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 Methods
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Title: Time of planting trials with vegetable crops in North Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066201/00001
 Material Information
Title: Time of planting trials with vegetable crops in North Florida
Alternate Title: Mustard and turnip
Physical Description: 9 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Halsey, L. H ( Lawrence Henry ), 1915-
Publisher: Vegetable Crops Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Radishes -- Planting time -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Brassica -- Planting time -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: L.H. Halsey.
General Note: "Vegetable crops research report VC3-1981."
General Note: "September 1981."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066201
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70869937

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Methods
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Discussion
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





September 1981


Vegetable Crops
Research Report
VC4 1981


Time of Planting Trials with


Vegetable


Crops in


North Florida


II. Mustard and Turnip


Vegetable Crops Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


This work was supported by funds from the Center for Community and Rural Development Programs


L. H. Halsey








Vegetable Crops
Research Report
VC 4 1981


Time of Planting Trials With
Vegetable Crops in North Florida

III. MUSTARD AND TURNIP


Vegetable Crops Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


L. H. Halsey


This work was supported by funds from the Center for Community and Rural
Development Programs


1981








Time of Planting Trials With

Vegetable Crops in North Florida

III. MUSTARD AND TURNIP

BY

L. H. Halsey1


Historically, mustard and turnip greens have been produced on small

acreages scattered throughout the state. The estimated production in

1979-80 was valued at $1 million, from approximately 5,000 acres. Due

to the highly perishable nature of greens, market outlets are normally

limited to nearby farmers markets, curb markets, and on-farm retailing.

The information reported here is for 8 mustard and 8 turnip cultivars

for 10 plantings at approximately 3-week intervals from August 1978 to

March 1979.

METHODS

Ten plantings were made during the period from August 1978 to March

1979, on Arredondo fine soil at the University of Florida Horticultural

Unit (Table 1). The crops were fertilized at 1,000 pounds per acre,

using 6-8-8 plus micronutrient frits fertilizer. Half the fertilizer

was incorporated in the row preplant, and half was applied as side-

dress at 3 weeks after seedling emergence. Plots were 27 feet long on

slightly raised beds at 4-foot centers, in a randomized block arrange-

ment with 2 replications. Seeding rate was adjusted to achieve approx-

imately 20 plants per foot. The mustard and turnip plants were harvested

as greens only, in single harvests.

SAssociate Professor, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, University of

Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

The author wishes to acknowledge the valuable technical assistance

rendered by C. Lamar Bryant in the development and conduct of the work

reported here.








RESULTS
Time required to reach maturity varied among some cultivars of

mustard at some planting dates by as much as 14 days and of turnip by

as much as 7 days. The extended development time of the plantings of

November 2, 21 and January 5, 23 were related to the cold temperatures,

especially following the November 21 planting, Table 1.

Responses of the cultivars to time-of-planting are shown in Table

2 (mustard) and Table 3 (turnip). It is evident that more variation

existed among mustard cultivars than among turnip cultivars.

Among the mustard cultivars 'Bok Choy' and 'Pac Choi' (these re-

semble Chinese cabbage but do not form heads) and 'Tendergreen' had

very wide variations in yield related to time of planting. 'Chinese

Broadleaf' and'Fordhook Fancy' showed the least variability.

Among the turnip cultivars 'Seven Top' and 'Shogoin' were less
variable than the others, with 'Seven Top' responding better to the

climatic conditions related to the plantings of late November and

January.

The differences among the various cultivars are more clearly shown

in Figs. 1 and 2. All the turnip cultivars responded favorably to

the conditions of plantings of September 27 and October 11, while there

was a wide diversity in the responses of the mustard cultivars.








Table 1. Days to harvest of 8 mustard and turnip cultivars in time-of-
planting trial. Gainesville, 1978-79.


Date of planting
Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Nov. Jan. Jan. Feb. Mar.
31 27 11 2 21 5 23 13 8


Pac Choi

Florida Broadleaf

Green Wave

Sou. Giant Curled

Tendergreen

Fordhook Fancy

Chinese Broadleaf

Bok Choy


60 100 69

60 100 76

60 100 76

60 100 76

60 100 69

60 100 76

60 100 76

60 100 69


Turnip


Amber Globe

Early White Ball

Italian Green

Seven Top

Shogoin

Tokyo Cross

Tokyo Market

White Egg


60 100 76

60 100 76

60 100 69

60 100 76

60 100 69

60 100 76

60 100 76

60 100 76


Cultivar


Mustard







Table 2. Yields of 8 mustard cultivars in time-of-planting trial. Gainesville, 1978-79.


Cultivar Date of seedingz
Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Nov. Jan. Jan. Feb. Mar. Cultivar
31 27 11 2 21 5 23 13 8 average
(25 lb. boxes per acre)

Bok Choy 585Yc 750b 820a 615a 170a 210b 330b 440a 740a 510c

Chinese Broadleaf 380d 580bc 605b 430bc 650a 325a 575a 450a 525a 505c

Florida Broadleaf 320d 695b 475b 355cd 305a 205cd 415b 450a 505a 415d

Fordhook Fancy 830a 370d 475b 355cd 375a 265bc 365b 375a 375a 420d

Green Wave 755ab 415cd 390c 290d 210a 135d 360b 360a 415a 370e

Pac Choi 615bc 1205a 800a 600a 510a 315ab 340b 500a 730a 670a

Sou. Giant Curled 720b 615d 385c 285d 245a 165c 330b 320a 375a 360e

Tendergreen 730ab 715b 930a 700a 210a 140d 335b 484a 630a 540b
** ns ** ns ns **

Planting Average 525 670 610 455 335 220 380 420 535

ZPlanting of December 13 destroyed by freeze

YMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, among cultivars for any planting date. ** 1% level;

* 5% level; ns not significant. Values with same letter do not differ.







Table 3. Yields of 8 turnip cultivars in time-of-planting trial.


Cultivar Date of seeding
Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Nov. Jan. Jan. Feb. Mar. Cultivar
31 27 11 2 21 5 23 13 8 average
(25 lb. boxes per acre)


Amber Globe 370Ya 525b 625a 465a 315a 215de 245a 310c 455bc 390e

Early White Ball 445a 635ab 535a 400a 220a 325ab 480a 385bc 555a 440c

Italian Green 375a 575b 625a 465a 235a 255cd 405a 480a 455b 430d

Seven Top 375a 540b 620a 465a 455a 360a 380a 420ab 600a 470b

Shogoin 405a 710a 690a 515a 445a 220d 355a 450a 505ab 475ab

Tokyo Cross 320a 540b 570a 425a 300a 300bc 370a 320c 440b 400e

Tokyo Market 210a 545b 550a 410a 225a 190e 330a 290d 370c 345f

White Egg 500a 635ab 665a 500a 475a 265c 385a 350cd 605a 500a

ns ns ns ** ** ns **

Planting Average 375 590 610 455 335 265 370 375 500


ZPlanting of December 13 destroyed by freeze

YMean separation by Duncan's multiple range


test, among cultivars for any planting date. ** 1%


Tlevel; 5% level ns not significant. Values with same letter do not differ.


Gainesville, 1978-79.






A ONN J FM
312711221
31 27 5 13


CD
I







3
0
a-
L)
0~


Planting date
A SO N J FM A SNN J FM
31 2711 2 21 5 233 8 31 27 1 1 2 21 5 2313 8


A S N N JFM
31 2711 2 21 5 2313 8


Fig. I. Yield responses of 8 mustard cultivars for 9 planting dates. Gainesville,


I100



800




400



200
1100



800



500



150


1978-79.







Planting date


A S ON J J FM
31 271 1 221 523 13 8
Amber GlobeI I
Amber Globe


Shogoin


A s
3127


Early
Early


NN
221


J J FM
5 23 13 8


White BaI
White Ball


27 22NN
27 11 221


SJ FM
523138


I ta I I G
Italian Green


S N N
2711 2 21


JFM
5 2313 8


eI T '
Seven Top


t t .9


Tokyo Cross


Tokyo Market


White Egg


150' j 1 1'


Fig. 2. Yield responses of 8 turnip cultivars for


900


6501-


400


150
900


650-


400 -


- 400


150


900




650




400



150
900



650


9 planting dates. Gainesville, 1978-79








DISCUSSION

The variable responses of mustard and turnip to time of planting

suggest that care be exercised in the selection of cultivars for par-

ticular planting dates. Relation of period of harvest to 6-year aver-

age prices quoted on the Atlanta Farmers Market is shown in Fig. 3.

Planting of mustard for November 21 showed 'Pac Choi' and 'Chinese

Broadleaf' at over 500 units/acre at a time when price was relatively

high. Prices for turnips were highest at times when plantings of

August 31 and November 21 were harvested, when 'Early White Ball' and

'Shogoin' (Aug. 31) and 'Seven Top', 'Shogoin', and 'White Egg' (Nov. 21)

all produced in excess of 400 units/acre. Yields were highest for

'Tendergreen' at times when prices had declined Sep. 27, Oct. 11, Feb. 2

and Mar. 8.

The highly perishable nature of greens limits their distribution

to short-haul outlets. Marketing options available to the limited

resource farmer, in addition to farmers markets, include roadside sales,

pick-your-own, curb markets and cooperative packing houses. The

extent to which any cultivar produces during periods of low prices

could influence their acceptance for planting to meet those market

situations.











9




O

I \-''Turnip
0, 5-


o0 Mustard
0 3-
C0.

8/31 9/27, 10/11 11/2 11/21 1/5 1/23 2/13 3/8
Harvest period by date of planting
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
I 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 I 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1
Fig. 3. Mustard and turnip 6-year average (1975-1980) weekly prices quoted on the
Atlanta Farmers Market in relation to harvest date of 9 times. Gainesville,
1978-79.




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