8% -16% -24%
Live weight, kg
22 wk 2.48 2.33 2.11 1.89 1.75
24 wk 2.84 2.58 2.37 2.13 1.97
26 wk 3.09 2.85 2.61 2.33 2.18
Relative differences in live weight from STD, %
22 wk +6.0 -9.4 -18.9 -24.9
24 wk +9.2 -8.1 -17.4 -23.6
26 wk +7.8 -8.4 -18.2 -23.5
Adjusted bird density
Potential -7% +7% +14% +21%
Adjusted base bird density, m2 per pullet .174 .163 .151 .140 .128
TCP at 5% production3 5.745 5.834 5.901 5.958 6.005
Adjusted TCP 5.830 5.834 5.809 5.765 5.705
1Feeding programs = 8% above standard (+8%), standard (STD), and 8, 16, and 24% below STD (-8, -16, and -24%,
respectively).
2Potential adjustment in bird density relative to STD with a margin of safety to maintain an equivalent biomass at various
transfer ages.
3TCP = total cost per pullet


bird weight) in a house. The average live weight
of pullets for a range of ages transferring pullets
to a breeder house are listed in Table 8.
Changing the pullet housing density by -7, 0,
+7, +14, and +21% for the +8%, STD, -8, -16,
and -24% feeding programs, respectively, will
result in a more-or-less equivalent biomass for
each feeding program at any probable transfer
age.
The effect of changing pullet housing density
on TCP is illustrated in Figure 6. The increase in
pullet density decreased the TCP at 5% produc-


60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74
AGE (WEEKS)


76 78


FIGURE 7. Effect of adjusted (increased by 20%) pullet
housing density (DNSTY) on the total cost of a dozen
hatching eggs on the -24% feeding program by age. STD =
standard feeding program.


tion from $6.005 to $5.705 for the -24% feeding
program. This $.30 decrease lowered the TCP
for the -24% program (28 wk) to a level that was
$.129 lower than STD program (25 wk), even
though birds would be reared for an additional 3
wk.
Potential savings from increased pullet den-
sity is passed directly to the breeder laying
accounting period. TCP represent ca. 42% of the
average TCE. This effect is illustrated in Figure
7. The lower TCP resulting from higher pullet
density shifted the TCE curve for the -24%
program to the left. The magnitude of this
displacement was equivalent to ca. $.025 per
dozen hatching eggs. Furthermore, the TCE for
the -24% and STD feeding programs reached an
equivalent value at ca. 62 wk of age, which was
5 wk earlier than base density conditions (67
wk).
In summary, each week of delayed sexual
maturity from feed restriction levels below
recommendations increased the TCP at 5%
production by ca. 1%. Feed restriction lowered
feed cost, which offset other increased pullet
variable costs at a common chronological age
but not when evaluated to the physiological age
of 5% production. Essentially, no differences in
the TCE among feeding programs were evident
by ca. 67 wk of age. Derived production
estimates beyond this age indicated that the most
severe feed restriction program resulted in
decreasing total costs through 78 wk of age. This






FATTORI ET AL.


economic advantage for the -24% program
would increase even further, if pullet rearing
costs are lowered by increasing pullet housing
densities to an equivalent biomass with stan-
dard.

REFERENCES

Fattori, T. R., H. R. Wilson, R. H. Harms, and R. D. Miles,
1990. Response of broiler breeder females to feed
restriction below recommended levels. 1. Growth and
reproductive performance. Poultry Sci. 70:26-36.


Proudfoot, F. G., H. W. Hulan, and K. B. McRae, 1984.
Effects of photoperiod, light intensity and feed
restriction on the performance of dwarf and normal
maternal poultry meat genotypes. Can. J. Anim. Sci.
64:759-768.
Proudfoot, F. G., and W. F. Lamoreux, 1973. The bio-
economic effect of nutrient intake restrictions during
the rearing period and post "peak" egg production feed
restriction on four commercial meat-type parental
genotypes. Poultry Sci. 52:1269-1282.
Strain, J. H., and A. W. Nordskog, 1962. Genetic aspects of
the profit equation in a broiler enterprise. Poultry Sci
41:1892-1902.




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