• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 Bibliography
 Author and institution index
 Subject and geographic index
 Document number index






Group Title: Annotated bibliography of readings in farming systems. Volume 1.
Title: Annotated bibliography of readings in farming systems
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066197/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annotated bibliography of readings in farming systems
Physical Description: 67 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Multisectoral Development, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1985?
 Subjects
Subject: Farm management -- Research -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Research -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes indexes.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066197
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70851283

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
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        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Author and institution index
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Subject and geographic index
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Document number index
        Page 76
        Page 77
Full Text

- P oz~~/-/f --, -


ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
READINGS IN
FARMING SYSTEMS
Volume 1


Farming Systems
Support Project [FSSP]


International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523











PREFACE

One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research (FSR)
practitioners is the difficulty in locating and accessing
relevant FSR literature. The expansion of FSR projects and
programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports,
and monographs dealing with particular aspects of FSR. However,
few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR
literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research
libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR work makes it
difficult, if not impossible, to publish tae results in refereed
professional research journals. Additionally, much of the FSR
literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and
consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from
national programs, and unpublished manuscripts from the many
seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these
characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable,
especially to field-level practitioners, who by the nature of
their work are stationed in relatively isolated areas. The
unavailablity of these materials can only slow progress in
establishing and developing national FSR programs.

As part of its mandate to support the growth and development
of FSR, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) is working to
increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a
cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau
of the United States Agency for International Development
(A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract
agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated
the lead institution for the documentation efforts of the FSSP.
KSU has developed, with .support from its A.I.D. Strengthening
Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed
within its central library facility. Using this as a resource
base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR
documents for their annotation and publication in a
current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective bibliography.
Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and
distribution of the bibliography is handled by the A.I.D.
Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by the
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development
Information and Evaluation (CDIE)/Development Information
Division.

This is the first volume of the bibliography. Subsequent
volumes will be published annually throughout the life of the
FSSP. CDIE will catalogue and store all items included in the
bibliography series and will be able to provide copies of all
uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of
copyrighted articles. CDIE documentation center and duplicating
services will continue after the life of the FSSP, thus ensuring
that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will
remain available.








The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future
FSR annotated bibliographies. Suggestions for additional
documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:

Resources on Developing Countries
Libraries
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66505
USA

Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography
or documentation effort are also welcome.









001 PN-AAP-094

MF $3.24/PC $31.98

Animal production systems in the Eastern Caribbean
Archibald, K.; Singh, R.
Winrock International
University of the West Indies, St. Aucustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Apr 1981, 220p., En. Consultant report no. 7
Published by Visayas State College of Agriculture
5380015

In 1981 the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Institute (CARDI) conducted a survey in order to characterize
animal production on small farms in the Eastern Caribbean as to
resources, constraints, and productivity level, and to identify
high priority experimental interventions to improve productivity.
Results are herein presented. Seven country reports (St.
Kitts-Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent, Grenada) are followed by a general characterization of
animal production systems in the region, and by discussions of
economic considerations and of possible interventions in such
areas as animal nutrition and health, genetic improvement, animal
husbandry, policy and institutional irterventions, and farm
management.
The authors conclude that insufficient policy-level attention
has been given to coordinated parallel development of animal
production and crop production. while pricing policies are the
major constraint on self-sufficient arimal production, other
problems (e.g., inadequate processing and marketing facilities
and high-priced imported feed) must also be addressed. Appended
are a list of specific interventions to improve animal production
on small farms anj a 35-item bibliography (1975-31).


002 PN-AAP-842

MF $2.16/PC $19.76

Integrated crop-livestock-fish farming
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center
(Symposium-Workshop on Integrated Crop-Livestock-Fish
Farming, Los Banos, PH, 19-24 Nov 1979)
FFTC book series, no.16, May 1980, 147p., En

Waste recycling is a key feature of successful integrated
crop-livestock-fish farming in the Republic of China, Malaysia,
Thailand, and several other Asian countries. The 17 papers
included in this volume the proceedings of a 1979 conference on
integrated farming show the complexity of integrated farming
systems in Asia and point out the neec to develop systems that
are location- and situation-specific.
The first four papers provide an overview of integrated
systems in general and of systems having, respectively, crops,


- 1








fish, or livestock as the major enterprise (prefeasibility
studies for these three types of systems are also presented).
The remaining papers describe specific integrated systems in
Taiwan, the Philippines, Korea, Malaysia, and Japan; included are
discussions of an inland fishery, of complex upland farming, of
an integrated rice mill and farm complex* and of the utilization
of hog wastes through anaerobic termertation. Several issues
emerge as important: analysis of the nature and availability of
environmental and socioeconomic resources; new management skills
and technologies for specific locatiors; development of a
systematic cooperative marketing scheme through farmers'
associations; applied research; and training of farmers, rural
women, government officials, and extension workers.


003 PN-AAP-652

MF $2.16/PC $21.84

-Multiple cropping and tropical farming systems
Beets, William C.
19829 xiv, 156p. : Bibliography p.146-152, En
Published by Westview Press

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Eoulder, CO 80301 USA

Well-planned multiple cropping is cne of the more feasible
ways of raising agricultural production in the tropics, according
to this review of the subject. After an introductory explanation
of tropical farming systems and multiple cropping, the author
lists the types of multiple cropping systems and gives a history
of the practice. Discussion is then civen to: (1) economic and
social factors affecting tropical small farm productivity (levels
of technology and resources, farmer managerial ability and
traditions, agricultural infrastructure, population pressure,
farm size and type, and demand and prices); (2) agro-technical
features of multiple cropping systems (crop and variety
selections plant population and spatial arrangements, timing,
fertilization, irrigation erosion, crop management, and
mechanization); (3) plant interrelaticnships and competition; and
(4) agro-ecological, biological, and plant physical aspects
(climate, soil, light, water, micro-climate, and pests and
diseases). Techniques for evaluating the productivity of
different cropping systems are analyzed, as are the selection and
design of suitable multiple cropping systems in terms of both
natural environment and human management. A discussion of
research issues, including a survey of current multiple cropping
systems research* concludes the study. Included are 56 figures
and a 135-item bibliography (1887-1977) of international sources.


- 2 -









004 PN-AAP-105

MF $1.08/PC $10.79

Design and management of survey research: a guide for
agricultural researchers
Bernsten, Richard H.
1979, ii, 80p., En

The value of data collected in an agricultural survey depends
on following established survey research principles. This
booklet outlines these principles and offers practical
suggestions to accommodate a wide array of field problems.
Discussion is given to: conducting pre-survey research to
determine the survey's purpose; focusing the survey's specific
analytical, disciplinary, and data goals; defining the sampling
unit and choosing appropriate sampling methods; choosing primary
data collection strategies (individual, group, and village
interviews, farm recordkeeping); aesicning, coding, formatting
and pre-testing the questionnaire or interview questions;
selecting training and supervising tired interviewers; gaining
cooperation from villages and farmers; and selecting a
data-analysis system. While one-thirc of the report is devoted
to detailed instructions on preparing survey data for computer
analysis by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
programs, it also suggests simpler analysis methods tabularr
sheets and sorting strips).


005 PN-AAP-309

IF $1.08/PC $5.33

Sistemas integrados de cultivos alimerticios como medio
para proveer una dieta adecuada ([rtegrated systems of
food plant cultivation as a means cf providing
an adequate diet)
Burgos, Carlos F.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1978, iii, 37p., Es

A farming systems research (FSR) program undertaken by CATIE
to upgrade small farm diets in Central America is described.
After briefly defining characteristics of an agroecosystem, the
report describes: CATIE's FSR methodology; the relation between
farming systems and human nutrition (especially proteins and
energy); some nutritional aspects of Central American crops
(including corn, beans, and rice); anc results of CATIE's surveys
of cultivation systems and nutrition in Costa Rica, Nicaragua,
and Honduras. A final section outlines a strategy to obtain an
adequate diet through crop diversification and intensification;
home gardening of crops such as corn cr rice which can supply the
nutritional elements lacking in the main crop is suggested.
Increased livestock production is suggested as an alternative
strategy. The need to integrate food technology specialists with


- 3 -








agricultural researchers in the entire research process is
stressed. Included are 3 figures, 10 tables, and a 45-item
bibliography (1949-78).


006 PN-AAP-344

MF $1.08/PC $12.48

Course in farming systems research: the Cornell experience
Casey, Frank; Barker, Randolph
Cornell University. New York State College of Agriculture and
Life Sciences
Cornell international agriculture mimeographt no.93, Jul 1982,
92p. : bibliography, p.72-92, En

SProgram in International Agricultures 252 Roberts Hall,
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14E53 single copy free,
additional copies 25 cents each

The development and content of a new courser entitled "Farming
Systems Research (FSR) in Developing Countries," first offered at
Cornell University during the Fall 190O semester, are herein
described.
Section I of this report presents the program of a workshop,
held at Cornell during the summer of 1980, at which faculty and
students examined proposals as to course activities, materials
organization, and teaching methods. Included in the discussion
are comments pertaining to the philosophy behind the FSR
approach the nature of inter- and multidisciplinary research,
and procedures for conducting field research. Section II
provides an outline of the course as given in 1980 and summarizes
participants' comments on FSR as a research methodology, as well
as on pedagogical issues and course content and mechanics.
Section III provides an updated description of the second FSR
course (Fall 1981), highlighting specific changes from the
original offerings and again including student comments. Reading
materials associated with the course ere listed in an annex,
which includes 1S pages of references (195l-~l) divided into
methodological readings, bibliographic materials and works on
farming systems, cropping systems anc other farm management
topics.


007 PN-AAP-980

MF $2.16/PC $14.56

Network methodology and cropping system research in
Indonesia
Central Research Institute for Agriculture
(Indonesian Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, Bogor ID,
20-21 Jul 1979)
Jul 1979, v.p., En


- 4 -








Results in Indonesia of a cropping systems research program
begun in South and Southeast Asia in 1965 by the International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are presented in this collection
of papers given at a 7/79 workshop at Indonesia's Central
Research Institute for Agriculture (CRIA).
After an initial paper sketching tte program's history,
organizations and basic activities a paper describing activities
being undertaken with CRIA to improve the productivity of upland
irrigated and lowland rained rice farming in Indonesia is
presented. Discussion focuses on the selection of specific
target areas for research, with attention to selection criteria,
site descriptions and the collection cf biological and economic
data. Simplified methods and guidelines for designing and
testing cropping patterns are presented and are exemplified by a
review of systems designed to assess the relative importance of
inputs, markets, and farmer technological know-how as production
constraints in Indramayu and Lampung. Further aspects of site
specificity and of research in Lampunc are discussed in three
appended papers. Other appendices treat research priorities and
economic analyses of simple dispersed trials.


008 PN-AAP-978

MF $3.24/PC $33.15

Systems research in the arid zones of Mall: initial results
Chater, Simon
International Livestock Centre for Africa
ILCA systems study no. 5, Aug 1981, 251p., En

* ILCA, P.O. Hox 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The two main livestock production systems in Central Mali's
arid zones are the agropastoral and pastoral systems, defined
respectively by the relative domination of agricultural or
livestock production. This report sunmarizes 5 years of research
on two subsystems of these systems the rainfed millet cropping
agropastoral system, and the pastoral ism associated with
floodplain grazing and farming.
After a short description of Mali's natural resources, the two
subsystems are described in detail. The section on the millet
subsystem covers: labor; 1980 crop yields; the village economy;
the production and nutrition of livestock (cattle, sheep, and
goats); and crop agronomy and improvement, with a focus on cowpea
agronomy and millet fertilization. Tte section on the pastoral
system covers rangeland feed resources, livestock production and
nutrition, and the problematic social-territorial livestock
management framework.
A final section on future research prospects concludes that
the improvements in livestock production systems that are
possible given the Sahel's delicate ecological balance, may,
although slights be vital for the survival of these economically
important systems. Included are 67 figures, 84 tables, and a
7-page bibliography (1960-81) citing works in French and English.


- 5 -








009 PN-AAP-952

MF $5.40/PC $61.10

Farm management in peasant agriculture
Collinson, Michael
19839 xxvii, 454p. : Bibliography p.4.3-444, En
Published by Westview Press

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Eoulder, CO 30301 USA

This book, based primarily on research in Tanzania and
elsewhere in East Africa, describes hew farm management economic'
can contribute to the development of traditional African
agriculture.
Part I reviews the organization of African peasant agriculture
at both the farm and sector levels anc then introduces a
cost-effective, systems-level approach for the application of
farm management economics. The approach evaluates the potential
impact of extension program content or the goals, managerial
task, and resource productivity embodied in existing small-farm
systems. Parts 11 and III detail met oas for implementing this
approach. Part II, on the investigation phase, covers: farm
classification as a prerequisite to investigation and the
accuracy/cost compromise inherent in survey design; a method of
building representative farm models which includes control of
aggregation bias; detailed descriptions and comparisons of data
collection methods for key attributes; and conclusions for survey
organization and design, based on different data collection
methods. Part III, on planning extension strategy and content,
shows how evaluation criteria important to farmers are used in
interpreting the results of modeling. Based on the premise that
small farmers change their existing systems relatively slowly,
the aim is to produce a series of extension programs, compatible
with farmers' goals, low cash incomes, and low risk preferences,
and with the pressures on their land ana labor resources.
Included are 109 tables, 7 figures, ard a 12-page bibliography
(1928-70).


010 PN-AAM-826

MF $1.08/PC S8.97

Farming systems research in Eastern Africa: the experience of
CIMMYT and some national agricultural research services,
1976-81
Collinson, Michael P.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Economics
MSU international development paper, ro.3, 1982, vi, Slp., En
6980444
AID/TA-CA-3

* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU
Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing, MI 48824


- 6 -








The experiences of the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in efforts to institute farming
systems research (FSR) in national agricultural research services
in Eastern and Southern Africa over the period 1976-81 are
reported.
The author first examines how CIMMYT introduced FSR into
Africa via demonstrations which provided research administrators
with quick and tangible results for evaluating FSR approaches. A
description of F3R procedures focuses on CIMMYT's use of the
informal survey (a reprint of which is included), a pivotal and
cost-effective technique for diagnosirg the farming system.
Progress in institutionalizing FSR in national agricultural
research services in Kenyat Zambia, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe is
reviewed. Emphasis is placed on: lessons learned in modifying a
strongly compartmentalized research network in Kenya and the
difficulties junior economists faced in initiating dialogue with
senior technical scientists in Kenya; how the Kenyan experience
was used to help reorganize and strengthen the agricultural
research system in Zambia; and the integral link between FSR and
inservice and short-term training workshops.
A concluding section analyzes several issues FSR as a link
between local and national priorities, whether FSR should or
should not be prefocused on a single enterprise (such as maize),
whether developing countries have acecuate research manpower for
FSR, and issues pertinent to the further promotion of FSR.


011 PN-AAP-232

MF S1.08/PC S2.34

Low cost approach to understanding small farmers Collinson,
Michael P.
Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.433-450, En

A low-cost, farming systems approach developed by the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) for
understanding decisionmaking by small farmers is presented; the
method is described as applied to Central Provinces Zambia.
Basic elements of the CIMMYT approach grouping farmers into
homogeneous populations on the basis cf their existing farming
systems and evaluating local social ard economic circumstances in
order to bring to light farm management problems are described.
Details are then outlined for conducting an exploratory survey,
i.e., unstructured farmer interviews, to gain a rapid
understanding of farming systems and farmer decisionmaking
patterns, and for a subsequent formal survey to verify this
information, test hypotheses regarding farm management strategies
and production techniques, as well as farmer attitudes toward
changes in these areas, and examine farmers who have already made
such changes. Vital to the entire process is the interaction
between biological and social scientists. Detailed suggestions
for an exploratory surveys as tested in Zambia, are appended.


- 7 -








012 PN-AAP-574
-- --------------- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --
MF NA/PC $2.08

Planning an adaptive experimental programme on maize for farmers
of the Ufipa plateau
Collinson, Michael P.; Croon, S.I.; Mkindi, G.T.
Uyole Agricultural Centre
Nov 19801 16p.9 En

* Microfiche not available paper copy only

Results of a diagnostic study of the farming systems of
Tanzania's Ufipa Plateaus together with suggestions for an
experimental research program aimed at helping Ufipa farmers
improve management of their increasingly important maize crop,
are presented.
After describing labor and land use in the plateau's current
farming systems and its major crops, the report examines the
rapid changes both in the system and in the constraints to its
development which have occurred after 1973 as a result of
increasing ox production and the official villagization policy.
Stress is laid on the declining importance of laoor-intensive
finger millet cultivation and the correlatively increasing
importance of the November-January lator peak. Maize management
practices in Ufipa are then quantifiec, and analysis is made of
the way in which maize management decisions are influenced by
farmer priorities, resource limitatiors, and hazards such as the
uncertainty of rainfall and crop losses due to insects. The
report concludes by proposing an adaptive research program that
focuses on testing ways to ease the Ncvember-January labor
bottleneck, conducting fertility maintenance trials to prolong
the use of cleared lands and improving the reliability of maize
storage.


013 PN-AAP-364

MF $1.08/PC $1.82

Livestock in farming systems research and development
programs
De Boer, A.J.
Winrock International. Livestock Research and Training
Center
U.S. Agency for International Developnent. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
(Farming Systems Workshop, Port of Spain, TD, 26-27 Apr
1979)
(1979), (14p.), En

The majority of animal products corsumed within the world's
tropical belt are produced on small farms, typically as part of a
naturally integrated system of crop/livestock production. This
report begins by outlining three stages for study of
crop/livestock production before application of a broad-scale


- 8 -








development package: analysis of existing crop/livestock
production and marketing operations (to explain efficiency
parameters of livestock, the rationale for input levels, and the
mix of livestock products); definition and quantification of
constraints limiting animal production; and on-farm testing of
combinations of livestock enterprises and cropping systems.
Components of the crop/livestock system are then considered.
Discussed in turn are: general measures of efficiency; the
multiple uses of livestock; herd structure variables; animal
inputs into the cropping system; a mocel of crop-animal
integration in the Caribbean; the construction of feed
demand-supply balances; animal feed requirements; classification
and nutritional value of feed sources; relationship of feeding to
animal genetic qualities; and means of intensifying forage.
Modeling and species considerations are discussed briefly.


014 PN-AAG-274

MF $1.08/PC $8.19

Handbook on the methodology for an integrated experiment-
survey on rice yield constraints
De Datta, Surajit K.; Gomezr K.A.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
1978, 65p., En
AID/TA-G-1074

Presented here is a methodology for analyzing constraints to
increased rice production in farmers, fields. The methodology,
the result of a 4-year multidisciplinary research project to
study rice yield constraints by a tear of agronomists,
economists, and statisticians from the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI) and by 6 cooperating national teams,
will give researchers answers to the following questions: (1)
What is the gap between farmers' present yields and the highest
potential yield for their fields after predetermined production
factors are modified? (2) How much of the yield gap can be
attributed to each of the predetermined production factors? (3)
What are the differences in costs and returns? (4) How much of
the yield gap can be profitably recovered? and (S) If the inputs
that are most profitable differ from the actual inputs used by
farmers, what personal, social, institutional, or political
factors keep farmers from using the mcst profitable levels? The
handbook discusses the selection of study area experimental
sites, and factors to be tested (such as fertilizer, weed
control* and insect control). Sample survey questionnaires are
presented and illustrative analyses are performed on constraint
data.

015 PN-AAG-895

MF $2.16/PC $25.48

Southern Fulani farming system in Upper Volta: a new old model
for the integration of crop and livestock production in the


- 9 -








West African Savannah
oelgadot Christopher L.
University of Michigan
1978, 176p., En
French edition: PN-AAG-896
AID/REDSO/uA-77-107; AIO/AFR-G-1261

This paper provides research result ts of a study of the
Southern Fulani farming system in south-central Upper Volta.
Following the Sahelian drought of 1974, donor agency and
governmental policy in this area has stressed shifting livestock
production from northern to southern and central regions of the
country in order to lessen dependence on erratic rainfall
patterns. Hypotheses about Fulani society and economic relations
which address this strategy are researched and tested by the
author. Areas examined include: (1) characteristics of the
research site; (2) availability and allocation of labor within an
average household; (3) monthly flow of crop and livestock outputs
from the average household; and (4) a summary profile of the
typical Fulani production unit. The primary conclusion resulting
from this research is that the real potential for economic growth
through integration of crop and livestock enterprises lies in
closer relations between the Fulani and lossi tribes. The
objective of rural development policy should be to promote
specialization in crops and small stock by the Mossi, and cattle
and small stock oy the Fulanis. Recommended policy actions cover
4 major types of interventions: (1) government actions to bolster
the cattle-entrusting system; (2) creating a rise in relative
returns to herdsmen for maintaining entrusted cattle; (3) actions
to move surplus Fulani cattle manure to uses in Mossi market
gardening; and (4) improving herder access to purchased food
grains. A bibliography of references is provided, along with
tables of labor flow data, and samples of questionnaires used in
the study.


016 PN-AAP-595

MF 52.16/PC $13.65

Cropping systems in Pespire, Southern Honiurass University of
Kentucky, INTSORMIL project: prel iminary report number 1
neWalt, Billie R.; DeWalt, Kathleen M.; et al.
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
Experiment Station
University of Kentucky. Department of Sociology
University of Kentucky. Department of Anthropology
1st ed. 1982, 103p., En
9311254
AIO/DSAN-G-0149

Data from interviews with 52 male and 72 female household
heads in three small communities are Lsed to describe cropping
systems, especially for sorghum in tke Pespire region of
southern Honduras and ways they can be improved to help the
country out of its bleak agricultural situation.


- 10 -








After a general introduction to Horduras and to the southern
region, the region of greatest sorghum production, variants of
Pespire's two main cropping systems slash and mulch, and slash
and burn (both of which use sorghum ard maize, the region's two
main crops) are described* as is the cultivation of secondary
crops and of pasture. The report then indicates major production
constraints in Pespire and some possible solutions; seed types
used in the area are characterized.
The survey showed sorghum to be both a multipurpose and due
to its drought tolerance an important risk-aversion crop. Key
production constraints were identified as bird predation storage
losses (especially to <>)) locusts, fall army worm*
and the eating of seed before it germinates by ants and termites.
The survey also revealed that wide adoption of pesticides by
farmers augurs well for future technology diffusion efforts.
Two appendices analyze, respectively the use of sorghum as a
human food and changing land use patterns in Honduras and Central
America; the latter indicates that increased cattle production is
leading to wholesale destruction of forests and a reduction in
arable land. Included are 22 tables and a 42-item bibliography
(1959-82) of Lnglish and Spanish titles.


017 PN-AAP-233

MF $1.08/PC $2.34

Economics of systems research
Dillon, John L.
Agricultural systems, v.l 1976* p.5-229 Ln

The systems approach to agriculture according to this paper,
constitutes a new way of viewing the horld one which no longer
sees the world in terms of analyzable and mechanistically related
parts, but as an interacting and purpcsive whole. As a
corollary, there are important implications for agricultural
research and professional research training. In particular the
systems approach has an important role to play in the allocation
of research resources because it recognizes that agricultural
research is an instrument for achievirg higher-level goals (i.e.,
is not only oriented toward production increases) and it provides
a framework both for bringing research alternatives to attention
and for their assessment. Use of the systems approach will allow
decisionmakers to choose from a variety of alternative research
projects* based on systems analysis oi their probable outcomes.
Moreover a goal-oriented, systems approach to research
management, which has come to be known as PPB (Planning,
Programming and Budgeting) is generally more efficient than is
the traditional disciplinary approach. A 39-item bibliography
(1967-74) is appended.


018 PN-AAP-683

MF $2.16/PC $20.02
Farm management research for small farmer development


- 11 -








Dillon, John L.; Hardaker, J.B.
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organizatior (Sponsor)
FAO agricultural services bulletin no.41, 1980, xt 1459 En

Methods of conducting farm management research geared to the
needs of small farmers in developing countries, particularly
those in Asia and the Far East, are presented in this manual.
After an introductory chapter on the reed for and approaches to
farm management research on small farms, methods of data
collection (e.g., farm and village surveys farm recording
schemes, case studies, and experiments) and simple data analysis
(including tabular analysis, measures of whole and partial-farm
performance, and comparative analyses) are presented. Succeeding
chapters outline methods of planning ano analyzing whole-farm and
partial-farm budgets and cover such topics as activity budgets;
farm resource use; farm programming ard systems simulation; farm
development budgets; and partial profit, gross margin, partial
cash flow, parametric, and risk budgeting. Procedures for
conducting input-output budget analysis are described (covering
estimating benefits and costs, allowing for capital scarcity,
marginal analysis of net benefits, etc.), followed by an
introduction to the use of production function analysis in farm
management research. The final chapter employs decision theory
to analyze risk-laden decisionmaking ty small farmers.
A glossary of farm management research terms and a subject
index are appended; 68 tables and 38 figures illutrate the text.
References are included after individual chapters.


019 PN-AAI'-161
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $3.24/PC $25.61

Farming systems research at the international agricultural
research centers: I analysis by the TAC review team
of farming systems research at CIA1, IITA, ICRISAT and
IRRI; TI proceedings of the workshop on farming
systems research, Nairobi, May 29 31, 1978
Oillon, John L.; Plucknett, Donald L.; et al.
Consultative Group on International Acricultural Research
(Workshop on Farming Systems Researcht Nairobit KE, 29-31
May 1978)
Sep 1978R v.p., En

Farming systems research (FSR) programs at four international
agricultural research centers the International Center for
Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the International Institute for
Tropical Agriculture (IITA)s the International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are assessed.
After an introduction to FSR concepts, terminology, goals, and
potential benefits the FSR methodologies employed in national
FSR programs in Costa Rica and Senegal are analyzed along with
general (baseline data analysis) and special (on-farm and
research station) methodological needs. Guidelines for an FSR
strategy, including a strategy for balancing on- and off-station


- 12 -








work and for cooperation between international centers and
national programs, are proposed. FSR programs at the four
centers are then assessed both as to their structure and
operation and in relation to other certer programs. Conclusions
and recommendations anent the precedirg conclude the report.
Appendices include individual reports on FSR at the four centers,
and a 10-page, multi-language bibliography (1959-78). The report
also includes proceedings of a May 1918 workshop on FSR held in
Nairobi, Kenya, which endorsed the results of the above study.


020 PN-AAP-573
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $10.14

Annual report to the project: new ways for old worlds:
development and research, a new approach to the Ethiopian
rangelands development project (third livestock development
project)
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands ProdLction System Study
Programme
Mar 1981, 73p., En

Development projects must take intc account not just
technological feasibilities and natioral-level aims, out also the
production system to be developed, anc the desires of the society
involved. Provided in this paper is a proposal for linking
project implementation to systems research in the Ethiopian
Rangeland Development Project.
Following brief introductory sections in which the author
explains the philosophy underlying the systems research approach
to development, the approach itself is outlined, using as an
example two Ethiopian pastoral societies the wild northern Afar
or Danakil ana the Horana husbandmen cf the South. The situation
- geography and ecology, external pressures, development options
leadership, and social units of each society is described. Also
included are (1) study models prepare for the two societies
outlining questions which need to De answered on nutrition,
decisionmaking, herd structure, relationships with neighboring
pastoralists and farmers, market offtake, water resources, and
technical inputs and (2) information cn the level (personnel,
specific tasks) at which studies can te initiated. In
conclusion, the author suggests that the methods being pioneered
in the Ethiopia project may lead the kay for complete
reorientation of livestock development projects in Africa.


021 PU-AAN-228

MF $2.16/PC $13.65

Evaluation of the CARDI/USAID small farm multiple cropping
systems research project
Everson Everett; deausoleil, Joseph 1.; et al.
University of the West Indies, St. Aucustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute (Sponsor)


- 13 -








17 Mar-8 Apr 1982, 91p., En
5380015

Evaluates project to develop recommendations for improved
farming systems through farm-based research in the Eastern
Caribbean. Special evaluation covers the period through 4/8/82
and is based on document review, site visits, and interviews with
project participants.
Although the project's ambitious objectives have not been
fulfilled and many of the expected results not obtained, a sound
infrastructure for farm-level applied research and extension has
emerged, as farming systems research (FSR) has been readily
embraced by farmers and has become the focal point of
participating countries' agricultural research programs. Joint
country/Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
(CARDI) teams have been established ir 7 countries and some 25
farmer cooperators selected on each of the islands. CARDI/FSR
staff have become aware of the complex farming systems in the
regions a number of production constraints have been discovered
on-farm adaptive problem-solving research has been initiated, and
some observation trials conducted. Also, various workshops and
seminars have been conducted for research personnel.
Progress has been hampered by a number of implementation
problems, however. The project has been spread too thin,
geographically to be effective. Interterritorial communication
has been poor and true interdisciplinary interaction among core
CARDI personnel not achieved. Overemphasis on data collection
and detailed analysis, coupled with a lack of flexibility, has
led to a slow cautious approach to field trials. In fact, the
project has collected too much data, too rapidly, about a
subsample of farmers which represents neither a homogenous group
nor a random sample. The project's ac hoc exploratory
interventions (7-15 per country) represent constraints identified
through informal observations not during the data analysis
process. Thus, to date project research has added little
knowledge about or had little impact cn farming systems.
Included in this evaluation are analyses of crop and animal
production in the Eastern Caribbean ard of CARDI's organizational
and functional patterns. Detailed recommendations for Phase II
of the project address these and other issues.


022 PN-AAP-234

MF $1.08/PC $6.63

Development of plant genotypes for multiple cropping systems
Francis, C.A.
1981, p.179-2319 En
Plant breeding II
Frey, K.J.
Iowa State University Press

The potential for improving multiple cropping systems depends
on the researcher's ability to combine genetic advance with new
agronomic techniques. Thus concludes this paper, which was


- 14 -








presented at a plant breeding symposiLm held at Iowa State
University in 1979.
Emphasis throughout is on intensive cropping systems that
combine two or more crops in the fielc at the same time. Species
choice and genetic selection are discLssed first; attention is
given to the interactions of genotypes in different cropping
systems* and statistical alternatives for comparing these
interactions. Steps in the practical screening and testing of
new cultivars are then outlined: the decision to breed for
intercropping systems; phenotypic traits desirable for
intercropping (with respect to photoperiod, temperature
sensitivity, plant morphology rooting systems, planting density,
and early seedling growth); insect anc disease resistance;
screening techniques for breeding; anc on-farm testing and
technology transfer. The potential productivity of multiple
cropping systems is assessed in terms of competitive ability to
use available resources.
A multidisciplinary research focus and improved graduate study
are recommended to provide the necessary expertise in genotype
development. Comments by symposium panel members and a 136-item
bibliography are appended.


023 PN-AAM-827

MF $1.08/PC $7.67

Farming systems research (FSR) in Honcuras 1977-81: a case
study
Galt* Daniel L.; Diazt Alvaro; et al.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Economics
MSU international development working paper, no.l1 1982 49p. :
Bibliography, p.48-49, En
5220139
AID/TA-CA-3

* Free copies available to qualified recipients through MSU
Dept. of Agricultural Economics, East Lansing MI 48824

Problems and achievements resulting from the introduction of
farming systems research (FSR) into tte national agricultural
research system in Honduras are examined in this study.
After providing a historical overview of agricultural research
in Hondurast the authors discuss the organizational framework for
FSR in the country, focusing primarily on the creation of a
Central Unit for FSR within the Honduran Ministry of Natural
Resource's National Program of Agricultural Research. Next,
implementation of the FSR program is addressed, with particular
attention to: selection of regions, farmers, and specific
problems for on-farm and on-station trials; experiences in
implementing farm trials and farm reccrdkeeping systems; research
results and efforts to extend FSR to cther regions; and training
of Honduran researchers. Key problems e.g., in introducing FSR
to agricultural research personnel, ir communicating among the
various entities involved, and in obtaining sufficient resources
- are described.


- 15 -








It is concluded that while not all of the program's goals were
realized, a good deal was achieved in modifying research
philosophy and methodology. Recommencations for implementing FSR
in other countries are provided. Appended are a 17-item
bibliography (1976-81) and comments by FSR researchers.


024 PN-AAK-049
-----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $2.16/PC $19.24

Farming systems research: a critical appraisal
Gilbert E.H.; Norman, David W.; Winch, F.E.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics
MSU rural development paper, no.6, 19E80 147p., En
French edition: PN-AAN-029
9311006
AID/TA-CA-3

It is increasingly evident that public investment in farming
system research (FSR) over the last 2E years has been focused on
the needs of commercial farmers and professional researchers
rather than on the needs of developing country small farmers.
Defining farming systems as human and environmental totalities,
the authors of this state-of-the-art study review the literature
on FSR, evaluate current FSR programs, and make recommendations
to make FSR more responsive to small farmer needs. The
political, socials technological, and human components of a farm
system are reviewed, and a framework and general description are
provided for "downstream" FSR. Unlike "upstream" FSR, which
takes place on an institutional level and seeks to generate
prototypes to solve deep-seated production constraints,
"downstream" FSR is directed at generating, in cooperation with
farmers, immediate and site-specific solutions to their needs.
Current "upstream" and "downstream" programs at the national
(e.g., Columbia, Guatemala, and Senegal) and international levels
(e.g., IRRI and ICRISAT) are reviewed, as are several issues
affecting the programs' content and fccus, including
institutional mandates, linkages amonc research and
implementation agencies, professional and practical credibility,
efficiency and accountability of research, and constraints of and
criteria for improving FSR approaches. Next, the four stages of
FSR methodology are detailed: target area description and
diagnosis; project or experiment design; testing or
implementation; and evaluation and extension. Problems involved
in institutional linkages and in FSR training programs are also
covered. General conclusions and three concerns regarding FSR
(conflicts of private and public interests, gaining sufficient
funding, and time to prove FSR's worth) preface the following
recommendations: direct future FSR work toward cost/benefit
analyses in different ecological zones; develop methodologies to
include livestock and societal, environmental, and distributional
impacts; and establish more operational linkages between FSR
activities and the entire range of agricultural research,
planning, and program implementation.


- 16 -








Appended are descriptions of selected FSR programs and a
155-item bibliography (1902-80).


025 PN-AAJ-649

MF $1.08/PC $6.89

ICTA in Guatemala: the evolution of a new model for
agricultural research and development
Gostyla, Lynn; Whyte William F.
Cornell University. Center for International Studies
Special series on agriculture research and extension, 1980,
53p, En
Spanish edition: PN-AAP-278
9311.137
AID/TA-BMA-8

Agricultural research can have no impact upon small farmers'
cultivation practices unless it addresses farmers' real problems
and defines efficiency in farmers* terms. Traditional research
and development efforts unilateral flows of initiative and
information directed by national planrerse executed by
technicians through commodity programs, and imposed upon farmers
- often result in production techniques that are rejected by
small farmers. This report describes the development of
Guatemala's Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology
(ICTA), which is dedicated to a decentralized research
methodology designed to make research programs responsible for
the adoption of appropriate agricultural techniques by including
the contributions of farmers and social scientists. Under ICTA's
interdisciplinary research program, mainly developed by its
Socio-Economic Unit (SEU), natural anc social scientists survey
farmers to identify homogeneous groups and their production
constraints. The farmers then record their cultivation
practices, supplying data about annual crop labor/resource
investments. Experimentation with specific treatments such as
agronomic practices or crop varieties, is based on farmer
information and the results of controlled tests at production
centers. Using the farmers' traditional techniques an
agronomist and farmer test the selected treatments and then apply
them to larger areas at different sites. In the next phase, the
tarmer tests the treatments alone; ICTA personnel visit to record
information and conduct evaluations. Problems arose in the
initial implementation of this approach, as technicians
deprecated farmer input and SEU's low-level regional presence was
often erratic. The situation improve as technicians began to
realize the benefits of farmer participation and as SEU sent
adequate personnel into needed areas. The use of leadership
farmers to monitor recordkeeping and test sites also has been
helpful. An indication of the obstacles facing those introducing
such innovations is provided in the aLthors' histories of ICTA
and SEU, including the latter's conflicts with external and
internal proponents of traditional methods and relations with
similar institutions.


- 17 -








026 PN-AAP-903
---- -- -- - - -- -- -----------------"" " "
MF S3.24/PC $32.76

Interdisciplinary perspective of cropping systems in the Chiang
Mai Valley: key questions for research
Gypmantasiri, Phrek; Wiboonpongse, Aree; et al.
University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture
Ford Foundation (Sponsor)
Jun 19809 xiv, 23P., En

The past (1969-30) achievements anc future prospects of the
Multiple Cropping Program (MCP), a multidisciplinary research
project being conducted by Chiang Mai University in Northern
Thailand's Chiang Mai Valley, are assessed.
Initial chapters describe the Valley's structure (including
water supply, cropping intensity, population, infrastructure, and
villages); dynamics (seasons, cropping patterns, prices and
labor, long-term cropping changes, anc crop stresses and
perturbations), and farmer decisionmaking processes (as affected
by national policy objectives and local needs and constraints).
Against this background, the performance and constraints of the
MCP systems introduced into the Valley by the University,
together with the productivity, stability, and durability of
these systems, are assessed. A detailed series of key evaluative
questions covering all major areas of the Valley system is posed.
Preliminary answers to these questions provide a basis for a
concluding outline of research priorities and future directions.
It is stressed that the program's comparative advantage lies in
its focus on the research questions raised by the evaluation.
The text is illustrated by 96 charts, tables, and graphs.
A 75-item bibliography (1962-80) ard English and Thai language
glossaries of terms are appended.


027 PN-AAP-100

MF S1.08/PC $4.03

Methodological issues facing social scientists in on farm /
farming systems research
Harrington, Larry
International Maize and Wheat Improvenent Center
(Workshop on Methodological Issues Facing Social Scientists
in On Farm / Farming Systems Research, Mexico City,
MX, 1-3 Apr 1980)
17 Nov 1980, 26p. + annex, En

Methodological issues facing social scientists in applied or
on-farm farming systems research (FSR) were discussed at a 4/80
workshop held at CIMMYT. Initial dicLssions of these issues,
according to this report on the workshop focused on the role of
the social scientist in FSR and on the usefulness to farmers,
policymakers, and experiment stations of on-farm FSR, as well as
on the latter's cost-effectiveness. Discussion on the farmer as
research client covered the choice of farmer target groups and


- 18 -








the appropriate size of recommendation domains; whether to focus
on a predetermined commodity rather tlan the whole farm system
(the report recommends the latter where it is technically feasible
and there is little hope for improvement in the farmer's main
crop); and the general preferability of individual technological
components to large technological packages. Discussion on the
advantages and disadvantages of varioLs data sources and data
collection instruments are summarized, and the wisdom of
following the informal survey with a normal survey and of making
observations in farmers' fields noted. The report's concluding
sections summarize discussions on procedural issues in designing#
testing, and evaluating new technologies including on-farm
testing, prescreenings farmer assessments? and analysis of
economic impacts and on integrating social scientists into FSR
institutes.


028 PN-AAP-019

MF $1.08/PC $3.38

Determinants of agroecosystem structure and function
Hart, Robert D.
(Agricultural Ecosystems -- Unifying Concepts, University Park,
PA, US, 12 Aug 1982)
12 Aug 1982, 25p., En

Aqroecosystems are determined by bcth ecological and
socioeconomic factors. This paper analyzes how these two types
of factors influence farmer decisions in designing and
implementing (controlling) a farm management plan.
Several determinants of farmer decisions are enumerated: the
natural environment, which affects the agroecosystem either
directly (through the availability of energy and material inputs)
or indirectly (by triggering farmer decisions); agricultural
resources (land, labor, capitals management capability, and farm
inputs); the farm household (which mainly affects design
decisions); energy and material flows from other agroecosystems;
and the ongoing performance of the agroecosystem itself. Specific
hypotheses regarding determinant-decision relationships are
exemplified from experience in Central America the relations
between temperature and cropping system selections (a design
decision) and between the onset of the rainy season and selection
of the first crop in a rotation system (a control decision).
Concluding sections of the paper discuss the implications of
these issues for farming systems research and agricultural
modeling, as well as for agro- and natural ecosystem research. A
22-item bibliography (1965-82) is appended.


029 *XN-AAL-341-A

MF $2.16/PC $24.18

One farm system in Honduras: a case study in farm systems
research


- 19 -








Hart, Robert D0
1982, p.59-73, En
Readings in farming system research and development
Colorado State University

* Order as PN-AAL-341

The conceptualization of a farm system as a set of subsystems
with inputs, outputst and between-system flows can be a valuable
tool in cropping systems research. .Thus concludes this articles
which begins by describing data collected from one farming
household in Yojoa Honduras. Beginning in May 19769 Mr.
Aureliano Alvaradot having been selected as a representative
farmers was interviewed weekly over a one-year period.
Quantitative interview data were analyzed and from them a
qualitative model of a farm systems showing socioeconomic and
agro-eco subsystems, their inputs, outputs, and between-systems
flows of money, materials, energy, anc information, was
constructed. This model and the interview data were then used as
guidelines in developing methodologies for further cropping
systems research at Yojoa. The major findings resulting from
this research are described and suggestions for refining the
methodology provided.


030 PN-AAP-062

MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Using the concept of agroecosystem determinants to link
technology transfer and technology generation to form a
farming systems research and extension process
Hart, Robert D.
(Role of Crops and Animals in Farming Systems, Columbia,
MO, US, 19-20 May 1983)
May 1983, 15p., En

Uhile farming systems research (FSF) has made a major
contribution to agricultural extension, there is still a gap
between the information needed for technology transfer and that
produced by most FSR projects. In this paper, the concept of
agroccosystem determinants is proposed as a framework which can
be used to identify the information needed to link FSR with
technology transfer.
The author begins by discussing the nature of agroecosystems,
and their relationships to farm systems and socioeconomic
systems. Farm system decisionmaking is examined next and it is
shown that these decisions are based cn one or more of the
following types of agroecosystem determinants: the ecological
and socioeconomic environment; agricultural resources; the
household; the performance of the existing agroecosystem; and the
flow of materials or energy among agrcecosystems. Identification
of these decision determinants, it is suggested, can be used by
FSR workers to implement a process which links technology
generation to technology transfer, by first identifying the type
of farm system and of ecological and socioeconomic environment


- 20








where a new technology is appropriate and then testing its
applicability on other farms in other areas. Technology that
passes this final test is then communicated to all farms in all
areas where it is appropriate.


031 PN-AAP-617

MF $2.16/PC $21.97

Small farm development: understanding and improving farming
systems in the humid tropics
Harwood, Richard R.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. International Agricultural
Development Service
IADS development-oriented literature series 19799 xivi 160p.,
En
Published by Westview Press

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., touldert CO 80301 USA

Tropical farming systems are interactions of varied but
complementary farm enterprises undertaken with limited resources.
This book analyzes ways in which such farming systems can be used
to further agricultural development.
Part one presents an overview of tropical small farms and
their production systems* with explicit attention to the stages
and goals of small farm development ard indicators of farmer
well-being. The final chapter in this part the heart of the
whole book suggests a development approach for collaboration
among scientists, extensionists, and farmers to develop and
extend relevant technology to resource-limited farms.
Part two deals in greater depth with critical but often
overlooked factors limiting increased cropping intensity on small
farms and describes existing and/or appropriate methods of
addressing them. Treated in turn are: physical limitations
(water, soil tertility); economic determinants (labor, cash,
management capability); resource requirements of multiple
cropping; animals in mixed-cropping systems; farmyard and
fencerow noncommercial enterprises; scil fertility; efficient
resource use; and the need for mechanization. Finally, it is
stressed that farmers will only adopt systems that involve
minimum risk and maximum stability.
Lists of sources of farming systems information and
terminology; botanical names of crops; and an annotated SH-item
bibliography (1956-79) are appended.


032 PN-AAP-231

MF $1.08/PC $1.30

Combining disciplines in rapid appraisal: the Sondeo
approach Hildebrandt Peter E.
Agricultural administration, v.8, 1981, p.423-432, En


- 21 -








The Sondeo is a multidisciplinary rapid survey technique
developed by the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science and
Technology (ICTA) to provide the information needed to orient the
work of a technology generating team. A reconnaissance survey
team of 10, equally split between socioeconomists and
technologists, assesses farmer constraints and technology needs
as a basis for agricultural research. Quantified information and
questionnaires are not required and the survey lasts only one
week. The team investigates farmer conditions in pairs made up
of a social scientist and a natural scientist. On each of four
days the pairing changes. Daily post-survey team discussions are
regarded as essential. Each member of the team prepares a report
and these are finally amalgamated intc one joint report.
Experience has shown that combined disciplines cans if well
managed, produce incisive and efficiert diagnoses of rural
conditions and needs and educate the participants in
multidisciplinary thinking. (Author abstract, modified)


033 PN-AAP-099
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $3.38

Generating technology for traditional farmers: a
multi-disciplinary methodology
Hildebrands Peter E.
Agricultural Science and Technology Irstitute
(Conference on Developing Economies ir Agrarian Regions: a
Search for Methodology, Bellagio, IT, 4-6 Aug 1976)
Dec 1976, 20p. + appendix, En

The mult disciplinary research methodology of the Guatemalan
Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), outlined
hereins aims at developing the low-risk technologies needed by
traditional small farmers to increase the production of basic
grains. The methodology has four components. The first,
description and analysis, focuses on informal and formal
agro-economic surveys of targeted groLps of farmers having common
cropping systems. Adaptive research, the second components
consists of two phases an initial period of experimentation
aimed at improving traditional technology in the short run, and a
longer process of refining the improved traditional technology.
The third component consists of testing and promoting the
technology through two types of on-farm trials farm
experiments, financed by ICTA, and farmer tests, financed by
farmers themselves. The fourth component evaluates long-range
technology adoption through farm records, technician reports
comparative trial records, and followLp surveys. A final section
of the report describes use of the methodology in various parts
of Guatemala La Maquina on the Coast, the Department of Jutiapa
in the southeast, and Chimaltenango ir the Western Highlands. A
discussion of the role of the social scientist in biological
research is appended.


- 22 -








034 PN-AAP-659
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $2.86

ICTA farm record project with small farmers: four years of
experience
Hildebrandt Peter E.
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology (Sponsor)
Jul 1979, 16p. + attachments, En

The Institute of Agricultural Scierce and Technology's (ICTA)
crop reporting project in Guatemala is reviewed from its
beginning in 1975 as a 3-crop, 40-reccrd project on a 20-ha
agrarian reform plot through its development into a nationwide
34-cropt 583-record project.
In the project, which focuses on keeping crop records (as
opposed to full-farm records) and so minimizing the time needed
for data gathering/analysis and training, data from daily work
sheets kept by farmers and from supplemental sheets filled out by
ICTA personnel are analyzed to provide detailed tables of inputs
technologies used, crop yields, and prices, resulting in
calculation of gross and net crop incomes. Stress is laid on the
importance of close contact between ICTA personnel (at first
technicians, but later joined by socioeconomic personnel) and
farmers, who are often illiterate, in order to ensure accurate
reporting. After suggesting some improvements for the future,
the report concludes that the projects which has shown that crop
records yield valuable information on technology advances, has
been made an integral part of the ICTA program. Demonstration
recording forms are included.


035 PN-AAP-095

MF t1.08/PC $7.41

Incorporating the social sciences into agricultural
research: the formation of a national farm systems research
institute: report of a five year tour of duty
Hildebrands Peter E.
Agricultural Science and Technology Irstitute
Rockefeller Foundation
Dec 1979, iii, 43p. + 3 appendices, En

Results of a 5-year project aimed at incorporating the social
sciences into the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural
Technology's (ICTA) small farm research program are highlighted
in this consultant's report.
The report describes the development and use of a social
science methodology based on full-scale agro-economic surveys
preceded by preliminary questionnaires (<>) administered
to farmers aimed at helping ICTA researchers focus their work
on small farmer needs and problems; stress is laid on the
importance of field activities in La Earranca and Tecpan. A
related farm records project is briefly assessed. The use of


- 23 -








<>) the involvement of farmers in technology
development, and the conducting of research under conditions
relevant to farmers enabled the project to increase the speed and
efficiency with which agronomists developed appropriate
technology. However, although the social scientists' practices
were integrated into many ICTA programs, their long-term role
within ICTA is unclear: failure to replace social scientists who
leave the Institute* together with the decentralization of the
social science unit seems to augur a ciminishing impact on ICTA
decisions and practices.
A list of 67 project publications, 59 of which are in Spanishi
is appended.


036 PN-AAH-977

MF $2.16/PC $14.56

Central America: small farmer cropping systems
Hobqood, Harlan H.; Bazan, Ruto; et al.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Hureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation
A.I.D. project impact evaluation report, no.14* 1980, 111p.,
En
5960014

Rural development strategies have increasingly focused on
extending modern production technology to improve the low yields
of small farmers who produce most of the world's food crops.
This report evaluates a research project to increase small-farmer
production in Central America by developing improved cropping
practices. The Small Farmer Cropping Systems Project (SFCS)
supported research by the Tropical Agriculture Research and
Training Center (CATIE) in Costa Rica on the traditional
multicropping systems used by over 4 Billion small farmers in
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Hondurast El Salvador, and Guatemala.
Although progress was slow in El Salvador and Guatemala, the
project succeeded in implementing on-farm research and developing
area-specific recommendations. The major shortcoming of the
"-year project was that it concentrated on the research process
itself rather than on verifying and disseminating results.
Farmer impact was thus limited to the 75 small farmers on whose
farms research was conducted. Farmers in Nicaragua and Guatemala
were active participants, whereas those in Costa Rica and
Honduras remained largely ignorant of the project and
disinterested in adopting alternative systems. Test farm yields
increased in every country but Guatemala. CATIE's staffs
training, and support capabilities were greatly improved and most
national agricultural institutions involved were positively
affected. The team coyluded that SFCS is a replicable model
capable of significantTy improving the lot of the small farmer.
Recommendations for future projects are: (I) disseminate
research results; (2) stress an intercisciplinary approach; (3)
seek the active participation of farmers; (4) improve SFCS
methodology by upgrading farm selection criteria clarifying the
relationship between on-farm and central station experiments, and


- 24 -






increasing attention to the non-agroncmic aspects of small farm
systems; (5) promote maximum interagercy collaboration; and (6)
shorten the time lag between research, verifications and
dissemination. Appendices on evaluation methodology, project
impact on CATIE, and CATIE's production data are included, as are
reports on Nicaragua# Guatemalas HondLrass and Costa Rica.


037 PN-AAP-097

MF $2.16/PC $16.64

Agricultural research in Honduras
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program
for Agricultural Research
International Agricultural Research Service
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources (Sponsor)
1978, viii, 83p. + G appendices, En

Measures to strengthen the Hondurar National Program for
Agricultural Research (PNIA) are suggested, based on a review of
agriculture's role in the Honduran economy and an assessment of
the existing PNIA program.
The authors found that PNIA was characterized by: (1) a
program largely restricted to station-based varietal testing and
agronomy trials; (2) a network of research stations badly needing
improvement; (3) a serious shortage in trained manpower; (4)
productive but limited linkages with ether foreign and domestic
research institutions; and (5) lack of administrative control
over the research budget. Suggestions for strengthening
agricultural research focus on: reorganization of PNIA into
three levels headquarters, central Lnit, and regional units,
the latter comprised of both farming systems teams and
station-based teams; inclusion of an extensionist on each farming
systems team; full PNIA control over its research budget; a
substantial increase in technical personnel as well as inservice
and advanced degree training requirements; and increased ano
strengthened relations with other research and development
institutions. Implementation and funcing of these changes are
discussed. Appendices include budgetary and staffing data and a
report on animal production and research.


038 PN-AAP-093

MF $1.08/PC $3.90

Guia metodologica para conduccion de ensayos de finca
(Guide to methodology for conducting farm research
trials)
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National Program
for Agricultural Research
1979, 22p. + annex, Es

The current (1379) Honduran National Development Plan places
top priority on the traditional small and medium farmers who


- 25 -







together produce at least 70% of the country's grain.' Experience
has shown that research in traditional, as distinct from moderns
commercial agriculture, must take into account ecological,
economics and technological conditions, as well as limits and
possibilities and hence is preferably conducted on-farm rather
than at experimental stations. This manual provides a
methodological guide for conducting or-farm trials. After an
introductory section on problem identification, treatment is
given in turn to choice of locations arranging the experiments
site characterization, and data needs at each stage of the
farming process. Included are two apFendicest one on evaluating
weeds, the other on evaluating insects and leaf disease affecting
beans, corns and sorghum.


039 PN-AAB-810

MF $6.48/PC $72.41

International workshop on farming systems (proceedings)
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Farming Systems, Hyderabad, IN,
1974)
1974, 556p., En
AID/TA-G-1073

* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324

Nearly every aspect of farming in the semi-arid tropics was
examined at the workshop, and it was telt that only through the
dissemination of information and an integrated systems approach
can farming problems be remedied. Toward that ends this report
includes the papers presented at the workshop and the discussions
following each major group of topics. The first group, Committee
I, covered those subjects related to resource assessment and
utilization of research on farming systems in the semi-arid
tropics. Major attention was given tc land, soil, waters
climate, and manpower resources for improving production under
the rained conditions in this seasonally cry area. Committee II
examined the crops and cropping systems research needs for the
semi-arid tropics, and Committee III ciscussed the socioeconomic
problems related to farming systems research in this area.
Finally, Committee IV explored the question of research at
cooperating centers and transfer of technology. rhe group
evaluated various ways for the international institutes to play a
productive role in the generation of location-specific technology
and its transfer to the different agrc-climatic and soil regions
in the semi-arid tropics.



040 PN-AAJ-522

MF $5.40/PC $55.38


- 26 -








Proceedings of the international workshop on socioeconomic
constraints to development of semi-arid tropical
agriculture
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Socioecononic Constraints to
Development of Semi-arid Tropical Agriculture,
Hyderabad, IN, 1979)
1979, x, 435p.t En
9310786
AID/TA-G-1406

SICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India 502324

New technologies cannot be disseminated in developing
countries without an understanding of local socioeconomic
conditions. Such is the view adopted by the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in
sponsoring the International Workshop on Socioeconomic
Constraints to Development of Semi-Arid Tropical Agriculture,
held February 19-23, 1919 in ryderabac, Indias the proceedings of
which are presented in this report. The workshop'ss primary aim
was to consider ways and means of overcoming the various
socioeconomic constraints to agricultLral development in the
semi-arid tropics (SAT) and emphasis was focused on the role new
technologies and/or policies could play in alleviating
development constraints in SAT. The subject matter sessions
addressed the analysis of existing farming systems and practices
socioeconomics of prospective technologies, field assessment of
prospective technologies, issues in fcodgrain marketing, the
nature and significance of risk, rural labor markets, and the
economics of improved animal-drawn implements and mechanization.
Among the important observations, it has noted that larger
farmers were earlier and more frequent adopters of new technology
and that lack of capital is a major constraint to adoption.
Research indicates that the sum total of current agricultural
policies reduces farm income so that the incentive for increasing
cereal production is probably nil. Ore common recommendation
emerging from all sessions was the need to improve the
methodological and empirical bases on which policy judgements are
made. There is a particular need for data on the importance of
risk and uncertainty in determining farmer behavior in SAT
regions as well as on labor bottlenecks and on the degree to
which new technology constrains labor and affects wage rates. It
was also recommended that greater emphasis be placed on
understanding the nature of consumer preferences and that policy
initiatives in foodgrain marketing consider the economic policies
of SAT countries as well as the political situation of both donor
and host government agencies. Appended are texts of papers
presented in French and lists of country capers and of workshop
participants and observers.


041 PN-AAJ-526

MF $1.08/PC $10.01


- 27 -








Planning technologies appropriate to farmers: concepts and
procedures
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
1980, 77p., En
936411101
AID/DSAN-G-0216

A key reason preventing farmers in developing countries from
adopting fully the technologies recommended to them by
researchers and extensionists is the inappropriateness of the
technologies themselves, This manual was prepared to present
procedures and guidelines to assist agricultural researchers in
formulating technologies truly appropriate to farmer needs and is
divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of a
research program aimed at developing appropriate technologies.
Included are descriptions of on-farm znd experimental station
research the key research procedures involved and the
government policy context in which research must occur. It is
emphasized that successful research must proceed from knowledge
of the farmer's circumstances, that is, the factors, both natural
(e.g., climate and soils) and socioeconomic (e.g., farmers'
goals, markets, national policy) that affect farmers' decisions
on crop technologies. Part II describes procedures for obtaining
information on these circumstances, with stress laid on the need
to make the process a true collaboration between researchers and
farmers. Specific procedures detailec are: gathering and
analyzing pertinent background data from government and research
reports; conducting an exploratory survey, that is, informal
interviews with farmers and other knowledgeable individuals; and
conducting a formal survey or questiornaire. Individual chapters
discuss questionnaire development, sampling methods, and
practical ways to make the survey truly collaborative. In Part
III, methods are discussed for gleanirg from survey results the
information pertinent to planning crop research. In particular,
the authors present guidelines for prescreeninq a few two or
three at most are recommended "best-bet" technologies for
research. A final chapter exemplifies use of these guidelines in
two on-farm programs and one on-staticn program. The authors
note that those who think researchers should only go to farmers
with finished technologies for demonstration will find this
manual less useful than those who support on-farm research.
Graphs, charts, and a 25-item glossary of terms are included.
Short bibliographies are appended to each chapter.


042 PN-AAG-866

MF .5.40/PC $56.42

Proceedings of the symposium on cropping systems research and
development for the Asian rice farmer, IRRI, Los
Banos, Philippines, 1976
International Rice Research Institute
(Symposium on Cropping Systems Research and Development for
the Asian Rice Farmer, Los Banos, FH, 1976)


- 28 -








1977, 416p., En
Funded in part by A.I.D. under CGIAR crant

*IRRI, P.O. Box 333, Manila, Philippires

Contains 25 papers and additional discussions from a symposium
on cropping systems and development fcr the Asian rice farmer.
The papers present strategies for plarning and implementing
cropping systems research programs to increase farm income and
improve the quality of farm life. Crcpping systems research
focuses on efforts to increase crop yields, but also concerns
itself with the number of crops grown each year, with the goal of
increasing food production. The papers are organized into these
categories: framework for cropping systems research and
development for the Asian rice farmer; physical aspects of
cropping pattern design; economics of cropping systems; testing
of cropping patterns; component technology including weed
science insect-pest management, and varietal requirements; and
cropping systems approach to adaptive research and to production
programs.

043 PN-AAN-023

MF $1.08/PC $5.20

Limiting factor economic evaluation of cropping systems
Johnston, T.O.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program
of Annual Cultivation
19789 viii, 31p., Env Es

The cropping systems most likely to improve farm family income
are those which identify that resource which most limits per ha
yields. Since different types of small farmers need different
kinds of farming and cropping systems, such information requires
a thorough stuay of the resources, crcpping systems, and farming
systems of particular groups of farmers and of the social,
cultural, agroclimatic, or marketing constraints which dictate
the use or avoidance of particular cropping systems. While
researchers cannot, of courser develop a system for each farmers
farmer groups can be identified by di tferences in goals, farming
systems resource mixes, agroclimatic characteristics, etc.
Awareness of these differences will erable researchers to design
improved systems which make more efficient use of each group's
most limiting resource and which thus stand a much better chance
of being adopted.
In this study, the methodology for conducting such a limited
factor analysis of a small farm is described and exemplified from
a study in Costa ,ica. Charts measuring total inputs and prices
against outputs for each of five cropping systems demonstrate
which system produces the highest income for a particular limited
resource. (Author abstracts modified)


- 29 -








044 PN-AAG-025
-----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $9.23

Polyculture cropping systems; review and analysis
Kass, D.C.
Cornell University
Cornell international agriculture bulletin, no.32, 1971,
72p.9 En
9311194
AID/TA-C-1441

An analysis of the literature indicates that polyculture, or
growing two or more useful plants simLltaneously in the same
area, is generally beneficial. The choice of crops and other
environmental variables will determine to a large extent whether
the practice is advantageous in specific situations. In terms of
withdrawal of nutrients from the soil, economic returns
improvement of the nitrogen status of the soil-plant system when
one of the crops is a legumes and greater stability of yields
over time, the benefits of polyculture are clear. With regard to
ease of harvest and other mechanized operations, polyculture
offers some problems but recent research aimed at reducing these
difficulties has been surprisingly successful. Certain species
and combinations of species appear to perform more successfully
in polyculture than do others. Associations of cotton,
groundnuts, and maize-legume combinations are commonly used and
it is the price relationships of these combinations, rather than
the cropping systems themselves, which appear to be the
determining factors. The effects of climatic change on
polyculture have been well documented, primarily with respect to
wet and dry seasons in the tropics rather than year to year
variability in the same cropping season. The fact that
nutritional requirements and physiology of varieties within a
single species may vary more than those of different species has
been described in the literature of pclyculture. Suggestions for
further research are summarized.


045 PN-AAP-575

MF NA/PC $4.55

Overview of mechanization problems in a developing country
with special reference to Nigeria
Kaul, R.N.
American Society of Agricultural Engireers
(American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Summer
Meeting, 1982, Madison, WUI 27-30 jun 1982)
ASAE paper, no.82-5001, Jun 1982, 35p., En

* Microfiche not available paper copy only

Farm mechanization problems that occur when developing
countries import agricultural machinery are analyzed in this
paper, which focuses on problems in Nigeria.


- 30 -








Following background information on the role of farm equipment
in general and on different sources of power (manual, animal, and
tractor power), the author identifies and discusses four problems
associated with importation of agricultural machinery: focus on
larger units which often are not economical; lack of appreciation
of local cropping systems and of negative effects on women (who
must increase their labor in order to harvest and process
increased crop outputs); poor performance of imported equipment;
and failure to encourage local development and manufacture of
equipment. Findings from Nigerian field trials concerning
operational constraints on tractors ard the performance of crop
protection and harvesting equipment are presented. The author
concludes that farming systems must be balanced in the
technologies they employ; exporters of agricultural machinery
should invest in research to modify their product to suit
developing country situations. A 27-item bibliography (1962-82)
is appended.


046 PN-AAB-723

MF S3.24/PC $28.99

Field data collection in the social sciences, experiences
in Africa and the Middle East
Kearl, 3.E.
Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
(Conference on Field Oata Collection in the social
Sciences, ueirut, L3, 1976, 221p., En
French edition: PN-AAC-817
9310887
AID/CSD-2813

* Agricultural Development Councilt Irc., 1290 Avenues of the
Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA

A discussion of research methods practical field procedures
- is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social scientists
from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered include:
(1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and reconnaissance
or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling; (4) local
support and cooperation; (5) developing and using data collection
instruments; (6) problems with specific variables; (7)
recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enumerators; (8)
training interviewers and directing their work; (3) interviewing
techniques and problems; (10) winning cooperation of respondents;
and (11) preceding, and preliminary steps in analysis. Despite
its rather formidable formats this publication is intended to be
a progress report or a partial contribution rather than a
comprehensive reference or text.


047 PN-AAQ-008

MF $1.08/PC $6.37


- 31 -








Demonstrations of an interdisciplinary farming systems
approach to planning adaptive agricultural research
programmes.
Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture
Eqerton College. Department of Economics
International Maize and Wheat Improvenent Center
Apr 1977, iii, 41p., En. Report no. 1

A 1976 project to demonstrate the use of an
interdisciplinary farming systems approach in planning adaptive
agricultural research in Kenya's Siaya District was the initial
effort of International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's
(CIMMYT) Regional Programme in Economics for Eastern Africa.
Results of that planning project are terein presented.
After providing background information on the CIMMYT program
and on procedures to be employed in interdisciplinary research
planning the report examines farmer circumstances in the Siaya
District, taking into account the area's climatic and soil
conditions, off-farm economic conditions, and land, capital, and
farm management factors. Next, the objectives and priorities of
Siaya farmers (mainly, reliaole food supplies) and the farming
system and its development are analyzed and the importance of
deciding on the future of livestock operations is noted. A
5-year maize research program based cn an analysis of key
farming systems components (varieties, use of purchased inputs,
method of and time of planting, thinning and weeding), is
outlined for Siaya areas receiving less than 1,500 mm annual
rainfall. Comments on possible improvements in the sequence of
research procedures in the Kenya context conclude the report.


048 PN-AAP-660

MF $1.08/PC $6.37

Hasis for planning an adaptive research programme on rice for
small farmers in Kyela
Kirway, T.N.
Uyole Agricultural Centre
Uyole Agricultural Centre research report, no.36, Jun 19829 vi,
42p., Fn

Small farm management in Kyela Plaint Tanzania, is the subject
of this study, which was based on interviews with farmers and
village leaders and conducted to provide a knowledge base for
farming systems research in the area.
Farming circumstances in Kyela natural, economic, and
institutional are described first, followed by a discussion of
farmers' objectives (primarily subsistence), priorities (staple
foods, such as rice, maize, and bananas)t and available resources
(land, labors and capital). Findings in these areas are then
related to farm management practices cropping patterns and the
crop calendars soil fertility maintenance, and means of dealing
with specific resource limitations such as seasonal labor
shortages. The next section identifies hazards faced by farmers
(floods* delayed rains, pests and disease) and their strategies


- 32 -








for dealing with them# e.g., use of cassava and sweet potatoes as
insurance crops, multiple plantings of major crops and early
planting. Finally, suggestions are presented for resolving the
labor bottlenecks introducing new cash crops and improving rice
management. Appended is a 10-item bibliography (1952-79).


049 PN-AAP-103

MF $1.08/PC $4.68

Screening crop innovations in a whole farm framework
Labadan, E.; Bantilan, C.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
13 Dec 1980, 26p. + appendices, En

Although researchers frequently use the farmer's field as the
unit of analysis when evaluating crop innovations, since
methodologies for this are readily available, farmers normally
judge new cropping patterns on the basis of their total
farm-household operation. This report presents an example of
whole-farm analysis of alternatives fcr new cropping systems at a
site in Cagayan Valley in the Philippines.
The new cropping patterns are evalLated for bio-technical
feasibility, profitability, and compatibility with the farming
system and with the community's socioeconomic infrastructure.
The research site and a 3-component farm planning linear
programming model are described. The components include an
objective function farmerst goals), a set of alternative
activities (e.g., crop and livestock production), and a set of
constraints (e.g., lands labors and pcwer availability). Three
classes of innovations are considered: alternative cropping
patterns/technology, institutional credit, and irrigation.
It is concluded that while whole-farm analysis via linear
programming offers considerable analytical power, its field use
is limited by its reliance on computers; simpler analysis methods
must be sought for use at cropping systems sites. In the example
cited, four typical weather occurrences (2 flooos, a drought, and
a typhoon) affected the analysis. Future planning models should
account for environmental realities; a sequentially oriented
decision model is recommended. A 27-item bibliography (1961-80)
is appended.


050 PN-AAP-542

MF $4.32/PC $38.48

Traditional African farming systems ir Eastern Nigeria: an
analysis of reaction to increasing population pressure
Lagemannt Johannes IFO Institute for Economic research
Afrika studien, no.98, 1977, xvii, 269p. + attachment* En
Published by Weltforum Verlag

* IFO-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschurgt Poschingerstrasse 5,
8000 Munich 86, Federal Republic of Germany


- 33








To examine changes in land use and farm production as
population pressures increase, this study uses data from three
Eastern Nigerian villages with markedly differing population
densities.
The first section provides a historical review of land use
systems in Eastern Nigeria and discusses emerging problems
related to population growth. The second* treating farm and
household as a unit, analyzes how root crop/oil palm farming
systems have changed in relation to changes in land resources.
subsections cover: the resource base; the organization of land
use; soil fertility; crop production; yield relationships; the
livestock economy; the labor economy; and economic returns and
the use of cash income. The analysis shows that farmers react to
declining soil fertility and yields by concentrating production
on small compounds around the house which receive mulch and
manure from household refuse, outlying fields, and land under
fallow, and thus have a much higher yield than do extensively
used fields. Another finding is that off-farm income increases
with population growth. The third anc final section assesses a
number of proposed strategies for increasing productivity,
including: combining upland tree cropping with arable crops;
producing wet rice in valley bottoms; and developing a
multistoried cropping system near houses. Detailed data and a
case study are provided in 13 appendices and a 19-page
bibliography (1910-76) is included.


051 PN-AAP-691

MF $3.24/PC $33.28

Economics of rainfed rice cultivation in West Africa: the case
of the Ivory Coast
Lang, Harald; Kuhnent Frithjof
Socio-economic studies on rural development, no.355 1979, xiii,
236p. : Bioliography, p.219-236, Er
Published by Verlag Breitenbach

Although rice may be grown in West Africa as either an upland
rained crop or a lowland irrigated crops development efforts
have emphasized irrigated rice production. This study, focusing
on the Ivory Coast, investigates the conditions under which
rainfed cultivation in permanent arable farming or ley systems
may be more profitable for farmers anc feasible on a
macroeconomic level.
First, using data from other West African countries the
economics of rainfed rice cultivation at the farm level is
analyzed for various cropping methods and different levels of
farm mechanization. Two case studies from the Ivory Coast are
then presented, examining, respectively, the profitability of
traditional and semi-mechanized uplanc rice production under
favorable climatic conditions in the best Ivory Coast and under
unfavorable conditions in the Central part of the country.
Following this, rainfed and irrigated rice production are
compared from a macroeconomic point of view.
The author concludes that since irrigated rice farming


- 34 -








requires extensive capital investment, support to rainfed
cropping is indicated when the target is a rapid increase in
production. Included are 9 appendices providing additional
detail and a 17-page bibliography (1925-77), citing works in
Frenche German, and English.


052 PN-AAP-902

MF $2.16/PC $19.76

Report of a meeting of Asian rice based cropping systems
entomologists
Litsinger, J.A.
International Rice Research Institute
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meetirg 11lth Bogor, ID, 18-22
May 1981)
22 May 1981, 151p., En

* IRRI, P.O. Box 5333, anila, Philippines

The proceedings of a meeting of entomologists from six
countries (Indonesiat the Philippines, Thailand, India, Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh), this report focuses on methodological issues
pertinent to insect control research in rice-based cropping
systems.
Presented first is a summary of issues discussed at the
meeting, which describes in detail methodologies for developing
insect control recommendations and testing various technologies
discusses organizational aspects ot cropping systems research .
and concludes by recommending establishment of a collaborative
project to evaluate the performance of economic thresholds as a
basis for insecticide applications* hext, status reports on
national programs for entomological cropping systems research in
Thailandt Bangladesh, and Indonesia are provided, followed by a
paper on farmers' pest control practices 3t three locations in
Yogyakarta Province* Indonesia. A firal paper presents a
compilation ot data sets derived from cropping systems sites in
three Philippines provinces.


0-3 PN-AAJ-081

MF $1.08/PC $4.03

Methodology for determining insect control recommendations
Litsinger, J.A.; Lumaban, M.D.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
IRRI research paper series no.46, 19EO0 3lp.9 En
935411102
AID/DSAN-G-0083

A cropping systems approach has recently emerged as an
.effective means of improving insect control a task which,
because of its complexity, high demanc on resources, and
location-specific nature, has impeded past efforts to produce


- 35 -







on-farm yields comparable to those obtained at research stations.
This report explains the role of cropping systems research in
insect pest control and outlines a methodology for determining
insect control recommendations.
Cropping systems research entails specifying a given insect
pest control technology by taking intc account the cropping
patterns of individual farmers, the geographical and temporal
distribution of pests, environmental parameters (e.g., rainfalls
soil type, landform), cultural practices (e.g., planting,
irrigation, and insecticide application methods), farmers'
capabilities (e.g., resources, beliefs, and customs), and a
crop's inherent yield potential. A fcur-part methodology for
using cropping systems data, developed in accordance with the
requirements of the Asian Cropping Systems Network of research
sites, is presented. The initial stace, description, entails
gathering baseline economic and biological data on pests known to
farmers, the level of pest control needed, the current status of
insect controls and the kinds and levels of technology farmers
are willing to adopt. Next, several tentative insect control
technology packages compatible with farmers' resources and
capabilities are designed. These packages consist of specific
insect pest control recommendations i.e., lists of insects and
the insecticides affective against them, resistant varieties, and
cultural control methods pertaining to the entire spectrum of
pest problems for each crop within the target area. These
alternative packages are then tested for severalyears at each
site. Finally, the costs and returns of the alternative packages
are evaluated. The above methods in the authors' opinions will
allow the development of optimal insect control recommendations
within 2-3 years, is highly objective, is not costly, and can be
carried out by researchers with minimal experience. A 21-item
bibliography (1916-79) is appended.


054 PN-AAP-981

:iF $1.03/PC $7.41

Economic returns to institutional innovations in national
agricultural research: on farm research in IOIAP
Panama
Martinezt-Juan Carlos; Saint Gustavo
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.04/83, Apr 19839
53p. En

The level and speed of farmer adoption of technologies
generated in an on-farm research program undertaken by Panama's
Institute of Agricultural Research (IEIAP) in the country's
Caisan area are used in this report as a means of assessing the
cost-efficiency of the research methocologies employed in the
project.
After a lengthy description of the evaluation methodology,
results are discussed with regard to the adoption of
technological alternatives; the annual flow of net benefits due
to the new technology (including yielc increases and net benefits


- 36 -








per unit of land); and the annual flow of research costs. The
benefit-cost ratio and the social rate of return of the research
methodologies are then calculated.
Results, which confirm the cost-efficiency of IDIAPts on-farm
methodologies as compared to traditional research station
methods show that the lowest rates of return generated by the
on-farm research methodology were 1182 and 155% (depending on the
pricing scenario adopted), a figure increasing to between 194%
and 255% in the most likely case of a new flow of social benefits
lasting until 1990o
Fourteen tables and a 35-item bible iography (1353-S3) are
included.


055 PN-AAP-230

MF $1.08/PC $4.63

Interaction between cultivation and livestock production in
semi-arid Africa
McCown R.L.; Haaland, G.; De Hdan, C.
Ecological studies, v.34, 1979, p.297-332, En

Low crop yields and a high risk of crop failure have
traditionally led farmers in semiarid Africa to rely on domestic
grazing animals to supplement their fcod supply. This paper
identifies different types of linkages between cultivation and
livestock production and considers the conditions under which
each linkage is expected to occur.
Two types of linkages are distinguished those that obtain
when agricultural and livestock production are separated
(ecological, competitive, and exchange linkages) and those that
obtain when the two are integrated investmentt, foods manure,
draft, and fodder linkages). Patterns of cropping/livestock
production linkages are examined in eight summer rainfall,
semiarid African zones (Western Senegal, iambara and Gourma of
Mali Mossi in Uoper Volta, Hausaland in Jiger and Nigeria,
Hokoro of Mali, Western Darfur in Chac and Sudan, Harar in
Fthiopia). Finally, evolutionary trerds are discussed to
consider what linkages are likely to emerge under different
ecological, political, and economic ccnoitions. Appended is a
43-item bibliography (1939-75).

056 PN-AAJ-178

MF $1.08/PC $7.28

Guatemala: development of the Institute of Agricultural
Science and Technology (ICTA) and its impact on
agricultural research and farm procuctivity
McDermott, James K.; Bathrick, David C.
U.S. Agency for International Development. bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination. Office of Evaluation
A.I.D. project impact evaluation report, no.30, Feb 1982,
xiiis 14p. + appendices, En
5200232


- 37 -








In 1975 A.I.D. initiated a project to increase the production
and nutritive quality of basic crops in Guatemala and to develop
the capability of the Institute for Agricultural Science and
Technology (ICTA) to generate and promote the use of improved
small farm technology. This report describes the project's
setting and activities, outlines its impact and summarizes its
lessons.
Under the ICTA system, new farm-tested seed varieties and
cultural practices acceptable to smal farmers were developed for
maizeq beans, and sorghum and led to increased yields and
development of a thriving private seec industry. In addition,
ICTA staff increased both quantitatively and qualitatively
although rigid government salary schecules have led to a high
attrition rate among the 10 Guatemalans who received advanced
degrees, threatening ICTA's future progress); benefited from
expatriate help in its research work and organizational growth;
and received dramatic increases in financial support from the
government. ICTA has come to represent a new and innovative
model for agricultural research and is now working to share its
approach with DIGESA, the :Ministry of Agriculture's extension
service.
Project experience taught: the benefit of an unconventional
approach to generating acceptable small farmer technologies; the
importance of sustained USAID/G invol ement and of investing
simultaneously in human* institutional, and technological
resources; A.I.D.'s potential for developing agricultural
institutions, its comparative advantage in institution-building
projects, and the need in such projects to provide for an
institution's support after the project ceases; the productivity
of ICTA's linkages to international ard U.S. agricultural
research centers; the importance of coordinating technology and
sociology in small farmer research projects; and the need for
special financial incentives to retair ICTA's advanced degree
scientists, special feedback information systems to test
technology results, and flexibility ir project implementation.
Appendices treat the evaluation methodology, ICTA's approach
to technology development and farmer acceptance of it, the role
of improved seed, and ICTA's institutional development.

057 PN-AAP-517

MF $1.08/PC $9.88

Integrated crop and animal production: making the most of
resources available to small farms in developing
countries
McDowell, Robert E.; Hildebrand, Peter E.
Rockefeller Foundation
U.S. Agency for International Developnent. Bureau for Development
Support. Office of Agriculture (Spcnsor)
(Hellagio Conference, 18-23 Oct 1978)
Jan 1980, 78p., En

Training institutions and government agencies need to become
more aware of the integral and essential role played by animals
in small farm systems. So concluded Farticipants at a 10/78


- 38 -








international conference hosted by the Rockefeller Foundation,
working papers from which are herein presented.
An initial paper provides a conceptual framework of the
different types of farming systems in the developing world (by
animal species, dominant crop, main feed resources) as an aid to
understanding various crop-livestock relationships. More
specific information is given in a paper describing levels of
crop-livestock integration within selected systems in Asia, Latin
America, and Africa. Each system is ciscussed in terms of the
region's physical features, crops and cropping systems, and the
current and possible expanded role of livestock. A case study of
a small farm in the western highlands of Guatemala leads to a
review of the kinds of problems which have inhibited integrated
development of crop and livestock technology: lack of a holistic
view; the dominance of Western models of farm systems; emphasis
on large-scale farms and productivity; and professional biases
(e.g., single commodity stress). Summary conclusions and
recommendations conclude the report.


058 PN-AAP-102

MF $1.08/PC $1.82

Cropping systems research activities in Indonesia
McIntosh, J.L.; Effendi, Suryatna
International Rice Research Institute
Central Research Institute for Agriculture
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meetirg, Los 3anost PH, 2-5 Oct
1978)
5 Oct 19789 14p., En

Cropping systems research conducted 1973-1978 under the <)egis
of the Central Research Institute for Agriculture (CRIA) in two
rice-producing regions of Indonesia Inoramayu, an irrigated
lowland area, and Central Lampung, a rainfed upland area is
profiled.
The Indramayu region, it was found shows potential for two
rice crops plus a supplementary legume crop (preferably soybean)
to maintain good soil fertility. Procuction, however, has not
matched potential due to the unavailability of water in partially
irrigated areas and the need for additional power for planting,
weeding, and harvesting. The need for a more organized and
concentrated production program is also indicated. In Lampung,
good rainfall and distribution make year round crop production
possible despite low inherent soil fertility, drainage problems,
and low pH; limited sources of power and of markets are currently
the main production constraints.
A concluding sketch of future activities notes that CRIA
efforts will focus on developing rainfed agriculture, in
particular on introducing alternative power sources such as
animals and mechanization.


- 39 -










MF $1.08/PC $6.63

Prospects for small farm goat production in a transmigration
area of Indonesia: results of a survey
Minkt Stephen
Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania
princeton University. Wilson (Woodrow) School of Public and
International Affair3
Winrock International. Livestock Research and Training Center
U.S. Agency for International Developaent. Bureau for Asia.
Indonesia (Sponsor)
Upper Volta. Ministry of Rural Development
Jan 1983, iv, 46p., En
AID/DSAN/XII-G-0049

Goat husbandry practices were surveyed in two villages with
different agricultural settings in the Way Abung II
transmigration project in the Northerr Lampung Province of
Sumatra, Indonesiar in order to determine the potential for goat
production intensification programs ir these areas. Results of
the survey are presented.
After Drietly recounting the history of the area the report
describes the agricultural setting; hLsbandry of goats, cattle,
and chickens; labor use by farm families; crop, livestock, and
input markets; and formal and informal credit sources.
The survey revealed that although say Abung farmers clearly
prefer to raise cattle, profitability and especially higher
fertility and lower mortality portend a considerable potential
for increasing goat production. Constraints to realizing this
potential poverty and lack of cash resources should be
removed in the next several years as a result of clove, fruit
tree and rubber plantation production. Currently, however*
vaccinating poultry against Newcastle Disease and increasing the
use of cattle in the slack agricultural season are more
appropriate than are goat projects in the livestock sector. Goat
projects relating to male and female treeding stock and
production credit might be initiated, If so, they should
include research aimed at increasing high quality fodder on small
farms.


030 PN-AAP-312
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $5.46

Algunos sistemas de production de cultivos.anuales de
pequenos agricultores en el istmo centroamericano
(Various systems of production of annuals by small
farmers in Central America)
Morenot Raul A.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1979, vU 37pt Ls


- 40 -


PN-AAP-365


059-








For subsistence farmers, physical and biological factors are
most important in determining the production system (i.e.,
cropping pattern) to be used. This report describes the
production systems best suited to the various climatic conditions
in Central America.
Precipitation is seen as the most important factor in
determining crop combinations in the region. Cropping patterns
are outlined first for the humid tropics: for regions without a
dry season, those with a short drier period, and those with an
identifiable dry season. Similarly, cropping patterns are
outlined for "humid dry" regions, those with greater fluctuations
in rainfall. In general, small farmers can grow corn, rice, and
cassava in the most humid regions, corn and beans under
intermediate rainfall, and corn and sorghum in the driest
regions. For each region, the sequence of farmers' activities is
outlined by calendar dates.


061 PN-AAM-528
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF S1.0O/PC $4.2'

Farming system research approach for small farms of Central
America
Moreno, Raul A.; Saunders, Joseph L.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center. Program of
Annual Cultivation
1978, 30p., En

Three integrated farming systems research projects being
conducted by the Institute for Tropical Resources (CATIE) to
relieve the production constraints facing Central American small
farmers are described.
The report first outlines the goals, strategy, and methodology
of CATIE's small farmers' cropping systems research project, as
well as the aesignt testing and evalLation of technological
alternatives. Project experiments include testing water and soil
conservation practices in El Salvador and Nicaragua and using
velvet bean as a cover crop in lowland areas.
Similar information is given for tte other two projects one
aimed at using crop byproducts to develop an integrated small
farm crop-cattle (milk and beef) prodLction systems and one
designed to counteract deforestation by developing alternative
production systems that combine agricultural and tree crops,
forest plants, and animals. Fxperimerts for the first of these
projects include using maize-bean combinations and sweet potatoes
as cattle food sources; for the seconct simultaneous planting of
trees with annual crops and interplanting maize and common beans
between rows of fast-growing tree species. A brief note on
integrating and extrapolating from research results concludes the
report.


Or02 PN-AAN-890

MF $1.08/PC $3.77


- 41 -








Creating an on farm research program in Ecuador:
the case of INIAP's production research program
Moscardi, Edgardo; Cardoso, Victor H.; et al.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT economics program working paper, no,01/83,
Jan 19839 28p., En

* International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Londres 409
Apdo. Postal G-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico

Showing the utility of on-farm research while presenting a
model for the administration and organization of such research
within a larger program, this report cescribes the evolution of a
new research entity, the Production on Investigation Program
(PIP), within Ecuador's National Institute for Agricultural
Research (INIAP).
In 1976 INIAP added to experiment station research and
regional trials on large farms a thirc research levels centered
directly at the farm level, in order to develop and verify
technologies appropriate for the mass of small farmers producing
basic foods, such as corn, which had ceclining or static yields.
The essential elements of the research process which emerged,
described in detail in this paper, were: (1) delineation of
recommendation domains; (2) use of exploratory surveys to
identify key farming improvements neeced (early maturing
varieties, fertilizing and weed and insect control); (3) on-farm
variety, multiple-factor, fertilizer-level, and verification
trials; and (4) adjustment of subsequent on-farm and on-station
experimentation in terms of findings. PIP, established in 1979
as a means of institutionalizing the cn-farm program, is
characterized by personnel especially trained in on-farm research
living on-site and by strong coordination with other INIAP
programs and with extensionists.


0 -,3 PN-AAP-104

MF $1.08/PC $4.05

Farming systems in St. Lucia: an anthropological
perspective
Narendran, Vasantha
University of the West Indies, St. Aucustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
13 May 1981, 18p. + attachments, En
5380015

Small farmers in St. Lucia employ a heterogeneity of cropping
patterns and technologies including multiple cropping and
polyculture, in which four to six crops are planted in vertical
and/or horizontal combinations. Using data from an island-wide
sample of 31 farmers, this report examines St. Lucia's small
farming systems with respect to land tenure, farmer
classification, and climate.
First, the island's system of land tenure is analyzed, and it
is shown how tenural arrangements family lands annual leasing,


- 42 -








freeholdings or sharecropping are maximally manipulated by the
farming household. It is noted that the various land tenure
arrangements have evolved due to limited alternatives and scarce
resources (e.g., farm labor, capitals inputs, and farm
management) and that fragmentation of land is not as severe a
problem as in other developing countries. Next, St. Lucia's
system of farm agriculture and differences in level of farming by
category of farmer (e.g., commercial, semi-commercial) are
assessed. Crop differences by climatic zone are described; while
various cropping patterns are identified, it is noted that each
farmer in the sample seems to have developed his/her own unique
system. A concluding section identifies key constraints on
increased food production.


064 PN-AAP-414

MF NA/PC $2.8'

CATTE's small farmers oriented agricultural research effort
in the Central American Isthmus
Navarro, Luis A.
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
U.S. Agency for International Developnent. Bureau for
Development Support. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
(Consultation Meeting on Natural ResoLrces Management for
Food and Agricultural Production through Farming Systems
adapted to Ecological and -ocio-eccnomic Conditions of
Small Farmers in the Caribbean Region, Kingston, JA, Jun
1980)
Jun 1980, 22p., Fn
59600,4

* Microfiche not available
CATIE's small farm research program in Central America --called
the Annual Crops Orogram is described. After outlining CATIE's
mandate, goals, and action framework, the report discusses the
four stages of the program's research methodology description
of the current farming system, design and testing of new
technology, validation of the most promising technologies* and
extension of those found optimal. Initial and yearly activities
of the research team are briefly recoLnted, and the benefits of
multidisciplinary research and of institutional interaction and
cooperation discussed. Findings and results of the Annual Crops
Program are presented, showing changes in technical and economic
indices for on-farm cropping system experiments in Costa Rica,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. The paper concludes with
descriptions of other CATIE research programs (e.g., the Cattle
and Small Farm Animal Program) and of the types of training CATIE
provides.
A bibliography (1976-79) of 24 titles, 15 in Spanish, is
appended.


- 43 -








065 PN-AAK-475
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $4.55

Farming systems approach: relevancy for the small farmer
Normans David W.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Economics
U.S. Agency for International Development. Hureau for
Development Support. Office of Rural Development and
Development Administration (Sponsor)
MSU rural development papers no.5, 19E0s vis 26p., En
French edition: PN-AAN-207
93.11190
AID/TA-BMA-4
Farming systems research (FSR) is a "bottom-up* or farm-level
approach to the development of small farmer technologies. This
paper defines the basic characteristics of FSR, gives examples of
successful FSR projects, and discusses problems in implementing
FSR-
Conventional agricultural technology development tries to
modify technical farming elements but ignores human factors.
FSR, on the other hands recognizes anc focuses on the
interrelationships between technical and human elements in a
farming system. Its primary aim is tc increase productivity in a
way that is acceptable to the farming family. FSR gives the
small farmer, often for the first times a voice in tailoring
research priorities* Farmers and multidisciplinary teams work
together to design, modify, and improve farming systems in a
local area.
Although agricultural scientists fcr years have disdained
mixed cropping an FSR project in northern Nigeria showed that
mixed cropping was an efficient strategy for farmers facing land
or laoor constraints or uncertain weather. In northern Nigerias
a FSR cotton project succeeded after farmers rejected a
university-designed cotton planting technology package because
its labor demands were incompatible with their farming systems.
An FSR project in Southeast Asia led to a dramatic increase in
cropping intensity in only 4 years while in Guatemala an
FSR-revised planting system increased farmers' income by 33%.
However, FSR is still in a developmental stage and faces
numerous problems, including the short supply of researchers
capable of understanding and working hith small farmers in
developing countries; the lack of a standard methodology; and the
time demands and expense of its area-specific approach. To
overcome these problems, FSR should: expand its systems approach
to include marketing and off-farm enterprises; strengthen links
to extension agencies in order to reduce time lags between
recommendation and adoption of solutions; and develop more widely
applicable technology packages. Also if a working environment
more favorable to FSR is to be create, agricultural institutions
and scientists will have to take a more holistic approach and be
more willing to interact with farmers and extension workers. A
list of 28 references (1972-79) is provided.


- 44 -








066 PN-AAG-951

MF $2.16/PC $18.85

Technical change and the small farmer in Hausaland, northern
Nigeria
Normant David W.; Pryort D.H.; Gibbsv C.J.
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural Economics
African rural economy program: working paper, no.21, 1979,
141p. En
6250926
AID/AFR-C-1260
As an indirect recipient of Ford Fcundation grant funds in
1964 and of subsequent funding from the Ahmadu Bello University,
the Institute of Agricultural Research and Special Services has
undertaken a four-phase social science research program to study
the economics, profitability, improvements and implementation of
small farming in Hausaland. ReportinG on only a small portion of
this total program, this paper presents a comparative analysis of
the economics of traditional small-farm agriculture in Sokoto,
Zaria, and Bauchit three areas in HaLsaland; assesses the
profitability and relevance of improved technological packages
for cotton, sorghum, and maize; and discusses the implications of
the results for research workers
and policymakers in Hausaland and in the Sahelian countries with
a similar ecological base. Following a very brief discussion of
the farming system and of Hausaland proper, the methodology for
the selection of villages and farm families for study is
outlined. A description of the methoc of data collection is
also included in this section. So that study results are
presented in an orderly manner the next three sections concern
traditional farming in the Hausa region, comparative analysis of
traditional farming in the Sokotot Zaria, and Bauchi areas and
an analysis of improved technology packages in Daudawa village
in the Zaria area. Traditional farming in Hausa is discussed in
terms of land laoor and labor concentraticnst capital, cash
production costs, land and labor relationships, cropping
systems, and income. The following factors are applied to the
comparison of traditional farming in the three study areas:
effect of population density on farmirg; effect of climate on
farming; self-sufficiency and incomes among areas; influence of
cattle ownership; the changing family structure; and influence
of access to urban areas. The analysis of improved technology
packages is described by their compatibility with technical
elements (land tyoes, water), with encogenous factors (return
per unit of land, and return per unit of labor), and with
exogenous factors (market accessibility, credit, fertilizer
distribution). Finally, a section containing a summary and
implications for consideration by the policymaker includes the
concluding statements which is also the premise of this paper:
that sound development of farming systems must build upon,
rather than destroy, the farmer's traditional techniques. A
reference list of 110 entries (1955-1578) and a table of the
Gini coefficient on distribution of land by village are appended
to the paper.


- 45 -









- ----------------- --- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- --
MF $3.24/PC $37.57

Farming systems in the Nigerian Savanra: research and
strategies for development
Normant David W.; Simmons, Emmy B.; Hays, Henry M.
1982, xxiv, 275p., En
Published by Westview Press

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301 USA
Presenting the case for a farming systems approach to research
in developing countries, this book corsiders the role of new
technology and appropriate development strategies in improving
agricultural production and the welfare of farming families in
the semiarid tropical region of West Africa. The authors draw
extensively on comprehensive studies they and their associates
conducted over an 11-year period in northern Nigeria. Their
discussion of these studies, which focused on production,
consumption, and marketing systems anc included the testing of
improved technology packages, is supplemented by results of
research conducted in other parts of semiarid West Africa.
Emphasizing the importance of a proper understanding of the
technical and human environment in which farming families
operate, they describe the essential characteristics of a farming
systems approach and consider methodological and implementation
problems that must be solved if it is to become a widely accepted
development strategy in the 198d0s.
Appended are a 20-page bibliography (1951-81) and author and
subject indexes; 41 taoless 16 figures, and maps illustrate the
text. (Author abstract, modified)


068 PN-AAP-377
------ --------------------------------------------------------
MF $3.24/PC $37.05

Annual cropping systems in the tropics: an introduction
Norman, M.J.
University of Florida
1979, x, 276o.t En
Published by University Presses of Flcrida

* University Presses of FL, 15 N.W. 1Eth St., Gainesville* FL
32603 USA
A short course was developed in 1971 at the University of
Sydney, Australia, on the basic biological and physical
principles of tropical farming systems. This textbook was
developed from the course to serve as an introduction to annual
cropping systems* particularly in Africa and Asia.
A farming system is first described, with specific reference
to resource patterns and uses, farming system typology, and
tropical climates and soils. Next, background information on
hydrology, energy, biogeochemistry, ard socioeconomics in
tropical farming systems is provided. These same four factors
are then discussed with reference to the following specific types


- 46 -


* PN-AAP-478


067








of annual cropping: shifting cultivation, semi-intensive and
intensive rainfed cultivation, and irrigated cultivation. Mixed
systems of annual and perennial crops are viewed from the same
aspects.
The final two chapters describe, respectively, the role of
livestock in annual cropping systems End the elements of tropical
farming systems research: its meaning objectives, and
components. Included are evaluations of established farming
systems, of environments, and of the transfer of new technology.
References follow each chapter.

069 PN-AAP-977

MF $1.08/PC $11.31

Cropping systems and related research in Africa
Okigbo, Bede N.
Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Sciences in
Africa
Occasional publication series OT, no. 19 Apr 1978, 81p., En
Published information on African cropping systems and related
topics is synthesized in this report. After describing Africa's
physical characteristics, its farming and cropping systems, and
the crop combinations and spatial arrangements in traditional
African cropping systems, the author surveys cropping systems and
practices in the countries of West, Central, Southern, Easts and
North Africa. Research on African intercropping systems is then
reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of intercropping
are summarized. Guidelines for research on crop combinations,
discussions of its scope, and, briefly, of the need for
standardized experimental techniques and terminology, conclude
the report.
The text is illustrated with 44 charts, tables, and maps.
Appendices include lists of cropping system terms,
classifications of African farming systems, and a bibliography of
105 items (1933-77).


070 PN-AAP-576

MF $1.08/PC $2.47

Nutritional criteria in plant breeding: technical problems and
constraints in relation to Sri Lanka's plant oreeding
programme
Pain, Adam
University of East Anglia. School of Cevelopment Studies
UEA discussion paper, no.122, Feb 1982, 17p., En

Plant breeding literature has largely been concerned with
analyzing the products of plant breeding anc with redirecting
research from simple yield objectives to broader considerations
such as crop stability and disease anc pest resistance, while for
the most part neglecting to examine the use of nutritional
criteria to determine research priorities. This paper, using Sri
Lanka's plant breeding program as an example, explores


- 47 -








nutritional criteria for plant breedirg, and, in particular,
technical problems that have frustrated breeders.
The Sri Lanka program shows that strategies for nutritional
improvement encompass far more than jLst concerns as to the
protein profiles of individual crop species and that issues such
as pricing policies, subsidies, and distribution mechanisms
should inform and direct nutritional programs. Moreover the
fact that nutritionists have clearly stated that crop protein
values are not below safe levels for human intake should lead
plant breeders to refocus their attention toward carbohydrates
and toward the neglected area of improving the oil content of
food species. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that this
is taking place. Appended is a 23-item bibliography (1966-80).
(Author abstract modified)


071 PN-AAE-446
--------------------------------------------------------------------
IF $1.08/PC $7.23

From agronomic data to farmer recommendations, an economics
training manual
Perrint R.K.; Winkelmannv Donald L.; et al.
International Maize and Wheat Improvenent Center
Information bulletin, no.27, 1976, 52r.., En
AID/TA-G-1083
The quality of recommendations that agronomists make to
farmers depends upon how carefully the agronomist has considered
all of the factors relevant to the farmers' situation and goals.
Some of those factors may not be evident to the agronomist. This
manual shows agronomists how to develop recommendations suited to
the farmer's desire to increase his average income, avoid risks,
and, if possible, avoid investing in additional capital
equipment. A good farm recommendation can be defined as a choice
the farmer himself would make if he had all of the agronomic
information available to the agronomist. Successful farm
recommendations must-be based on agroromic data that fit the
farmer's agronomic conditions or the farmer will not obtain the
predicted results. Because it is impossible to conduct
experiments on each farm and then make recommendations tailored
to each farms the agronomist must define a target group of
farmers conduct experiments under coroitions representative of
their farms, and make recommendations applicable to the entire
group. This manual assumes that farmers think in terms of net
benefits as they make decisions. IllLstrative examples of this
decision process are discussed. The two main problems in
evaluating agronomic alternatives in terms of their net benefits
are (1) estimating the relative weights the farmers place on
various kinds of joods* and (2) estimating the effect of
uncertainty on farmers' decisions aboLt net benefits. The
process of deriving recommendations is discussed in detail.


072 PN-AAP-778

MF $1.08/PC $9.3:


- 48 -








Proceedings: farming systems seminar workshop, March 16 -18
1981, PCARR, Los Hanost Laguna
Philippines. National Science and Technology Authority.
Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources
Research Development
(Farming Systems Seminar Workshop, Los Banos, PH, 16-18 Mar
1981)
1981, iiis 68p. En
To develop a methodology for disseminating farming systems
research (FSR) information to farmers on the use of technology
packages developed by research and agricultural institutions, an
FSR workshop was held in Los Banos, Philippines in 3/81. The
workshop's proceedings are presented in this report.
The report provides, in whole or part, the text of eight
workshop papers on the following FSR topics: Central Luzon State
University's Technology Packaging Project and 1980-81 results of
its integrated model farm; the croppirg systems approach employed
in the Capiz settlement area; the FarI Systems Development
Corporation's experiences with irrigation-based farming systems;
results of the University of the Philippines at Los Banos's
Integrated Rural and Agricultural Development Program; a review
of FSR types and methodologies; the experiences of the Inter-Asia
Cropping Systems Network; and the Benchmark Soils Project
conducted by the Universities of Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Also
included is a workshop discussion of the role played by social
scientists in developing FSR technology and reports of workshop
groups in the areas of technology generation, verification, and
dissemination.


073 PN-AAP-843

MF $4.32/PC $49.92

Vegetable farming systems in China: report of the visit of
the vegetable farming systems nelecation to China
Plucknett, Donald L.; Beemer, Halsey L. Jr.
Westview special studies in agricultural science
and policy, 1981, xi, 386p., Ln
Published by Westview Press

SWestview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Eoulder, CO 80301 USA
Agricultural modernization in mainland China has focused on
vegetable production, which is carriec out largely by hand and
focuses on meeting the needs of city cwellers. This report
presents the findings of a U.S. agricultural team on vegetable
farming systems being used in China's northeast and southeast
regions, the country's two major suburban vegetable producing
areas.
Chapters in Part I treat vegetable production in terms of land
and water resources management, fertilizer (organic and
inorganic) production and use, vegetable cropping systems,
environmental control structures, plart protection, and weed
control. In Part II, discussion is given to research and
extension and to three agricultural sLpport services plant
breeding programs, vegetable seed production and maintenance, and


- 49 -


r








vegetable storage and preservation. The final section focuses on
the planning, organization, price determination, and marketing
structure of China's urban vegetable supply.
Appended are a description of the institutions visited by the
team* a study of pig raising in China, and several tales of
supporting data.


074 PN-AAJ-280
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $3.24/PC $34.45

Integrated agriculture aquaculture farming systems
Pulling S.V.; Shehadeh, Z.H.
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management
(ICLARM SEARCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture -
Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, PH, 6-9 Aug 1979)
1980, 265p., Ln
ICLARM conference proceedings, no.4
9311050
ATD/DSAN-G-0178

Although integrated agriculture aquaculture (IAA) farming
has been practiced in Asia for centuries and offers efficient
resource utilization, reduces risk by diversifying crops, and
provides additional food and income, reliable quantitative
production and management guidelines have yet to be produced and
disseminated for use as a basis for development programs. This
report on the proceedings of the Fourth International Center for
Living Aquatic Resources Management Ccnference (ICLARM 4)
addresses this need. The conference has held 6 9 August 1979
in Manila, Philippines and was co sponsored by ICLARM and the
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research
in Agriculture. The conference's goals were to: (1) provide an
overview of current IAA farming practices in selected Asian
countries; (2) increase awareness of IAA's ability to raise farm
income; (3) review available experience and technology; (4)
discuss IAA's socioeconomic aspects ir order to identify research
and development priorities; and (b) encourage governments and
international donors to initiate IAA research and development
projects. The report consists of 24 papers, 10 of which review
broad strategies, techniques, and problems associated with IAA,
such as aquaculture in rice fields anc irrigation systems; the
role of pesticides and health as constraining factors; and the
use of animal wastes in pond management. The other 13 papers
were presented as case studies on current IAA practices in Hong
Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japar, Malaysia, Nepal, the
Philippines, Taiwant and Thailand. A final paper highlights the
needs for research on both IAA farming systems in general and on
the major factors affecting IAA performance energy, materials,
space, times and information. Many of the papers are detailed
studies, supported by charts, data, pictures, diagrams, and maps;
and most are referenced with bibliographies on sources of
information on IAA. A list of the authors and of the conference
participants is appended.


- 50 -







075 PN-AAP-648

MF $2.16/PC $21.45

Socioeconomic constraints to the production, distribution and
consumption of sorqhum, millet and cash crops in North
Kordofant Sudan: aspects of agricLitural production, the
household economy, and marketing
Reeves, Edward B.; Frankenberger, Timcthy
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Agricultural
Experiment Station
University of Kentucky. Department of Sociology
University of Kentucky. Department of Anthropology
Farming systems research in North Koroofan, Sudan: report,
no.2, Nov 1982t xis 151p., En
9311254
AID/DSAN-G-0149
Its goal to identify socioeconomic constraints impeding
agricultural production and marketing in the el-Ooeid area of
Kordofan, Sudan by analyzing relationships between subsistence
(sorghum and millet) and cash (primarily groundnuts and sesame)
crops, this is the second of two farming systems research reports
written during the course of field investigation in 15 villages.
Part I, on household economy and agricultural production,
presents detailed data on crops, land tenure and land uses
cultivation practices, and methods to reduce risk and labor
inputs, using findings from a preliminary survey of 40 farm
households in 3 villages. Part II, based on data on sellers,
buyers, and marketing channels collected at four marketing
centers of varying size and character, describes major aspects of
crop and livestock marketing. Part III is an analysis of the
main constraints to agriculture in the area (environmental;
access to seeds, waters and labor; credit and pricing; technical
knowledge; and transport and storage), how farmers presently deal
with these constraints, and what strategies they could implement
in the future. Eleven appendices provide additional data (on,
e.g., harvesting procedures, food preparation, consumption
patterns) not easily reviewed in the nain body of the report plus
a copy of the survey questionnaire.

076 PN-AAN-964

MF $1.08/PC $5.07

Art of the informal agricultural survey
Rhoadess Robert E.
International Potato Center
Mar 1982, 40p., En. Social Science Dept. training Document
no.1982-2
If properly conducted* informal agricultural surveys can
provide valuable data on local farming ecology and practices.
Presented here is a manual on conduct ing informal surveys of
farmers in developing countries.
Instructions are provided for: (1) pre-fieldwork activities,
such as a literature review and the use of aerial photos and maps
to delineate the geographical area to be studied; (2)


- 51








interviewing farmers (approach, warm-ups dialogue, departure, and
recording of information); (3) informally organizing data by type
of farmer and cropping system; (4) studying agroecological zones
through the use of field plotting and transects; (5) initial
quantification of data; and (6) writirg a summary report of
findings. Appended are results of an informal survey conducted
in Canete, Perus and a guide for an informal survey of a potato
producing region.


077 PN-AAP-101
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Manual de actividades de capacitacion en servicio (Manual of
activities for in-service training)
Rosales, Franklin E.
Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales. Program
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria
1980, 12p., Es

Drawn from the experience of Honduras' Central Agricultural
Research Unit, this inservice training manual has six sections.
The introduction reviews changes in the agricultural research
program (1977-80) and the new structure of the program. A
section on inservice training objectives explains that, in
general, new technicians in the research program are to receive
preparation for close contact with the farmer and for study of
integrated systems, and specifically to: analyze and identify
agricultural production problems; set priorities; conduct farm
trials; communicate with farmers; analyze and transmit technical
information; apply basic knowledge; ard work as a team. Next, a
section on methodology and organization outlines the training,
which continues for 3 months in Comayagua, with 15% of time spent
in practices 25% on theory. Practical activities (section 4) are
divided into the following: diagnosis; farm trials; farm plots;
farm assessment; precipitation measurement; and field days.
Theoretical activities (section b) include 11 short courses, 10
lectures, 8 workshops, 10 seminars, ard readings and consultation
with supervisors. Finally, the evaluation of trainee performance
is discussed with regard to theory, spoken and written
communication, field work, and responsibility.


078 PN-AAP-608
--------------------------------------------------
MF $4.32/PC $44.72

Farming systems in the tropics
Ruthenberg, Hans
1971, xiv, 313p., En
Published by Oxford University Press

* Oxford University Press, 16-00 Pollitt Dr., Fair Lawn, NJ
07410 USA


- 52 -








A course consisting of lectures on the characteristics of
tropical farming systems for undergraduate and graduate students
at Gottingen and Stuttgart-Hohenheim Lniversities was the basis
for this book, intended to familiarize the agricultural
development worker with the various types of farming he/she will
encounter, and with management problems arising in particular
farming systems.
Tropical agriculture is discussed from an agroeconomic
perspective, with emphasis on farm management aspects and
particularly on the interactions between technical and economic
aspects of farming. An initial chapter covers general
characteristics of tropical farming. Succeeding chapters,
organized as to type and intensity of land use, discuss the
following types of cultivation systems: shifting cultivation;
semi-permanent; regulated ley farming (when grass is allowed to
grow for grazing on land that has carried crops); permanent
cultivation on rainfed land; arable irrigation farming; perennial
crops; and grazing (total nomadism, semi-nomadismt and ranching).
In each chapters weaknesses of the particular cultivation system
are delineated and suggestions for development are made.
Numerous case studies (most from Africa or Asia) are provided and
a 15-page bibliography (1878-1970) is appended.


079 PN-AAP-653

MF $3.24/PC $30.55

Development of smallholder vegetable production in Kigezi
Uganda
Scherer, Friede
IFO Institute for Economic Research (Sponsor)
IFO forschungsberichte der Afrika studienstelle, no.23,
1969, x, 2L7p. : bibliography, p.214-217, En

IFO-Institut fur Wirtshaftsforschunc, Poschingerstrasse 5, R000
Munich 86, Feaeral Republic of Germany
Searching for urgently needed cash crops, smallholders in
Uganda's Kigezi District accepted in 1951 a government proposal
to produce vegetables of European oricin despite unfavorable
marketing conditions, according to this study of the program.
After a lengthy introductory section on Kigezi's
characteristics and history and on the production, marketing and
organizational preconditions for vegetable growing, the
establishment of the Kigezi vegetable growing industry and its
transformation from a private to a cooperative enterprise is
reviewed. This is followed by descriptions of: extension,
cultivation, yield, and cost aspects cf vegetable production; the
organization of growers; and present and future marketing
prospects. A final section reviews the program's effects on the
Kigezi District as a whole, on the cooperative societies, and on
farm returns. The program's positive results, it is concluded,
show that producer interest and depencence on a crop can overcome
disadvantageous factors; that the African smallholder can adapt
to new situations relatively quickly if he trusts the project;


- 53 -








and that cooperatives can, under the right conditions, play an
important role in marketing.



080 PN-AAL-237

MF $4.32/PC $50.96

Farming systems research and development; guidelines for
developing countries
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp, P.F.; Schnehl, W.R.
Consortium for International Development
U.S. Agency for International Developaent. Bureau for Science
and Technology. Office of AgricultLre
Westview special studies in agriculture / aquaculture, Sep 1981,
xiv, 414p., En
Published by Westview Press
9311006
AID/D3AN-C-0054

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Eoulder, CO 80301 USA

Farming systems research and development (FSRlD) is an
approach that is aeing used increasingly to meet the need for
greater food production and a better standard of living for
small-scale farmers in developing countries. This book
synthesizes the F3R&D procedures used by national governments and
international research centers around the world, emphasizing
methodologies that have proved successful in practice.
The authors describe the characteristics and objectives of
FSR&DO then present information on selecting target and research
areas, problem identification and development of a research base,
research design, on-farm research, extending research results,
and implementation and training procedures. They emphasize that
the FSRD approach requires a clear understanding of farmers and
their families, farmers' conditions, and governmental staffing
and organizational capabilities, and in one chapter discuss how
to determine whether an FSR&O approach is in a particular
country's best interests. Apoendices present detailed examples
of procedures described in the text* covering a variety of
countries with different cropping and livestock systems,
environmental conditions, and research and development
capabilities. (Author abstract)


081 PN-AAL-341

MF $2.16/PC $24.18

Readings in farming systems research and development
Shaner, Willis W.; Philipp P.F.; Scheehlt W.R.
U.S. Agency for International Developnent. Bureau for Science
and Technology. Office of AgricultLre
Westview special studies in agriculture / aquaculture science
and policy, 1932, xiiit 175p., En


- 54 -








Published by Westview Press
9311006
AID/DSAN-C-0054

* Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., boulder, CO 80301 USA
Farming systems research and development (FSR&D) views the
farm as a system and focuses on how irterdependent components
under the farm household's control interact with physical
biological, dnd socioeconomic factors outside the farmer's
control. This monograph contains nine readings presented before
a 1979 workshop by some of the leading practitioners in FSR&D.
The first paper categorizes farming systems according to their
stage of development and resource use, while the second
conceptualizes FSR&O and raises several methodological issues.
Successive papers outline and discuss the FSR&O experience and
approaches of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center, the International Rice Research Institutes the
Agricultural Science and Technology Irstitute of Guatemala, and
the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics. Two papers discuss FSR&D as applied to a small farm in
Honduras and cropping systems research in Indonesia,
respectively. Stressed are the importance of on-farm research,
interdisciplinary teamwork, the search for practical solutions to
farmers' problems, and better use of available data. A subject
index is included.


082 PN-AAP-410

MF $4.32/PC L4t.2L

Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 farming
systems research symposium farmirg systems in the field
Sheppard, Wendy J.; Flora, Cornelia B.
Kansas State University. Office of International
Agriculture Programs
(Farming Systems in the Fields Manhattan, KS, US, 21-23 Nov
1982)
Farming systems research paper series ro.5o Apr 1983d
311p., En

* Office of International Agricultural Programs, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, ,S 66506 USA

A Farming Systems Research and Extension (F3R&E) symposium was
held in 11/82 at Kansas State University to examine issues in the
application of FSR to development projects. Twenty papers from
the symposium are herein presented, all of which focus on issues
raised by experience, rather than theory.
Following an overview of the currert state of FSR&E and its
potential for the future, indepth case studies of four field
experiences (IRRI/Indonesia, CIMMYT/Panama, ICARDA/Syria, and
CATIE/Central America) are presented. The next five papers
analyze specific problem areas (links to farmers and to other
research programs/units, cost-effectieness, transplanting U.S.
methodologies, and conceptual errors in evaluation). The final


- 55 -









ten papers, presented at small group meetings, address further
FSR&E implementation and evaluation issues, e.g., in staffing,
integrating team participants, organizing a delivery system,
incorporating nutritional considerations, transferring station
work to farm conditions, impact evaluation, and in determining
the role of energy in farming systems. These papers make clear
the necessity of systematically examiring not only the farming
system and its internal resources but the containing system as
well. Two preconference background papers on the FSR approach
are also included.


083 PN-AAP-345

MF $1.08/PC $4.55

Hidden harvest: systems approach to Fostharvest technology
Spurgeon# David
International Development Research Certre
1976, 3Gp., En. IORC-062e
It has been estimated that up to ore-third of the food
produced in developing countries is Icst due to inefficient
postharvest operations. After delineating various types of
postharvest loss (losses in nutritional and economic value in
weight, and in quality and acceptability), the author of this
report recommends a systems approach to postharvest losses and
identifies the following primary components of the postharvest
system: harvesting and threshing; drying and storage;
processing; and utilization by the consumer. The
interrelatedness of specific problems that may arise within the
system is then demonstrated. Next, the Maiduguri Mill Project in
Nigeriat which encompasses the entire range of postharvest
activities, is described as a model of an orderly, efficient
postharvest system.
The report concludes with recommendations directed toward
improved recognition and comprehensior of postharvest problems
and increased international cooperation in research and technical
guidance.


OR4 PN-AAP-229

MF NA/PC $2.34

Agricultural productivity gaps: a case study of male
preference in government policy implementation
Staudt, Kathleen A.
Development and change, v.9, 1978, p.439-457, En

* Microfiche not available paper copy only
The weighting of Kenya's agricultural assistance policy
towards men at the expense of women bcdes ill for the country's
agricultural futures according to this case study of the role of
government in creating and/or perpetuating productivity gaps
between the sexes.
A controlled, cross-sectional sampling of farmers at two


- 56 -


**








locations in western Kenya shows that female-managed farms have
significantly less access to government provision of crop
informations training, and loans, thar farms managed jointly by
women and men. This situation obtains even though women farm
managers, helped by information and labor inputs from the
communal agricultural groups to which most of them belongs excel
in key criteria crop diversification, farm income-generating
orientation, and early adoption of hytrid maize for the
innovativeness on which the government focuses its agricultural
assistance efforts. In the long run, however, systematic
government neglect of women will have a negative impact on
women's ability to sustain innovative behavior and hence on their
agricultural productivity. Failure tc redress this structural
disadvantage by channeling assistance on the basis of merit
rather than sex, it is concluded, will eventually lead to a
decline in the government's ability tc raise agricultural
product i vity.


085 PN-AAP-586

MF $2.16/PC $17.16

Women, works food and nutrition in Nyamwigura Village, Mara
regions Tanzania
Tobisson, Eva
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre
TFNC reports no.5+3 Jul 1980P viiis 127p., En

In Tanzaniat agricultural policies biased toward cash crops
and toward men as the sole agents of change have increased
women's workload, but not their access to the products of farm
labor. This study, based on extensive fieldwork during 1971-78,
focuses on the effects of such policies on the nutritional status
of Kurian women and children in the village of Nyamwigura.
Women's primary role in Tanzanian rural production and
reproduction, and the neglect of them in development planning,
are first discussed. The Kuria peoples their lands and
traditions ruling the division of work and of labor returns are
then described. The transformation of agriculture during the
colonial period from diversified subsistence production to
specialized cultivation of maize as a cash crop is analyzed, as
is the postindependence villaqization program. loth policies, it
is shown, have reinforced the traditional subordination of
Tanzanian women. The combined effects of tradition and of these
agricultural policies on the diet and health of pregnant and
lactating women and weaning children are then examined and the
role of women in the village particLlarly their virtual
exclusion from decisionmaking and communal life is discussed;
results of a survey examining the responsibilities of husband and
wife in the household economy are presented. Concluding remarks
recommend policies and programs designed specifically to improve
the health and status of Tanzanian women and children.


- 57 -








OR6 PN-AAN-810

MF $1.08/PC $5.85

Data collection, site selection and farmer participation in on -
farm experimentation
Tripp, Robert
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
1982, 29p. + appendix, En. Working paper no.82/1
6210107
AFR-0107-C-00-3001-00
The experimentation phase of on-farm research is devoted to
designing trials to develop and test rew technologies with
representative farmers. Description cf the various types of data
available during this phase and guidelines for organizing their
collection are herein presented.
A discussion of trial site selection focuses on the importance
of identifying recommendation domains (relatively homogenous
groups of farmers), cooperating with local extension agents,
ensuring logistic feasibility, and identifying and communicating
with farmer collaborators. A field bcok for recording various
types of data, from data on planting and trial plot (and farmer)
characteristics to data on trial results, is described (and
reproduced in an appendix), and data collection possibilities in
other areas (e.g., prices, weather, ard farmer adoption of the
recommended practice) are discussed. A set of recommendations is
appended to each major section of the paper. The importance of
flexibility is noted in conclusion, as is the researcher's need
to use on-farm experiments to establish a partnership with
farmers and extensionists which will benefit the research.


087 PN-AAP-310

MF S8.o4/PC $100.75

Control integrado de'plagas en sistemas de production de
cultivos para pequenos agricultores (Integrated pest
control in small farm production systems)
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
International Regional Organization fcr Agricultural
Sanitation
University of California, Berkeley
U.S. Agency for International Developnent (Sponsor)
1979, 3v., Es Published by Tropical Acriculture Research and
Training Center
5960064

* Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza,
Turrialba, Costa Rica
In 1979 the University of California conducted a regional
course in integrated pest control for small farm production
systems at the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
(CATIE) in Costa Rica. Attending were pest control experts from
eight Central American and Caribbean countries Panama, Costa
Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, the Dominican


- 58 -








Republics and Haiti. The contents of the course are herein
reported in three volumes.
Volume I contains 27 papers on such topics as the concept of
agroecosystems, socioeconomic restrictions on small farm
cultivation, harvesting, plant growths vegetable parasites, the
history of integrated pest control, nematodes insects,
vertebrates and library research in economic entomology. Volume
IT's 19 papers cover principles of integrated pest control,
pesticide formulation and application, chemical pesticides and
environmental health, plant diseases in mixed production systems
and pests in cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, cassava, cocoa, and
bananas. Volume III contains national reports on pest control
for small farming systems in the eight participating countries.
References follow each paper.


088 PN-AAP-311

MF $2.16/PC $15.34

Small farmer cropping systems for Central America: final
report
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
1979 xii, 101p., En
59600 4
Provides final report (6/75-3/79) cn a project implemented by
the Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center (CATIE) to
create a coordinated regional research approach for improving
small farm cropping systems in Central America.
The project's key output was the development of a methodology
or strategy for conducting on-farm research on small farm
cropping systems and its presentation in a procedural guide.
Some 115 field experiments were conducted, mostly on-farms
yielding quantifiable and very promising research results (the
most important of which are indicated in the report), some of
them ready for validation. In addition, CATIE promoted national
research programs on cropping systems via training, information
dissemination, collaborating in field work with national staff,
and helping to promote a collaborative research effort among
participating countries. Other project outputs included
collection of baseline data on small farmers' agronomic,
socioeconomic, and physiobiological environment; an experiment
conducted at CATIE headquarters on several cropping systems
commonly used by small farmers; the training of more than 379
Latin American professionals over 752 of them Central Americans;
the establishment of a documentation center on tropical cropping
systems (a 20-page bibliography from which is appended); and the
strengthening of CATTE's professional ties to other international
research centers. Central American countries gave strong support
to the projects and national institutions collaborated in all
aspects of it.


089 PN-AAP-954

MF $3.24/PC $25.87


- 59 -









Farming systems research symposium
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of International
Cooperation and Development
(Farming Systems Research Symposium, hashington, DC, US, 8-9
December 1980)
1980, v.p.t En

* Office of International Cooperation and Development,
Department of Agriculture, Washingtons DC 20250 USA
Proceedings of a 12/80 symposium held to accuaint U.S.
Department of Agriculture and A.I.D. agricultural technicians
with key farming systems research (FSP) issues are presented.
Introductory papers provide overviews of FSR, its methodology,
and its potential applicability in the United States. Next are
two papers describing an FSR application in the Allegheny
Highlands of West Virginia and a planned application at
Arkansas's Booneville Center. Virginia State University's FSR
efforts in the United States and Ghana are then discussed in a
paper focusing on linkages and constraints; an abstract of a
paper on research-extension interface in the United States is
presented; and procedures for implemerting applied F3R in
developing countries* national research programs are outlined.
The next four papers examine, respect ively, problems involved in
interdisciplinary research; FSR program structure, staffing* and
funding; FSR and national agricultural development; and issues in
FSR evaluation. A final set of papers describes Guatemala's
Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICIA), its FSR
program, staffing and funding, and lirkages with other national,
regional, and international institutions. A summary of group
reports and of a panel discussion on lessons for the future
conclude the volume.


090 PN-AAP-468

MF S3.24/PC $28.21

Economics and the design of small farmer technology
Valdes, Alberto; Scobies Grant M.; Dillon, John L.
(International Conference on Economic Analysis in the
Design of New Technology for Small Farmers, Palmira, COD
US, 26-28 Nov 1975)
1979, xii, 211p., En
Published by Iowa State University Press

* Iowa State University Press, 112 C Fress Office, South State
Ave., Ames, IA 50010 USA
Thirty-nine economists from 11 (mostly Latin American)
countries attended a conference held in 1975 at the International
Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) to explore ways in which
economists can contribute to the desicn of new agricultural
technologies for small farmers. Proceedings are herein
presented.
Provided first are three papers on the methodological aspects
of ex ante technology design; the first describes several
possible analytical approaches while the remaining two offer


- 60 -








differing views of the importance of farmers' attitudes toward
risk. Next, four papers on the design of technology analyze: the
roles of biologists and economists in Bongoland (a fable); design
parameters for cattle production in the Colombian llanos;
technology design in semiarid Northeast Brazil; and the
implications of sharecropping for technology design in that
region. The remaining three papers, cn the relation between
rural development and agricultural technology, respectively:
discuss technology adaptation in a Colombian rural development
project; present a broad structural view of the small-farmer
technology problem; and examine the implications of rural
development programs for technology design.
Several questions are posed for further research: the
priority to be accorded research on small farmer technology;
whether policy and institutional chances are needed if farmers
are to benefit from enhanced productivity; influences on small
farmers' decisionmaking; and the stability and instability of the
small farmer resource base. Appended are author and subject
indexes and a 180-item bibliography (1921-77) of English,
Spanish, and Portuguese titles.


091 PN-AAP-684
----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $1.08/PC $7.93

Caso del ICTA en Guatemala como institution dedicada a la
generation y validacion de tecnolocia para pequenos
agricultores (Case of ICTA in Guatemala: an institution
dedicated to the generation and validation of technology
for small farmers)
Wauqh* Robert K.
Agricultural Science and Technology Irstitute
1980, 47p-, Es

The organization and program development of the Institute for
Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA), an autonomous
Guatemalan research institution devoted to small farmers' needs,
are reviewed.
The concepts underlying ICTA's establishment and its
organizational characteristics are outlined, as are the
Institute's goals of integrating research and extensions adopting
a systems approach to research, and orienting research toward the
farm level in replication of farmer practices and working
conditions. Methods for achieving these goals are outlined, and
the steps of ICTA's technology development system are described -
technology generation, agro-socioeconcmic adaptation and
evaluation, validation, and transfer.
Farmer participation in the transfer process is described,
along with the diversification of ICT*As program within the
various regions of Guatemala, ICTA's training and evaluation
activities, and its international linkages.


- 61 -








092 PN-AAP-446

MF $1.08/PC $2.08

Institutional assessment for implementing a systems
approach to agricultural research and extension
Waugh, Robert K.; Meiman, J.; McDermott, James K.
University of Florida. Institute of Fcod and Agricultural
Sciences
U.S. Agency for International Developuent. Hureau for
Science and Technology. Office of lultisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
U.S. Agency for International Developnent. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Farming systems and support project working paper, no.101, 19839
14p., En
Characterization and analysis of existing national programs
and institutions are useful in determining the potential for
implementing a systems approach to agricultural research and
extension. In this paper, guidelines are presented for
inventorying a given program or institution in such a way as to
identify changes and modifications that might make research and
extension more effective while making maximum use of existing
structures resources, and other orgarizational characteristics.
Criteria for assessment are provide in Part I, which consists
of three sets of questions directed toward determining (a) the
general conditions of an institution end its environment, (b)
management and operational aspects, ard (c) the nature of the
technological functions and methouolocies of research and
extension. Part II is meant to province ideas as to which
institutional elements should be continued and which should be
changed. This section focuses on the functions of specific types
of organizational units in implementirg farmer-oriented research
and extension.


093 PN-AAP-955

MF $4.32/PC $38.87

Agricultural systems in Ethiopia
Westphal E.
Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops.
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography
Haile Selassie I University. College cf Agriculture
Agricultural research reports, no.826, 1975, 278p. En
Published by Centre for Agricultural Fublishing and Uocumentation

* Centre Agricultural Publishing and Cocumentations Agricultural
University, P.O. Box 9101, 6700 H8 Wageningen, The Netherlands
Based on field research carried out in 1967-1968 and on
literature studies, this second volume of a series on Ethiopia's
edible plants provides an integral overview of the country's
agricultural systems.
Initial chapters outline Ethiopia's geology, topography,
hydrography, and define its diverse climatic regions. Next, soil


- 62 -









taxonomy terms of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to
describe the soils of seven defined soil regions. Vegetation
zones and 16 vegetation types are described, followed by a brief
look at the country's ethnic and lingListic groups. Ethiopian
agriculture is then reviewed at length, with emphasis on the
country's 12 agroecological regions ard the plants cultivated in
them, seed farming systems (mainly cereals, pulses, and oil
crops), the cultivation and use of ensat (a staple crop),
shifting cultivation and pastoral systems. Where possibles
linkages are made between farmers' regional origins and their
farming systems and products. Finally, Cthiopia's marketing
systems major foods# and nutritional status are described.
Tables, photographs, a subject index an index of scientific
plant names, and 10 detailed maps are included, as are a list of
crop yields (by kg/ha) and a 166-item bibliography (1540-1974).


094 PN-AAP-228

MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Risks uncertainty, and the subsistence farmer:
technological innovation and resistance to change in the
context of survival
Wharton, Clifton R.
Michigan State University
Studies in economic anthropology no.7 1971, p.151-178, En
A subsistence farmer is one who corsumes most of what he
produces, buys few items for his own reeds, uses little outside
labor, employs primitive or traditional farming methods, has a
minimum standard of living, and bases his aecisionmaking on
survival. The correlation between the prevalence of high levels
of risk and uncertainty among such farmers and their adoption of
technology is explored in this literature review.
Subsistence farmers' responsiveness to technological change i-
described, along with possible sources of resistance, causes of
risk, and sources of uncertainty. A nodel is presented for
determining minimum standards of subsistence living at a certain
time and how these standards change oer time. Three types of
subsistence farms are then identified: where the total product
is food; where land and labor are the major production factors;
and where the family lives entirely from the farm. Following a
discussion of the effects of dynamic interaction of risk,
uncertainty, and subsistence upon technological innovation, it is
concluded that increased profit may be less important in a
subsistence or barter economy than are increased security and
survival and that quantification of risk aversion is needed when
evaluating technology adoption or rejection. Appended is a
91-item bibliography (1948-69).


095 PN-AAP-965

MF $1.08/PC $2.60
MF $1.08/PC $2.60


- 63 -









Nutritional component of farming systems research
Whelan, William P.
Rutgers University. Cook College. International Agricultural and
Food Program
(1983), 18p., En
Improvements in crop yield and farmer income achieved through
farming systems research (FSR) projects do not in themselves
signify improved household nutrition. Presented here is a
strategy for incorporating nutritional considerations into FSR.
Variables that can provide important nutritional information
during the FSR design stage are discussed first. The author
considers and rejects several possible variables (i.e.,
anthropometric data, dietary intake, income and expenditure
levels), outlining the difficulties of accurately identifying the
malnourished using these approaches. Suggested instead is the
subsistence potential ratio (SPR), the ratio of a household's
ability to teed itself to its need to feed itself. The SPR,
useful in measuring both the source ard level of consumption,
distinguishes between groups with different nutritional status
and FSR's effects on them, has acceptable levels of accuracy, and
is based upon easily and cheaply obtainable data.
Next, consideration is given to oncoinq and ex post analysis
of FSR's nutritional impact. Ongoing analysis is necessary to
see whether changes in farming systems lead to short-term food
scarcity. Ex post analysis requires a solid theoretical basis
(e.g., the theory of the household-firm), a longer data
collection cycle, and calculation of income elasticities, and
should address the extent to which FSP benefits large rather than
small farmers. Careful ex post analysis can help to identify ex
ante variables for future FSR.


0?6 PN-AAL-956
-----------------------------------------------------------------
MF $2.16/PC $15.99

Participatory approaches to agricultural research and
development: a state of the art paper
Whyte, William F.
Cornell University. Center for International Studies
U.S. Agency for International Uevelopnent. i~ureau for
Science and Technology. Office of iural Development and
Development Administration (Sponsor)
Special series on agriculture research and extension, no.1, May
1981, x, 111p., En
931001137
AID/TA-BMA-8

Existing research and development (R&D) strategies have tended
to support farmers already in relatively advantageous positions
and to ignore the majority of small farmers who struggle under
less favorable conditions. This state-of-the-art paper presents
an overview of past R&D efforts and proposes a new R&D strategy
to assist the rural poor.
After examining limitations of and lessons to be learned from
conventional R&D strategies, the author describes the


- 64 -








agricultural R&D strategy used by institutions in Bangladesh,
Ethiopia, Mexico, and Colombia which emphasizes participation by
small farmers and incorporates animal husbandry as an integral
element. Efforts to build a farming systems research strategy
into R&D programs are then examined, using examples from
Guatemala and Honduras.
The author concludes that any new F&D model should involve
research conducted on small farmers' actual fields; farmer
participation in research and extension; and a major emphasis on
cropping and farming systems, experimentation, and
interdisciplinary collaboration. In crder to enhance the quality
of life among small farmers and to build material resources into
the organizational base, linkages are required between local
farmer organizations and government bLreaucracies. Attached is a
list of 107 references (1911-1981).


097 PN-AAP-953

MF $5.40/PC $51.74

Proceedings of the international workshop on intercropoing
Willey, R.W.; Garver, Cynthia
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics
(International Workshop on Intercropping, Hyderabad, IN,
10-13 January 1979)
1979, viii, 401p., En

* ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O.* Andhra Pradesh, India 502324
A state of the art summary, this 34-paper volume constitutes
the proceedings of a 1/79 international workshop on intercropping
hosted by ICRISAT. A workshop paper by an ICRISAT agronomist
introduces the volume. Papers from Session 1, on agronomy,
consist mostly of case studies from Irdia, Brazil, West Africa
(Nigeria, Volta), East Africa (Swaziland, Kenya* Uganda), and on
genotypes. Papers from Session 2, on physiological aspects,
treat: leaf canopies and plant light use (light use efficiency,
plant interactions and productivity in complex mixtures, canopy
development and light interception in sorghum/piqeonpea
intercropping); nutrient interactions and rooting patterns
(interactions below ground, leaf canopy and rooting pattern in
pearl millet/groundnut intercropping, nitrogen response in
sorghum/pigeonpea intercropping); and nitrogen fixation in
sorghum/chickpea intercropping. Three papers on weeds and pests
are drawn from Session 3. Papers frown Session 4, on evaluating
intercropping systems, discuss: statistical considerations and
experimental designs; yield stability and economics
(intercropping in traditional and dryland systems, stability of
pigeonpea/sorghum intercropping); and operational management
(including a paper on seeding and interculture mechanization
requirements in India). Summaries of individual and plenary
session discussions are provided. Appendices include French
translations of abstracts of workshop papers and a 20-page,
multi-language bibliography (1925-80).


- 65 -









098 PN-AAP-098

MF S1.08/PC $1.30

Aiming agricultural research at the needs of farmers
Winkelmann, Donald L.; Moscardi, Edgardo
(Seminar on Socio-economic Aspects of Agricultural Research
in Developing Countries, Santiago, CL, 7-11 May 1979)
1979, 9p., En
Efforts of the Economics Program at the International Maize
and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) to gear research on new
technologies to farmers' real production problems and
decisionmaking processes are reviewed. The key elements of the
CIMMYT research procedures are: (1) ascertaining the
circumstances and practices of representative farmers; (2)
undertaking on-farm (and sometimes on-station) trials; (3)
formulating recommendations and examining their implications for
prices, markets, etc.; and (4) evaluating the new technologies.
This methodology, the authors note, is directed at finding
technologies that farmers (CIMMYT's primary clients) will use,
i.e., those which are consistent with farmers' natural and
economic circumstances and which promise improved incomes with
little risk. Thus, the CIMMYT program emphasizes collaboration
between economists and biological scientists, early application
of findings, and treatment of a single crop or mixture, and aims
at useful, not necessarily optimal, technologies. The process
systematically focuses on major constraints to production,
provides for continuing and immediate improvements through
research and feedback, and counts on individual farmers to make
adjustments in terms of their own special circumstances.


099 PN-AAM-515

MF $2.16/PC $20.41

Methodology for on farm cropping systems research
Zandstra, Hubert G.; Price, E.C.; et al.
International Rice Research Institute
1981, viiis 147p., En

* IRRI, P.O. Hox 933, Manila, Philippines
On-farm cropping systems research seeks to identify a
technology, acceptable to farmers, that will increase production
yields and/or cropping intensity while minimizing the detrimental
effects of introduced changes. Described herein, for the benefit
of both professional researchers and those active in research
management and training, are research methods which were
developed and adapted for the study of both dryland and wetland
rice-based cropping systems.
The manual begins by discussing general concepts: the
definition of cropping systems and of cropping systems research;
and the importance of on-farm research as a means of finding
improved cropping systems that are acceptable to farmers.
Methods for site selection, site description, design of cropping
patterns, and on-farm testing of such patterns are then


- 66 -








described. In the final chapter, ways in which research results
can be extended to a greater area and to farmers through
production programs are discussed. This chapter, less detailed
than those preceding, is included to emphasize the need for
researchers to consider the consequences of their results in
production programs and to stress that on-farm research is
beneficial only when farmers adopt recommended practices.
Details of several research or analytical techniques are provided
in appendices focusing on fertilizer rates, weed controls
varietal testing and cropping patterr monitoring.


100 PN-AAP-572

MF $4.32/PC $40.17
Caqueza: living rural development
Zandstra, Hubert G.; Swanberg, Kenneth G.; et al.
International Development Research Certre
1979, 321p., En. IORC-107e

*IDRC, P.O. Box 85003 Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3149 Canada
The Caqueza Project was a rural development effort conducted
in eastern Colombia by the Agricultural Institute (ICA)t the
research and extension arm of the Colcmbian Ministry of
Agriculture. This book records the history of the project's
first 5 years (1971-76).
Part I describes the evolution of rural development philosophy
in Colombia and outlines [CA's rural development model for the
1970's; specific information on the Caqueza Project is included.
Part II describes chronologically the 5-year span of project
activities ana lessons while Part III analyzes in some depth the
research methodology tested during the project and the extent of
its adoption by farmers. Part IV examines nontechnical factors
influencing adoption rates* such as risk, credits marketing,
training, ana buffer institutions. A final section reviews the
various evaluations of the project anc provides an overview of
the project as a whole.
Although it helped only a small minority of farmers, Caqueza
strongly influenced ICA in terms of start training and research
policy and is the closest Colombia has come to an open dialogue
among planners, agriculturalists, and farmers, the interaction
among whom is the primary focus of the book's narrative. A
144-item bibliography (1957-77) is appended.


- 67 -








AUTHOR AND INSTITUTION INDEX

Agricultural Development Council, Inc..........................046
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute.........033,035,091
Agricultural University. Department of Tropical Crops.
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography...........093
American Society of Agricultural Engineers....................045
Archibald, K................................................. 001
ASPAC. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center................ 002
Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Sciences
in Africa ..... .......................... ........ ....... 069
Bantilan, C. ...............................................049
Barker, Randolph ............... ............. .............. 006
Bathrick, David D ... ........................ ................ .056
Bazan, Rufo .. ................. .......... ........... ........ .036
Beausoleil, Joseph W.......................................... .021
Beemer, Halsey L. Jr..........................................073
Beets, William C..............................................003
Bernsten, Richard H ..........................................004
Burgos, Carlos F.............................................. 005
Cardoso, Victor H........................................ ... 062
Casey, Frank ................................................. 006
Central Research Institute for Agriculture................007,058
Chater, Simon ................................... ............ 008
Collinson, Michael P............................ ..009,010,011,012
Consortium for International Development......................080
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.....019
Cornell University........................................... .044
Cornell University. Center for International Studies......025,096
Cornell University. New York State College of Agriculture
and Life Sciences.................................. ..... 006
Croon, S.I .................................................. 012
De Boer, A.J............ .............................. .......013
De Datta, Surajit K ........................................... 014
Delgado, Christopher L.................................... 015
DeWalt, Billie R ..............................................016
DeWalt, Kathleen M............................................ 016
Diaz, Alvaro ................................................. 023
Dillon, John L ............ .......................... 017,018,019
Effendi, Suryatna. .............. .................. ...........058
Egerton College. Department of Economics.......................047
Ethiopian Cooperative Rangelands Production System Study
Programme.................................................. 020
Everson, Everett ........... ...................................021
Flora, Cornelia B.............................................082
Ford Foundation...........................................026
Francis, C.A..... ...... .................................. 022
Frankenberger, Timothy ........ ...... .. ................ ..... 075
Gait, Daniel L .............................................. 023
Garver, Cynthia ............................................. 097
Gilbert, E.H ................ ......... ...................... 024
Gomez, K.A ................................................... 014
Gostyla, Lynn ................................................. 025
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public
Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology...034
Gypmantasiri, Phrek........ .......................... ..... 026
Haaland, G................................................... 055
Haile Selassie I University. College of Agriculture...........093
Hardaker, J.B.............................. .......... ..... 018








Harrington, Larry..... ............. ...... ............... .. .... 027
Hart, Robert D...................................... 028,029,030
Harwood, Richard R ............................................ 031
Hildebrand, Peter E........................... 032,033,034,035,057
Hobgood, Harlan H.............................................. 036
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources.................,.....037
Honduras. Ministry of Natural Resources. National
Program for Agricultural Research.........................037,038
Honduras. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales. Program
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria.....................077
IFO Institute for Economic Research.....................050,079
Indonesia. Lembaga Pusat Pertania...........................059
International Agricultural Research Service...................037
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management..074
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics .............. ............................. 039,040,097
International Development Research Centre.................083,100
International Livestock Centre for Africa.....................008
International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center ............ ..... ..... .027,041,047,054,062,071,086
International Potato Center................................. 076
International Regional Organization for Agricultural
Sanitation.......................... ....................... 087
International Rice Research
Institute.........................014,042 ,049,052,053,058,099
Johnston, T.D ................................................. 043
Kansas State University. Office of International
Agriculture Programs. ................................... .082
Kass, D.C ..................................................... 044
Kaul, R.N ..................................................... 045
Kearl, B.E ... ....... .................................... 046

Kirway, T.N ..... ........... .... ..... .... .......... .... ... 04
Kuhnen, Frithjof ...... ....... ........ ............... 051
Labadan, E.......... ............ ............................. 049
Lagemann, Johannes ....... ......................... ........... 050
Lang, Harald ........................... ....... ................051
Litsinger, J.A .................... .. .....................052,053
Lumaban, M.D .............. ................................... 053
Martinez, Juan Carlos ................. .............. ....054
McCown, R.L ........... ..... ..... .................. ........ 055
McDermott, James K........................................... 056
McDowell, Robert E ............................................. 057
McIntosh, J.L.................. .............................. 058
Meiman, J ...... ...............................................092
Michigan State University.................................... 094
Michigan State University. Department of Agricultural
Economics .......................... .. .....010,023,024,065,066
Mink, Stephen ................................. .............. 059
Moreno, Raul A ............................................ 060,061
Moscardi, Edgardo ........................................ 062,098
Narendran, Vasantha......................................... 063
Navarro, Luis A ......................................... .. 064
Norman, David W................................... 024,065,066,067
Norman, M.J................................................. 068
Okigbo, Bede N................................................. 069
Pain, Adam.................................................... 070
Perrin, R.K................... .. ............................. 071








Philipp, P.F.....................
Plucknett, Donald L..............
Price, E.C.......................
Princeton University. Wilson (Woo
and International Affairs.....
Pryor, D.H............ ........
Pullin, S.V.....................
Reeves, Edward B .................
Rhoades, Robert E................
Rockefeller Foundation...........
Rosales, Franklin E..............
Rutgers University. Cook College.
Agricultural and Food Program.


drow)


.................... 080,081
........... ....... 019,073
........................ 099
School of Public
n r


. . . . . . ... J7
............................. 066
........................ ... .. 074
............................ 075
.............................076
....................... 035,057
............... ............. 077
International
............................. 095


Ruthenberg, Hans...................................... ........078
Sain, Gustavo... .............................. ........... 054
Saunders, Joseph L.................................... ....... 061
Scherer, Friede ................................ ........ .079
Scobie, Grant M.................... ...................... ... 090
Shaner, Willis W......................................... 080,081
Shehadeh, Z.H............................................ 074
Sheppard, Wendy J..............................................082
Simmons, Emmy B........................................... 067
Singh, R...................................................... 001
Spurgeon, David ......................................... ....083
Staudt, Kathleen A.................................. ... 084
Swanberg, Kenneth G...................... ................. 100
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre...........................085
Tobisson, Eva .................................................085
Tripp, Robert..................................... ........ 086
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training
Center ............... ......................005,060,064,087,088
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center.
Program of Annual Cultivation............................043,061
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization........................018
U.S. Agency for International Development.....................087
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Asia Indonesia..........................................059
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Development Support. Office of Agriculture............057,064
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Development Support. Office of Rural Development
and Development Administration.. ..........................065
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Program and Policy Coordination.
Office of Evaluation...................................036,056
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Science and Technology.
Office of Agriculture.................... ...... 013,080,081,092
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Science and Technology.
Office of Multisectoral Development ....................... 092
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
for Science and Technology. Office of Rural
Development and Development Administration................096
U.S. Congress. House of Representatives.
Committee on Foreign Affairs............................. 072
U.S. Department of Agriculture. International
Agricultural Development Service...........................031








U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of
International Cooperation and Development..................089
University of California, Berkeley...........................087
University of Chiang Mai. Faculty of Agriculture..............026
University of East Anglia. School of Development Studies......070
University of Florida...................................... 068
University of Florida. Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences....................... ...........092
University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture.
Agricultural Experiment Station. .......................016,075
University of Kentucky. Department of Anthropology........016,075
University of Kentucky. Department of Sociology...........016,075
University of Michigan.............. ......................... 015
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.
Caribbean Agricultural Research
and Development Institute....................... .001,021,063
Upper Volta. Ministry of Rural Development....................059
Uyole Agricultural Centre .... .............. ............. 012,048
Valdes, Alberto............. ..... ......... ..... .......... 090
Waugh, Robert K...................... ............... .... 091,092
Westphal, E ................................. . .. .. 093
Wharton, Clifton R.............................. .............094
Whelan, William P............. ...... ............. .... ...... 095
Whyte, William F............................. ........ 025,096
Wiboonpongse, Aree........................................... 026
Willey, R.W. ..................................... .... ..... 097
Winkelmann, Donald L ........................ ........ .. .071,098
Winrock International ....................................001
Winrock International. Livestock Research
and Training Center.....................................013,059
Zandstra, Hubert G..... ... .............................099,100






SUBJECT AND GEOGRAPHIC INDEX

Africa............................................. 046,068,069
Agricultural development..........009,025,031,067,084,085,089,096
Agricultural economics............... .................009,051,066
Agricultural education .................................... 006
Agricultural extension.....009,030,072,073,082,086,089,091,092,100
Agricultural machinery ............................ ......... 045
Agricultural policy................................ 015,073,085
Agricultural production.......003,008,012,014,016,034,042,048,055
...... ..... .... ..060,063,064,067,069,079
Agricultural technology......025,027,030,033,034,035,036,040,041
049,053,054,064,065,067,071,072,090,091,098,100
Agricultural training..................................023,024,077
Agroforestry .................................................. 061
Animal husbandry. ............................. ...001,015,059,061
Animal nutrition ............... ......... ... .... .. .. ... 008,013
Animal production ...............................001,002,013,059
Appropriate technology.................. ............. .........027
Aquaculture ................................................ 002,074
Asia.................................. ..... ... 002,018,042,052,068
Beans ....................................................... 056
Benefit cost analysis.......................................... 054
Biochemistry...... ........... ...... ........................... 068
Brazil ........................................................090
Budgeting .....................................................018
Carbohydrates................................................070
Caribbean ............................................ 001,021,087
Cattle.................................. ............... ..... 008
Central America........................028,036,060,061,064,087,088
Child nutrition.............................................. 085
Colombia .............................................. 090,096,100
Cooperatives................................................. 079
Costa Rica ....................... ................ 005,036,043
Crop diseases and pests................... .............016,087
Cropping patterns.........002,003,007,015,016,021,022,029,031,036
042,043,044,045,048,049,051,052,053,057,058,060
061,063,066,068,069,073,075,078,088,093,097,099
Data collection..............004,009,018,021,027,034,038,046,086
Decisionmaking .. .............................. ..... 011,028,071
Development strategy....................... ........ ....020,096
Discrimination............................................... 084
Dry farming................................. ...... 039,051,058
East Africa............. ................................ 009
Economic analysis.............. .................... .......018,090
Ecosystems.................................................... 028
Ecuador ....................... ......................... ... 062
Education, higher .............................................. 006
Energy................................. ...................... 068
Entomology...................................... ............... 052
Environmental health ... ....... .. ..... ........ ..... .. ...... 087
Ethiopia................................ ............. 020,093,096
Evaluation.................................................... 049
Farm crops ................................................... 055
Farm management.......................006,009,011,012,018,024,028
.......................... 029,048,049,060,078,084
Farm mechanization............................. .........045,051
Farm records..................... ..........................034,086
Farm survey ................................................ 021
Farmer training ..................................... ..... .024









Farmers .......................................... 025,040,071
Feeding stuffs........................................... ... 013
Fertilizers...................................................073
Fertilizing ...........................................002
Fisheries.............................. ..................002
Fishes.................................... ................... 074
Food analysis................................................ 070
Food consumption............................................... 095
Geochemistry............................. ........... ......... .068
Goats..................................... ................... 059
Government policies......................................... 084
Grain crops.............................................. 093
Guatemala.............025,032,033,034,035,036,056,081,089,091,096
Herdsmen........ ... .......................... ........... 008,020
Honduras.... ................ 005,016,023,029,037,038,077,081,096
Hydrology................ ................................ 068
Indonesia........... ....... ....... ... .007,058,059,081
Insect control................................. .. .......... .053
Insecticides.................................. .... ... 052,053
Insects.............. ....... .... ............. ........... .......087
Institution building...................................... 010,037
Institutional framework ................. .............. .091,092
Institutions..... ................. ........ .......019,091
Intercropping...................... .............. .022,061,069,097
Interdisciplinary research ...........................026,032,033
Interviewing....................................... ......... 076
Irrigated land................................... .007,051,058
Ivory Coast.................... ........... ..... ..... ...... 051
Kenya ......................... ........... .... .. ... 010,084
Land tenure................. ..................................063
Land use........................ ....... .........016,050,063
Linear programming........................ .....................049
Linkages ................................ ............... .055
Livestock............. ... ... ..... 002,008,013,015,020,055,057,075
Maize........... ..... ........... ......... ..... 012,056,062,097
Malnutrition. .... ..................... ....................... 095
Marketing ............... .................. .........067,075,079
Maternal child health .... .................... .......... .085
Mexico............... ...... ......... ........ ........ ... 096
Middle East ........................................ .......046
Millet... ....... ............. ................. 008,075
Mixed farming. ..... .................. ......001,002,013,057,061,074
Multiple cropping.....................003,022,026,036,042,069,097
Nematoda........ ...... .... ... ........... .................... 087
Nicaragua................................... ... .......... 005,036
Nigeria ................................ ...... ... 045,050,066,067
Nomads....... ....... ............. .. ..... ................. 015,020
Nutrition ............... ................. ......... 005,085,095
Nutritional deficiencies....................... .... ... ..005,095
Nutritive value.............................................070
Oilseed crops.................................... .. ... ...... 093
Organization development................................ 023,025
Pakistan....... ..... ....... .... .......... .... ... .......... 096
Panama........... .................................. .... .. 054
Participation ...................................... ...086
Pest control.......................... ...... ....... .042,052,087
Pesticides ... ............. ................ ..... .......087
Philippines..................... ................. ... ....... 049,072









Pigeon peas ................ ........... ...... ............097
Plant breeding ..................................... 022,070,073
Plant genetics........................................... 022,097
Plant physiology...............................................097
Plant protection............................................. .073
Population density................ .............. ........... ..... 050
Postharvest food loss....................................... 083
Project evaluation ........ ............ ............. ... 082
Project implementation ..............................020,023,082
Questionnaires...............................................035
Rainfall distribution........................................ 060
Ranges.................................. ........ ........ 008
Research facilities............................... 025,036,039
Resettlement........................................... .. .. 059
Rice.................................... 014,042 ,048,052,058,074
Rice research. ................................. 007,051,052,074,099
Risk...................................................................................................094
Rural development ..................... ............... 090,100
Rural women.............. .................................. .085
Sahel .......... .......... ................................ 015,055
Semiarid land.................................... 039,040,055
Sheep....................... ............... .............. 008
Shifting cultivation............................ . ... 050
Small farmers.................001,003,009,011,013,018,024,031,032
034,031,032,034,035,036,048,050,060,061
064,065,066,079,080,087,088,090,091,100
Social sciences .... ............................ 025,027,035,046
Socioeconomic factors........................003,028,040,068,075
Socioeconomic surveys............... ......................035
Soil classification...........................................093
Soil fertility.................................... ........ 050
Sorghum.............. ....... ..................... 016,056,075,097
Sri Lanka................................. ..... ........ .. 070
Statistical analysis ......................... .............. 018
Subsistence farming........................ ... .... ..031,048,094
Sudan ..........................................................075
Surveys ............ ............................ 004,032,046,076
Systems analysis............................... ...... 017,083
Tanzania..................... ............ 009,010,012,048,085,086
Technical education...........................................077
Technological change......... .. ... ..... ............ ..... 066
Technology adoption.........................040,041,054,094,100
Technology choice ......................................027
Technology transfer................................ 030,036,071
Thailand .. ......... .......... .......... ......... 026
Training methods ... ........ ....................... .. 077
Tropical agriculture..........003,013,031,040,050,060,068,078,088
Uganda.................. ..................................... 079
Universities......... ......................................... 006
Upper Volta................................................ 015
USA........... ........ ....... ............................. 089
Varieties......... .................. ........... .. .... .042,056
Vegetable crops................. .........................073,079
Villages............. .............. ..... ........... 066,085
Waste conversion..................................... ....... 002
Weed control ..... ............................. .......... 042,073
West Africa.................................................. .051
Women in development...................... ............... 084,085


* ~ > '









Yield......................................... .....014,042,044,097
Zambia .........................................................010
Zimbabwe...................................................... 010







DOCUMENT NUMBER INDEX

PD-AAN-228................. ........*. *......... ..... ... .021
PN-AAB-723...................................................046
PN-AAB-810 ........................................ 039
PN-AAE-446 ...................... .......................... 071
PN-AAG-025.................................. ..... ..........*.044
PN-AAG-274 .................. .................................. 014
PN-AAG-866....................................................042
PN-AAG-895............................... ...................015
PN-AAG-951 ................. ................................. 066
PN-AAH-977....................................... ........ .... .036
PN-AAJ-081 ............ .................... ............. 053
PN-AAJ-178 ................................................... 056
PN-AAJ-280......................... ...................... .074
PN-AAJ-522 .............. ................ ..... ........... 040
PN-AAJ-526 .....................................................041
PN-AAJ-640................................................... 025
PN-AAK-049 .................................................. 024
PN-AAK-475 ............ ...... .. ......... ... ............ 065
PN-AAL-237.....................................................080
PN-AAL-341 ........................................... ....... 081
PN-AAL-956 ................ .............................. 096
PN-AAM-515 .................................. ..................099
PN-AAM-528......................................... ... ........ 061
PN-AAM-826 ....................................................010
PN-AAM-827............. ................... ......................023
PN-AAN-023 .....................................................043
PN-AAN-810 ................................................... 086
PN-AAN-890.................... ....... .................. 062
PN-AAN-964.....................................................076
PN-AAP-019 ....................................................028
PN-AAP-062....................................................030
PN-AAP-094 ..................... ............. ............... 001
PN-AAP-095............................. ........ .......... 035
PN-AAP-096...................................................... 038
PN-AAP-097 ....................................................037
PN-AAP-098.......... ........................................ 098
PN-AAP-099........... ............................. ...........033
PN-AAP-100 .. ................................... .......... 027
PN-AAP-101............................... .................... 077
PN-AAP-102................................ ..............058
PN-AAP-103............ ....... ................................ 049
PN-AAP-104 ....... ....................................... 063
PN-AAP-105 ........................ ........... ... ............ 004
PN-AAP-161 ............................. .................. .019
PN-AAP-228 ..... ............................................. 094
PN-AAP-229.......................... .. .. ... ... .. ........ 084
PN-AAP-230.......... .......................... ........... 055
PN-AAP-231 ............................ ................ .032
PN-AAP-232.................................... ... ... ... ... ....011
PN-AAP-233 .................................... ......... 017
PN-AAP-234 .................................................... 022
PN-AAP-309 ............................. ...............005
PN-AAP-310 ................................. ............087
PN-AAP-311 .............................. ............ ....... 088
PN-AAP-312 ...... .. ... ... .. ............... ...060
PN-AAP-344 .. .... ..... ... .. ....... 006
PN-AAP-345 ............................. .. ............. .. ... 083








PN-AAP-364.................. .............. ................... 013
PN-AAP-365................................. ............. .. 059
PN-AAP-377.... ............................................... 068
PN-AAP-410 ................................. .............082
PN-AAP-414 .. ...................................................064
PN-AAP-446....................................................092
PN-AAP-468........................... ...................... 090
PN-AAP-478...................................................067
PN-AAP-517........... .............. .... .. .................. 057
PN-AAP-542................................................... 050
PN-AAP-572.............................. .. ................ 100
PN-AAP-573 .. .............................................. 020
PN-AAP-574 .................................................... 012
PN-AAP-575.................................................... 045
PN-AAP-576....................................................070
PN-AAP-586....................................................085
PN-AAP-595 ............................................... 016
PN-AAP-608..................................................... 078
PN-AAP-617 ................................................. ..031
PN-AAP-648 ......... ................ .. ..... ....................075
PN-AAP-652.....................................................003
PN-AAP-653......................................................079
PN-AAP-659 .................................................... 034
PN-AAP-660 ......... ........ ............ .................... 048
PN-AAP-683.....................................................018
PN-AAP-684 ........................................... .. .... 091
PN-AAP-691................................................... 051
PN-AAP-778 ....................................................072
PN-AAP-842 ....................................................002
PN-AAP-843.......... ................ .. ..... ....................073
PN-AAP-902....................... ................. ............ 052
PN-AAP-903......................................................026
PN-AAP-952....................................................009
PN-AAP-953....................................................097
PN-AAP-954 ................................................. 089
PN-AAP-955.....................................................093
PN-AAP-965 .....................................................095
PN-AAP-977.................................... ................069
PN-AAP-978.....................................................008
PN-AAP-980 ........... ........................................ 007
PN-AAP-981................................................. .. 054
PN-AAQ-008............... ................. ...................... 47
XN-AAL-341-A ...............................................029




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