• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 The current program
 Agroforestry interest group: Participating...
 Graduate students associated with...
 Recommended graduate courses for...
 Course outline for the graduate...
 Home countries of the participants...
 External grants and contracts to...
 Back Cover






Title: The Interdisciplinary program of Agroforestry at the University of Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066209/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Interdisciplinary program of Agroforestry at the University of Florida
Physical Description: 13 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Dept. of Forestry
Publisher: Department of Forestry, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Agroforestry -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agroforestry -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
Statement of Responsibility: Department of Forestry, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
General Note: "April 1991."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066209
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71003447

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Agroforestry
            Page 1
        Agroforestry activities at the University of Florida in the 1980s
            Page 1
    The current program
        Page 1
        Graduate education
            Page 1
            Student research
                Page 2
            Graduate coursework
                Page 2
            Activities supporting graduate education
                Page 3
        Organized agroforestry meetings held at the University of Florida
            Page 3
            Issues in agroforestry seminar
                Page 3
            International workshop on professional education
                Page 3
            Training in agroforestry
                Page 4
            USDA/UF short training courses in agroforestry
                Page 4
        Research and publications
            Page 4
            Computer-based agroforestry expert system
                Page 4
            Agroforestry/agroecozone matrix
                Page 5
            Methodologies for evaluation of agroforestry systems
                Page 5
            Representative abstracts of graduate student research
                Page 5
                Page 6
            Publications
                Page 7
        International development
            Page 8
        Acknowledgements
            Page 8
    Agroforestry interest group: Participating faculty members
        Page 9
    Graduate students associated with the agroforestry program (As of December, 1990)
        Page 10
    Recommended graduate courses for the interdisciplinary agroforestry program
        Page 11
    Course outline for the graduate agroforestry course (FNR 5335)
        Page 12
    Home countries of the participants in the 1989 and 1990 agroforestry and extension training courses
        Page 12
    External grants and contracts to the agroforestry program
        Page 13
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION............ ................... ........... ................................................... 1
Agroforestry ....................................................................................................................
Agroforestry activities at the University of Florida in the 1980s ............................1
THE CURRENT PROGRAM ............................................................ ..................
Graduate Education .................................................................................................... 1
Student Research ................................................................................................................. ......... 2
Graduate Coursework ............................................................................................................ 2
Activities Supporting Graduate Education ........................................................ ...............3
Organized Agroforestry Meetings Held at the University of Florida ......................3
Issues in Agroforestry Seminar ................................................................................................... 3
International Workshop on Professional Education......................................... ............... 3
and Training in Agroforestry ................................................................................................. 4
USDA/UF Short Training Courses in Agroforestry ........................................... ........... .... 4
Research and Publications ...................................................................................... 4
Computer-Based Agroforestry Expert System ................................................ ............ ..... 4
Agroforestry/Agroecozone Matrix ...............................................................................................5
Methodologies for Evaluation of Agroforestry Systems .................................... ............. 5
Representative Abstracts of Graduate Student Research ................................... ............ 5
Publications ............................................................................................................................ 7
International Development ............................................................................................8
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................ 8
APPENDICES .............................................. .................................................
Appendix 1: Agroforestry Interest Group: Participating Faculty Members ............................................. 9
Appendix 2: Agroforestry Graduate Students ........................................................................................ 10
Appendix 3: Recommended Graduate Courses for the Interdisciplinary Agroforestry Program .............11
Appendix 4: Course Outline for the Graduate Agroforestry Course (FNR 5335)...................................... 12
Appendix 5: Home Countries of the Participants in the 1989 and 1990 Agroforestry and
ExtensionTraining Courses............................................................................................... 12
Appendix 6: External Grants and Contracts to the Agroforestry Program ..................................... ..13










program i
Aggoo

at th Unvrst 00loid


&,Ic


April 1991

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0301








INTRODUCTION

AGROFORESTRY
One of the greatest challenges facing today's world
is the development of sustainable land-use systems
capable of meeting the basic human needs of in-
creasing populations. Agroforestry addresses this
challenge by promoting land-use systems and tech-
nologies in which woody perennials are deliberately
grown on the same land management unit as annual
crops and/or animals. It not only facilitates the
production of a variety of goods food, fodder,
fuelwood, building materials but also protects and
enhances the productive capability of the land. As a
result, agroforestry is a technology that is particularly
appropriate for dealing with the conditions prevailing
in today's world, especially in the developing coun-
tries: high population growth, increasing demands on
existing agricultural land, expansion of agriculture
onto marginal and fragile lands, and deforestation.
Agroforestry the purposeful growing of trees and
crops in interacting combinations for a variety of
objectives has been practiced worldwide, especially
in the tropics, for many years. But systematic efforts
to understand the science of this historical practice
are relatively new.

AGROFORESTRY ACTIVITIES AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1980s
Its near-tropical environment and proximity to
tropical developing countries make Florida an excel-
lent location for agroforestry research and develop-
ment. In addition, the many statewide units of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
along with other units of the University of Florida,
have a distinguished record in education, research
and extension in agriculture, forestry and resource
conservation, and the socio-economic aspects of
natural resource management. Taken together, these
factors have made the University of Florida an ideal
site for the development of an agroforestry program.
Organized agroforestry activities at the University
of Florida began with a series of seminars held
between October, 1985 and June, 1986. These
seminars, which were organized in response to
widespread faculty and student interest, were in-
tended to foster university-wide discussion of
agroforestry. Over 150 individuals from 13 campus
units attended at least one seminar, and average
attendance per seminar was 40 individuals. Experts
from around the world addressed a variety of
agroforestry topics, ranging from social aspects to


ecological aspects, and from tropical areas to temper-
ate regions. Papers produced for this seminar series
were published in the 1987 book, Agroforestry:
Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, H.L. Gholz
(ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
In the spring of 1986, Dr. Romeo S. Raros, a
Visiting Professor from Visayas State College of
Agriculture in the Philippines, taught the first graduate
level agroforestry course at the University of Florida.
Following the success of these activities and in
response to increasing interest among faculty and
existing, as well as potential, graduate students, the
decision was made to develop an interdisciplinary
agroforestry program within IFAS. In late 1987, Dr.
P.K.R. Nair, of the Nairobi (Kenya)-based Interna-
tional Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
was appointed to develop and lead the program.

THE CURRENT PROGRAM
The interdisciplinary agroforestry program at the
University of Florida has been very active since its
formation, and is rapidly becoming an internationally
recognized center for teaching, training and research
in this field. The program is coordinated by the
Department of Forestry but enjoys widespread
support among faculty members from many of the
university's other departments. The Agroforestry
Interest Group, which includes faculty members with
an expressed interest in agroforestry, lists over 40
participants, representing 17 university units
(Appendix 1).
The agroforestry program has four overlapping
areas of emphasis: graduate education, research,
training, and international development. Each of
these areas will be addressed in the following narra-
tive.

GRADUATE EDUCATION
The strategy and guidelines of the graduate
education program are in accordance with recommen-
dations of the International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry, which was
held at the University of Florida in 1988. Students
seeking admission to the program should have a
degree in one of the relevant fields such as
agronomy, food and resource economics, forestry,
horticulture, social sciences or soil science. They
should apply to the department that most closely
represents their background and interests, and the
master's or doctoral degree is earned in that depart-
ment. The emphasis on agroforestry is reflected by
the courses taken and the thesis or dissertation topic.
A student interested in soil-related aspects of








INTRODUCTION

AGROFORESTRY
One of the greatest challenges facing today's world
is the development of sustainable land-use systems
capable of meeting the basic human needs of in-
creasing populations. Agroforestry addresses this
challenge by promoting land-use systems and tech-
nologies in which woody perennials are deliberately
grown on the same land management unit as annual
crops and/or animals. It not only facilitates the
production of a variety of goods food, fodder,
fuelwood, building materials but also protects and
enhances the productive capability of the land. As a
result, agroforestry is a technology that is particularly
appropriate for dealing with the conditions prevailing
in today's world, especially in the developing coun-
tries: high population growth, increasing demands on
existing agricultural land, expansion of agriculture
onto marginal and fragile lands, and deforestation.
Agroforestry the purposeful growing of trees and
crops in interacting combinations for a variety of
objectives has been practiced worldwide, especially
in the tropics, for many years. But systematic efforts
to understand the science of this historical practice
are relatively new.

AGROFORESTRY ACTIVITIES AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1980s
Its near-tropical environment and proximity to
tropical developing countries make Florida an excel-
lent location for agroforestry research and develop-
ment. In addition, the many statewide units of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
along with other units of the University of Florida,
have a distinguished record in education, research
and extension in agriculture, forestry and resource
conservation, and the socio-economic aspects of
natural resource management. Taken together, these
factors have made the University of Florida an ideal
site for the development of an agroforestry program.
Organized agroforestry activities at the University
of Florida began with a series of seminars held
between October, 1985 and June, 1986. These
seminars, which were organized in response to
widespread faculty and student interest, were in-
tended to foster university-wide discussion of
agroforestry. Over 150 individuals from 13 campus
units attended at least one seminar, and average
attendance per seminar was 40 individuals. Experts
from around the world addressed a variety of
agroforestry topics, ranging from social aspects to


ecological aspects, and from tropical areas to temper-
ate regions. Papers produced for this seminar series
were published in the 1987 book, Agroforestry:
Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, H.L. Gholz
(ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
In the spring of 1986, Dr. Romeo S. Raros, a
Visiting Professor from Visayas State College of
Agriculture in the Philippines, taught the first graduate
level agroforestry course at the University of Florida.
Following the success of these activities and in
response to increasing interest among faculty and
existing, as well as potential, graduate students, the
decision was made to develop an interdisciplinary
agroforestry program within IFAS. In late 1987, Dr.
P.K.R. Nair, of the Nairobi (Kenya)-based Interna-
tional Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
was appointed to develop and lead the program.

THE CURRENT PROGRAM
The interdisciplinary agroforestry program at the
University of Florida has been very active since its
formation, and is rapidly becoming an internationally
recognized center for teaching, training and research
in this field. The program is coordinated by the
Department of Forestry but enjoys widespread
support among faculty members from many of the
university's other departments. The Agroforestry
Interest Group, which includes faculty members with
an expressed interest in agroforestry, lists over 40
participants, representing 17 university units
(Appendix 1).
The agroforestry program has four overlapping
areas of emphasis: graduate education, research,
training, and international development. Each of
these areas will be addressed in the following narra-
tive.

GRADUATE EDUCATION
The strategy and guidelines of the graduate
education program are in accordance with recommen-
dations of the International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry, which was
held at the University of Florida in 1988. Students
seeking admission to the program should have a
degree in one of the relevant fields such as
agronomy, food and resource economics, forestry,
horticulture, social sciences or soil science. They
should apply to the department that most closely
represents their background and interests, and the
master's or doctoral degree is earned in that depart-
ment. The emphasis on agroforestry is reflected by
the courses taken and the thesis or dissertation topic.
A student interested in soil-related aspects of








INTRODUCTION

AGROFORESTRY
One of the greatest challenges facing today's world
is the development of sustainable land-use systems
capable of meeting the basic human needs of in-
creasing populations. Agroforestry addresses this
challenge by promoting land-use systems and tech-
nologies in which woody perennials are deliberately
grown on the same land management unit as annual
crops and/or animals. It not only facilitates the
production of a variety of goods food, fodder,
fuelwood, building materials but also protects and
enhances the productive capability of the land. As a
result, agroforestry is a technology that is particularly
appropriate for dealing with the conditions prevailing
in today's world, especially in the developing coun-
tries: high population growth, increasing demands on
existing agricultural land, expansion of agriculture
onto marginal and fragile lands, and deforestation.
Agroforestry the purposeful growing of trees and
crops in interacting combinations for a variety of
objectives has been practiced worldwide, especially
in the tropics, for many years. But systematic efforts
to understand the science of this historical practice
are relatively new.

AGROFORESTRY ACTIVITIES AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1980s
Its near-tropical environment and proximity to
tropical developing countries make Florida an excel-
lent location for agroforestry research and develop-
ment. In addition, the many statewide units of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
along with other units of the University of Florida,
have a distinguished record in education, research
and extension in agriculture, forestry and resource
conservation, and the socio-economic aspects of
natural resource management. Taken together, these
factors have made the University of Florida an ideal
site for the development of an agroforestry program.
Organized agroforestry activities at the University
of Florida began with a series of seminars held
between October, 1985 and June, 1986. These
seminars, which were organized in response to
widespread faculty and student interest, were in-
tended to foster university-wide discussion of
agroforestry. Over 150 individuals from 13 campus
units attended at least one seminar, and average
attendance per seminar was 40 individuals. Experts
from around the world addressed a variety of
agroforestry topics, ranging from social aspects to


ecological aspects, and from tropical areas to temper-
ate regions. Papers produced for this seminar series
were published in the 1987 book, Agroforestry:
Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, H.L. Gholz
(ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
In the spring of 1986, Dr. Romeo S. Raros, a
Visiting Professor from Visayas State College of
Agriculture in the Philippines, taught the first graduate
level agroforestry course at the University of Florida.
Following the success of these activities and in
response to increasing interest among faculty and
existing, as well as potential, graduate students, the
decision was made to develop an interdisciplinary
agroforestry program within IFAS. In late 1987, Dr.
P.K.R. Nair, of the Nairobi (Kenya)-based Interna-
tional Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
was appointed to develop and lead the program.

THE CURRENT PROGRAM
The interdisciplinary agroforestry program at the
University of Florida has been very active since its
formation, and is rapidly becoming an internationally
recognized center for teaching, training and research
in this field. The program is coordinated by the
Department of Forestry but enjoys widespread
support among faculty members from many of the
university's other departments. The Agroforestry
Interest Group, which includes faculty members with
an expressed interest in agroforestry, lists over 40
participants, representing 17 university units
(Appendix 1).
The agroforestry program has four overlapping
areas of emphasis: graduate education, research,
training, and international development. Each of
these areas will be addressed in the following narra-
tive.

GRADUATE EDUCATION
The strategy and guidelines of the graduate
education program are in accordance with recommen-
dations of the International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry, which was
held at the University of Florida in 1988. Students
seeking admission to the program should have a
degree in one of the relevant fields such as
agronomy, food and resource economics, forestry,
horticulture, social sciences or soil science. They
should apply to the department that most closely
represents their background and interests, and the
master's or doctoral degree is earned in that depart-
ment. The emphasis on agroforestry is reflected by
the courses taken and the thesis or dissertation topic.
A student interested in soil-related aspects of








INTRODUCTION

AGROFORESTRY
One of the greatest challenges facing today's world
is the development of sustainable land-use systems
capable of meeting the basic human needs of in-
creasing populations. Agroforestry addresses this
challenge by promoting land-use systems and tech-
nologies in which woody perennials are deliberately
grown on the same land management unit as annual
crops and/or animals. It not only facilitates the
production of a variety of goods food, fodder,
fuelwood, building materials but also protects and
enhances the productive capability of the land. As a
result, agroforestry is a technology that is particularly
appropriate for dealing with the conditions prevailing
in today's world, especially in the developing coun-
tries: high population growth, increasing demands on
existing agricultural land, expansion of agriculture
onto marginal and fragile lands, and deforestation.
Agroforestry the purposeful growing of trees and
crops in interacting combinations for a variety of
objectives has been practiced worldwide, especially
in the tropics, for many years. But systematic efforts
to understand the science of this historical practice
are relatively new.

AGROFORESTRY ACTIVITIES AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1980s
Its near-tropical environment and proximity to
tropical developing countries make Florida an excel-
lent location for agroforestry research and develop-
ment. In addition, the many statewide units of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
along with other units of the University of Florida,
have a distinguished record in education, research
and extension in agriculture, forestry and resource
conservation, and the socio-economic aspects of
natural resource management. Taken together, these
factors have made the University of Florida an ideal
site for the development of an agroforestry program.
Organized agroforestry activities at the University
of Florida began with a series of seminars held
between October, 1985 and June, 1986. These
seminars, which were organized in response to
widespread faculty and student interest, were in-
tended to foster university-wide discussion of
agroforestry. Over 150 individuals from 13 campus
units attended at least one seminar, and average
attendance per seminar was 40 individuals. Experts
from around the world addressed a variety of
agroforestry topics, ranging from social aspects to


ecological aspects, and from tropical areas to temper-
ate regions. Papers produced for this seminar series
were published in the 1987 book, Agroforestry:
Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, H.L. Gholz
(ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
In the spring of 1986, Dr. Romeo S. Raros, a
Visiting Professor from Visayas State College of
Agriculture in the Philippines, taught the first graduate
level agroforestry course at the University of Florida.
Following the success of these activities and in
response to increasing interest among faculty and
existing, as well as potential, graduate students, the
decision was made to develop an interdisciplinary
agroforestry program within IFAS. In late 1987, Dr.
P.K.R. Nair, of the Nairobi (Kenya)-based Interna-
tional Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
was appointed to develop and lead the program.

THE CURRENT PROGRAM
The interdisciplinary agroforestry program at the
University of Florida has been very active since its
formation, and is rapidly becoming an internationally
recognized center for teaching, training and research
in this field. The program is coordinated by the
Department of Forestry but enjoys widespread
support among faculty members from many of the
university's other departments. The Agroforestry
Interest Group, which includes faculty members with
an expressed interest in agroforestry, lists over 40
participants, representing 17 university units
(Appendix 1).
The agroforestry program has four overlapping
areas of emphasis: graduate education, research,
training, and international development. Each of
these areas will be addressed in the following narra-
tive.

GRADUATE EDUCATION
The strategy and guidelines of the graduate
education program are in accordance with recommen-
dations of the International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry, which was
held at the University of Florida in 1988. Students
seeking admission to the program should have a
degree in one of the relevant fields such as
agronomy, food and resource economics, forestry,
horticulture, social sciences or soil science. They
should apply to the department that most closely
represents their background and interests, and the
master's or doctoral degree is earned in that depart-
ment. The emphasis on agroforestry is reflected by
the courses taken and the thesis or dissertation topic.
A student interested in soil-related aspects of








INTRODUCTION

AGROFORESTRY
One of the greatest challenges facing today's world
is the development of sustainable land-use systems
capable of meeting the basic human needs of in-
creasing populations. Agroforestry addresses this
challenge by promoting land-use systems and tech-
nologies in which woody perennials are deliberately
grown on the same land management unit as annual
crops and/or animals. It not only facilitates the
production of a variety of goods food, fodder,
fuelwood, building materials but also protects and
enhances the productive capability of the land. As a
result, agroforestry is a technology that is particularly
appropriate for dealing with the conditions prevailing
in today's world, especially in the developing coun-
tries: high population growth, increasing demands on
existing agricultural land, expansion of agriculture
onto marginal and fragile lands, and deforestation.
Agroforestry the purposeful growing of trees and
crops in interacting combinations for a variety of
objectives has been practiced worldwide, especially
in the tropics, for many years. But systematic efforts
to understand the science of this historical practice
are relatively new.

AGROFORESTRY ACTIVITIES AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1980s
Its near-tropical environment and proximity to
tropical developing countries make Florida an excel-
lent location for agroforestry research and develop-
ment. In addition, the many statewide units of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
along with other units of the University of Florida,
have a distinguished record in education, research
and extension in agriculture, forestry and resource
conservation, and the socio-economic aspects of
natural resource management. Taken together, these
factors have made the University of Florida an ideal
site for the development of an agroforestry program.
Organized agroforestry activities at the University
of Florida began with a series of seminars held
between October, 1985 and June, 1986. These
seminars, which were organized in response to
widespread faculty and student interest, were in-
tended to foster university-wide discussion of
agroforestry. Over 150 individuals from 13 campus
units attended at least one seminar, and average
attendance per seminar was 40 individuals. Experts
from around the world addressed a variety of
agroforestry topics, ranging from social aspects to


ecological aspects, and from tropical areas to temper-
ate regions. Papers produced for this seminar series
were published in the 1987 book, Agroforestry:
Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, H.L. Gholz
(ed.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
In the spring of 1986, Dr. Romeo S. Raros, a
Visiting Professor from Visayas State College of
Agriculture in the Philippines, taught the first graduate
level agroforestry course at the University of Florida.
Following the success of these activities and in
response to increasing interest among faculty and
existing, as well as potential, graduate students, the
decision was made to develop an interdisciplinary
agroforestry program within IFAS. In late 1987, Dr.
P.K.R. Nair, of the Nairobi (Kenya)-based Interna-
tional Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
was appointed to develop and lead the program.

THE CURRENT PROGRAM
The interdisciplinary agroforestry program at the
University of Florida has been very active since its
formation, and is rapidly becoming an internationally
recognized center for teaching, training and research
in this field. The program is coordinated by the
Department of Forestry but enjoys widespread
support among faculty members from many of the
university's other departments. The Agroforestry
Interest Group, which includes faculty members with
an expressed interest in agroforestry, lists over 40
participants, representing 17 university units
(Appendix 1).
The agroforestry program has four overlapping
areas of emphasis: graduate education, research,
training, and international development. Each of
these areas will be addressed in the following narra-
tive.

GRADUATE EDUCATION
The strategy and guidelines of the graduate
education program are in accordance with recommen-
dations of the International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry, which was
held at the University of Florida in 1988. Students
seeking admission to the program should have a
degree in one of the relevant fields such as
agronomy, food and resource economics, forestry,
horticulture, social sciences or soil science. They
should apply to the department that most closely
represents their background and interests, and the
master's or doctoral degree is earned in that depart-
ment. The emphasis on agroforestry is reflected by
the courses taken and the thesis or dissertation topic.
A student interested in soil-related aspects of








agroforestry, for example, would seek admission to
the Soil Science Department and would earn the
degree in that department.
Interest in the agroforestry graduate program has
grown tremendously since its formation, as indicated
by the increasing number and quality of student
applicants. Appendix 2 lists agroforestry graduate
students (as of December, 1990), their home coun-
tries, and research topics.
Some graduate students, especially foreign stu-
dents with donor-sponsored scholarships, enter the
program with secured financial support. Others may
apply for support from sources within the university.
Graduate assistantships, either administered by the
academic departments or funded by research grants
held by individual faculty members, are a potential
source of funding. Additionally, interdepartmental
programs/centers such as Farming Systems Re-
search and Extension, Women in Agricultural Devel-
opment, Center for Latin American Studies, and
Center for African Studies offer graduate assistant-
ships and fellowships to deserving candidates.
Quality graduate education in agroforestry is based
upon three interrelated requirements: student re-
search, relevant coursework, and opportunities to
participate in supporting activities. The University of
Florida provides excellent facilities for meeting all
three needs.

Student Research
The research interests of the agroforestry graduate
students are very diverse with respect to, both, topics
and locations. Several studies have already been
completed or are nearing completion, others are in
progress, and still others are in the planning stages.
The topics that have been selected for study illustrate
the broad range of subject matter that is encom-
passed by the field of agroforestry. Included are
examinations of socio-economic and policy issues,
alley cropping, seed biology and nursery manage-
ment, soil conservation, nutrient cycling, plant-plant
and soil-plant interactions, silvopastoral systems, and
tree-canopy development and light transmission.
Currently, study sites are located in, or planned for,
twelve countries on four continents. These include
studies that have been located on relevant regional/
international research centers such as ICRAF, Centro
Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza
(CATIE) in Costa Rica and the International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Nigeria. (Appendix 2).


Graduate Coursework
Subject to departmental and university require-
ments, students have great flexibility in planning
coursework. Courses can be selected from disci-
plines such as agronomy, anthropology, food and
resource economics, forestry, horticulture, social
sciences, and soil science. Appendix 3 contains a list
of recommended graduate courses. This list is not
exhaustive, but merely illustrates the broad possibili-
ties that exist within the interdisciplinary agroforestry
program. Required coursework is determined by the
student and graduate committee, based upon the
interests of each individual student.
A 3-credit graduate level agroforestry course, FNR
5335, is offered each spring by the Department of
Forestry. The course requires a prior understanding
of the basic problems and principles of land manage-
ment in developing countries, and is open to students
from all departments. During the four years that it has
been offered (1988-1991), the class has attracted
students from a number of different countries and
university programs. While for some students the
course provides a first exposure to agroforestry, other
students bring agroforestry work experience to the
classroom. Discussion is encouraged, and is greatly
enhanced by the diversity of the students' back-
grounds and experiences.
The goal of FNR 5335 is to familiarize students
with the various aspects of agroforestry. Among the
topics covered are:
1. the concepts and principles of
agroforestry,
2. the complexity and diversity of
agroforestry in the tropics,
3. improved agroforestry techniques,
4. recent research initiatives in agroforestry,
5. problems and methodologies of
agroforestry research, and
6. potentials of agroforestry in land
management in the tropics.
Appendix 4 contains the course outline for FNR
5335, as it was taught during spring semester, 1991.
By completing specific coursework and fulfilling
other requirements as needed, students specializing
in agroforestry can participate in several relevant non-
degree program options. For example, certificates
can be earned in Tropical Agriculture, African Studies,
and Latin American Studies. A minor in farming
systems is another possibility.








agroforestry, for example, would seek admission to
the Soil Science Department and would earn the
degree in that department.
Interest in the agroforestry graduate program has
grown tremendously since its formation, as indicated
by the increasing number and quality of student
applicants. Appendix 2 lists agroforestry graduate
students (as of December, 1990), their home coun-
tries, and research topics.
Some graduate students, especially foreign stu-
dents with donor-sponsored scholarships, enter the
program with secured financial support. Others may
apply for support from sources within the university.
Graduate assistantships, either administered by the
academic departments or funded by research grants
held by individual faculty members, are a potential
source of funding. Additionally, interdepartmental
programs/centers such as Farming Systems Re-
search and Extension, Women in Agricultural Devel-
opment, Center for Latin American Studies, and
Center for African Studies offer graduate assistant-
ships and fellowships to deserving candidates.
Quality graduate education in agroforestry is based
upon three interrelated requirements: student re-
search, relevant coursework, and opportunities to
participate in supporting activities. The University of
Florida provides excellent facilities for meeting all
three needs.

Student Research
The research interests of the agroforestry graduate
students are very diverse with respect to, both, topics
and locations. Several studies have already been
completed or are nearing completion, others are in
progress, and still others are in the planning stages.
The topics that have been selected for study illustrate
the broad range of subject matter that is encom-
passed by the field of agroforestry. Included are
examinations of socio-economic and policy issues,
alley cropping, seed biology and nursery manage-
ment, soil conservation, nutrient cycling, plant-plant
and soil-plant interactions, silvopastoral systems, and
tree-canopy development and light transmission.
Currently, study sites are located in, or planned for,
twelve countries on four continents. These include
studies that have been located on relevant regional/
international research centers such as ICRAF, Centro
Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza
(CATIE) in Costa Rica and the International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Nigeria. (Appendix 2).


Graduate Coursework
Subject to departmental and university require-
ments, students have great flexibility in planning
coursework. Courses can be selected from disci-
plines such as agronomy, anthropology, food and
resource economics, forestry, horticulture, social
sciences, and soil science. Appendix 3 contains a list
of recommended graduate courses. This list is not
exhaustive, but merely illustrates the broad possibili-
ties that exist within the interdisciplinary agroforestry
program. Required coursework is determined by the
student and graduate committee, based upon the
interests of each individual student.
A 3-credit graduate level agroforestry course, FNR
5335, is offered each spring by the Department of
Forestry. The course requires a prior understanding
of the basic problems and principles of land manage-
ment in developing countries, and is open to students
from all departments. During the four years that it has
been offered (1988-1991), the class has attracted
students from a number of different countries and
university programs. While for some students the
course provides a first exposure to agroforestry, other
students bring agroforestry work experience to the
classroom. Discussion is encouraged, and is greatly
enhanced by the diversity of the students' back-
grounds and experiences.
The goal of FNR 5335 is to familiarize students
with the various aspects of agroforestry. Among the
topics covered are:
1. the concepts and principles of
agroforestry,
2. the complexity and diversity of
agroforestry in the tropics,
3. improved agroforestry techniques,
4. recent research initiatives in agroforestry,
5. problems and methodologies of
agroforestry research, and
6. potentials of agroforestry in land
management in the tropics.
Appendix 4 contains the course outline for FNR
5335, as it was taught during spring semester, 1991.
By completing specific coursework and fulfilling
other requirements as needed, students specializing
in agroforestry can participate in several relevant non-
degree program options. For example, certificates
can be earned in Tropical Agriculture, African Studies,
and Latin American Studies. A minor in farming
systems is another possibility.








Activities Supporting Graduate Education
The University of Florida provides agroforestry
graduate students numerous opportunities to partici-
pate in stimulating extracurricular activities related to
this field. Frequent seminars, both regularly sched-
uled departmental seminars and special seminars by
visiting experts, address agroforestry issues. As the
agroforestry program's reputation has grown, the
university has attracted an ever-increasing number of
agroforestry specialists from a variety of countries.
Some come to consult with faculty members, some to
observe the program, some specifically to present
seminars, and some to participate in specialized
events. Most of these visitors are pleased to give
seminars or informal presentations, and to meet with
the agroforestry students.
Two organized agroforestry meetings which were
held at the University of Florida in 1988 illustrate the
opportunities available to students. These meetings,
which are described in the next section, provided
students with the chance to attend a variety of semi-
nars and addresses, and to meet experts in the field.
Similarly, the agroforestry training courses held at the
University of Florida once every year since 1989 (as
described in the section titled USDA/UF Short Train-
ing Courses) provided students with the opportunity to
interact with their counterparts from around the world.
During the school year, the agroforestry graduate
students and interested faculty members hold infor-
mal fortnightly meetings. These meetings are de-
signed to encourage interaction among students and
faculty, to stimulate the sharing of ideas and informa-
tion, and to provide colleague support. Discussions
can focus on any topic of interest, for example,
student research proposals, agroforestry work experi-
ences, various aspects of agroforestry, available
opportunities, upcoming visitors, or relevant publica-
tions.

ORGANIZED AGROFORESTRY
MEETINGS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA

"Issues in Agroforestry" Seminar
In March of 1988, the Department of Forestry, the
Women in Agricultural Development Program, and the
Centers for Latin American and African Studies jointly
sponsored a two-day seminar on current issues in
agroforestry. The seminar, which examined interna-
tional as well as United States issues, included four
sessions. The first session addressed agroforestry
programs, projects and methodological approaches in
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the United States.


The second dealt with public policy issues as they
affect agroforestry. The third examined gender issues
in agroforestry as a development tool. Finally, the
fourth session evaluated the potential for the develop-
ment of agroforestry in Florida.
Speakers and panel members included University
of Florida faculty from a number of campus units, Dr.
F. Mergen from Yale University (since deceased), Dr.
J. Edwards from Florida A & M University, and several
current or retired representatives of governmental and
non-governmental development organizations. The
sessions were well-attended by University of Florida
students and faculty members.

International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry
In December of 1988, the University of Florida was
host to an international conference on professional
training and education in agroforestry. The first such
conference was held at Nairobi, Kenya in 1982 and
led to the inclusion of agroforestry in the curricula of
many institutions around the world. However, since
then, most educational initiatives have been isolated
activities, without common strategies or philosophies.
The workshop at the University of Florida was
planned to provide a forum for reviewing progress
sharing programs and experiences, and planning and
coordinating future directions in agroforestry educa-
tion and training.
The workshop had four main objectives:
to review on-going programs
to assess the scope of professional educa
tion and training in relation to the perceived
needs of trained personnel
to recommend guidelines for further
program development
to establish networking among institutions
and agencies involved in agroforestry
education and training
To accomplish these objectives, a select group of
leading experts, representing over 25 countries and
organizations worldwide, attended the conference.
During four days of seminars, discussions, and
intensive working group activity, the participants
produced a set of recommendations to guide the
future development of agroforestry training and
education. The proceedings of this conference were
published in Agroforestry Systems 12(1), and re-
printed in Agroforestry Education and Training:
Present and Future, 1990, P.K.R. Nair, H.L. Gholz
and M.L. Duryea (eds.), Dordrecht/Boston/London:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. The publication of the








Activities Supporting Graduate Education
The University of Florida provides agroforestry
graduate students numerous opportunities to partici-
pate in stimulating extracurricular activities related to
this field. Frequent seminars, both regularly sched-
uled departmental seminars and special seminars by
visiting experts, address agroforestry issues. As the
agroforestry program's reputation has grown, the
university has attracted an ever-increasing number of
agroforestry specialists from a variety of countries.
Some come to consult with faculty members, some to
observe the program, some specifically to present
seminars, and some to participate in specialized
events. Most of these visitors are pleased to give
seminars or informal presentations, and to meet with
the agroforestry students.
Two organized agroforestry meetings which were
held at the University of Florida in 1988 illustrate the
opportunities available to students. These meetings,
which are described in the next section, provided
students with the chance to attend a variety of semi-
nars and addresses, and to meet experts in the field.
Similarly, the agroforestry training courses held at the
University of Florida once every year since 1989 (as
described in the section titled USDA/UF Short Train-
ing Courses) provided students with the opportunity to
interact with their counterparts from around the world.
During the school year, the agroforestry graduate
students and interested faculty members hold infor-
mal fortnightly meetings. These meetings are de-
signed to encourage interaction among students and
faculty, to stimulate the sharing of ideas and informa-
tion, and to provide colleague support. Discussions
can focus on any topic of interest, for example,
student research proposals, agroforestry work experi-
ences, various aspects of agroforestry, available
opportunities, upcoming visitors, or relevant publica-
tions.

ORGANIZED AGROFORESTRY
MEETINGS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA

"Issues in Agroforestry" Seminar
In March of 1988, the Department of Forestry, the
Women in Agricultural Development Program, and the
Centers for Latin American and African Studies jointly
sponsored a two-day seminar on current issues in
agroforestry. The seminar, which examined interna-
tional as well as United States issues, included four
sessions. The first session addressed agroforestry
programs, projects and methodological approaches in
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the United States.


The second dealt with public policy issues as they
affect agroforestry. The third examined gender issues
in agroforestry as a development tool. Finally, the
fourth session evaluated the potential for the develop-
ment of agroforestry in Florida.
Speakers and panel members included University
of Florida faculty from a number of campus units, Dr.
F. Mergen from Yale University (since deceased), Dr.
J. Edwards from Florida A & M University, and several
current or retired representatives of governmental and
non-governmental development organizations. The
sessions were well-attended by University of Florida
students and faculty members.

International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry
In December of 1988, the University of Florida was
host to an international conference on professional
training and education in agroforestry. The first such
conference was held at Nairobi, Kenya in 1982 and
led to the inclusion of agroforestry in the curricula of
many institutions around the world. However, since
then, most educational initiatives have been isolated
activities, without common strategies or philosophies.
The workshop at the University of Florida was
planned to provide a forum for reviewing progress
sharing programs and experiences, and planning and
coordinating future directions in agroforestry educa-
tion and training.
The workshop had four main objectives:
to review on-going programs
to assess the scope of professional educa
tion and training in relation to the perceived
needs of trained personnel
to recommend guidelines for further
program development
to establish networking among institutions
and agencies involved in agroforestry
education and training
To accomplish these objectives, a select group of
leading experts, representing over 25 countries and
organizations worldwide, attended the conference.
During four days of seminars, discussions, and
intensive working group activity, the participants
produced a set of recommendations to guide the
future development of agroforestry training and
education. The proceedings of this conference were
published in Agroforestry Systems 12(1), and re-
printed in Agroforestry Education and Training:
Present and Future, 1990, P.K.R. Nair, H.L. Gholz
and M.L. Duryea (eds.), Dordrecht/Boston/London:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. The publication of the








Activities Supporting Graduate Education
The University of Florida provides agroforestry
graduate students numerous opportunities to partici-
pate in stimulating extracurricular activities related to
this field. Frequent seminars, both regularly sched-
uled departmental seminars and special seminars by
visiting experts, address agroforestry issues. As the
agroforestry program's reputation has grown, the
university has attracted an ever-increasing number of
agroforestry specialists from a variety of countries.
Some come to consult with faculty members, some to
observe the program, some specifically to present
seminars, and some to participate in specialized
events. Most of these visitors are pleased to give
seminars or informal presentations, and to meet with
the agroforestry students.
Two organized agroforestry meetings which were
held at the University of Florida in 1988 illustrate the
opportunities available to students. These meetings,
which are described in the next section, provided
students with the chance to attend a variety of semi-
nars and addresses, and to meet experts in the field.
Similarly, the agroforestry training courses held at the
University of Florida once every year since 1989 (as
described in the section titled USDA/UF Short Train-
ing Courses) provided students with the opportunity to
interact with their counterparts from around the world.
During the school year, the agroforestry graduate
students and interested faculty members hold infor-
mal fortnightly meetings. These meetings are de-
signed to encourage interaction among students and
faculty, to stimulate the sharing of ideas and informa-
tion, and to provide colleague support. Discussions
can focus on any topic of interest, for example,
student research proposals, agroforestry work experi-
ences, various aspects of agroforestry, available
opportunities, upcoming visitors, or relevant publica-
tions.

ORGANIZED AGROFORESTRY
MEETINGS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA

"Issues in Agroforestry" Seminar
In March of 1988, the Department of Forestry, the
Women in Agricultural Development Program, and the
Centers for Latin American and African Studies jointly
sponsored a two-day seminar on current issues in
agroforestry. The seminar, which examined interna-
tional as well as United States issues, included four
sessions. The first session addressed agroforestry
programs, projects and methodological approaches in
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the United States.


The second dealt with public policy issues as they
affect agroforestry. The third examined gender issues
in agroforestry as a development tool. Finally, the
fourth session evaluated the potential for the develop-
ment of agroforestry in Florida.
Speakers and panel members included University
of Florida faculty from a number of campus units, Dr.
F. Mergen from Yale University (since deceased), Dr.
J. Edwards from Florida A & M University, and several
current or retired representatives of governmental and
non-governmental development organizations. The
sessions were well-attended by University of Florida
students and faculty members.

International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry
In December of 1988, the University of Florida was
host to an international conference on professional
training and education in agroforestry. The first such
conference was held at Nairobi, Kenya in 1982 and
led to the inclusion of agroforestry in the curricula of
many institutions around the world. However, since
then, most educational initiatives have been isolated
activities, without common strategies or philosophies.
The workshop at the University of Florida was
planned to provide a forum for reviewing progress
sharing programs and experiences, and planning and
coordinating future directions in agroforestry educa-
tion and training.
The workshop had four main objectives:
to review on-going programs
to assess the scope of professional educa
tion and training in relation to the perceived
needs of trained personnel
to recommend guidelines for further
program development
to establish networking among institutions
and agencies involved in agroforestry
education and training
To accomplish these objectives, a select group of
leading experts, representing over 25 countries and
organizations worldwide, attended the conference.
During four days of seminars, discussions, and
intensive working group activity, the participants
produced a set of recommendations to guide the
future development of agroforestry training and
education. The proceedings of this conference were
published in Agroforestry Systems 12(1), and re-
printed in Agroforestry Education and Training:
Present and Future, 1990, P.K.R. Nair, H.L. Gholz
and M.L. Duryea (eds.), Dordrecht/Boston/London:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. The publication of the








Activities Supporting Graduate Education
The University of Florida provides agroforestry
graduate students numerous opportunities to partici-
pate in stimulating extracurricular activities related to
this field. Frequent seminars, both regularly sched-
uled departmental seminars and special seminars by
visiting experts, address agroforestry issues. As the
agroforestry program's reputation has grown, the
university has attracted an ever-increasing number of
agroforestry specialists from a variety of countries.
Some come to consult with faculty members, some to
observe the program, some specifically to present
seminars, and some to participate in specialized
events. Most of these visitors are pleased to give
seminars or informal presentations, and to meet with
the agroforestry students.
Two organized agroforestry meetings which were
held at the University of Florida in 1988 illustrate the
opportunities available to students. These meetings,
which are described in the next section, provided
students with the chance to attend a variety of semi-
nars and addresses, and to meet experts in the field.
Similarly, the agroforestry training courses held at the
University of Florida once every year since 1989 (as
described in the section titled USDA/UF Short Train-
ing Courses) provided students with the opportunity to
interact with their counterparts from around the world.
During the school year, the agroforestry graduate
students and interested faculty members hold infor-
mal fortnightly meetings. These meetings are de-
signed to encourage interaction among students and
faculty, to stimulate the sharing of ideas and informa-
tion, and to provide colleague support. Discussions
can focus on any topic of interest, for example,
student research proposals, agroforestry work experi-
ences, various aspects of agroforestry, available
opportunities, upcoming visitors, or relevant publica-
tions.

ORGANIZED AGROFORESTRY
MEETINGS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA

"Issues in Agroforestry" Seminar
In March of 1988, the Department of Forestry, the
Women in Agricultural Development Program, and the
Centers for Latin American and African Studies jointly
sponsored a two-day seminar on current issues in
agroforestry. The seminar, which examined interna-
tional as well as United States issues, included four
sessions. The first session addressed agroforestry
programs, projects and methodological approaches in
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the United States.


The second dealt with public policy issues as they
affect agroforestry. The third examined gender issues
in agroforestry as a development tool. Finally, the
fourth session evaluated the potential for the develop-
ment of agroforestry in Florida.
Speakers and panel members included University
of Florida faculty from a number of campus units, Dr.
F. Mergen from Yale University (since deceased), Dr.
J. Edwards from Florida A & M University, and several
current or retired representatives of governmental and
non-governmental development organizations. The
sessions were well-attended by University of Florida
students and faculty members.

International Workshop on Professional
Education and Training in Agroforestry
In December of 1988, the University of Florida was
host to an international conference on professional
training and education in agroforestry. The first such
conference was held at Nairobi, Kenya in 1982 and
led to the inclusion of agroforestry in the curricula of
many institutions around the world. However, since
then, most educational initiatives have been isolated
activities, without common strategies or philosophies.
The workshop at the University of Florida was
planned to provide a forum for reviewing progress
sharing programs and experiences, and planning and
coordinating future directions in agroforestry educa-
tion and training.
The workshop had four main objectives:
to review on-going programs
to assess the scope of professional educa
tion and training in relation to the perceived
needs of trained personnel
to recommend guidelines for further
program development
to establish networking among institutions
and agencies involved in agroforestry
education and training
To accomplish these objectives, a select group of
leading experts, representing over 25 countries and
organizations worldwide, attended the conference.
During four days of seminars, discussions, and
intensive working group activity, the participants
produced a set of recommendations to guide the
future development of agroforestry training and
education. The proceedings of this conference were
published in Agroforestry Systems 12(1), and re-
printed in Agroforestry Education and Training:
Present and Future, 1990, P.K.R. Nair, H.L. Gholz
and M.L. Duryea (eds.), Dordrecht/Boston/London:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. The publication of the







proceedings was facilitated by a grant from the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID),
Bureau of Science & Technology, Division of Forestry,
Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C.

USDA/UF Short Training Courses in Agroforestry
In 1989, the Agroforestry Program was awarded a
5-year contract by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) OICD/ITD to teach a course in "Agroforestry
Extension and Training" (Short Course USDA TC 170-
5). This course is designed specifically for mid-level
professionals from developing countries who are
involved with the promotion among small farmers of
land-use systems that integrate agriculture, forestry
and livestock production. Most participants have
backgrounds in fields such as agronomy, forestry,
horticulture, extension and/or animal science, and
more than half have advanced degrees in their fields
of expertise. The course's focus on individuals who
are actively involved in natural resource management,
decision-making and extension in their home coun-
tries permits the Agroforestry Program to play an
active role in the effective introduction of agroforestry
techniques to developing countries around the world.
During the first two years that it has been offered
(1989 and 1990), the course has trained 38 individu-
als from 14 developing countries (Appendix 5).
With an emphasis on the humid tropics (the region
where much of the world's agricultural expansion is
occurring), the course concentrates on four general
areas:
the principles, concepts, and potentials of
agroforestry;
agroforestry practices and technologies;
diagnosis, design and evaluation procedures
(including socio-economic and biophysical
aspects of land-use systems); and
the development of agroforestry technolo
gies and extension techniques that are
applicable in the participants' home
countries.
The course uses a varied methodology in order to
impart the course material in the most effective
manner. Presentations and discussions are used to
introduce and analyze the various course topics.
Class exercises permit participants to assess and
build upon their agroforestry backgrounds through
active participation and practice. A one-week field trip
to Haiti, or another appropriate developing country,
provides "hands-on" experience in the use of Diagno-
sis and Design techniques. Finally, each participant


uses the course concepts to develop an agroforestry
strategy that can be applied in his or her home country.
The course is taught each summer by Dr. P.K.R.
Nair, in association with various University of Florida
faculty members, and special resource persons from
other institutions. During the two years the training
course has been offered, researchers from ICRAF
have provided training in their areas of specialization.
Trainees are funded by sponsoring agencies such as
USAID, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of
the United Nations, and the World Bank, as well as by
their home countries. The course also offers an
option to earn three graduate-level course credits
from the University of Florida.
In continuation of the 1990 short course, a special
one-week Agroforestry Training Workshop, focusing
on special research and training needs in agroforestry
development in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, was
organized for the five Brazilian scientists who at-
tended the course. This activity was supported by a
special grant from the USDA/International Forestry.

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS

Computer-Based Agroforestry Expert System
Often, the successful implementation of
agroforestry systems is hampered by inadequate
analytical tools and the lack of a detailed information
base. Therefore it is important to develop easy-to-use
methodologies that will allow users to extrapolate the
benefits of indigenous agroforestry systems to other
potential sites. Computer-based expert systems that
integrate available information are being increasingly
used in agricultural decision-making to solve problems
that would ordinarily require the services of an expert.
The University of Florida Agroforestry Program was
actively involved in the development of one such
system, the pioneering program known as the United
Nations University Agroforestry Expert System
(UNU-AES).
The UNU-AES was developed (with financial
support from the UNU and in scientific collaboration
with the George Mason University, Virginia) to aid in
agroforestry cropping decisions, specifically with
regard to alley cropping. The performance criterion of
this program is that each time it is used it gives the
same advice as would a recognized expert in the
field. In actual application, the program asks the user
pertinent agronomic questions or qualifiers concern-
ing rainfall, altitude, slope and site soil characteristics.
Based on this input, the UNU-AES generates specific
recommendations for up to five appropriate tree







proceedings was facilitated by a grant from the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID),
Bureau of Science & Technology, Division of Forestry,
Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C.

USDA/UF Short Training Courses in Agroforestry
In 1989, the Agroforestry Program was awarded a
5-year contract by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) OICD/ITD to teach a course in "Agroforestry
Extension and Training" (Short Course USDA TC 170-
5). This course is designed specifically for mid-level
professionals from developing countries who are
involved with the promotion among small farmers of
land-use systems that integrate agriculture, forestry
and livestock production. Most participants have
backgrounds in fields such as agronomy, forestry,
horticulture, extension and/or animal science, and
more than half have advanced degrees in their fields
of expertise. The course's focus on individuals who
are actively involved in natural resource management,
decision-making and extension in their home coun-
tries permits the Agroforestry Program to play an
active role in the effective introduction of agroforestry
techniques to developing countries around the world.
During the first two years that it has been offered
(1989 and 1990), the course has trained 38 individu-
als from 14 developing countries (Appendix 5).
With an emphasis on the humid tropics (the region
where much of the world's agricultural expansion is
occurring), the course concentrates on four general
areas:
the principles, concepts, and potentials of
agroforestry;
agroforestry practices and technologies;
diagnosis, design and evaluation procedures
(including socio-economic and biophysical
aspects of land-use systems); and
the development of agroforestry technolo
gies and extension techniques that are
applicable in the participants' home
countries.
The course uses a varied methodology in order to
impart the course material in the most effective
manner. Presentations and discussions are used to
introduce and analyze the various course topics.
Class exercises permit participants to assess and
build upon their agroforestry backgrounds through
active participation and practice. A one-week field trip
to Haiti, or another appropriate developing country,
provides "hands-on" experience in the use of Diagno-
sis and Design techniques. Finally, each participant


uses the course concepts to develop an agroforestry
strategy that can be applied in his or her home country.
The course is taught each summer by Dr. P.K.R.
Nair, in association with various University of Florida
faculty members, and special resource persons from
other institutions. During the two years the training
course has been offered, researchers from ICRAF
have provided training in their areas of specialization.
Trainees are funded by sponsoring agencies such as
USAID, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of
the United Nations, and the World Bank, as well as by
their home countries. The course also offers an
option to earn three graduate-level course credits
from the University of Florida.
In continuation of the 1990 short course, a special
one-week Agroforestry Training Workshop, focusing
on special research and training needs in agroforestry
development in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, was
organized for the five Brazilian scientists who at-
tended the course. This activity was supported by a
special grant from the USDA/International Forestry.

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS

Computer-Based Agroforestry Expert System
Often, the successful implementation of
agroforestry systems is hampered by inadequate
analytical tools and the lack of a detailed information
base. Therefore it is important to develop easy-to-use
methodologies that will allow users to extrapolate the
benefits of indigenous agroforestry systems to other
potential sites. Computer-based expert systems that
integrate available information are being increasingly
used in agricultural decision-making to solve problems
that would ordinarily require the services of an expert.
The University of Florida Agroforestry Program was
actively involved in the development of one such
system, the pioneering program known as the United
Nations University Agroforestry Expert System
(UNU-AES).
The UNU-AES was developed (with financial
support from the UNU and in scientific collaboration
with the George Mason University, Virginia) to aid in
agroforestry cropping decisions, specifically with
regard to alley cropping. The performance criterion of
this program is that each time it is used it gives the
same advice as would a recognized expert in the
field. In actual application, the program asks the user
pertinent agronomic questions or qualifiers concern-
ing rainfall, altitude, slope and site soil characteristics.
Based on this input, the UNU-AES generates specific
recommendations for up to five appropriate tree







proceedings was facilitated by a grant from the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID),
Bureau of Science & Technology, Division of Forestry,
Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C.

USDA/UF Short Training Courses in Agroforestry
In 1989, the Agroforestry Program was awarded a
5-year contract by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) OICD/ITD to teach a course in "Agroforestry
Extension and Training" (Short Course USDA TC 170-
5). This course is designed specifically for mid-level
professionals from developing countries who are
involved with the promotion among small farmers of
land-use systems that integrate agriculture, forestry
and livestock production. Most participants have
backgrounds in fields such as agronomy, forestry,
horticulture, extension and/or animal science, and
more than half have advanced degrees in their fields
of expertise. The course's focus on individuals who
are actively involved in natural resource management,
decision-making and extension in their home coun-
tries permits the Agroforestry Program to play an
active role in the effective introduction of agroforestry
techniques to developing countries around the world.
During the first two years that it has been offered
(1989 and 1990), the course has trained 38 individu-
als from 14 developing countries (Appendix 5).
With an emphasis on the humid tropics (the region
where much of the world's agricultural expansion is
occurring), the course concentrates on four general
areas:
the principles, concepts, and potentials of
agroforestry;
agroforestry practices and technologies;
diagnosis, design and evaluation procedures
(including socio-economic and biophysical
aspects of land-use systems); and
the development of agroforestry technolo
gies and extension techniques that are
applicable in the participants' home
countries.
The course uses a varied methodology in order to
impart the course material in the most effective
manner. Presentations and discussions are used to
introduce and analyze the various course topics.
Class exercises permit participants to assess and
build upon their agroforestry backgrounds through
active participation and practice. A one-week field trip
to Haiti, or another appropriate developing country,
provides "hands-on" experience in the use of Diagno-
sis and Design techniques. Finally, each participant


uses the course concepts to develop an agroforestry
strategy that can be applied in his or her home country.
The course is taught each summer by Dr. P.K.R.
Nair, in association with various University of Florida
faculty members, and special resource persons from
other institutions. During the two years the training
course has been offered, researchers from ICRAF
have provided training in their areas of specialization.
Trainees are funded by sponsoring agencies such as
USAID, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of
the United Nations, and the World Bank, as well as by
their home countries. The course also offers an
option to earn three graduate-level course credits
from the University of Florida.
In continuation of the 1990 short course, a special
one-week Agroforestry Training Workshop, focusing
on special research and training needs in agroforestry
development in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, was
organized for the five Brazilian scientists who at-
tended the course. This activity was supported by a
special grant from the USDA/International Forestry.

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS

Computer-Based Agroforestry Expert System
Often, the successful implementation of
agroforestry systems is hampered by inadequate
analytical tools and the lack of a detailed information
base. Therefore it is important to develop easy-to-use
methodologies that will allow users to extrapolate the
benefits of indigenous agroforestry systems to other
potential sites. Computer-based expert systems that
integrate available information are being increasingly
used in agricultural decision-making to solve problems
that would ordinarily require the services of an expert.
The University of Florida Agroforestry Program was
actively involved in the development of one such
system, the pioneering program known as the United
Nations University Agroforestry Expert System
(UNU-AES).
The UNU-AES was developed (with financial
support from the UNU and in scientific collaboration
with the George Mason University, Virginia) to aid in
agroforestry cropping decisions, specifically with
regard to alley cropping. The performance criterion of
this program is that each time it is used it gives the
same advice as would a recognized expert in the
field. In actual application, the program asks the user
pertinent agronomic questions or qualifiers concern-
ing rainfall, altitude, slope and site soil characteristics.
Based on this input, the UNU-AES generates specific
recommendations for up to five appropriate tree







proceedings was facilitated by a grant from the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID),
Bureau of Science & Technology, Division of Forestry,
Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C.

USDA/UF Short Training Courses in Agroforestry
In 1989, the Agroforestry Program was awarded a
5-year contract by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) OICD/ITD to teach a course in "Agroforestry
Extension and Training" (Short Course USDA TC 170-
5). This course is designed specifically for mid-level
professionals from developing countries who are
involved with the promotion among small farmers of
land-use systems that integrate agriculture, forestry
and livestock production. Most participants have
backgrounds in fields such as agronomy, forestry,
horticulture, extension and/or animal science, and
more than half have advanced degrees in their fields
of expertise. The course's focus on individuals who
are actively involved in natural resource management,
decision-making and extension in their home coun-
tries permits the Agroforestry Program to play an
active role in the effective introduction of agroforestry
techniques to developing countries around the world.
During the first two years that it has been offered
(1989 and 1990), the course has trained 38 individu-
als from 14 developing countries (Appendix 5).
With an emphasis on the humid tropics (the region
where much of the world's agricultural expansion is
occurring), the course concentrates on four general
areas:
the principles, concepts, and potentials of
agroforestry;
agroforestry practices and technologies;
diagnosis, design and evaluation procedures
(including socio-economic and biophysical
aspects of land-use systems); and
the development of agroforestry technolo
gies and extension techniques that are
applicable in the participants' home
countries.
The course uses a varied methodology in order to
impart the course material in the most effective
manner. Presentations and discussions are used to
introduce and analyze the various course topics.
Class exercises permit participants to assess and
build upon their agroforestry backgrounds through
active participation and practice. A one-week field trip
to Haiti, or another appropriate developing country,
provides "hands-on" experience in the use of Diagno-
sis and Design techniques. Finally, each participant


uses the course concepts to develop an agroforestry
strategy that can be applied in his or her home country.
The course is taught each summer by Dr. P.K.R.
Nair, in association with various University of Florida
faculty members, and special resource persons from
other institutions. During the two years the training
course has been offered, researchers from ICRAF
have provided training in their areas of specialization.
Trainees are funded by sponsoring agencies such as
USAID, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of
the United Nations, and the World Bank, as well as by
their home countries. The course also offers an
option to earn three graduate-level course credits
from the University of Florida.
In continuation of the 1990 short course, a special
one-week Agroforestry Training Workshop, focusing
on special research and training needs in agroforestry
development in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, was
organized for the five Brazilian scientists who at-
tended the course. This activity was supported by a
special grant from the USDA/International Forestry.

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS

Computer-Based Agroforestry Expert System
Often, the successful implementation of
agroforestry systems is hampered by inadequate
analytical tools and the lack of a detailed information
base. Therefore it is important to develop easy-to-use
methodologies that will allow users to extrapolate the
benefits of indigenous agroforestry systems to other
potential sites. Computer-based expert systems that
integrate available information are being increasingly
used in agricultural decision-making to solve problems
that would ordinarily require the services of an expert.
The University of Florida Agroforestry Program was
actively involved in the development of one such
system, the pioneering program known as the United
Nations University Agroforestry Expert System
(UNU-AES).
The UNU-AES was developed (with financial
support from the UNU and in scientific collaboration
with the George Mason University, Virginia) to aid in
agroforestry cropping decisions, specifically with
regard to alley cropping. The performance criterion of
this program is that each time it is used it gives the
same advice as would a recognized expert in the
field. In actual application, the program asks the user
pertinent agronomic questions or qualifiers concern-
ing rainfall, altitude, slope and site soil characteristics.
Based on this input, the UNU-AES generates specific
recommendations for up to five appropriate tree









species, their optimum hedgerow spacings and the
corresponding confidence values.
The UNU-AES is just a beginning in this potentially
promising field; there are immense possibilities for
improvement and expansion of the system. As well as
additional agronomic qualifiers, data pertaining to
farm and farmer socio-economic characteristics can
be included to make the system more useful for
decision making. Mark Follis, a Ph.D. student, is
currently working in this area. For more information
on the UNU-AES refer to: Warkentin, M.E., P.K.R.
Nair, S.R. Ruth, and K. Sprague. 1990. A knowledge-
based expert system for planning and design of
agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 11: 71-83.

Agroforestry/Agroecozone Matrix
The voluminous information that is available on
different agroforestry systems in various parts of the
world is the basis of this study. It attempts to provide
specific recommendations on the most appropriate
agroforestry systems and practices for different parts
of the world. The extremely site-specific nature of
agroforestry, conditioned by biophysical and socio-
cultural characteristics, poses serious difficulties in
developing such precise recommendations of wider
applicability. At the same time, development agen-
cies and donors with global mandate, such as the
World Bank, need comprehensive yet brief informa-
tion for facilitating policy formulations with wider
applicability.
This study is being conducted, under these circum-
stances, to develop a practical approach to the design
of agroforestry systems. It evaluates a few promising
agroforestry practices in terms of their potentials, as
well as their ecological adaptability. It then develops
a matrix of "agroforestry practices versus agro-
ecological conditions" that may be used as a basis for
the design of agroforestry systems.

Methodologies for Evaluation of Agroforestry
Systems
The criteria, methodologies and procedures for
evaluating indigenous agroforestry systems in terms
of biological, economic and ecological characteristics
are the scope of this study. Although it is initially
targeted specifically to India, the recommended
procedures could eventually be applied to other parts
of world as well. The study is being conducted in
collaboration with two scientists from India, who are
attached to the University of Florida's Agroforestry
Program from January to June, 1991 (with financial
support of USAID/Winrock International).


Representative Abstracts of Graduate Student
Research
This section presents several abstracts of research
that is being conducted, or will soon be initiated, by
graduate students in the Agroforestry Program.
These abstracts are intended only to illustrate the
range of graduate research interests, and are by no
means a comprehensive listing of all such research
activities.
Pruning Regimes, Reserve Carbohydrates, and
Biomass Production of Trees In Alley Cropping
Systems
Graduate Students: Thomas Erdmann
(1990-1991)
Christopher Latt
(1991-1992)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria
Donor/Collaborator: IITA (Dr. B.T. Kang)

Alley cropping is a promising agricultural technol-
ogy for the humid tropics. Developed through the
pioneering efforts of Dr. Kang and others at IITA,
Nigeria, this technique has received increasing
research attention throughout the tropics in recent
years. A number of studies have examined the effect
of pruning height and intensity on subsequent bio-
mass production of hedgerow trees in alley cropping
systems. However, little research has focused on the
topic addressed by this study: the interaction among
pruning regimes, seasonality, nonstructural carbohy-
drate levels and composition, and post-pruning
biomass production in alley-crop trees (specifically
Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium). An
increased understanding of these factors will contrib-
ute to the development of more efficient and produc-
tive management strategies for alley cropping sys-
tems and will, thus, enhance farmer benefits.
Canopy Development and Light Transmission of
Three Leguminous Tree Species in an Agroforestry
System in Costa Rica

Graduate Student: Reinhold G. Muschler
(1990-1991)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: CATIE/Costa Rica
Donor/Collaborator: CATIE/GTZ Program:
Dr. Arnim Bonnemann
Canopy development and light transmission of
photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm)
of crowns of Erythrina berteroana, Erythrina fusca and









species, their optimum hedgerow spacings and the
corresponding confidence values.
The UNU-AES is just a beginning in this potentially
promising field; there are immense possibilities for
improvement and expansion of the system. As well as
additional agronomic qualifiers, data pertaining to
farm and farmer socio-economic characteristics can
be included to make the system more useful for
decision making. Mark Follis, a Ph.D. student, is
currently working in this area. For more information
on the UNU-AES refer to: Warkentin, M.E., P.K.R.
Nair, S.R. Ruth, and K. Sprague. 1990. A knowledge-
based expert system for planning and design of
agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 11: 71-83.

Agroforestry/Agroecozone Matrix
The voluminous information that is available on
different agroforestry systems in various parts of the
world is the basis of this study. It attempts to provide
specific recommendations on the most appropriate
agroforestry systems and practices for different parts
of the world. The extremely site-specific nature of
agroforestry, conditioned by biophysical and socio-
cultural characteristics, poses serious difficulties in
developing such precise recommendations of wider
applicability. At the same time, development agen-
cies and donors with global mandate, such as the
World Bank, need comprehensive yet brief informa-
tion for facilitating policy formulations with wider
applicability.
This study is being conducted, under these circum-
stances, to develop a practical approach to the design
of agroforestry systems. It evaluates a few promising
agroforestry practices in terms of their potentials, as
well as their ecological adaptability. It then develops
a matrix of "agroforestry practices versus agro-
ecological conditions" that may be used as a basis for
the design of agroforestry systems.

Methodologies for Evaluation of Agroforestry
Systems
The criteria, methodologies and procedures for
evaluating indigenous agroforestry systems in terms
of biological, economic and ecological characteristics
are the scope of this study. Although it is initially
targeted specifically to India, the recommended
procedures could eventually be applied to other parts
of world as well. The study is being conducted in
collaboration with two scientists from India, who are
attached to the University of Florida's Agroforestry
Program from January to June, 1991 (with financial
support of USAID/Winrock International).


Representative Abstracts of Graduate Student
Research
This section presents several abstracts of research
that is being conducted, or will soon be initiated, by
graduate students in the Agroforestry Program.
These abstracts are intended only to illustrate the
range of graduate research interests, and are by no
means a comprehensive listing of all such research
activities.
Pruning Regimes, Reserve Carbohydrates, and
Biomass Production of Trees In Alley Cropping
Systems
Graduate Students: Thomas Erdmann
(1990-1991)
Christopher Latt
(1991-1992)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria
Donor/Collaborator: IITA (Dr. B.T. Kang)

Alley cropping is a promising agricultural technol-
ogy for the humid tropics. Developed through the
pioneering efforts of Dr. Kang and others at IITA,
Nigeria, this technique has received increasing
research attention throughout the tropics in recent
years. A number of studies have examined the effect
of pruning height and intensity on subsequent bio-
mass production of hedgerow trees in alley cropping
systems. However, little research has focused on the
topic addressed by this study: the interaction among
pruning regimes, seasonality, nonstructural carbohy-
drate levels and composition, and post-pruning
biomass production in alley-crop trees (specifically
Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium). An
increased understanding of these factors will contrib-
ute to the development of more efficient and produc-
tive management strategies for alley cropping sys-
tems and will, thus, enhance farmer benefits.
Canopy Development and Light Transmission of
Three Leguminous Tree Species in an Agroforestry
System in Costa Rica

Graduate Student: Reinhold G. Muschler
(1990-1991)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: CATIE/Costa Rica
Donor/Collaborator: CATIE/GTZ Program:
Dr. Arnim Bonnemann
Canopy development and light transmission of
photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm)
of crowns of Erythrina berteroana, Erythrina fusca and









species, their optimum hedgerow spacings and the
corresponding confidence values.
The UNU-AES is just a beginning in this potentially
promising field; there are immense possibilities for
improvement and expansion of the system. As well as
additional agronomic qualifiers, data pertaining to
farm and farmer socio-economic characteristics can
be included to make the system more useful for
decision making. Mark Follis, a Ph.D. student, is
currently working in this area. For more information
on the UNU-AES refer to: Warkentin, M.E., P.K.R.
Nair, S.R. Ruth, and K. Sprague. 1990. A knowledge-
based expert system for planning and design of
agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 11: 71-83.

Agroforestry/Agroecozone Matrix
The voluminous information that is available on
different agroforestry systems in various parts of the
world is the basis of this study. It attempts to provide
specific recommendations on the most appropriate
agroforestry systems and practices for different parts
of the world. The extremely site-specific nature of
agroforestry, conditioned by biophysical and socio-
cultural characteristics, poses serious difficulties in
developing such precise recommendations of wider
applicability. At the same time, development agen-
cies and donors with global mandate, such as the
World Bank, need comprehensive yet brief informa-
tion for facilitating policy formulations with wider
applicability.
This study is being conducted, under these circum-
stances, to develop a practical approach to the design
of agroforestry systems. It evaluates a few promising
agroforestry practices in terms of their potentials, as
well as their ecological adaptability. It then develops
a matrix of "agroforestry practices versus agro-
ecological conditions" that may be used as a basis for
the design of agroforestry systems.

Methodologies for Evaluation of Agroforestry
Systems
The criteria, methodologies and procedures for
evaluating indigenous agroforestry systems in terms
of biological, economic and ecological characteristics
are the scope of this study. Although it is initially
targeted specifically to India, the recommended
procedures could eventually be applied to other parts
of world as well. The study is being conducted in
collaboration with two scientists from India, who are
attached to the University of Florida's Agroforestry
Program from January to June, 1991 (with financial
support of USAID/Winrock International).


Representative Abstracts of Graduate Student
Research
This section presents several abstracts of research
that is being conducted, or will soon be initiated, by
graduate students in the Agroforestry Program.
These abstracts are intended only to illustrate the
range of graduate research interests, and are by no
means a comprehensive listing of all such research
activities.
Pruning Regimes, Reserve Carbohydrates, and
Biomass Production of Trees In Alley Cropping
Systems
Graduate Students: Thomas Erdmann
(1990-1991)
Christopher Latt
(1991-1992)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria
Donor/Collaborator: IITA (Dr. B.T. Kang)

Alley cropping is a promising agricultural technol-
ogy for the humid tropics. Developed through the
pioneering efforts of Dr. Kang and others at IITA,
Nigeria, this technique has received increasing
research attention throughout the tropics in recent
years. A number of studies have examined the effect
of pruning height and intensity on subsequent bio-
mass production of hedgerow trees in alley cropping
systems. However, little research has focused on the
topic addressed by this study: the interaction among
pruning regimes, seasonality, nonstructural carbohy-
drate levels and composition, and post-pruning
biomass production in alley-crop trees (specifically
Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium). An
increased understanding of these factors will contrib-
ute to the development of more efficient and produc-
tive management strategies for alley cropping sys-
tems and will, thus, enhance farmer benefits.
Canopy Development and Light Transmission of
Three Leguminous Tree Species in an Agroforestry
System in Costa Rica

Graduate Student: Reinhold G. Muschler
(1990-1991)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: CATIE/Costa Rica
Donor/Collaborator: CATIE/GTZ Program:
Dr. Arnim Bonnemann
Canopy development and light transmission of
photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm)
of crowns of Erythrina berteroana, Erythrina fusca and








Gliricidia sepium were measured monthly during one
pollarding cycle of six months on two field sites of the
CATIE/GTZ project in the Atlantic lowlands of
Talamanca, Costa Rica. These trees had been
established as live supports for black pepper
(Piper nigrum).
While G. sepium had slender, columnar crowns
composed of long, erect branches, the crowns of
Erythrina spp. were very compact. Leaf biomass
production was highest for E. berteroana, followed by
E. fusca and G. sepium. PAR-transmission in the
shade of the crowns ranged from 27% two months
after pollarding to less than 5% after six months.
Averaging light transmission over shaded and non-
shaded areas, and over different times of day,
showed that after six months, 35%, 52% and 69% of
PAR was transmitted in the stands of E. berteroana,
E. fusca and G. sepium.
The study suggests that G. sepium is better than
either Erythrina spp. as a live-support for light-
demanding crops such as P. nigrum. Further, the
pollarding/pruning schedule should be adjusted for
each tree species according to its crown development
and phenology. For the Erythrina species, the
currently-practiced six-month pollarding regime could
be replaced by more frequent, but only partial pruning
operations.
Government Policy and Agroforestry

Graduate Student: Mark Follis (1991-1992)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: Ecuador
Donor/Collaborator: USAID, Ecuador/Development
Strategies for Fragile
Lands Project
National agricultural and land-use policies of many
Latin American countries have historically favored the
large-scale, monocultural production of market-
oriented commodity crops. As a result, small farmers
have often been forced from productive lands and
onto marginal or forested areas. Their subsequent
activities have resulted in extensive deforestation, soil
erosion and watershed degradation. Although
agroforestry practices can address some of these
problems, their adoption is hindered by the lack of
effective national policies.
This study will examine the role of government
policy on the effectiveness of several ongoing
agroforestry projects in Ecuador. An important
component will be the development of an analytical
model to aid in the selection of agroforestry strate-
gies. Agronomic and socio-economic data gathered


from existing Ecuadorian agroforestry projects will be
used to develop microcomputer software to aid in
agroforestry decision making.
Indigenous Agroforestry and Soil Management
Practices of Small Farmers In Haiti

Graduate Student: Paul Campbell (1990-1991)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: Lascahobas, Haiti
Donor/Collaborator: Pan American Development
Foundation (PADF), Haiti
This study is examining the indigenous agroforestry
and soil management practices of resource-poor
farmers in mountain and lowland areas near
Lascahobas, Haiti. Primary data gathering is being
done via formal and informal interviews with farmers
in nine localities. Secondary data is being obtained
from documents in the archives of development
organizations that are active in the area. The infor-
mation obtained in this study will help PADF, which
has implemented a USAID-funded Agroforestry
Outreach Project in Haiti since 1981, continue to
refine its extension and research activities in order to
better address farmer needs.
Technology Transfer Methods in Agroforestry for
Resource-Limited Farmers in Jamaica
Graduate Student: Anne Todd-Bockarie (1991-
1992)
Graduate Advisor: Mary Duryea
Venue/Country: Jamaica
Donor/Collaborator: Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture
and the Ministry of Agriculture
(IICA/MINAG)
Intensive cultivation of steeply sloping fragile lands
has resulted in soil erosion and water management
problems, a marked decrease in agricultural produc-
tivity, and economic hardship for resource-limited
families in Jamaica. The IICA/MINAG subproject of
the Hillside Agricultural Project is attempting to
improve this situation by employing several different
technology transfer approaches to bring new
agroforestry technologies to farmers.
The purpose of this study is to analyze existing
extension practices and design alternative technology
transfer methods in agroforestry for use by research
and extension personnel in rural Jamaica. The study
will provide useful information for project planners on
how farmer learning, participation and decision-
making are integrated into the tree planting process.













Bashir Jama (1991-1992)
P.K.R. Nair
Machakos, Kenya
Rockefeller Foundation, New
York/ICRAF, Nairobi


Alley cropping, with appropriate modifications, is a
potentially useful agricultural strategy for semi-arid to
sub-humid regions with a bimodal rainfall pattern.
However, there are many technical and social prob-
lems that need to be addressed before recommend-
ing this technology to resource-poor farmers in such
regions.
This study will examine the soil improvement
potential of Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia
siamea grown in an alley cropping system. The
beneficial effects of combining trees and crops in
such a system will be partitioned and quantified in
terms of the effects of green-leaf manuring per se,
and in terms of effects attributable to causes other
than green-leaf manuring. On-station studies will be
conducted at the ICRAF Field Station in Machakos,
Kenya from an on-going field experiment involving
varying land occupancy ratios of hedges alley-
cropped with maize. These studies will be supple-
mented with "on-farm" surveys in local farmers' fields
to assess how the farmers may modify and adapt the
technology to their soil fertility, fodder and fuel needs.
Crop Growth and Moisture Depletion Patterns
Under Alley Cropping in Semi-arid Conditions in
Zambia
Graduate Student: Paxie W. Chirwa (1989-1991)
Graduate Advisor: P.K.R. Nair
Venue/Country: Chalimbana, Zambia
Donor/Collaborator: ICRAF, Zambia (Dr. C.S.
Kamara)
This study was conducted from an on-going alley-
cropping trial involving Leucaena leucocephala and
Flemingia macrophylla in the semi-arid (900mm,
unimodal rainfall), upland plateau (1200 m) region of
Zambia. Its objective was to assess the soil-moisture
depletion pattern in relation to crop (maize) growth
during one cropping season.
It was found that soil-moisture depletion was
significantly higher in fertilized plots than in
unfertilized plots, and was similar under the
hedgerows and maize rows. However, there was


Soil Fertility and Productivity Aspects of Alley
Cropping Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia
slamea Under Semi-arid Conditions at Machakos,
Kenya


Graduate Student:
Graduate Advisor:
Venue/Country:
Donor/Collaborator:


generally slightly less depletion under the hedgerows.
Leucaena produced more biomass than Flemingia,
but in unfertilized alleys, the application of Flemingia
prunings resulted in higher crop yields than did the
application of Leucaena prunings. In both fertilized
and unfertilized plots, maize growth was poorer in the
row nearest to the hedgerow than in rows farther
away. The difference was more pronounced in the
unfertilized than in the fertilized plots.
The results suggest that, under the conditions
present in this study, the water conservation effect of
prunings applied as mulch was the main benefit of the
alley cropping system. Hedgerow prunings incorpo-
rated into the soil did not contribute substantially to
the crop's nutrient needs or current season's growth.
Finally, Flemingia performed better as a hedgerow
species in this semi-arid region than did Leucaena, in
terms of influence on current season's crop growth.

Publications
Bannister, M.E. and Nair, P.K.R. 1990. Alley cropping
as a sustainable agricultural technology for the
hill sides of Haiti: Experience of an agroforestry
outreach project. Am. J. Alternative Agriculture
5:51-59.
Gholz, H.L. (ed.). 1987. Agroforestry: Realities,
Possibilities and Potentials. Martinus Nijhoff:
Boston.
Nair, P.K.R. (ed.). 1989. Agroforestry Systems in the
Tropics. Kluwer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
__. 1990. State-of-the-art of agroforestry systems.
In, Agroforestry: Principles and Practice. Proceed
ings of an International Conference. University of
Edinburgh, July 1989 (in press).
1990. The Prospects for Agroforestry in the
Tropics. World Bank Technical Paper Number
131. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Nair, P.K.R. and J.C. Dagar. 1991. Agroforestry in
India's rainfed agriculture: from anecdotes to
applied research. Paper presented at The Interna
tional Conference on Extension Strategy for
Minimizing Risk in Rainfed Agriculture, New Delhi,
India, April 6-12, 1991.
Nair, P.K.R., Gholz, H.L. and Duryea, M.L. (eds.).
1990. Agroforestry Education and Training:
Present and Future. Kluwer: Dordrecht,
the Netherlands.
Warkentin, M.E., Nair, P.K.R., Ruth, S.R. and
Sprague, K. 1990. A knowledge-based expert
system for planning and design of agroforestry
systems. Agroforestry Systems 11:71-83.








INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
As is obvious from the above narrative, the
Agroforestry Program, during its short period of
existence, has extended its influence around the
world. The University of Florida has hosted an
international conference to improve agroforestry
education and training. Graduate students from a
number of countries have received training and have
participated in agroforestry research in the United
States and abroad. Five-week Agroforestry and
Extension training courses have so far (1989 and
1990) been attended by 38 mid-level natural resource
managers from 14 countries. A comprehensive
(World-Bank published) report has synthesized
existing scientific information on agroforestry into a
package that can be used by development agencies.
In addition, the program leader has provided, and
continues to provide, technical backstopping to the
University of Florida International Programs Office on
agroforestry-related matters and projects. At the
request of various organizations, he has also under-
taken a number of consulting and evaluation mis-
sions. These include missions for Winrock Interna-
tional (India), Pan-American Development Foundation


(Haiti), Jamaica Agricultural Development Program
(Jamaica), the Asian Development Bank (Thailand),
and FAO of the United Nations.
As a result of these varied activities, the
Agroforestry Program at the University of Florida is
rapidly becoming a world leader in this fast-growing
field. The extent of its influence is perhaps best
illustrated by the following map which indicates the
Program's current field research sites and home
countries of participants in the training courses.
Although not indicated on the map, the variety of
home countries of graduate students, participants to
various meetings, and visitor/correspondence is
another clear indication of the increasing network of
collaborators and beneficiaries of the Program.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Within the relatively short period of its existence,
the Agroforestry Program has attracted a number of
external grants and contracts. A list of approved
grants and contracts is given as Appendix 6. Addi-
tionally, several other proposals/negotiations are
under way.


INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF UF/IFAS AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM

- LOCATIONS OF CURRENT (1990 -1991) RESEARCH ---- Training Course Participants








INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
As is obvious from the above narrative, the
Agroforestry Program, during its short period of
existence, has extended its influence around the
world. The University of Florida has hosted an
international conference to improve agroforestry
education and training. Graduate students from a
number of countries have received training and have
participated in agroforestry research in the United
States and abroad. Five-week Agroforestry and
Extension training courses have so far (1989 and
1990) been attended by 38 mid-level natural resource
managers from 14 countries. A comprehensive
(World-Bank published) report has synthesized
existing scientific information on agroforestry into a
package that can be used by development agencies.
In addition, the program leader has provided, and
continues to provide, technical backstopping to the
University of Florida International Programs Office on
agroforestry-related matters and projects. At the
request of various organizations, he has also under-
taken a number of consulting and evaluation mis-
sions. These include missions for Winrock Interna-
tional (India), Pan-American Development Foundation


(Haiti), Jamaica Agricultural Development Program
(Jamaica), the Asian Development Bank (Thailand),
and FAO of the United Nations.
As a result of these varied activities, the
Agroforestry Program at the University of Florida is
rapidly becoming a world leader in this fast-growing
field. The extent of its influence is perhaps best
illustrated by the following map which indicates the
Program's current field research sites and home
countries of participants in the training courses.
Although not indicated on the map, the variety of
home countries of graduate students, participants to
various meetings, and visitor/correspondence is
another clear indication of the increasing network of
collaborators and beneficiaries of the Program.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Within the relatively short period of its existence,
the Agroforestry Program has attracted a number of
external grants and contracts. A list of approved
grants and contracts is given as Appendix 6. Addi-
tionally, several other proposals/negotiations are
under way.


INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF UF/IFAS AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM

- LOCATIONS OF CURRENT (1990 -1991) RESEARCH ---- Training Course Participants








Appendix 1
AGROFORESTRY INTEREST GROUP:
PARTIAL LISTING OF PARTICIPATING
FACULTY MEMBERS
Agronomy
K.L. Buhr, C.E. Dean, E.C. French, R.S.
Kalmbacher (Ona), G.M. Prine, K.H. Quesenberry
Animal Science
J.H. Conrad, S.L. Russo
AnthropDlogy
G. Murray
Botany
J.J. Ewel, F.E. Putz
Center for African Studies
P.R. Schmidt
Center for Biomass Energy
W.H. Smith
Editorial
L.V. Crowder
Center for Latin American Studies
T.L. McCoy, K.H. Redford, S.E. Sanderson, M.C.
Schmink


Entomoloav/Nematology
C.S. Barfield, J.L. Capinera, E.L. Matheny, Jr.
Food and Resource Economics
P.E. Hildebrand, C.F. Kiker, U. Lele, L.W. Libby
Forestry
L.G. Arvanitis, M.L. Duryea, K.C. Ewel, H.L. Gholz,
A.L. Long, A.J. Mace, P.K.R. Nair (Agroforestry
Program Coordinator), N.A. Pywell, C.P.P. Reid,
R.S. Webb
Geography
A.C. Goldman, N.J. Smith
Home Economics
D.A. Tichenor, S.D. Smith
International Programs
H.L. Popenoe, M.E. Swisher
Soil Science
D.H. Hubbell, B.L. McNeal, D.G. Neary
Wildlife and Range Science

L.C. Branch, S.K. Jacobson, L.D. Harris, G.W.
Tanner

d~~ (r" C r









Appendix 2

GRADUATE STUDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM (as of
December, 1990)


Name


Alix, Joseph

Bannister, Michael

Bellows, Barbara

Bockarie, Anne


Campbell, Paul

Chirwa, Paxie

Clugston, Jay

Erdmann, Thomas

Faircloth, Delaney
Follis, Mark

Irwin, Kris

Jama, Bashir


Degree
sought

MF

PhD

PhD

MS

PhD
MS

MS

MS

MS

MS
PhD

MS

PhD


Kainer, Karen MS

Latt, Christopher PhD

Mayne,John PhD

Murphy, Timothy PhD

McCormac-Wild, Carol MS

McGrath, Deborah MS

Muschler, Reinhold MS

Omoro, Loice MS

Sequeira, Wilber PhD

Smith, Kenneth MS
Vega, Luis MF

Williams, Bradley MS


Date
enrolled

1/90

1/87

8/88

8/88

8/90
8/89

8/88

8/90

8/89

8/89
8/89

5/89

1/89


8/87

8/89

1/86

8/89

8/90

8/90

8/88

8/90

8/86

8/89
8/90

8/90


Research topic


Research
location (col


Home
county

Haiti

USA

USA

USA


USA

Malaw

USA

USA

USA
USA

USA

Kenya


USA

USA

USA

USA

USA

USA

FRG

Kenya

Costa

USA
Colum

USA


Major
ry Professor

Webb

Webb

Hubbell
(Soil Science)
Duryea


Nair

i Nair

Webb

Nair

Webb
Nair

Duryea

Nair


Duryea

Nair

Arvanitis

Nair

Duryea

Duryea

Nair

Nair

Rica Gholz

White
bia Long

Webb


Alley cropping for Haiti
soil conservation
Root/soil interactions; Haiti
on-farm research
Nutrient cycling and Costa Rica
fallow management
Germination of African US,W. Afric
tree seeds
Agroforestry extension Jamaica
Farmer adoption of Haiti
agroforestry practices
Moisture competition Zambia
in alley cropping
Essay test for Rhizobium Florida
strains
Regeneration of pruned Nigeria
agroforestry trees
Paulownia establishment Florida
Policy aspects of Ecuador
agroforestry
N nutrition of pine Florida
seedlings
Soil/plant interactions and Kenya
on-farm trials of
agroforestry
Native plant resources Brazil
in Acre
Reserve carbohydrates and Nigeria
biomass in pruned AF trees
Potassium dynamics in Costa Rica
agroforestry
Land-utilization changes N.E. Brazil
and agroforestry in Brazil
Effects of pine-straw Florida
removal on tree growth
Effects of packing methods Florida
on pine seedling physiology
Canopy development of Costa Rica
black pepper-shade trees
Soil conservation Kenya
and agroforestry
Light-canopy interactions Florida
in a pine-pasture system
Early selection in slash pine Florida
Fallow productivity-biomass/ Columbia
nutrient cycling
Agroforestry diagnosis and Jamaica
design


untry)








a









RECOMMENDED GRADUATE COURSES
FOR THE INTERDISCIPLINARY
AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM
Aaronomy Credit Hours

AGR 5226 Field plot techniques 2
AGR 5227 Tropical crop production 3
AGR 6233 Tropical pasture and forage science 4
AGR 6422 Crop nutrition 3
AGR 6442 Physiology of agronomic plants 4
AGR 6511 Crop ecology 4
AGG 5932 Agricultural development communication 3


Animal Science


ASG 5221 Animal production in the tropics
ANS 6452 Principles of forage quality evaluation

Anthropology

ANT 5256 Rural peoples of the modern world
ANT 5266 Economic anthropology
ANT 5267 Anthropology and development
ANT 5303 Women and Development


Botany


BOT 5505 Intermediate plant physiology
BOT 5685 Tropical botany
BOT 6356 Ecosystems of the tropics
BOT 6357 Tropical agriculture (OTS course)
BOT 6526 Plant nutrition
BOT 6566 Plant growth and development

Entomoloav

AGG 5505 Plant protection in tropical ecosystems

Food and Resource Economics

AGG 5813 Farming systems research and extension
methods
AEB 6182 Intermediate agricultural production
economics
AEB 6184 Economics of agricultural production
AEB 6453 Natural resource economics
AEB 6634 Agricultural development administration
AEB 6651 Agriculture's role in Latin America and
Africa

Forestry/Forest Resource and Conservation


Geograohy

GEO 5145 Remote sensing
GEO 5809 Geography of world agriculture
GEA 6468 Tropical resource use in Latin America

Horticultural Science

HOS 5616 Agricultural meteorology
HOS 6345 Environmental physiology of horticultural
crops

Plant Patholoav

PLP 5053 Tropical plant pathology

Political Science

PAD 6865 Development administration
CPO 6036 Politics in developing societies

Soil Science

SOS 5132 Tropical soils
SOS 5303 Soil microbiology
SOS 6136 Soil fertility
SOS 6233 Forest soils
SOS 6323 Advanced soil microbiology


STA 6166 Statistical methods in research I
4 STA 6167 Statistical methods in research II
STA 6207 Design and analysis of experiments I


FNR 5335 Agroforestry
WIS 5555 Conservation biology
FOR 6154 Analysis of forest ecosystems
FOR 6170 Tropical forestry
FOR 6340 Physiology of forest trees
FNR 6608 Research planning








Appendix 4


COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE GRADUATE
AGROFORESTRY COURSE (FNR 5335) -
As Taught in Spring, 1991.

1. The history, definition, concepts, and principles of
agroforestry (AF).
2. Examples of existing AF systems.
3. Agroforestry (developmental) pathways.
4. Classification of AF systems.
5. Ecosystem principles in AF: AF species crops; AF
species multipurpose trees, fast-growing N-fixing trees;
plant management in AF.
6. Soils aspects of AF: productivity management, conserve
tion, nutrient cycling.
7. Improved AF technologies: alley cropping, multipurpose
trees, mulching/green manuring, fodder banks, fuelwood
species.
8. Some case studies: silvopastoral systems in Florida, the
Haiti experience, homegardens in southeast Asia.
9. Socio-economic aspects: socio-cultural linkages in AF,
cost-benefit analysis, land tenure, gender issues in AF
10. Institutional aspects of AF: the dichotomy between
agriculture and forestry, institutional dilemma of AF.
11. Research in agroforestry: research methodologies and
criteria, the Diagnosis and Design approach, analysis and
interpretation of data in AF.


Appendix 5

HOME COUNTRIES OF THE
PARTICIPANTS IN THE 1989 AND 1990
AGROFORESTRY AND EXTENSION
TRAINING COURSES


Home Country

Bangladesh
Brazil
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Haiti
India
Jamaica
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Senegal
Somalia
Uganda

Total


Number of Participants


38








Appendix 4


COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE GRADUATE
AGROFORESTRY COURSE (FNR 5335) -
As Taught in Spring, 1991.

1. The history, definition, concepts, and principles of
agroforestry (AF).
2. Examples of existing AF systems.
3. Agroforestry (developmental) pathways.
4. Classification of AF systems.
5. Ecosystem principles in AF: AF species crops; AF
species multipurpose trees, fast-growing N-fixing trees;
plant management in AF.
6. Soils aspects of AF: productivity management, conserve
tion, nutrient cycling.
7. Improved AF technologies: alley cropping, multipurpose
trees, mulching/green manuring, fodder banks, fuelwood
species.
8. Some case studies: silvopastoral systems in Florida, the
Haiti experience, homegardens in southeast Asia.
9. Socio-economic aspects: socio-cultural linkages in AF,
cost-benefit analysis, land tenure, gender issues in AF
10. Institutional aspects of AF: the dichotomy between
agriculture and forestry, institutional dilemma of AF.
11. Research in agroforestry: research methodologies and
criteria, the Diagnosis and Design approach, analysis and
interpretation of data in AF.


Appendix 5

HOME COUNTRIES OF THE
PARTICIPANTS IN THE 1989 AND 1990
AGROFORESTRY AND EXTENSION
TRAINING COURSES


Home Country

Bangladesh
Brazil
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Haiti
India
Jamaica
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Senegal
Somalia
Uganda

Total


Number of Participants


38









Appendix 6


EXTERNAL GRANTS AND CONTRACTS TO THE AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM


Period Source Activity Amount $


1988



1988


The Ford Foundation
India


The Ford Foundation
Brazil


The United Nations
University, Tokyo

USDA, International
Training Division



USDA/International
Forestry
US AID
S&T/FENR

Winrock International

Rockefeller Foundation

US AID, Jamaica


$9,000



Travel and expenses
of 4 participants


$20,000


$37,500
base amount every year for15
participants plus additional
amount for each additional
participant
$30,000

$59,091


International
Workshop on
Professional Education
and Training
International
Workshop on
Professional Education
and Training
Development an
Agroforestry Expert
System
Five-week Agroforestry
Short Course; once



Training of five
Brazilian scientists
Follow-up to
Agroforestry Education
Workshop
Research Training for
two Indian scientists
African Diss.
Internship Award
Technical Support to
Agroforestry Project,
Jamaica


For further information on the program,
contact:

Dr. P.K.R. Nair
Professor of Agroforestry
Department of Forestry, IFAS
118 Newins Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-0303, USA

Telephone: (904) 392-4851
Telex: 568757 UF INTL
FAX: (904) 392-1707


$44,180

$25,062

$47,829


1988-1989


1989-1993


1990


1990-1991


1991

1991


1991-1993


















































































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