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Group Title: Notes in Soil Science - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service - No. 35 (revised)
Title: IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for agronomic crops
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066206/00001
 Material Information
Title: IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for agronomic crops
Alternate Title: Standardized fertilization recommendations for agronomic crops
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28.
Language: English
Creator: Kidder, Gerald, 1940-
Hanlon, Edward A ( Edward Aloysius ), 1946-
Chambliss, C. G ( Carrol Gene )
Publisher: University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Gerald Kidder, E.A. Hanlon, C.G. Chambliss.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 1990."
General Note: "Notes in soil science, no. 35 (revised)."
General Note: "SS-SOS-002."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066206
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70998317

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


notes in Soil Science




A01* "AIA %
19 r6 4W


February 1990


No. 35 (revised)
SS-SOS-002


IFAS Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Agronomic Crops


This publication presents in abbreviated form the
fertilization recommendations for agronomic crops based on
soil tests performed by the IFAS Extension Soil Testing
Laboratory (ESTL). It contains the basic information from
which ESTL soil-test reports and fertilization
recommendations are generated. For more complete
coverage of the subject, refer to IFAS Extension Circular
817, Soil, Container Media, and Water Testing
Interpretations and IFAS Standardized Fertilization
Recommendations.
Soil testing is a tool in crop fertilization management. Its
successful use requires that: (1) you send to the lab soil
samples which represent your field or management unit,
(2) the laboratory use legitimate methods for predicting
fertility, and (3) the fertilizer recommendations you get are
based on measured crop responses.
The ESTL extracts phosphorus (P), potassium (K),
magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) with the Mehlich-I
extractant and bases fertilization recommendations for those
nutrients on the test results. Current interpretation of test
results are presented in Table 1. Nitrogen (N) fertilization
is not based on soil tests but rather is based on crop needs
as documented in research literature.


Liming recommendations are based on the Adams-Evans lime
requirement test, a calibration equation developed for Florida
soils, and the target pH for the crop for which the
recommendation is being made.
Soil test reports from the ESTL are computer-generated from lab
data and crop codes. Reports contain the results of the tests
(soil pH, ppm extractable P, K, Mg, and Ca), a rating of the P,
K, and Mg (very high to very low), and the fertilization
recommendation. The recommendation is composed of two
parts: (1) the rates of N, P20s, and K20 fertilizer to apply and
(2) footnotes which give important information about fertilization
management such as application timing, special crop
requirements, etc. The footnotes are an essential part of the
fertilization recommendation and are necessary for proper
interpretation of the rates.
Table 2 contains crop codes, crop descriptions, target pH, N
recommendation, PO,5 and K20 recommendations for each of the
five soil-test rating levels, the footnotes which will be printed
for each of the crop codes, and the references upon which the
recommendations are based. Table 3 lists the text of the
footnotes.


Table 1. Current Mehlich-I soil-test interpretations used for agronomic crops.

Very Very
Element low Low Medium High high

-------------- parts per million soil .--------------
P <10 10-15 16-30 31-60 >60
K <20 20-35 36-60 61-125 >125
Mg <15 15-30 >30


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING







Target pH, and recommended annual N, P20,, and K20 fertilizer rates for agronomic crops. Phosphorus and K rates are based on
interpretation of a Mehlich-I soil test.


CROP CROP TARGET --------- lb/A/year --------
CODE DESCRIPTION pH N ------ P2 ------- ------- K20------- FOOTNOTES REFERENCES


lb/A VL LO MED


HI VH VL LO MED


1 NON-IRRIG CORN,10M/A *
2 NON-IRRIG CORN,12.5 M/A
3 NON-IRRIG CORN 15 M/A
4 IRRIG CORN,20 M/A
5 IRRIG CORN,25 M/A
6 IRRIG CORN,30 M/A
7 GRAIN SORGHUM OR
FORAGE SORGHUM FOR
SILAGE
8 TRITICALE, OATS, OR
RYE FOR GRAIN
9 COTTON
10 PEANUTS


6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5


100
125
150
150
175
200
125


120
120
120
120
120
120
124


6.0 70 100 80 40 0 0 100 80 40


6.5 60
6.0 0


11 SOYBEANS 6.5
12 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO 5.8
13 SUGARCANE FOR SYRUP 6.0
14 SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES 6.0
21 WARM SEASON LEGUMES 6.0
22 COOL SEASON LEGUMES OR 6.5
LEGUME-GRASS MIXTURES
23 ALFALFA 7.0
24 BAHIAGRASS PASTURE (Note:
High-N option 5.5
Medium-N option 5.5
Low-N option 5.5
25 IMPROVED PERENNIAL 5.5
GRASSES (EXCLUDING BAHIA)
26 COOL SEASON ANNUAL 6.0
GRASSES
27 WHEAT FOR GRAIN 6.0
28 WARM SEASON 6.0
LEGUME-GRASS MIXTURES


120 90
100 80


125 100 70
100 80 40


60
100
100
80
30
100


0 125 125 80 0 0 160 160 120
Options are not presented on Producer
160 40 40 0 0 0 80 80 40
100 25 25 0 0 0 50 .50 0
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
160 40 40 0 0 0 80 80 40


** 80 80 40


100 80
30 30


0 0 80 80 40


100 80
60 60


0 0 106 124


0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
Soil
0
0
0
0


0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
Test
0
0
0
0


107 124
108 109 118
124
108 124 128
110 124
106 124
111 124
121 124
115 122 129
124
120 123 124
Information j
124 131
124 131
124 131
124 125 126


0 0 112 124


124 127
121 124


AF 133 & 147

AF 111
AF 70

NSS 23
AF 70
AF 70
AF 70
AF 147
AF 147

AF 147
form.)
AF 70 & 147
AF 70 & 147
AF 70 & 147
AF 70 & 147

AF 70 & 147

AF 133 & 147
AF 147


* 10M/A refers to 10,000 plants per acre.
** The N recommendation is discussed in Footnotes 111 and


Table 2.


HI VH


112.







Table 3. Text of footnotes used with agronomic crops.


101 Apply all of the P2Os, 30% of the K2O, and
20 lb N/A in a preplant or at-planting application.
Four weeks after planting, sidedress the remaining
70% of the KAO. Apply the remaining 100 lb N/A
in two or more sidedressings, one of which should
be at 4 weeks.

102 Apply all of the P20O, 30% of the K20, and
30 lb N/A in a preplant or at-planting application.
Four weeks after planting sidedress the remaining
70% of the K20. Apply the remaining 120 lb N/A in
two or more sidedressings, one of which should be
at 4 weeks.

103 Apply all of the P205, 30% of the K20, and
30 lb N/A in a preplant or at-planting application.
Four weeks after planting sidedress the remaining
70% of the KIO. Apply the remaining 150 lb N/A in
two or more sidedressings, one of which should be
at 4 weeks.

104 Apply all of the P205, 30% of the K20, and
30 lb N/A in a preplant or at-planting application.
Four weeks after planting sidedress the remaining
70% of the K20. Apply the remaining 180 lb N/A
in three or more sidedressings, one of which should
be at 4 weeks.

105 Apply all of the P205, 30% of the K2O, and
30 lb N/A in a preplant or at-planting application.
Four weeks after planting sidedress the remaining
70% of the K20. Apply the remaining 210 lb N/A in
three or more sidedressings, one of which should be
at 4 weeks.

106 Apply all of the P2O, and 30% of the K20
and N in a preplant or at-planting application.
Topdress or sidedress the remaining 70% of the KIO
and N. For small grains grown for grain, topdress
during late January or early February. For grain
sorghum or forage sorghum, sidedress before plants
are too tall to cultivate or approximately four weeks
after planting.

107 Apply all of the P20s and 30% of the KO2
and N in a preplant or at-planting application.
Apply the remaining 70% of the K,O and N in one
sidedressing.

108 Application of 20 to 30 lb N/A may give
vegetative response but is unlikely to increase
harvested yield.

109 If peanuts are grown for seed or if they are
Virginia type, regardless of soil test, apply gypsum
in a band over the potential pegging zone at early
flower. Apply 400 lb gypsum/A for runner types
and 800 lb gypsum/A for Virginia types. Double
these rates if broadcasting granular or
phosphogypsum (bulk wet). For peanuts not grown
for seed, apply gypsum as recommended above only
if the calcium soil-test level is below 250 ppm Ca.


110 Apply 50% of the fertilizer at or before
transplanting and the other half within 3 weeks of
transplanting.

111 Apply 30 lb N/A, 50% of the KO2, and all of the
P2Os fertilizer in a preplant or at-planting application.
Apply 50 lb N/A and the remaining KO2 after the first
grazing period. Apply an additional 50 lb N/A after each
subsequent grazing period.

112 When planting on a prepared seed bed, apply 30 lb
N/A, 50% of the KO2, and all of the P2O, fertilizer in a
preplant or at-planting application. Apply 50 lb N/A and
the remaining K20 after the first grazing period. Apply
an additional 50 lb N/A after each subsequent grazing
period. For overseeding established perennial grasses with
cool season annual grasses, apply 50 Ib N/A plus all of
the P205 and KO2 after emergence. Apply an additional
50 lb N/A after each subsequent grazing period.

115 Apply all of the P20, and K20 fertilizer in late fall.
If legumes are planted in combination with oats, rye,
wheat, and/or ryegrass, apply 30 lb N/A in a preplant or
at-planting application plus one additional 50 lb N/A
application after the grass is well established.

118 Apply 0.75 lb boron/A in the fertilizer or 0.5 lb
boron/A as a foliar spray with the first fungicide
application.

120 Fertilizer should contain 15 to 20 lb sulfur/A.
Apply as a sulfate (e.g., gypsum, ammonium sulfate,
magnesium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium
magnesium sulfate), since elemental sulfur will react too
slowly to supply the sulfur needs of the current crop.

121 Apply all of the P2O, and KIO in spring or early
summer when seedlings or regrowth are 3 to 4 inches tall.
Species included are aeschynomene, alyceclover,
desmodiums, hairy indigo, perennial peanut, and other
tropical legumes.

122 Species included are all true clovers (white, red,
arrowleaf, crimson, subterranean), vetches, lupines, and
sweet clover.

123 Apply all of the P20, and 50% of the K20 fertilizer
in late fall. Apply the remaining K20 in early spring. If
the alfalfa is mechanically harvested rather than grazed,
apply an additional 30 lb P20,/A and 60 lb K20/A after
each harvest. An additional application of 100 lb KI0/A
in June or July may increase summer survival of alfalfa.
Apply 3 lb boron/A per year to alfalfa in three 1 lb/A
applications. Copper and zinc fertilizer may be needed if
soil pH is above 6.5.

The lime requirement shown above is adequate for
established alfalfa. However if the alfalfa has not yet
been planted, apply and incorporate one ton of lime/A if
the soil pH is below 6.6. Lime is especially important
for establishment of alfalfa. It is not practical to
incorporate lime once the alfalfa is planted.






124 IAS recommendations emphasize efficient
fertilizer use without losses of yield or of crop
quality. Efficient fertilizer use results in high
production with minimum impact to our environment.
Since fertilizer use and management are only two
aspects of crop production, growers are encouraged
to consider IFAS recommendations in light of their
entire management strategy, including financial
considerations.

125 Grasses included are bermuda, star, limpo, and
digit.

126 For establishment of new plantings, apply only
100 lb N/A and split as follows: apply 30 lb N/A,
all of the P2Os, and 50% of the K,0 as soon as
plants have emerged. Apply the remaining K,0 and
70 lb N/A 30 to 50 days later.

For grazed, established stands, apply 80 lb N/A,
all of the P20s, and 50% of the K20 in early spring.
Apply the remaining N and K20 at mid-season.
Under intensive grazing management in central and
south Florida, up to 200 lb N/A may be
economically viable for stargrass and bermudagrass.
In that situation, apply 80 lb N/A, all of the P205
and 50% of the K,0 in early spring, follow with 50
Ib N/A in mid-season, and 70 lb N/A and the other
50% K20 in mid to late September. If cutting for
hay or silage, apply 80 lb N/A, all of the P2Os and
KO in early spring. Apply an additional 80 lb N/A
and 40 lb K,0/A after each cutting, except the last.

127 Apply all of the P205, 50% of the K2O, and
40 lb N/A at planting. Topdress the remaining N
and KO2 in late January. On land which lacks clayey
soil within the top 6 to 8 inches of the surface,
apply 5 to 10 lb sulfate-sulfur/A at planting and 10
lb sulfate-sulfur/A in the topdressing. Wettable or
other elemental forms of sulfur will react too slowly
to supply the sulfur needs of the current crop. On
flatwoods soils with pH above 6.1, apply 10 lb
manganese/A. On better-drained sands with pH
above 6.5, apply 6 to 10 lb manganese/A.

128 The recommended rates of fertilizer are
sufficient to produce soybean yields in the 60 bu/A
range. If yields from this field have never exceeded
40 bu/A under current management, reduce P2,O and
K.O recommendations by 20 lb/A. If yields from
this field have never exceeded 25 bu/A, reduce P205
and K2O recommendations by 40 lb/A. Often this
adjustment will mean that you will achieve your
yield potential without any P or K fertilizer
additions.


129 These recommendations are made assuming
adequate soil moisture will be available either from
rainfall or irrigation. In south Florida, lack of adequate
rainfall during the cool season frequently causes stand
failure or limits growth. Under non-irrigated conditions in
south Florida, the probability of inadequate moisture is
high and the likelihood that the crop will benefit from
applied fertilizer is low.

131 Fertilization Management Notes for Bahiagrass
Pastures. For new plantings, apply only 100 lb N/A
and split as follows: apply 30 lb N/A, all of the P2Os, and
50% of the K,O as soon as plants have emerged. Apply
the remaining K20 and 70 lb N/A 30 to 50 days later.

For established stands of bahiagrass, apply all of the
fertilizer in the early spring to maximize much-needed
spring forage. Bahiagrass is a very efficient forager and
recovers nutrients from deeper in the soil profile than
other popular forage grasses so danger of leaching losses
is low. Three fertilization options are presented below.
Choose the option which most closely fits your fertilizer
budget, management objectives, and land capability.

High-N Option Apply 160 Ib N/A and the
soil-test-based recommended rates of PO, and KO for
each of your pastures. The fertilization rates suggested in
this option are high enough to allow bahiagrass pasture to
achieve well above average production. Management and
environmental factors will determine how much of the
potential production is achieved and how much of the
forage is utilized.

Medium-Nitrogen Option Apply around 100 lb N/A
this year. At that level of N fertilization, P and K may
be limiting if your soil tested low in these nutrients.
Apply 25 lb PO/A if your soil tested low in P and none
if it tested medium. Apply 50 lb K,O/A if your soil
tested low in K and none if it tested medium. Re-test
your soil every second or third year to verify P and K
levels. If you plan to make a late-season cutting of hay,
apply around 80 lb N/A between August 1 and 15 (about
6 weeks before the growing season ends).

Low-Nitrogen Option (for Grazed Pastures Only)
Apply around 50 lb N/A this year, recognizing that N will
be the limiting nutrient. Thus, do not apply P or K. If
you follow this practice of applying only N to your
pasture for more than one year, apply the P and K
recommended by soil test every third or fourth year to
avoid excessive depletion of those nutrients. Do not use
this option if you cut hay since nutrient removal by hay is
much greater than by grazing animals.


Gerald Kidder
Professor
Extension Soils Specialist


E.A. Hanlon
Assistant Professor
Extension Soil
Management Specialist


C.G. Chambliss
Associate Professor
Extension Agronomist


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