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 Methods
 Results
 Discussion
 Literature cited






Title: Time of planting trials with vegetable crops in North Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066200/00001
 Material Information
Title: Time of planting trials with vegetable crops in North Florida
Alternate Title: Tomato
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Halsey, L. H ( Lawrence Henry ), 1915-
Publisher: Vegetable Crops Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Planting time -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 12).
Statement of Responsibility: L.H. Halsey.
General Note: "Vegetable crops research report VC2-1981."
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 1981."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066200
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70869852

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Methods
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Discussion
        Page 12
    Literature cited
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Vegetable Crops
Research Report
June 1981 VC 2 1981



Time of Planting Trials with

Vegetable Crops in North Florida


II. Tomato


Vegetable Crops Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


This work was supported by funds from the Center for Community and Rural Development Programs.


L. H. Halsey






Time of Planting Trials With
Vegetable Crops in North Florida
II. TOMATO
BY
L. H. Halsey"

The responses of 2 to 3 cultivars of tomato to time of planting
at 3- and 4- week intervals throughout the season of warm weather in
North Florida has been reported (1). The information reported here
is for 12 tomato cultivars for 5 plantings at 3 to 6 week intervals
during the period from March to July, 1978.

METHODS

During the period from March to July, 1978, tomato seeds were
planted into peat pots containing peat and vermiculite mix on March
24, April 13, May 5, June 15, and July 10. The tomatoes were trans-
planted into plastic mulched beds in the field approximately one
month after seeding.

The crops were fertilized with 2000 pounds per acre of a 6-8-
8 fertilizer containing micronutrient frits. Half the fertilizer
was incorporated in the row preplant, and half was side-dressed 4
weeks after transplanting. Plots were 27 feet long on slightly
raised beds on 4 feet centers, in a randomized block design with 2
replications. The crops were grown in Arredondo fine sand at the
University of Florida Horticultural Unit. Tomato plants were set
at an 18 inch in-row-spacing and were supported by a stake and trel-
lis system.

Tomatoes from the March 24 and April 13 plantings were harvested
at mature green stage of maturity at weekly intervals. Tomatoes from
the May 5, June 15 and July 10 plantings were harvested at breaker
and more advanced stages of maturity at semiweekly intervals.

Cultural practices of cultivation, irrigation and pest control
are as recommended for Florida (2).

RESULTS

Time required to reach maturity varied as much as three
weeks (Table 1). A portion of the differential between the first
two plantings and the last three plantings was related to the stage
of maturity at harvest (ca 1 week). The balance of the differential
may be attributed to the influence of the weather, primarily higher
temperatures, during the last three plantings.

1/ Associate Professor, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
The author acknowledges the valuable technical assistance ren-
dered by C. Lamar Bryant in the development and conduct of the work
reported here.






Time of Planting Trials With
Vegetable Crops in North Florida
II. TOMATO
BY
L. H. Halsey"

The responses of 2 to 3 cultivars of tomato to time of planting
at 3- and 4- week intervals throughout the season of warm weather in
North Florida has been reported (1). The information reported here
is for 12 tomato cultivars for 5 plantings at 3 to 6 week intervals
during the period from March to July, 1978.

METHODS

During the period from March to July, 1978, tomato seeds were
planted into peat pots containing peat and vermiculite mix on March
24, April 13, May 5, June 15, and July 10. The tomatoes were trans-
planted into plastic mulched beds in the field approximately one
month after seeding.

The crops were fertilized with 2000 pounds per acre of a 6-8-
8 fertilizer containing micronutrient frits. Half the fertilizer
was incorporated in the row preplant, and half was side-dressed 4
weeks after transplanting. Plots were 27 feet long on slightly
raised beds on 4 feet centers, in a randomized block design with 2
replications. The crops were grown in Arredondo fine sand at the
University of Florida Horticultural Unit. Tomato plants were set
at an 18 inch in-row-spacing and were supported by a stake and trel-
lis system.

Tomatoes from the March 24 and April 13 plantings were harvested
at mature green stage of maturity at weekly intervals. Tomatoes from
the May 5, June 15 and July 10 plantings were harvested at breaker
and more advanced stages of maturity at semiweekly intervals.

Cultural practices of cultivation, irrigation and pest control
are as recommended for Florida (2).

RESULTS

Time required to reach maturity varied as much as three
weeks (Table 1). A portion of the differential between the first
two plantings and the last three plantings was related to the stage
of maturity at harvest (ca 1 week). The balance of the differential
may be attributed to the influence of the weather, primarily higher
temperatures, during the last three plantings.

1/ Associate Professor, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
The author acknowledges the valuable technical assistance ren-
dered by C. Lamar Bryant in the development and conduct of the work
reported here.







Table 1. Days to harvest and harvest period
cultivars. Summer, 1978.


of 12 tomato


Planting First Harvest Harvests Maturity
date harvest period at harvest
(Days) (Days) (Number)

Mar. 24 84 21 4 Mature-green
Apr. 13 78 14 3 Mature-green

May 5 91 17 6 Breaker-pink

June 15 98 18 6 Breaker-pink

July 10 94 25 9 Breaker-pink


Tomato yields for all cultivars at each planting date are pre-
sented by size in Tables 2-5. It is apparent that large differences
occurred among cultivars for any size group at any planting date.
Careful examination is necessary to determine particular cultivar
response to a given planting date for production of any fruit size.

The production of large size tomatoes is an important part of
the tomato business. Table 6 shows the yields of large sizes (extra
large (5 X 6) plus large (6 X 6)). The response pattern varied
considerably among the several planting times. 'Floramerica' respond-
ed well to all planting times, as did 'Sir Walt', (except in the fall).
'Tempo', 'Floradade', 'Calypso' and 'Tropic' were better in the fall
than in the spring, with 'Calypso' more stable to the intervening condi-
tions. 'Traveler' and 'Homestead 24' generally improved as the season
progressed. 'Homestead 500', 'Walter' and 'Walter PF' responded rather
poorly, with better yields in the spring than in the fall and variable
in between. 'Castlemor F' is a small fruited type developed for mechan-
ical harvest and produces few large fruit.
Yield distributions of the 12 tomato cultivars for the sizes
customarily marketed are shown in Fig. 1 to 3. Overall, production of
tomatoes of all sizes was best at the March and July planting dates.
The response to other plantings was poorest for the June 15 planting
and somewhat better at the other two.







Table 2. Yields of 12 tomato cultivars in time-of-planting trial, Gaines-
ville, 1978. Extra large size (5 X 6)


Cultivar Date of seeding Season
Mar. 24 Apr. 13 May 5 June 15 July 10 average
(30-pound cartons per acre)


Calypso

Castlemor F

Floradade

Floramerica

Homestead 500

Homestead 24

Sir Walt

Tempo

Traveler

Tropic

Walter

Walter PF

Average


228dy

9k

166f

308a

162g

No data

327a

259c

53j

226e

84i

127h

177


105b

3g

55e

180a

95d

3g

108b

l00c

38f

102bc

58e

58e

75


175d

7j

171c

292a

50i

61 h

201 b

95g

127e

124e

49i

59h

118


85d

9j

21i

198a

79e

61g

177b

51 h

101c

3h

23i

70f

73


259d

5k

183e

313a

43j

65h

118f

286b

57 i

271c

92g

44j

145


170c

7k

119f

258a

86h

48j

186b

158d

75hi

145e

61j

72i

115


Transplanted to field 1 month later

Mean separation by Duncans multiple range test, among
any planting date, 1% level


cultivars for







Table 3. Yields of 12 tomato cultivars in time-of-planting trial, Gaines-
ville, 1978. Large size (6 X 6)


Cultivar Date of seeding Season
Mar. 24 Apr. 13 May 5 June 15 July 10 average
(30-pound cartons per acre)

Calypso 216cy 97d 76c 55d 194d 128c

Castlemor 42i 6f 32ef 28e 18j 25g

Floradade 245b 122c 133b 25f 277a 160b

Floramerica 187d 156a 64d 58c 188d 130c

Homestead 500 158g 91e 77c 48d 93i 93d

Homestead 24 No data 5f 59d 97b 124g 71f

Sir Walt 240b 149b 69d 180a 176e 163ab

Tempo 257a 163ab 85c 99b 228c 166a

Traveler 136h 93de 177a 175a 246b 165a

Tropic 155e 164a 135b 16f 190d 132c

Walter 116h 93e 39e 50c 138f 87e

Walter PF 169f 89e 29e 95b 100h 96d

Average 175 102 81 77 164 118


z Transplanted to field 1 month later

y Mean separation by Duncans multiple range test, among cultivars for any
planting date, 1% level




5

Table 4. Yields of 12 tomato cultivars in time of planting trial, Gaines-
ville, 1978. Medium size (6 X 7)


Cultivar Date of seedingz Season
Mar. 24 Apr. 13 May 5 June 15 July 10 average
(30-pound cartons per acre)

Calypso 373by 200d ;81e 113b 249i 203de

Castlemor F 263e 114g 91d 42f 432b 188f

Floradade 427a 214c 128c 27g 434b 245b

Floramerica 187h 139f 71e 56e 175j 126h

Homestead 500 299f 192d 176 94c 262h 205d

Homestead 24 No data 24h 179b 112b 292g 152g

Sir Walt 341d 251b 87d 110b 313f 220c

Tempo 395b 203d 138c 85c 398c 244b

Traveler 362c 319a 388a 176a 387d 326a

Tropic 234g 196d 181b 47ef 243i 180f

Walter 293f 179e 139c 75d 499a 237b

Walter PF 260i 202d 101d lllb 321e 199e

Average 312 186 147 87 334 210

z Transplanted to field 1 month later

y Mean separation by Duncans multiple range test, among cultivars for any
planting date, 1% level







Table 5. Yields of 12 tomato cultivars in time-of-planting trial, Gaines-
ville, 1978. Small size (7 X 7)


Cultivar Date of planting Season
Mar. 24 Apr. 13 May 5 June 15 July 10 average
(30-pound carton per acre)

Calypso 126cy 43d 46f 24c 50g 58e

Castlemor F 243a 93a 113c 34b 237a 144a

Floradade 97e 41d 56ef le 53g 50ef

Floramerica 42i 28f 21h 5de 13h 22g

Homestead 500 96f 38e 138b 16cd 62f 70d

Homestead 24 No data 8g 184a 34b 90d 79c

Sir Walt 81g 34e 52f 22c 51g 48f

Tempo 85h 39e 37g 8e 62f 46f

Traveler 123c 57b 118c 34b 81e 83bc

Tropic 63h 36e 66e 14d 51g 46f

Walter -123c 48c 60e 37ab 155b 84b

Walter PF 153b 30f 86d 44a 132c 89b

Average 112 44 81 23 86 68


z Transplanted to field 1 month later

y Mean separation by Duncans Multiple range test, among cultivars for
any planting date, 1% level








Table 6. Yields of 12 tomato cultivars in time-of-planting trial, Gaines-
ville, 1978. Extra large (5 X 6) and large (6 X 6) sizes combined.


Cultivar Date of seeding Season
Mar. 24 Apr. 13 May 5 June 15 July 10 average
(30-pound cartons per acre)

Calypso 444cy 202c 251b 140c 453b 298d

Castlemor F 51g 9e 39e 37e 23f 49j

Floradade 411cd 177cd 304ab 46e 460ab 278e

Floramerica 495b 336a 356a 256b 501ab 388a

Homestead 500 320e 186c 127cd 127cd 136e 179g

Homestead 24 No data 8e 120cd 158c 189de 119i

Sir Walt 567a 257b 270b 357a 294cd 349b

Tempo 516b 263b 180c 150c 514a 325c

Traveler 189f 131d 304ab 276b 303c 240f

Tropic 381d 266b 259b 19e 461ab 277e

Walter 200f 151cd 88de 73de 230d 148h

Walter PF 296e 147d 88de 165c 144e 168g
** ** ** **

Average 352 178 199 150 309 235


z Transplanted to field 1 month later

y Mean separation by Duncans multiple range test among cultivars for any
planting date, 5% level, ** 1% level





April 13


1000 r March 24


Small
Medium
Large
Extra Large


0
0
SU ur
o- o
CL c> 1 "
2 I
8 8 3


.4-
0 l


=otf 2 I


a-


f -o E E E >-
U-o 3 x P P -3 3


Fig. 1. Yield distribution, by size, of 12 tomato cultivars. Values
for plantings of March 24 and April 13, 1978.


800 -


w 600
C

0
o
1o
c.- 400
o
C.
I
0

200




0


Small
Medium
Large
Extra Large


- 400


200




0


ICI_ ~ I _I _C _


1000


--


800




600





1000




800

0
0
it
4600



, 400




200




0


Small
Medium
Large
Extra Large


May 5


o0
0 0 a
0 "E 0 .4


O O X) :c U P C I


June 15 small
Medium
Large
Extra Large


O

b. ow .
oo0 0 a..
E E 0


1000




800 T
0



600




0
400
I
0
rf)
200



0


Fig. 2. Yield distribution, by size, of 12 tomato cultivars. Values
for plantings of May 5 and June 15, 1978.






1000 r


800




S600
4-



S400

0

0
200




0


L

0 E
S0I
a, "

5 8


Small
Medium
Large
Extra Large


0

E
0j


July 10


N
gU-

S0 0 A
c> ^ cn > a, 2=
E E > a c S
0 h Q..
I (P0


All Plantings


Medium
Large
Extra Large


U-
LL..



0 0
0-0


O
0
0 t

00o
00


T- 0 X
t .
6oL u
jq S .S


Fig. 3. Yield distribution, by size, of 12 tomato cultivars. Values
for planting of July 10 and the season average, 1978.


1000


-1800


-1600


H 400


-1200


0
a)

0
CL
O
0


-0
*0




c
0
0.
I
0
to


U-
0.
CL.

1- le


L-~l IC~C~U~--~ Ir~ ~-~bL~s~L~L'' '"ld~L~A~L~BbJ~I~' -d 4Fw~-~uF~-4Ld;riI~Zi~G~.~erha-ahC~,~~sh USSd~Yd~L-












12



C
|l I
0

0
o
0
ro
rO
(n
09
0


7/10
6/15


1 Harvest Period by Date of Planting


July Aug
34 12 34 1 2 34
Week


Sept
12 34


Oct
123


Nov
412


Fig. 4. Tomato 6-year average weekly prices (1975-80, Atlanta, Ga.,
Farmers Market) in relation to harvest periods of 5 planting
times, 1978.


3/24
4/13


-


-


June
12







DISCUSSION

The variable responses of the cultivars to time of planting sug-
gest that care be exercised in the selection of cultivars for particular
planting times. Relation of period of harvest to 6-year average prices
quoted on the Atlanta Farmers Market is shown in Fig. 4. Plantings
of March 24 and July 10, which produced highest yields resulted in
most fruit being available at periods of highest prices with all four
sizes.

For production of tomatoes of extra large size (Table. 2),
'Floramerica' and 'Sir Walt' yielded well during those periods of
lower prices, with 'Traveler' better in May and June than at the other
plantings.

Large size tomatoes were produced in greater quantity during the
harvest period associated with the June planting by 'Sir Walt' and
'Traveler' at a time when all other cultivars were weak. Wide varia-
tions occurred for the April planting, with 'Floramerica', 'Sir Walt',
'Tempo' and 'Tropic' responding well when prices were moderate.

With medium size tomatoes (Table. 4), only 'Traveler' responded well
to circumstances associated with May and June plantings. Responses to
April planting conditions were good for all cultivars except 'Castlemor
F', 'Homestead 24', and 'Floramerica'.

Small size tomato yields were generally highest for the March plant-
ing conditions (Table 5), and lowest for April 13 and June 15 plantings.
'Castlemor F' produced large quantities of small tomatoes at the March 24
and July 10 plantings, while 'Floramerica' produced relatively few small
tomatoes at any time.

Various marketing options other than farmers markets available
to the small farmer include roadside sales, pick-your-own, curb
markets and cooperative packing houses. The extent to which cultivars
such as 'Traveler', 'Sir Walt', 'Floramerica' and 'Floradade' produc-
ed the larger sizes of fruit during periods of poor fruit set and
development could suggest their acceptance for summer planting.

Distribution of large-fruit crop potential (Table 6), compared
with the price line suggests that cultivar selection becomes even
more important when prices are low, given the wide variation in culti-
var response during May and June.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Halsey, L. H. and S. R. Kostewicz. 1976. Seasonal response of
Vegetable Crops for selected cultivars in North Florida. II.
Solanaceous Crops, IFAS, Vegetable Crops Department. Research
Report VC-76-2.

2. Marlowe, G. A., and J. Montelaro. 1978. Tomato Production Guide.
Fla. Agr. Ext. Serv. Circ. 98.







DISCUSSION

The variable responses of the cultivars to time of planting sug-
gest that care be exercised in the selection of cultivars for particular
planting times. Relation of period of harvest to 6-year average prices
quoted on the Atlanta Farmers Market is shown in Fig. 4. Plantings
of March 24 and July 10, which produced highest yields resulted in
most fruit being available at periods of highest prices with all four
sizes.

For production of tomatoes of extra large size (Table. 2),
'Floramerica' and 'Sir Walt' yielded well during those periods of
lower prices, with 'Traveler' better in May and June than at the other
plantings.

Large size tomatoes were produced in greater quantity during the
harvest period associated with the June planting by 'Sir Walt' and
'Traveler' at a time when all other cultivars were weak. Wide varia-
tions occurred for the April planting, with 'Floramerica', 'Sir Walt',
'Tempo' and 'Tropic' responding well when prices were moderate.

With medium size tomatoes (Table. 4), only 'Traveler' responded well
to circumstances associated with May and June plantings. Responses to
April planting conditions were good for all cultivars except 'Castlemor
F', 'Homestead 24', and 'Floramerica'.

Small size tomato yields were generally highest for the March plant-
ing conditions (Table 5), and lowest for April 13 and June 15 plantings.
'Castlemor F' produced large quantities of small tomatoes at the March 24
and July 10 plantings, while 'Floramerica' produced relatively few small
tomatoes at any time.

Various marketing options other than farmers markets available
to the small farmer include roadside sales, pick-your-own, curb
markets and cooperative packing houses. The extent to which cultivars
such as 'Traveler', 'Sir Walt', 'Floramerica' and 'Floradade' produc-
ed the larger sizes of fruit during periods of poor fruit set and
development could suggest their acceptance for summer planting.

Distribution of large-fruit crop potential (Table 6), compared
with the price line suggests that cultivar selection becomes even
more important when prices are low, given the wide variation in culti-
var response during May and June.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Halsey, L. H. and S. R. Kostewicz. 1976. Seasonal response of
Vegetable Crops for selected cultivars in North Florida. II.
Solanaceous Crops, IFAS, Vegetable Crops Department. Research
Report VC-76-2.

2. Marlowe, G. A., and J. Montelaro. 1978. Tomato Production Guide.
Fla. Agr. Ext. Serv. Circ. 98.




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