Vegetable gardening guide

Material Information

Vegetable gardening guide
Series Title:
Stephens, James M
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 folded sheet : ; 46 x 31 cm. folded to 23 x 10 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Vegetable gardening -- Florida ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Florida ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Panel title.
General Note:
"February 1980."
Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
J.M. Stephens.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Full Text
The publications in this collection do not reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. These texts represent the historic publishing record of the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences and should be used only to trace the historic work of the Institute and its staff. Current WFAS research may be found on the Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS)
site maintained by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida

February 1980 Circular 104N
J. M. Stephens
Extension Vegetable Specialist
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension

Successful vegetable gardens are not accidental. They are the results of planning, constant care, and the will to make things grow.
There are many factors which determine whether or not a garden will or will not be successful. The recommendations contained here are for home gardens; they may or may not be suitable for commercial use.
There are many things a vegetable garden may offer toward a satisfying experience: fresh air, exercise, sunshine, food rich in vitamins and minerals, income and knowledge.
Consider the size of your family and the amount of produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold, as well as that used fresh. Don't underestimate the work and personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location-Select a plot of good, well-drained sail near a water supply. It should be close to the home for convenience but should not be shaded by tall buildings or trees. Enclosing the garden spot with a fence is usually profitable.
The Garden Design.-Many gardeners find it helpful to draw out on paper the location of each row and the crop or succession of crops to be planted.
Vegetables suited to Florida gardens, leading varieties, seed or plants needed, planting distances and depths, best time for planting by areas, hardiness, days to harvest and expected yields are shown in the Planting Guide on the inside of this leaflet.
Spade well or plow the land at 3 weeks before planting. Rework the soil to secure a fine firm seedbed for planting.
Lime to sweeten the soil should be applied only when the needs have been established by a reliable soil test. The best range for gardens on sandy

soil is between pH 6.0 and 6.5. Applications of 2 to 3 pounds of finely ground dolomitic limestone per 100 square feet usually will be sufficient except on extremely acid soils.
Lime needs should be met well in advance of the planting date, preferably 2 to 3 months before the garden is to be planted. However, hydrated lime may be applied two weeks or more before planting where a quick-acting material is necessary. Use at three-fourths the rate of dolomite. Moisten the garden soil, and make sure the lime is thoroughly mixed into the soil.
The majority of Florida soils are low in organic matter or humus. Organic matter is valuable in that it increases the water holding capacity of a soil, supplies nutrients and improves the ease of working soils. The organic matter content of a soil may be increased by applying animal manure, rotted leaves or any partly decomposed plant ref use. Cover crops add organic matter when plowed or spaded into a soil.
Animal manure is not a balanced fertilizer. Approximately 2 / pounds of superphosphate should be added to 25 pounds of manure and spread over 100 square feet of garden.
When using commercial fertilizers the following amounts and grades are usually satisfactory for the initial application. Be sure to include minor elements if soil is alkaline.
Amount Amount
Soil Grade 10 ft. Row 100 sq. ft.
Sand, marl, rock 6-6-6 or 1/3 lb. 2-5 lbs. or clay 6-8-8
Organic soils (muck 0-12-20 1/6 lb. 1-2 lbs. or peat)
During the growing season it may be desirable to sidedress 2 or 3 times with the appropriate mixed fertilizer, at 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 ft. of row. On mineral soils, 10-0-10, 15-0-14 or similar mixture, at 1/4 to 1/2 lb. per 100 ft. of row may be substituted for the complete fertilizer.

One half of the first and main application of fertilizer would best be broadcast over the entire garden plot one to two weeks before planting. The other half should be banded at planting time in 1 or 2 bands each 2 to 3 inches to the side of and 1 to 2 inches below the level of the seed or planting row.
In irrigating the garden it is advisable to thoroughly wet the soil once a week unless sufficient rain falls, rather than to apply several light sprinklings. A growing garden will require 1 inch of water per week and when the plants are large as much as 2 inches may be required. Place shallow cans in your garden to determine how much water is being applied.
The primary purpose of cultivation is to control weeds. Weeds are easy to control when they are small. Shallow cultivation and hoeing is advised in order to reduce damage to the crop root system. No one chemical weed killer (herbicide) can be suggested for a growing garden.
Plant disease-resistant varieties wherever possible. A foliar fungicide may also be needed. Spraying is more effective than dusting. For the most common foliar diseases on most crops, use one or more of the following: zineb, maneb, bravo, or captan. Use wettable sulfur for controlling powdery mildew and bean rust. Basic copper sulfate is useful against such diseases as bacterial leafspot of tomato. Begin control efforts early, and apply fungicides at weekly intervals as a preventive measure. Always follow label directions.
Certain soil-borne diseases, such as damp-off, root rots, stem rots, and wilts, are controlled by applying an all-purpose fumigant to the soil prior to planting. See the Nematicide Table for two such fumigants-vapam and vorlex.
Sanitation.-Many diseases and insects may be reduced by rotating garden locations, cleaning up

crop refuse, keeping out weeds, and preparing soil early.
Sterilizing Seedbed Soil.-Soil for starting transplants may be sterilized by placing a 2-inch layer in a pan and baking at 1800 F. for 1-11/2 hours.
Seed Treatment-Buy treated seed or apply thiram (Arasan) to untreated seed.
A suggested general-purpose spray for insects of vegetables is one containing malathion or diazinon plus Sevin or methoxychlor. Dust or spray at the first signs of insects and repeat treatments as necessary. The following materials are effective against the insects as indicated and are safe if properly used.
PEST Sevin Malathion Diazinon Rotenone
Aphids X X
Armyworms X X
Budworms X
Cabbage worms* X X X X
Col. potato beetle X
Cucumber beetle X X
Earworms X
Fleabeetle X X
Fruit, horn, pinworms X X
Leaf miner X
Leafhopper X X X X
Leafroller X X X X
Melon, pickle worms X X
Mexican bean beetle X X X X
Pameras X X
Pea weevils X X X
Spider mites X X
Stink bugs X X X
Thrips X X X
* Bacillus thuringiensis (Biotrol, Dipel, or Thuricide) also gives control.
Soil inhabiting insects, including mole crickets, wireworms, cutworms, ants, etc., can be controlled with diazinon. Baits are excellent for cutworms and mole crickets. Apply diazinon according to label directions and precautions.
Most Florida soils contain parasitic plant nematodes. For most vegetables these soils should

be fumigated. "In-the-row" fumigation is cheap and practical. This involves placing the fumigant in a band in a trench six inches deep where the crop is to be grown. After the fumigant is applied the trench should be filled and the soil surface sprinkled with water to seal the fumigant in the soil. Fumigants should not be applied to soil that is too wet, cold, or dry.
Nematicide Rate/100 Ft. Remarks
D-D, ViddenD 1 cup or 8 oz. May be mixed with Telone kerosene, or mineral
spirits. Wait 14-21
days before planting.
EDB 3 tblsp. Same as for D-D,
except do not apply
for onions.
Vorlex 1 cup Same as D-D.
Covering row with
plastic for 7 days after
treatment helps. Also
controls weeds, soil
fungi, bacteria, and
VPM 2 cups Same as for Vorlex
Vapam except can be mixed
Fume V with water.
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons. They shold be applied strictly according to manufacturers' precaution and recommendations. Always wash vegetables from the garden thoroughly before using. Use pesticides only as necessary to control insects and diseases and stop applications during the harvesting season. Store pesticides in their original labeled containers. Keep them out of the reach of children and other irresponsible persons.
The listing of specific trade names here does not constitute endorsement of these products in preference to others containing the same active chemical ingredients.

Spacing in Inches Seed Planting Dates in Florida (inclusive) Plapt Pounds Days Seed/Plants Depth Hardi- Yield to
Crop Varieties 100' of Row Rows Plants Inches North Central South nesst 100' Harvest
Beans, Snap Bush Blue Lake, Contender, Roma, 1 lb. 18-30 2-3 11/2-2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Apr. T 45 45-60
Harvester, Miami, Cherokee (wax) Aug.-Sept. Sept.
Beans, Pole Dade, McCaslan, Kentucky Wonder 1/2 lb. 40-48 3-6 11/2-2 Mar.-Aug. Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T 80 55-70
191, Blue Lake Aug.-Sept.
Beans, Lima Fordhook 242, Concentrated, Hen- 1 lb. 24-36 3-4 11/2-2 Mar.-Aug. Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T 50 65-75
derson, Jackson Wonder, Dixie Sept.
Butterpea, Florida Butter (Pole)
Beets Early Wonder Detroit Dark Red 1 oz. 14-24 3-5 1/2-1 Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 75 60-70
Broccoli Early Green Sprouting, Waltham 100 pits. 30-36 12-18 1/2-1 Aug.-Feb. Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 50 60-75
29, Atlantic, Green Comet (1/4 oz.)
Cabbage Copenhagen Market, Marion Market, 65 pits. 24-36 14-24 1/2 Sept.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 125 70-90
King Cole, Market Prize, Red Acre, 1/4 oz.
Chieftan Savoy, Rio Verde
Cantaloupes Smith's Perfect, Samson Hybrid, 1/2 oz. 70-80 24-36 /1 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. T 150 75-90
Edisto 47, Planters Jumbo
Carrots Imperator, Chantenay, Nantes, 1/2 oz. 16-24 1-3 1/2 Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 100 70-75
Gold Pak, Waltham Hicolor
Cauliflower Snowball Strains, Snowdrift, 55 plts. 24-30 18-24 1/2 Jan.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan. H 80 55-60
Imperial 10-6 (1/4 oz.) Aug.-Oct.
Celery Utah Strains, Florida Strains, 150 plts. 24-36 6-10 1/-1/2 Jan.-Mar. Aug.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. H 150 115-125
Summer Pascal (1/4 oz.)
Chinese, Cabbage Michihi, Wong Bok, Bok Choy 125 plts. 24-36 8-12 1/-1/2 Oct.-Jan. Cct.-Jan. Nov.-Jan. H 100 75-85
(1/4 OZ.)
Collards Georgia, Vates, Louisiana Sweet 100 plts. 24-30 10-18 /2 Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Apr. Aug.-Feb. H 150 40-60
(1/4 oz.) Aug.-Nov.
Corn, Sweet Silver Queen (white) Gold Cup, 1/4 lb. 24-36 12-18 /2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. T 15 60-85
Iobelle, Bonanza, Florida Staysweet Aug. Aug.-Sept.
Cucumbers Poinsett, Ashley, Gemini (slicers) 1/2 oz. 36-60 12-24 1/-3/ Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 100 40-55
SMR 18, Pixie, Galaxy (picklers) Aug.-Sept. Sept. Sept.
Eggplant Florida Market, Black Beauty, 50 pits. 36-42 24-36 1/2 Feb.-July Jan.-Mar. Dec.-Feb. T 200 80-95
Long Tom, Ichiban (1/4 oz.) Aug.-Sept. Aug.-Oct.
Endive-Escarole Florida Deep Heart, Full Heart 100 pits. 18-24 8-12 3/4 Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. H 75 90-95
Batavian, Ruffec Sept. Sept.
Kohlrabi Early White Vienna 1/4 oz. 24-30 3-5 /2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Nov.-Feb. H 100 50-55
Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Nov.
Lettuce (Crisp) Minetto, Great Lakes, Fulton 100 pits. 12-24 8-12 3/4 Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. Sept.-Jan. H 75 50-80
(Butterhead) Bibb, White Boston Sept.
(Leaf) Prize Head, Ruby, Salad Bowl
(Romaine) Parris Island Cos, Dark Green Cos
Mustard Southern Giant Curled, Florida 1/4 OZ. 14-24 1-6 1/2 Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. H 100 40-45
Broad Leaf Sept.-May
Okra Clemson Spineless, Perkins Long 2 oz. 24-40 6-12 1-2 Mar.-July Mar.-Aug. Feb.-May T 70 50-75
Green, Emerald, Dwarf Greenpod Aug.-Sept.
Onions (Bulbing) Excel, Texas Grano, Granex, White 400 plts. or sets 12-24 3-4 3/ Aug.-Nov. Aug.-Nov. Sept.-Nov. H 100 100-130
Granex, Tropicana Red 1 oz. seed
(Green) White Portugal, Evergreen, 800 plts. or sets 12-24 11/2-2 3/ Aug.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. H 100 50-75
Shallots (Multipliers) 11/ oz. seed 18-24 6-8 /4 Aug.-Jan. Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Dec. H 100 75-105
Parsley Moss Curled, Perfection 1/4 oz. 12-20 8-12 / Feb.-Mar. Dec.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 40 90-95
Peas Wando, Green Arrow, 1 lb. 24-36 2-3 1-2 Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. Sept.-Feb. H 40 50-70
Laxton's Progress
Peas, Southern Blackeye, Mississippi Silver, Texas 11/2 lbs. 30-36 2-3 1-2 Mar.-Aug. Mar.-Sept. Feb.-Oct. T 80 50-70
Cream 40, Floricream, Snapea,
Zipper Cream
Onions (Bulbing) Excel, Texas Grano, Granex, White 400 plts. or sets 12-24 3-4 /4 Aug.-Nov. Aug.-Nov. Sept.-Nov. H 100 100-130
Granex, Tropicana Red 1 oz. seed
(Green) White Portugal, Evergreen, 800 plts. or sets 12-24 11/2-2 3/4 Aug.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. H 100 50-75
Shallots (Multipliers) 11/ oz. seed 18-24 6-8 3/ Aug.-Jan. Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Dec. H 100 75-105
Parsley Moss Curled, Perfection 1/4 oz. 12-20 8-12 /1 Feb.-Mar. Dec.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 40 90-95
Peas Wando, Green Arrow, 1 lb. 24-36 2-3 1-2 Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. Sept.-Feb. H 40 50-70
Laxton's Progress
Peas, Southern Blackeye, Mississippi Silver, Texas 11/2 lbs. 30-36 2-3 1-2 Mar.-Aug. Mar.-Sept. Feb.-Oct. T 80 50-70
Cream 40, Floricream, Snapea,
Zipper Cream
Pepper (Sweet) Early Calwonder, Yolo Wonder, 100 plts. 20-36 12-24 /.2 Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 50 90-95
World Beater, Florida Giant (/8 oz.) July-Aug. Aug. Aug.-Oct.
(Hot) Hungarian Wax, Anaheim Chili
Potatoes Sebago, Red Pontiac, Atlantic, 15 lbs. 36-42 8-12 3-4 Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. SH 150 80-95
Red LaSoda, LaRouge, Superior
Potatoes, Sweet Porto Rico, Georgia Red, Jewel, 100 plts. 48-54 12-14 Mar.-June Feb.-June Feb.-June T 75 120-140
Centennial, Coastal Sweet
Pumpkin Big Max, Funny Face, 1 oz. 60-84 36-60 2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. 60-90
Connecticut Field Aug. Aug. Aug.-Sept.
Radish Cherry Belle, Comet, Early Scarlet 1 oz. 12-18 1-2 /4 Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. H 40 20-30
Globe, White Icicle, Sparkler (white
tipped) Red Prince, Champion
Spinach Virginia Savoy, Dixie Market, 1 oz. 14-18 3-5 3/4, Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Jan. H 40 40-45
Hybrid 7, Bloomsdale Longstanding
Spinach, (Summer) New Zealand 2 oz. 30-36 18-24 /t Mar.-Apr. Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr. T 40 55-65
Squash, (Summer) Early Prolific Straightneck, Dixie, 114 oz. 36-48 24-36 1/ Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. T 150 45-60
Summer Crookneck, Cocozelle, Gold Bar, Aug.-Sept. Aug.-Sept. Sept.-Oct.
Zucchini, Patty Pan, Scailopini,
(Winter) Sweet Mama, Table Queen, Butternut / oz. 60-90 36-48 2 Mar. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 300 95-105
Strawberry Florida 90, Tioga, Sequoia, 100 plts. 36-40 10-14 Sept.-0ct. Sept.-Oct. Oct.-Nov. H 50 90-110
Florida Belle
Tomatoes (Stake) Floradel, Tropic, Manalucie, 35 plts. 36-48 18-24 1/2 Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Aug.-March T 125 75-85
Better Boy, Manapal, Cherry, (1/8 oz.) Aug. Sept.
(Ground) Walter, Homestead, Fla. MH-1, 70 plts. 40-60 36-40 1/2 Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. T 200 75-85
Tropired, Floramerica, Flora-Dade (1/4 oz.) Aug. Sept.
Turnips Japanese Foliage (Shogoin) / oz. 12-20 4-6 1/2_ / Jan.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 150 40-50
Purple Top White Globe, Just Right Aug.-Oct. Sept.-Nov.
Water- (Large) Charleston Gray, Congo, 1 oz. 84-108 48-60 2 Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. T 400 80-100
melon Jubilee, Crimson Sweet July-Aug. Aug. Aug.-Sept.
(Seedless) Tri-X 317
(Small) New Hampshire Midget, Sugar Baby 48-60 15-30
Other Vegetables for the Garden--Jerusalem artichoke, Brussels sprouts, cassava, chayote, chives, dandelion, dasheen, dill, fennel, garbanzo bean, garlic, herbs, kale, leek,
luffa gourd, honeydew melons, and rutabaga. Note--globe artichokes, asparagus, and rhubarb not well adapted to Florida.
tH-Hardy, can stand frost and usually some freezing (32F) without injury.
SH-Slightly hardy, will not be injured by light frosts.
T-Tender, will be injured by light frost.
This publication was promulgated at a cost of $1875.00 or 3.7 cents per copy, to inform home gardeners on vegetable production. 3-50M-80
This publication was prepared in cooperation with _____________________________________________workrs f te Istiuteof Fod nd griultralCOOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTuRAL Sciences. SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Informatlon to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educa-IV~E tional information andl other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C. M. -linton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.