• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Farm and market location
 Field selection and soil testi...
 Choosing the right vegetables to...
 Vegetable yield estimates...
 Equipment and cultural practic...
 Harvesting, handling, storing and...
 Marketing options and business...
 Levels of crop management and labor...
 Average or estimated vegetable...
 Vegetable harvest information
 Vegetable maturity and quality...
 Vegetable perishability, storage...
 Sources of additional informat...
 Conversion factors for English...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service - 473
Title: Growing quality vegetables in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066193/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing quality vegetables in Florida an introduction for small-scale and part-time market gardeners
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 22 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: William, R. D
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Institiute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: authored by R.D. William.
General Note: "June 1980."
General Note: "For commercial growers."
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066193
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70853894

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Farm and market location
        Page 3
    Field selection and soil testing
        Page 3
    Choosing the right vegetables to grow
        Page 4
        Type of market
            Page 4
        Vegetable production and management factors
            Page 4
        Labor requirements
            Page 4
    Vegetable yield estimates in Florida
        Page 5
    Equipment and cultural practices
        Page 5
        Field preparation and timing
            Page 5
        Nematode pests and equipment for control
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Fertilizer placement, timing and application equipment
            Page 7
        Bedding and planting
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Weed control and equipment
            Page 9
        Insect and disease control
            Page 9
        Irrigation equipment and timing
            Page 9
    Harvesting, handling, storing and displaying vegetables
        Page 10
    Marketing options and business decisions
        Page 10
    Levels of crop management and labor requirements
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Average or estimated vegetable yields
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Vegetable harvest information
        Page 15
    Vegetable maturity and quality characteristics
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Vegetable perishability, storage conditions and containers
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Sources of additional information
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Conversion factors for English and metric units
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
Full Text
4'0O. oj


GROWING QUALITY VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA
An Introduction for Small-scale and Part-time Market Gardeners
SFOR COMMERCIAL GROWERS


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean


VFsLwt


Lee ---~r\l~J
~c~r



















CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ...................... ........................
FARM AND MARKET LOCATION .......... ....... ........................
FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING ......................................
CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES TO GROW ..........................
T ype of m market ......................................................... ....
Vegetable production and management factors ...................................
Labor require ents .........................................................
VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN FLORIDA .............. ................
EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICES ...................................
Field preparation and timing ..................................................
Nematode pests and equipment for control ...................................
Fertilizer placement, timing and application equipment ............................
B wedding and planting ........................................................
W eed control and equipm ent ....................................... .........
Insect and disease control ... ............
Irrigation equipm ent and tim ing...............................................
HARVESTING, HANDLING, STORING AND DISPLAYING VEGETABLES ........
MARKETING OPTIONS AND BUSINESS DECISIONS ............................
APPENDICES
A. Levels of crop management and labor requirements ............................
B. Average or estimated vegetable yields .....................................
C. Vegetable harvest inform ation .............................................
D. Vegetable maturity and quality characteristics, ...............................
E. Vegetable perishability, storage conditions and containers ......................
F. Sources of additional inform ation .........................................
G E english and m etric units ................................................


. . . . 3
. . . . 3
. . . . 3
. .. .. .. ... 4
. . . 4
. . . 4
. . . 4
. . . .5
. . . .5
......... .. 5
......... 5

. . .. .. .
......... 7
. .. . .. 7

. . . 9
............ 9
.......... 10
............ 10


. ....... 11
......... 13
........... 15
......... 16
......... 18
......... 20
......... 2 2


Authored by: R. D. William, Extension Vegetable Specialist, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.



Cover illustration, layout, and art by Laura A. Walsh.








Acknowledgements: The author wishes to sincerely thank R. A. Dunn, L. H. Halsey, R. F. Kasmire
(Visiting Professor from Univ. of California), D. N. Maynard, R. K. Showalter, G. B. Wall, and other faculty
members of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) who provided information or suggestions
while preparing this guide. Also, I thank the students, P. C. Ekstrand, C. L. Gladden, C. L.. Harris, C. W.
Obern, and N. J. Tielkemeier, and County Extension Agents, R. E. Bir, C. L. Brasher, L. T. Christenberry,
H. A. Fuller, H. G. Grant, G. C. Henry, H. E. Jowers, M. Pospichal, W. M. Stall, W. D. Thomas, and G. L.
Wade for their suggestions and participation in the development of this and related information intended for
market vegetable gardeners in Florida.








GROWING QUALITY VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION
Growing quality vegetables requires knowledge
and skills of both crop production and business
practices. To harvest high yields of quality produce,
you must plan each production step and complete
each cultural practice on time. Growers must know
about liming, fertilizing, irrigating, controlling
pests, harvesting, grading and marketing each
vegetable crop. Decisions about timing each
cultural practice, which variety to grow, where to
market the produce, and figuring production costs
require planning and can make the difference be-
tween a profit and loss.
To grow vegetables commercially, market
gardeners must study and invest both time and
money in their business. Each vegetable crop re-
quires certain cultural practices for proper growth
and production. Some vegetables require special
practices such as mulching or staking to produce
highest yields and quality. Certain types of
specialized equipment may be needed to grow some
vegetables efficiently. Finding or developing
markets will require both time and skill in selling
and dealing with people. Accurate records of costs
and sales are essential to improve your production
and business decisions.
Before you decide to grow vegetables commer-
cially, study the following general information and
plan your production and marketing options careful-
ly. Then, after making the preliminary decisions,
you can read and study the specific production
guides for each vegetable crop and other publica-
tions listed in Appendix F.

FARM AND MARKET LOCATION
The location of your farm will help determine the
type and success of a market garden enterprise. For
example, roadside markets should be located near
large cities and along busy highways. "U-pick" or
"Pick-your-own" operations should be easy to find
and located within 10 to 30 miles of larger cities. In
rural areas, vegetables may be sold at the farm,
peddled door-to-door, or offered for sale at communi-
ty markets. Market gardeners located farther away
from consumers usually transport their produce to
community markets or to local wholesale outlets.
For more information about locating roadside or
"U-pick" markets, read the publications listed in
the Marketing section of Appendix F.
When buying farmland for vegetable production,
choose land that can be drained efficiently, yet ir-


rigated during possible droughts. Avoid trying to
produce vegetables on deep, coarse sandy soils or in
low, swampy areas with inadequate drainage
facilities. Learn more about the special management
practices needed to produce high yields of quality
vegetables on each type of soil found in Florida by
reading the publications listed in the Soils and Fer-
tilizer section of Appendix F.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
When selecting a field, rotate crops so that
vegetables follow grain crops, pastures or other
crops that resist certain kinds of nematodes,
especially root-knot nematode. Crop and field rota-
tions also will reduce many disease problems and
weed infestations.
After selecting the land, have your soil tested 3 to
4 months before planting. These tests will help you
decide which kind of lime and fertilizer to buy and
how much to apply. Prepare a soil sample from your
field by taking several scoops of soil from the top 6
inches of the field. Place the sample in a clean pail
and mix together. Obtain a Soil Test Mailer Kit
from your County Agent and follow the instructions
for sending the sample and $3 per sample to the soil
Testing Laboratory at the University of Florida.
After 2 to 4 weeks, you will receive a report from the
Laboratory or County Extension Agent.
Interpret your soil test results carefully. Start by
comparing the soil pH number of your soil with a
range of 6.0 to 6.5 that is best for most vegetables in


Plan your vegetable production and marketing
carefully for highest yields and profits.








GROWING QUALITY VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION
Growing quality vegetables requires knowledge
and skills of both crop production and business
practices. To harvest high yields of quality produce,
you must plan each production step and complete
each cultural practice on time. Growers must know
about liming, fertilizing, irrigating, controlling
pests, harvesting, grading and marketing each
vegetable crop. Decisions about timing each
cultural practice, which variety to grow, where to
market the produce, and figuring production costs
require planning and can make the difference be-
tween a profit and loss.
To grow vegetables commercially, market
gardeners must study and invest both time and
money in their business. Each vegetable crop re-
quires certain cultural practices for proper growth
and production. Some vegetables require special
practices such as mulching or staking to produce
highest yields and quality. Certain types of
specialized equipment may be needed to grow some
vegetables efficiently. Finding or developing
markets will require both time and skill in selling
and dealing with people. Accurate records of costs
and sales are essential to improve your production
and business decisions.
Before you decide to grow vegetables commer-
cially, study the following general information and
plan your production and marketing options careful-
ly. Then, after making the preliminary decisions,
you can read and study the specific production
guides for each vegetable crop and other publica-
tions listed in Appendix F.

FARM AND MARKET LOCATION
The location of your farm will help determine the
type and success of a market garden enterprise. For
example, roadside markets should be located near
large cities and along busy highways. "U-pick" or
"Pick-your-own" operations should be easy to find
and located within 10 to 30 miles of larger cities. In
rural areas, vegetables may be sold at the farm,
peddled door-to-door, or offered for sale at communi-
ty markets. Market gardeners located farther away
from consumers usually transport their produce to
community markets or to local wholesale outlets.
For more information about locating roadside or
"U-pick" markets, read the publications listed in
the Marketing section of Appendix F.
When buying farmland for vegetable production,
choose land that can be drained efficiently, yet ir-


rigated during possible droughts. Avoid trying to
produce vegetables on deep, coarse sandy soils or in
low, swampy areas with inadequate drainage
facilities. Learn more about the special management
practices needed to produce high yields of quality
vegetables on each type of soil found in Florida by
reading the publications listed in the Soils and Fer-
tilizer section of Appendix F.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
When selecting a field, rotate crops so that
vegetables follow grain crops, pastures or other
crops that resist certain kinds of nematodes,
especially root-knot nematode. Crop and field rota-
tions also will reduce many disease problems and
weed infestations.
After selecting the land, have your soil tested 3 to
4 months before planting. These tests will help you
decide which kind of lime and fertilizer to buy and
how much to apply. Prepare a soil sample from your
field by taking several scoops of soil from the top 6
inches of the field. Place the sample in a clean pail
and mix together. Obtain a Soil Test Mailer Kit
from your County Agent and follow the instructions
for sending the sample and $3 per sample to the soil
Testing Laboratory at the University of Florida.
After 2 to 4 weeks, you will receive a report from the
Laboratory or County Extension Agent.
Interpret your soil test results carefully. Start by
comparing the soil pH number of your soil with a
range of 6.0 to 6.5 that is best for most vegetables in


Plan your vegetable production and marketing
carefully for highest yields and profits.








GROWING QUALITY VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA


INTRODUCTION
Growing quality vegetables requires knowledge
and skills of both crop production and business
practices. To harvest high yields of quality produce,
you must plan each production step and complete
each cultural practice on time. Growers must know
about liming, fertilizing, irrigating, controlling
pests, harvesting, grading and marketing each
vegetable crop. Decisions about timing each
cultural practice, which variety to grow, where to
market the produce, and figuring production costs
require planning and can make the difference be-
tween a profit and loss.
To grow vegetables commercially, market
gardeners must study and invest both time and
money in their business. Each vegetable crop re-
quires certain cultural practices for proper growth
and production. Some vegetables require special
practices such as mulching or staking to produce
highest yields and quality. Certain types of
specialized equipment may be needed to grow some
vegetables efficiently. Finding or developing
markets will require both time and skill in selling
and dealing with people. Accurate records of costs
and sales are essential to improve your production
and business decisions.
Before you decide to grow vegetables commer-
cially, study the following general information and
plan your production and marketing options careful-
ly. Then, after making the preliminary decisions,
you can read and study the specific production
guides for each vegetable crop and other publica-
tions listed in Appendix F.

FARM AND MARKET LOCATION
The location of your farm will help determine the
type and success of a market garden enterprise. For
example, roadside markets should be located near
large cities and along busy highways. "U-pick" or
"Pick-your-own" operations should be easy to find
and located within 10 to 30 miles of larger cities. In
rural areas, vegetables may be sold at the farm,
peddled door-to-door, or offered for sale at communi-
ty markets. Market gardeners located farther away
from consumers usually transport their produce to
community markets or to local wholesale outlets.
For more information about locating roadside or
"U-pick" markets, read the publications listed in
the Marketing section of Appendix F.
When buying farmland for vegetable production,
choose land that can be drained efficiently, yet ir-


rigated during possible droughts. Avoid trying to
produce vegetables on deep, coarse sandy soils or in
low, swampy areas with inadequate drainage
facilities. Learn more about the special management
practices needed to produce high yields of quality
vegetables on each type of soil found in Florida by
reading the publications listed in the Soils and Fer-
tilizer section of Appendix F.

FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTING
When selecting a field, rotate crops so that
vegetables follow grain crops, pastures or other
crops that resist certain kinds of nematodes,
especially root-knot nematode. Crop and field rota-
tions also will reduce many disease problems and
weed infestations.
After selecting the land, have your soil tested 3 to
4 months before planting. These tests will help you
decide which kind of lime and fertilizer to buy and
how much to apply. Prepare a soil sample from your
field by taking several scoops of soil from the top 6
inches of the field. Place the sample in a clean pail
and mix together. Obtain a Soil Test Mailer Kit
from your County Agent and follow the instructions
for sending the sample and $3 per sample to the soil
Testing Laboratory at the University of Florida.
After 2 to 4 weeks, you will receive a report from the
Laboratory or County Extension Agent.
Interpret your soil test results carefully. Start by
comparing the soil pH number of your soil with a
range of 6.0 to 6.5 that is best for most vegetables in


Plan your vegetable production and marketing
carefully for highest yields and profits.







Florida. Then compare the amount of calcium (CaO)
and magnesium (MgO) available in your soil with a
range of 400 to 800 lbs. calcium and 100 to 200 lbs.
magnesium needed per acre to grow quality
vegetables. Usually, a ratio of 4 to 5 parts calcium
to 1 part magnesium will provide a balance of these
two plant nutrients in the soil.
Buy dolomite limestone if your soil test results
show that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium
and magnesium content in your soil is high.Other-
wise, buy Hi-cal limestone when calcium is low. Ap-
ply these limestone materials evenly and mix into
the top 6 inches of soil 2 or 3 months before
planting.
For most Florida soils requiring lime, apply about
1 ton of ground limestone per acre to raise the soil
pH one unit. In our example, 1.5 tons ground
limestone would be required per acre to raise the soil
pH from 5.0 to 6.5.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES
TO GROW
Planning and careful study are necessary before
selecting vegetables to grow commercially. Consider
these factors before making your final decision:
Type of market Often your choice of market
will influence the decision about which vegetables to
grow. For example, some buyers and shippers who
buy locally or at State Farmer's Markets are known
for supplying large quantities of only certain
vegetables such as yellow squash, peppers or
southern peas. Sometimes these assembly markets
supply only specific horticultural varieties of crops
such as blackeye peas or a certain type of yellow
squash.
In contrast, regional wholesale or local roadside
and community markets are noted for supplying
most seasonal fresh vegetables. "U-pick" opera-
tions often produce only a few specialty crops for
processing at home. With a small mechanical
sheller, a specialty market could be developed for
supplying certain varieties or types of shelled peas
and beans. Also, specialty crops such as Chinese
vegetables or "organically" grown vegetables
sometimes can be marketed within your commu-
nity.
Vegetable production and management fac-
tors In Florida, vegetables are grown during
specific seasons on several different soil types using
a variety of crop management practices. Although
cultural practices and production costs vary
somewhat among regions of Florida, most
vegetables can be grouped into general categories
depending on over-all management levels and re-
quired labor (Appendix A). For example, low


Making decisions before choosing or
planting your crop will help you earn
a profit in a market gardening
enterprise.


management crops require relatively lower amounts
of production inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, ir-
rigation and staking or mulching than other
vegetable crops. Medium management crops require
moderate input levels. In contrast, high manage-
ment crops often require highest input levels and
precise management of the crop to produce quality
vegetables at a profit. Often, the use of full-bed
plastic mulch will increase both yields and quality of
high management crops. For more information
about specific crop management practices for each
crop, read the extension publications and produc-
tion guides listed in Appendix F.
Labor requirements In Florida, small-scale
vegetable production by market gardeners often re-
quires hand picking and comparatively simple
grading and packing facilities. Because considerable
labor is required to produce, harvest and handle
most vegetables, consider the labor requirements of
each crop before making your final choice of which
crop to plant (Appendix A). Verify that you will
have adequate labor during peak periods such as
transplanting, trellising or harvesting your
vegetables.







Florida. Then compare the amount of calcium (CaO)
and magnesium (MgO) available in your soil with a
range of 400 to 800 lbs. calcium and 100 to 200 lbs.
magnesium needed per acre to grow quality
vegetables. Usually, a ratio of 4 to 5 parts calcium
to 1 part magnesium will provide a balance of these
two plant nutrients in the soil.
Buy dolomite limestone if your soil test results
show that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium
and magnesium content in your soil is high.Other-
wise, buy Hi-cal limestone when calcium is low. Ap-
ply these limestone materials evenly and mix into
the top 6 inches of soil 2 or 3 months before
planting.
For most Florida soils requiring lime, apply about
1 ton of ground limestone per acre to raise the soil
pH one unit. In our example, 1.5 tons ground
limestone would be required per acre to raise the soil
pH from 5.0 to 6.5.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES
TO GROW
Planning and careful study are necessary before
selecting vegetables to grow commercially. Consider
these factors before making your final decision:
Type of market Often your choice of market
will influence the decision about which vegetables to
grow. For example, some buyers and shippers who
buy locally or at State Farmer's Markets are known
for supplying large quantities of only certain
vegetables such as yellow squash, peppers or
southern peas. Sometimes these assembly markets
supply only specific horticultural varieties of crops
such as blackeye peas or a certain type of yellow
squash.
In contrast, regional wholesale or local roadside
and community markets are noted for supplying
most seasonal fresh vegetables. "U-pick" opera-
tions often produce only a few specialty crops for
processing at home. With a small mechanical
sheller, a specialty market could be developed for
supplying certain varieties or types of shelled peas
and beans. Also, specialty crops such as Chinese
vegetables or "organically" grown vegetables
sometimes can be marketed within your commu-
nity.
Vegetable production and management fac-
tors In Florida, vegetables are grown during
specific seasons on several different soil types using
a variety of crop management practices. Although
cultural practices and production costs vary
somewhat among regions of Florida, most
vegetables can be grouped into general categories
depending on over-all management levels and re-
quired labor (Appendix A). For example, low


Making decisions before choosing or
planting your crop will help you earn
a profit in a market gardening
enterprise.


management crops require relatively lower amounts
of production inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, ir-
rigation and staking or mulching than other
vegetable crops. Medium management crops require
moderate input levels. In contrast, high manage-
ment crops often require highest input levels and
precise management of the crop to produce quality
vegetables at a profit. Often, the use of full-bed
plastic mulch will increase both yields and quality of
high management crops. For more information
about specific crop management practices for each
crop, read the extension publications and produc-
tion guides listed in Appendix F.
Labor requirements In Florida, small-scale
vegetable production by market gardeners often re-
quires hand picking and comparatively simple
grading and packing facilities. Because considerable
labor is required to produce, harvest and handle
most vegetables, consider the labor requirements of
each crop before making your final choice of which
crop to plant (Appendix A). Verify that you will
have adequate labor during peak periods such as
transplanting, trellising or harvesting your
vegetables.







Florida. Then compare the amount of calcium (CaO)
and magnesium (MgO) available in your soil with a
range of 400 to 800 lbs. calcium and 100 to 200 lbs.
magnesium needed per acre to grow quality
vegetables. Usually, a ratio of 4 to 5 parts calcium
to 1 part magnesium will provide a balance of these
two plant nutrients in the soil.
Buy dolomite limestone if your soil test results
show that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium
and magnesium content in your soil is high.Other-
wise, buy Hi-cal limestone when calcium is low. Ap-
ply these limestone materials evenly and mix into
the top 6 inches of soil 2 or 3 months before
planting.
For most Florida soils requiring lime, apply about
1 ton of ground limestone per acre to raise the soil
pH one unit. In our example, 1.5 tons ground
limestone would be required per acre to raise the soil
pH from 5.0 to 6.5.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES
TO GROW
Planning and careful study are necessary before
selecting vegetables to grow commercially. Consider
these factors before making your final decision:
Type of market Often your choice of market
will influence the decision about which vegetables to
grow. For example, some buyers and shippers who
buy locally or at State Farmer's Markets are known
for supplying large quantities of only certain
vegetables such as yellow squash, peppers or
southern peas. Sometimes these assembly markets
supply only specific horticultural varieties of crops
such as blackeye peas or a certain type of yellow
squash.
In contrast, regional wholesale or local roadside
and community markets are noted for supplying
most seasonal fresh vegetables. "U-pick" opera-
tions often produce only a few specialty crops for
processing at home. With a small mechanical
sheller, a specialty market could be developed for
supplying certain varieties or types of shelled peas
and beans. Also, specialty crops such as Chinese
vegetables or "organically" grown vegetables
sometimes can be marketed within your commu-
nity.
Vegetable production and management fac-
tors In Florida, vegetables are grown during
specific seasons on several different soil types using
a variety of crop management practices. Although
cultural practices and production costs vary
somewhat among regions of Florida, most
vegetables can be grouped into general categories
depending on over-all management levels and re-
quired labor (Appendix A). For example, low


Making decisions before choosing or
planting your crop will help you earn
a profit in a market gardening
enterprise.


management crops require relatively lower amounts
of production inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, ir-
rigation and staking or mulching than other
vegetable crops. Medium management crops require
moderate input levels. In contrast, high manage-
ment crops often require highest input levels and
precise management of the crop to produce quality
vegetables at a profit. Often, the use of full-bed
plastic mulch will increase both yields and quality of
high management crops. For more information
about specific crop management practices for each
crop, read the extension publications and produc-
tion guides listed in Appendix F.
Labor requirements In Florida, small-scale
vegetable production by market gardeners often re-
quires hand picking and comparatively simple
grading and packing facilities. Because considerable
labor is required to produce, harvest and handle
most vegetables, consider the labor requirements of
each crop before making your final choice of which
crop to plant (Appendix A). Verify that you will
have adequate labor during peak periods such as
transplanting, trellising or harvesting your
vegetables.







Florida. Then compare the amount of calcium (CaO)
and magnesium (MgO) available in your soil with a
range of 400 to 800 lbs. calcium and 100 to 200 lbs.
magnesium needed per acre to grow quality
vegetables. Usually, a ratio of 4 to 5 parts calcium
to 1 part magnesium will provide a balance of these
two plant nutrients in the soil.
Buy dolomite limestone if your soil test results
show that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium
and magnesium content in your soil is high.Other-
wise, buy Hi-cal limestone when calcium is low. Ap-
ply these limestone materials evenly and mix into
the top 6 inches of soil 2 or 3 months before
planting.
For most Florida soils requiring lime, apply about
1 ton of ground limestone per acre to raise the soil
pH one unit. In our example, 1.5 tons ground
limestone would be required per acre to raise the soil
pH from 5.0 to 6.5.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES
TO GROW
Planning and careful study are necessary before
selecting vegetables to grow commercially. Consider
these factors before making your final decision:
Type of market Often your choice of market
will influence the decision about which vegetables to
grow. For example, some buyers and shippers who
buy locally or at State Farmer's Markets are known
for supplying large quantities of only certain
vegetables such as yellow squash, peppers or
southern peas. Sometimes these assembly markets
supply only specific horticultural varieties of crops
such as blackeye peas or a certain type of yellow
squash.
In contrast, regional wholesale or local roadside
and community markets are noted for supplying
most seasonal fresh vegetables. "U-pick" opera-
tions often produce only a few specialty crops for
processing at home. With a small mechanical
sheller, a specialty market could be developed for
supplying certain varieties or types of shelled peas
and beans. Also, specialty crops such as Chinese
vegetables or "organically" grown vegetables
sometimes can be marketed within your commu-
nity.
Vegetable production and management fac-
tors In Florida, vegetables are grown during
specific seasons on several different soil types using
a variety of crop management practices. Although
cultural practices and production costs vary
somewhat among regions of Florida, most
vegetables can be grouped into general categories
depending on over-all management levels and re-
quired labor (Appendix A). For example, low


Making decisions before choosing or
planting your crop will help you earn
a profit in a market gardening
enterprise.


management crops require relatively lower amounts
of production inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, ir-
rigation and staking or mulching than other
vegetable crops. Medium management crops require
moderate input levels. In contrast, high manage-
ment crops often require highest input levels and
precise management of the crop to produce quality
vegetables at a profit. Often, the use of full-bed
plastic mulch will increase both yields and quality of
high management crops. For more information
about specific crop management practices for each
crop, read the extension publications and produc-
tion guides listed in Appendix F.
Labor requirements In Florida, small-scale
vegetable production by market gardeners often re-
quires hand picking and comparatively simple
grading and packing facilities. Because considerable
labor is required to produce, harvest and handle
most vegetables, consider the labor requirements of
each crop before making your final choice of which
crop to plant (Appendix A). Verify that you will
have adequate labor during peak periods such as
transplanting, trellising or harvesting your
vegetables.








In contrast, the mechanized production,
harvesting and handling of potatoes, sweet corn,
carrots, radishes, celery, and other crops destined
for larger markets requires more capital investment.
These crops normally are produced by large-scale
growers where production and handling efficiencies
are increased with mechanization in both the field
and packinghouse operations.
Both large- and small-scale vegetable growers
must plan carefully and manage their labor effi-
ciently. Long-term success in marketing perishable
vegetables often depends on a regular and depend-
able supply of produce for either retail customers or
wholesale buyers. Careful planning of your produc-
tion practices and skillful labor management are
essential for success.

VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN
FLORIDA
Planning for efficient production of vegetables or
other commodities requires an estimate of at least
average yields for Florida or for your production
region. Statewide averages or estimates of accept-
able yield levels for vegetables grown in Florida
under various crop management levels and on
several types of soil are listed in Appendix B. Ex-
cellent or high yield estimates are also listed
because most vegetable growers strive to increase
production efficiencies and profits by producing
high yields. By figuring production costs at each
yield level, growers or market gardeners can
calculate breakeven or per unit costs. In most situa-
tions, per unit costs for the higher yield levels will be
less and profits will be greater.
Remember, however, these yields are statewide
averages or estimates. All yield data depend on
many factors including your crop production and
business management skills, soil types, location
within Florida, season, and weather. This informa-
tion is useful in planning your vegetable production
business, but should be modified as you study and
gain experience in your particular region of the
state. Your County Extension Agent, farm supply
dealer and other local vegetable growers may be
able to assist you in modifying these data to im-
prove your planning and decision-making process.
Careful planning and study can help you maximize
profits and provide a dependable supply of quality
produce to your customers.

EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
Standard equipment for most market gardeners
includes at least a small tractor with a water-cooled,
15 or more horsepower engine, a standard 540 RPM


power takeoff (PTO), a high clearance of 20 inches or
more, and a 3-point hitch. Generally, this type trac-
tor provides dependable service and often is a good
investment.
Standard implements may include a disc or
rototiller, fertilizer spreader and side-dressing
equipment, planter, cultivation attachments,
nematicide applicator and pesticide sprayer. Op-
tional equipment for your tractor might include a
bed press, plastic mulch applicator, herbicide
sprayer, rotary mower, or potato digger. Other
essential equipment includes an irrigation unit and
possibly a small washing unit for cleaning certain
vegetables before packing.
Field preparation and timing After selecting a
field, begin soil preparation by plowing under all
plant trash and debris 3 to 4 months before your
planned planting date. Early plowing and discing
will allow time for the weeds and plant trash to rot
completely. Also, this is a good time to spread the
amount of lime suggested in the soil test report. If
your tractor is too small to prepare the soil cor-
rectly, have your fields custom plowed and disced a
few months before the date of planting.
Nematode pests and equipment for control In
Florida, several types of nematodes live in the soil
and harm the roots of many plants. Normally, you
cannot see these tiny worms, but you can see the
root injury. Plant roots that look knotted will con-
tain root-knot nematodes. Other nematodes may
reduce the growth of small feeder roots or plants
may have short, stubby roots. Fleshy roots of crops
like sweet potatoes may be cracked and deformed.
Severe root injury often will cause stunted plant
growth, yellow leaves, or even dead plants. Yields
and quality of most vegetables will be reduced.
If you have seen these injury symptoms or think
nematodes may infest your field, obtain a Nematode
Sample Kit from your local Extension Office. Follow
the instructions carefully and send your sample to
the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the University
of Florida in Gainesville. For a small fee, the kinds
of nematodes found in your soil sample will be iden-
tified and a report sent to you. The report also will
contain suggested control methods.
Severe nematode infestations can be prevented or
reduced by planning ahead and managing your land
wisely. Always rotate your fields with pastures,
cover crops, or other crops that resist nematodes
before planting most vegetables. Certain varieties of
sweet potatoes, southern peas, and other moder-
ately tolerant vegetables can be planted following
an effective rotation that maintains minimal
nematode populations.
When nematodes infest your soil, either liquid or








In contrast, the mechanized production,
harvesting and handling of potatoes, sweet corn,
carrots, radishes, celery, and other crops destined
for larger markets requires more capital investment.
These crops normally are produced by large-scale
growers where production and handling efficiencies
are increased with mechanization in both the field
and packinghouse operations.
Both large- and small-scale vegetable growers
must plan carefully and manage their labor effi-
ciently. Long-term success in marketing perishable
vegetables often depends on a regular and depend-
able supply of produce for either retail customers or
wholesale buyers. Careful planning of your produc-
tion practices and skillful labor management are
essential for success.

VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN
FLORIDA
Planning for efficient production of vegetables or
other commodities requires an estimate of at least
average yields for Florida or for your production
region. Statewide averages or estimates of accept-
able yield levels for vegetables grown in Florida
under various crop management levels and on
several types of soil are listed in Appendix B. Ex-
cellent or high yield estimates are also listed
because most vegetable growers strive to increase
production efficiencies and profits by producing
high yields. By figuring production costs at each
yield level, growers or market gardeners can
calculate breakeven or per unit costs. In most situa-
tions, per unit costs for the higher yield levels will be
less and profits will be greater.
Remember, however, these yields are statewide
averages or estimates. All yield data depend on
many factors including your crop production and
business management skills, soil types, location
within Florida, season, and weather. This informa-
tion is useful in planning your vegetable production
business, but should be modified as you study and
gain experience in your particular region of the
state. Your County Extension Agent, farm supply
dealer and other local vegetable growers may be
able to assist you in modifying these data to im-
prove your planning and decision-making process.
Careful planning and study can help you maximize
profits and provide a dependable supply of quality
produce to your customers.

EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
Standard equipment for most market gardeners
includes at least a small tractor with a water-cooled,
15 or more horsepower engine, a standard 540 RPM


power takeoff (PTO), a high clearance of 20 inches or
more, and a 3-point hitch. Generally, this type trac-
tor provides dependable service and often is a good
investment.
Standard implements may include a disc or
rototiller, fertilizer spreader and side-dressing
equipment, planter, cultivation attachments,
nematicide applicator and pesticide sprayer. Op-
tional equipment for your tractor might include a
bed press, plastic mulch applicator, herbicide
sprayer, rotary mower, or potato digger. Other
essential equipment includes an irrigation unit and
possibly a small washing unit for cleaning certain
vegetables before packing.
Field preparation and timing After selecting a
field, begin soil preparation by plowing under all
plant trash and debris 3 to 4 months before your
planned planting date. Early plowing and discing
will allow time for the weeds and plant trash to rot
completely. Also, this is a good time to spread the
amount of lime suggested in the soil test report. If
your tractor is too small to prepare the soil cor-
rectly, have your fields custom plowed and disced a
few months before the date of planting.
Nematode pests and equipment for control In
Florida, several types of nematodes live in the soil
and harm the roots of many plants. Normally, you
cannot see these tiny worms, but you can see the
root injury. Plant roots that look knotted will con-
tain root-knot nematodes. Other nematodes may
reduce the growth of small feeder roots or plants
may have short, stubby roots. Fleshy roots of crops
like sweet potatoes may be cracked and deformed.
Severe root injury often will cause stunted plant
growth, yellow leaves, or even dead plants. Yields
and quality of most vegetables will be reduced.
If you have seen these injury symptoms or think
nematodes may infest your field, obtain a Nematode
Sample Kit from your local Extension Office. Follow
the instructions carefully and send your sample to
the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the University
of Florida in Gainesville. For a small fee, the kinds
of nematodes found in your soil sample will be iden-
tified and a report sent to you. The report also will
contain suggested control methods.
Severe nematode infestations can be prevented or
reduced by planning ahead and managing your land
wisely. Always rotate your fields with pastures,
cover crops, or other crops that resist nematodes
before planting most vegetables. Certain varieties of
sweet potatoes, southern peas, and other moder-
ately tolerant vegetables can be planted following
an effective rotation that maintains minimal
nematode populations.
When nematodes infest your soil, either liquid or








In contrast, the mechanized production,
harvesting and handling of potatoes, sweet corn,
carrots, radishes, celery, and other crops destined
for larger markets requires more capital investment.
These crops normally are produced by large-scale
growers where production and handling efficiencies
are increased with mechanization in both the field
and packinghouse operations.
Both large- and small-scale vegetable growers
must plan carefully and manage their labor effi-
ciently. Long-term success in marketing perishable
vegetables often depends on a regular and depend-
able supply of produce for either retail customers or
wholesale buyers. Careful planning of your produc-
tion practices and skillful labor management are
essential for success.

VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN
FLORIDA
Planning for efficient production of vegetables or
other commodities requires an estimate of at least
average yields for Florida or for your production
region. Statewide averages or estimates of accept-
able yield levels for vegetables grown in Florida
under various crop management levels and on
several types of soil are listed in Appendix B. Ex-
cellent or high yield estimates are also listed
because most vegetable growers strive to increase
production efficiencies and profits by producing
high yields. By figuring production costs at each
yield level, growers or market gardeners can
calculate breakeven or per unit costs. In most situa-
tions, per unit costs for the higher yield levels will be
less and profits will be greater.
Remember, however, these yields are statewide
averages or estimates. All yield data depend on
many factors including your crop production and
business management skills, soil types, location
within Florida, season, and weather. This informa-
tion is useful in planning your vegetable production
business, but should be modified as you study and
gain experience in your particular region of the
state. Your County Extension Agent, farm supply
dealer and other local vegetable growers may be
able to assist you in modifying these data to im-
prove your planning and decision-making process.
Careful planning and study can help you maximize
profits and provide a dependable supply of quality
produce to your customers.

EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
Standard equipment for most market gardeners
includes at least a small tractor with a water-cooled,
15 or more horsepower engine, a standard 540 RPM


power takeoff (PTO), a high clearance of 20 inches or
more, and a 3-point hitch. Generally, this type trac-
tor provides dependable service and often is a good
investment.
Standard implements may include a disc or
rototiller, fertilizer spreader and side-dressing
equipment, planter, cultivation attachments,
nematicide applicator and pesticide sprayer. Op-
tional equipment for your tractor might include a
bed press, plastic mulch applicator, herbicide
sprayer, rotary mower, or potato digger. Other
essential equipment includes an irrigation unit and
possibly a small washing unit for cleaning certain
vegetables before packing.
Field preparation and timing After selecting a
field, begin soil preparation by plowing under all
plant trash and debris 3 to 4 months before your
planned planting date. Early plowing and discing
will allow time for the weeds and plant trash to rot
completely. Also, this is a good time to spread the
amount of lime suggested in the soil test report. If
your tractor is too small to prepare the soil cor-
rectly, have your fields custom plowed and disced a
few months before the date of planting.
Nematode pests and equipment for control In
Florida, several types of nematodes live in the soil
and harm the roots of many plants. Normally, you
cannot see these tiny worms, but you can see the
root injury. Plant roots that look knotted will con-
tain root-knot nematodes. Other nematodes may
reduce the growth of small feeder roots or plants
may have short, stubby roots. Fleshy roots of crops
like sweet potatoes may be cracked and deformed.
Severe root injury often will cause stunted plant
growth, yellow leaves, or even dead plants. Yields
and quality of most vegetables will be reduced.
If you have seen these injury symptoms or think
nematodes may infest your field, obtain a Nematode
Sample Kit from your local Extension Office. Follow
the instructions carefully and send your sample to
the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the University
of Florida in Gainesville. For a small fee, the kinds
of nematodes found in your soil sample will be iden-
tified and a report sent to you. The report also will
contain suggested control methods.
Severe nematode infestations can be prevented or
reduced by planning ahead and managing your land
wisely. Always rotate your fields with pastures,
cover crops, or other crops that resist nematodes
before planting most vegetables. Certain varieties of
sweet potatoes, southern peas, and other moder-
ately tolerant vegetables can be planted following
an effective rotation that maintains minimal
nematode populations.
When nematodes infest your soil, either liquid or








In contrast, the mechanized production,
harvesting and handling of potatoes, sweet corn,
carrots, radishes, celery, and other crops destined
for larger markets requires more capital investment.
These crops normally are produced by large-scale
growers where production and handling efficiencies
are increased with mechanization in both the field
and packinghouse operations.
Both large- and small-scale vegetable growers
must plan carefully and manage their labor effi-
ciently. Long-term success in marketing perishable
vegetables often depends on a regular and depend-
able supply of produce for either retail customers or
wholesale buyers. Careful planning of your produc-
tion practices and skillful labor management are
essential for success.

VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN
FLORIDA
Planning for efficient production of vegetables or
other commodities requires an estimate of at least
average yields for Florida or for your production
region. Statewide averages or estimates of accept-
able yield levels for vegetables grown in Florida
under various crop management levels and on
several types of soil are listed in Appendix B. Ex-
cellent or high yield estimates are also listed
because most vegetable growers strive to increase
production efficiencies and profits by producing
high yields. By figuring production costs at each
yield level, growers or market gardeners can
calculate breakeven or per unit costs. In most situa-
tions, per unit costs for the higher yield levels will be
less and profits will be greater.
Remember, however, these yields are statewide
averages or estimates. All yield data depend on
many factors including your crop production and
business management skills, soil types, location
within Florida, season, and weather. This informa-
tion is useful in planning your vegetable production
business, but should be modified as you study and
gain experience in your particular region of the
state. Your County Extension Agent, farm supply
dealer and other local vegetable growers may be
able to assist you in modifying these data to im-
prove your planning and decision-making process.
Careful planning and study can help you maximize
profits and provide a dependable supply of quality
produce to your customers.

EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
Standard equipment for most market gardeners
includes at least a small tractor with a water-cooled,
15 or more horsepower engine, a standard 540 RPM


power takeoff (PTO), a high clearance of 20 inches or
more, and a 3-point hitch. Generally, this type trac-
tor provides dependable service and often is a good
investment.
Standard implements may include a disc or
rototiller, fertilizer spreader and side-dressing
equipment, planter, cultivation attachments,
nematicide applicator and pesticide sprayer. Op-
tional equipment for your tractor might include a
bed press, plastic mulch applicator, herbicide
sprayer, rotary mower, or potato digger. Other
essential equipment includes an irrigation unit and
possibly a small washing unit for cleaning certain
vegetables before packing.
Field preparation and timing After selecting a
field, begin soil preparation by plowing under all
plant trash and debris 3 to 4 months before your
planned planting date. Early plowing and discing
will allow time for the weeds and plant trash to rot
completely. Also, this is a good time to spread the
amount of lime suggested in the soil test report. If
your tractor is too small to prepare the soil cor-
rectly, have your fields custom plowed and disced a
few months before the date of planting.
Nematode pests and equipment for control In
Florida, several types of nematodes live in the soil
and harm the roots of many plants. Normally, you
cannot see these tiny worms, but you can see the
root injury. Plant roots that look knotted will con-
tain root-knot nematodes. Other nematodes may
reduce the growth of small feeder roots or plants
may have short, stubby roots. Fleshy roots of crops
like sweet potatoes may be cracked and deformed.
Severe root injury often will cause stunted plant
growth, yellow leaves, or even dead plants. Yields
and quality of most vegetables will be reduced.
If you have seen these injury symptoms or think
nematodes may infest your field, obtain a Nematode
Sample Kit from your local Extension Office. Follow
the instructions carefully and send your sample to
the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the University
of Florida in Gainesville. For a small fee, the kinds
of nematodes found in your soil sample will be iden-
tified and a report sent to you. The report also will
contain suggested control methods.
Severe nematode infestations can be prevented or
reduced by planning ahead and managing your land
wisely. Always rotate your fields with pastures,
cover crops, or other crops that resist nematodes
before planting most vegetables. Certain varieties of
sweet potatoes, southern peas, and other moder-
ately tolerant vegetables can be planted following
an effective rotation that maintains minimal
nematode populations.
When nematodes infest your soil, either liquid or













* k't


A
'-


L-ab


Root injury caused by root-knot nematodes.
Vegetable yields and quality will be
reduced unless nematodes are controlled
with crop rotation or application of
nematicides.

granular types of chemical nematicides can be ap-
plied two to three weeks before planting to control
these pests. The liquid or fumigant types of
nematicides provide the best control of root-knot
nematode. When injected 6 to 10 inches deep in
moist soil, the liquid evaporates to form a gas which
kills the nematodes throughout the treated area. To
keep the gas from escaping too fast, the soil surface
should be sealed immediately after injection with a
roller, a drag, irrigation water, or plastic or paper
mulch.
For a few vegetables, non-fumigant nematicides in
either granular or liquid formulations will provide
satisfactory control of nematodes. These
nematicides dissolve in the soil water and kill
nematodes by contact with the chemical. Because
non-fumigant nematicides move only short


A simple gravity-flow applicator can be
built for $150 to $300 to apply liquid
nematicides in your market garden if you
own a tractor and tool bar.








distances in the soil water, uniform application is
essential. When deciding which type of nematicide
to purchase, consider the cost and amount of
nematode control needed for each crop listed on the
label.
Before you apply a nematicide, plow and disc all
live plants and roots that may contain nematodes.
Let the plant trash rot for several weeks. Fumigant
nematicides should be applied two to three weeks
before the intended planting date. If the soil re-
mains cool and wet after application of fumigants,
wait an additional week before planting to allow the
nematicide extra time to escape. Lightly cultivate or
disc the surface of the field to allow remaining
nematicide fumes to escape before planting. Be
careful to avoid deep cultivation and mixing un-
treated soil with the treated area. For non-fumigant
nematicides, apply to the soil surface and incor-
porate 2 to 4 inches just before or during planting.
Fertilizer placement, timing and application
equipment Decisions regarding amounts of
nitrogen (N), phosphate (P205), and potash (KO) fer-
tilizer elements to apply should be based on both
soil test results and the specific needs of the
vegetable crop. By studying your soil test report
and following the suggested fertilizer program, your
crop can depend partially on residual quantities of
phosphorus and potassium held in the soil. Nitrogen
must be applied several times while the crop is grow-
ing because it can be lost by leaching. In cool
weather 50F, apply 20 to 40 lbs/acre nitrogen from
a nitrate fertilizer source for adequate vegetable
growth. During warmer weather, any nitrogen
source is suitable.
Generally, highest yields of quality vegetables
can be harvested when plant nutrients are supplied
throughout the growth period. All of the
phosphorus and micronutrients should be broadcast
and mixed in the soil before planting. Apply about
1/2 of the total nitrogen and potassium for short
season crops, but only about to 1/3 for longer
season vegetables (Appendix C). The safest way to
reduce or prevent root injury from soluble fertilizer
salts is to broadcast the initial fertilizer before
planting. At 3 to 4 week intervals or following in-
tense rainfall, the remaining portions of nitrogen
and potassium may be side-dressed near the edge of
the plant canopy.
Bedding and planting Vegetables grown on
most soils in Florida must be planted on raised beds
to insure adequate drainage during intense rains.
Bed shapes and heights vary depending on the crop,
soil type, and whether plastic mulch is used to cover
the bed. Beds are formed with disc hillers and com-
pacted with a bed press before plastic film is secured
over the bed. For full-bed plastic mulch culture;


Either broadcast or side-dressing equipment can
be used to apply the initial fertilizer. In this
photo, the side-dressing equipment is being used
to distribute the fertilizer on the bed surface
before mixing it evenly in the soil.

basic fertilizers are mixed in the soil and certain
nematicides or multipurpose soil fumigants are ap-
plied during bedding before the mulch is secured.
Purchase quality seed with high germination
percentages to help insure uniform stands of
vigorous growing vegetables. Direct-seeded
vegetables should be planted in a well-prepared
moist seedbed to promote uniform germination and
emergence. Mechanical planters, both tractor
mounted and hand operated, are available with
various plates for metering and planting different
sized vegetable seed. After seedlings emerge, most
vegetables can be thinned to the desired stand.
Transplants of tomatoes, cabbage, or straw-
berries, and vine cuttings or slips of sweet potatoes
often are planted in the production field. Cabbage or
pepper transplants are grown in special nurseries
and carefully dug for transplanting. A vegetable
transplanter can be used to plant most "bare-root"
transplants at regular spacings in the field. To start
the plants quickly, mix 4 to 6 pounds of a starter fer-
tilizer such as 10-52-8 which contains soluble
sources of phosphorus and other nutrients in 100
gallons of water. Apply 1 to 2 cups of the transplant
water at the base of the transplant to firm the soil
and get the plant started.
Containerized transplants, so named because they
are grown in a styrofoam container, can be grown by
a market gardener or purchased from specialized
transplant growers. The entire pyramid-shaped root
mass remains intact during transplanting which in-








distances in the soil water, uniform application is
essential. When deciding which type of nematicide
to purchase, consider the cost and amount of
nematode control needed for each crop listed on the
label.
Before you apply a nematicide, plow and disc all
live plants and roots that may contain nematodes.
Let the plant trash rot for several weeks. Fumigant
nematicides should be applied two to three weeks
before the intended planting date. If the soil re-
mains cool and wet after application of fumigants,
wait an additional week before planting to allow the
nematicide extra time to escape. Lightly cultivate or
disc the surface of the field to allow remaining
nematicide fumes to escape before planting. Be
careful to avoid deep cultivation and mixing un-
treated soil with the treated area. For non-fumigant
nematicides, apply to the soil surface and incor-
porate 2 to 4 inches just before or during planting.
Fertilizer placement, timing and application
equipment Decisions regarding amounts of
nitrogen (N), phosphate (P205), and potash (KO) fer-
tilizer elements to apply should be based on both
soil test results and the specific needs of the
vegetable crop. By studying your soil test report
and following the suggested fertilizer program, your
crop can depend partially on residual quantities of
phosphorus and potassium held in the soil. Nitrogen
must be applied several times while the crop is grow-
ing because it can be lost by leaching. In cool
weather 50F, apply 20 to 40 lbs/acre nitrogen from
a nitrate fertilizer source for adequate vegetable
growth. During warmer weather, any nitrogen
source is suitable.
Generally, highest yields of quality vegetables
can be harvested when plant nutrients are supplied
throughout the growth period. All of the
phosphorus and micronutrients should be broadcast
and mixed in the soil before planting. Apply about
1/2 of the total nitrogen and potassium for short
season crops, but only about to 1/3 for longer
season vegetables (Appendix C). The safest way to
reduce or prevent root injury from soluble fertilizer
salts is to broadcast the initial fertilizer before
planting. At 3 to 4 week intervals or following in-
tense rainfall, the remaining portions of nitrogen
and potassium may be side-dressed near the edge of
the plant canopy.
Bedding and planting Vegetables grown on
most soils in Florida must be planted on raised beds
to insure adequate drainage during intense rains.
Bed shapes and heights vary depending on the crop,
soil type, and whether plastic mulch is used to cover
the bed. Beds are formed with disc hillers and com-
pacted with a bed press before plastic film is secured
over the bed. For full-bed plastic mulch culture;


Either broadcast or side-dressing equipment can
be used to apply the initial fertilizer. In this
photo, the side-dressing equipment is being used
to distribute the fertilizer on the bed surface
before mixing it evenly in the soil.

basic fertilizers are mixed in the soil and certain
nematicides or multipurpose soil fumigants are ap-
plied during bedding before the mulch is secured.
Purchase quality seed with high germination
percentages to help insure uniform stands of
vigorous growing vegetables. Direct-seeded
vegetables should be planted in a well-prepared
moist seedbed to promote uniform germination and
emergence. Mechanical planters, both tractor
mounted and hand operated, are available with
various plates for metering and planting different
sized vegetable seed. After seedlings emerge, most
vegetables can be thinned to the desired stand.
Transplants of tomatoes, cabbage, or straw-
berries, and vine cuttings or slips of sweet potatoes
often are planted in the production field. Cabbage or
pepper transplants are grown in special nurseries
and carefully dug for transplanting. A vegetable
transplanter can be used to plant most "bare-root"
transplants at regular spacings in the field. To start
the plants quickly, mix 4 to 6 pounds of a starter fer-
tilizer such as 10-52-8 which contains soluble
sources of phosphorus and other nutrients in 100
gallons of water. Apply 1 to 2 cups of the transplant
water at the base of the transplant to firm the soil
and get the plant started.
Containerized transplants, so named because they
are grown in a styrofoam container, can be grown by
a market gardener or purchased from specialized
transplant growers. The entire pyramid-shaped root
mass remains intact during transplanting which in-




















A small hand planter (right) can be used to plant
most vegetable seeds if the seedbed is prepared
uniformily. Otherwise, a versatile planter having
several seed plates for different sized vegetable
seed can be attached to your tractor (left).


"Bare-root" transplants (left) can be planted at
regular spacings within the row with this type of
vegetable transplanter (right).


Containerized transplants (left) can be planted
using a special type of transplanter that forms
a hole, often through full-bed plastic mulch,
and the transplant is set by hand (right).








creases the survival rate and uniformity among
transplants. Special transplanting sleds normally
are used to plant this type of transplant.
In every case, you must either grow or buy
vigorous, pest-free transplants. Completely
fumigate the nursery soil prior to planting your
vegetable seed to insure pest-free transplants.
Whenever possible, buy "certified" transplants or
plant materials such as sweet potato slips to reduce
the possibility of introducing certain pests into your
production fields.
Weed control and equipment Effective weed
control begins by planning a year-round crop pro-
duction or cover crop rotation. Select and plant
cover crops that suppress weed growth when your
fields lie idle. Then plow under all weed growth and
plant-trash a couple months before your planned
planting date. Rotate fields infested with nutsedge
(nutgrass) or perennial grasses with pasture or
develop an aggressive year-round weed control pro-
gram as suggested in the Vegetable Crops Fact
Sheets, VC-12 and VC-13.
Plan your weed control program before the
vegetables are planted. Often, crops planted at close
row spacings, high plant populations, and the selec-
tion of certain horticultural varieties can suppress
weed growth after a dense canopy of leaves develop.
However, if you plan to cultivate with sweeps or
rolling cultivators, row spacings must be wide
enough for the equipment and tractor. When
cultivating, be careful to avoid deep cultivation that
cuts or injures the crop roots.
In addition, selective herbicides can be used to
control or suppress many weeds growing among
most vegetable crops. Herbicides require precise ap-
plication methods, timing and equipment. Gener-
ally, a herbicide sprayer designed to maintain


When properly adjusted, a rolling cultivator will
control most small germinating annual weeds
without injuring the roots of your vegetable crop.


pressures of 30 to 40 pounds/square inch (psi) at the
nozzle can be used to apply herbicides uniformly
over the field. Use flat-fan nozzles and 50-mesh
screens with a jet or mechanical agitation device in-
side the tank. Sprayers equipped with a piston
pump will cost more than a roller pump, but will pro-
vide much longer service especially when wettable
powder formulations are applied. Avoid using the
same sprayer for all types of pesticide spraying due
to the risk of possible crop injury. Always clean the
herbicide sprayer thoroughly after each use.
For more information about year-round weed con-
trol for vegetables grown in Florida, read the weed
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Insect and disease control a variety of insect
and disease pests may infest your soil or cause leaf
or fruit damage to your vegetables. Control methods
include planting resistant varieties and pest-free
transplants, rotating crops and fields, carefully ap-
plying pesticides, and implementing sanitary crop
production and storage practices. For more informa-
tion about managing insect populations and sup-
pressing disease outbreaks, read and study the pest
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Normally, the same sprayer can be used to apply
most insecticides and fungicides, but not herbicides.
For maximum pest control, these pesticides should
be applied to thoroughly cover the entire plant. A
piston pump that develops spray pressures of about
200 pounds per square inch (psi) will provide long-
term service and effective coverage. Use round,
hollow-cone type nozzles rather than the flat-fan
nozzles designed for applying herbicides.. Agitate
wettable powder formulations during application
and thoroughly clean the sprayer after each use.
Application equipment for granular insecticides
or bait formulations are available, but require
careful calibration. These pesticide formulations
often are applied to control soil-borne insects, but
can be used to apply other granular pesticides.
Learn to identify insects and disease pests to be
able to choose the correct control practice and ap-
plication method. Carefully observe your vegetables
every day or two and watch for pests or symptoms
of damaged plants. Use sanitary practices to reduce
the movement of disease pests throughout the field,
and during the picking, grading, packing and
display of your produce. Efficient management of
crop pests is essential for growing quality
vegetables in Florida.
Irrigation equipment and timing Most crops re-
quire uniform soil moisture to produce maximum
yields of quality vegetables. In Florida, vegetables
are irrigated with subsurface seep irrigation in cer-
tain areas where a hardpan layer can be used to
maintain a perched water table or where the water








creases the survival rate and uniformity among
transplants. Special transplanting sleds normally
are used to plant this type of transplant.
In every case, you must either grow or buy
vigorous, pest-free transplants. Completely
fumigate the nursery soil prior to planting your
vegetable seed to insure pest-free transplants.
Whenever possible, buy "certified" transplants or
plant materials such as sweet potato slips to reduce
the possibility of introducing certain pests into your
production fields.
Weed control and equipment Effective weed
control begins by planning a year-round crop pro-
duction or cover crop rotation. Select and plant
cover crops that suppress weed growth when your
fields lie idle. Then plow under all weed growth and
plant-trash a couple months before your planned
planting date. Rotate fields infested with nutsedge
(nutgrass) or perennial grasses with pasture or
develop an aggressive year-round weed control pro-
gram as suggested in the Vegetable Crops Fact
Sheets, VC-12 and VC-13.
Plan your weed control program before the
vegetables are planted. Often, crops planted at close
row spacings, high plant populations, and the selec-
tion of certain horticultural varieties can suppress
weed growth after a dense canopy of leaves develop.
However, if you plan to cultivate with sweeps or
rolling cultivators, row spacings must be wide
enough for the equipment and tractor. When
cultivating, be careful to avoid deep cultivation that
cuts or injures the crop roots.
In addition, selective herbicides can be used to
control or suppress many weeds growing among
most vegetable crops. Herbicides require precise ap-
plication methods, timing and equipment. Gener-
ally, a herbicide sprayer designed to maintain


When properly adjusted, a rolling cultivator will
control most small germinating annual weeds
without injuring the roots of your vegetable crop.


pressures of 30 to 40 pounds/square inch (psi) at the
nozzle can be used to apply herbicides uniformly
over the field. Use flat-fan nozzles and 50-mesh
screens with a jet or mechanical agitation device in-
side the tank. Sprayers equipped with a piston
pump will cost more than a roller pump, but will pro-
vide much longer service especially when wettable
powder formulations are applied. Avoid using the
same sprayer for all types of pesticide spraying due
to the risk of possible crop injury. Always clean the
herbicide sprayer thoroughly after each use.
For more information about year-round weed con-
trol for vegetables grown in Florida, read the weed
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Insect and disease control a variety of insect
and disease pests may infest your soil or cause leaf
or fruit damage to your vegetables. Control methods
include planting resistant varieties and pest-free
transplants, rotating crops and fields, carefully ap-
plying pesticides, and implementing sanitary crop
production and storage practices. For more informa-
tion about managing insect populations and sup-
pressing disease outbreaks, read and study the pest
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Normally, the same sprayer can be used to apply
most insecticides and fungicides, but not herbicides.
For maximum pest control, these pesticides should
be applied to thoroughly cover the entire plant. A
piston pump that develops spray pressures of about
200 pounds per square inch (psi) will provide long-
term service and effective coverage. Use round,
hollow-cone type nozzles rather than the flat-fan
nozzles designed for applying herbicides.. Agitate
wettable powder formulations during application
and thoroughly clean the sprayer after each use.
Application equipment for granular insecticides
or bait formulations are available, but require
careful calibration. These pesticide formulations
often are applied to control soil-borne insects, but
can be used to apply other granular pesticides.
Learn to identify insects and disease pests to be
able to choose the correct control practice and ap-
plication method. Carefully observe your vegetables
every day or two and watch for pests or symptoms
of damaged plants. Use sanitary practices to reduce
the movement of disease pests throughout the field,
and during the picking, grading, packing and
display of your produce. Efficient management of
crop pests is essential for growing quality
vegetables in Florida.
Irrigation equipment and timing Most crops re-
quire uniform soil moisture to produce maximum
yields of quality vegetables. In Florida, vegetables
are irrigated with subsurface seep irrigation in cer-
tain areas where a hardpan layer can be used to
maintain a perched water table or where the water








creases the survival rate and uniformity among
transplants. Special transplanting sleds normally
are used to plant this type of transplant.
In every case, you must either grow or buy
vigorous, pest-free transplants. Completely
fumigate the nursery soil prior to planting your
vegetable seed to insure pest-free transplants.
Whenever possible, buy "certified" transplants or
plant materials such as sweet potato slips to reduce
the possibility of introducing certain pests into your
production fields.
Weed control and equipment Effective weed
control begins by planning a year-round crop pro-
duction or cover crop rotation. Select and plant
cover crops that suppress weed growth when your
fields lie idle. Then plow under all weed growth and
plant-trash a couple months before your planned
planting date. Rotate fields infested with nutsedge
(nutgrass) or perennial grasses with pasture or
develop an aggressive year-round weed control pro-
gram as suggested in the Vegetable Crops Fact
Sheets, VC-12 and VC-13.
Plan your weed control program before the
vegetables are planted. Often, crops planted at close
row spacings, high plant populations, and the selec-
tion of certain horticultural varieties can suppress
weed growth after a dense canopy of leaves develop.
However, if you plan to cultivate with sweeps or
rolling cultivators, row spacings must be wide
enough for the equipment and tractor. When
cultivating, be careful to avoid deep cultivation that
cuts or injures the crop roots.
In addition, selective herbicides can be used to
control or suppress many weeds growing among
most vegetable crops. Herbicides require precise ap-
plication methods, timing and equipment. Gener-
ally, a herbicide sprayer designed to maintain


When properly adjusted, a rolling cultivator will
control most small germinating annual weeds
without injuring the roots of your vegetable crop.


pressures of 30 to 40 pounds/square inch (psi) at the
nozzle can be used to apply herbicides uniformly
over the field. Use flat-fan nozzles and 50-mesh
screens with a jet or mechanical agitation device in-
side the tank. Sprayers equipped with a piston
pump will cost more than a roller pump, but will pro-
vide much longer service especially when wettable
powder formulations are applied. Avoid using the
same sprayer for all types of pesticide spraying due
to the risk of possible crop injury. Always clean the
herbicide sprayer thoroughly after each use.
For more information about year-round weed con-
trol for vegetables grown in Florida, read the weed
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Insect and disease control a variety of insect
and disease pests may infest your soil or cause leaf
or fruit damage to your vegetables. Control methods
include planting resistant varieties and pest-free
transplants, rotating crops and fields, carefully ap-
plying pesticides, and implementing sanitary crop
production and storage practices. For more informa-
tion about managing insect populations and sup-
pressing disease outbreaks, read and study the pest
control publications listed in Appendix F.
Normally, the same sprayer can be used to apply
most insecticides and fungicides, but not herbicides.
For maximum pest control, these pesticides should
be applied to thoroughly cover the entire plant. A
piston pump that develops spray pressures of about
200 pounds per square inch (psi) will provide long-
term service and effective coverage. Use round,
hollow-cone type nozzles rather than the flat-fan
nozzles designed for applying herbicides.. Agitate
wettable powder formulations during application
and thoroughly clean the sprayer after each use.
Application equipment for granular insecticides
or bait formulations are available, but require
careful calibration. These pesticide formulations
often are applied to control soil-borne insects, but
can be used to apply other granular pesticides.
Learn to identify insects and disease pests to be
able to choose the correct control practice and ap-
plication method. Carefully observe your vegetables
every day or two and watch for pests or symptoms
of damaged plants. Use sanitary practices to reduce
the movement of disease pests throughout the field,
and during the picking, grading, packing and
display of your produce. Efficient management of
crop pests is essential for growing quality
vegetables in Florida.
Irrigation equipment and timing Most crops re-
quire uniform soil moisture to produce maximum
yields of quality vegetables. In Florida, vegetables
are irrigated with subsurface seep irrigation in cer-
tain areas where a hardpan layer can be used to
maintain a perched water table or where the water








table itself can be managed such as on muck soils.
Otherwise, vegetables are irrigated with overhead
equipment or with drip irrigation systems.
Overhead systems generally cost more to purchase,
but are durable and can be used in certain situations
to prevent frost injury. In contrast, drip systems
are less expensive to install and require less irriga-
tion water and a smaller pump. However, drip
systems require regular maintenance with replace-
ment of drip lines each year or after each crop. For
more information about irrigating your vegetables,
read the publications about irrigation listed in Ap-
pendix F.
You can test your soil for moisture by removing a
handful of soil from the root zone and squeezing. If
the soil crumbles and does not keep the shape of
your hand, it is too dry and you need to irrigate.
Otherwise, you can wait a few more days and test
again. Generally, most sandy soils in Florida should
be irrigated with an inch of water every 5 to 7 days
depending on the weather.

HARVESTING, HANDLING, STORING
AND DISPLAYING VEGETABLES
Harvesting vegetables at optimum maturity re-
quires both skill and knowledge about each hor-
ticultural variety and your intended market. Learn
about the market grades required for each vegetable
(Appendix D). Know your customers or buyers and
learn their preferences. For example, a vegetable
buyer may be willing to pay a little extra if a higher
grade and quality of vegetable can be supplied
regularly. Or local shoppers may return to your
roadside stand because you offer a dependable
supply of fresh, quality produce picked at optimum
maturity.
To maintain quality and freshness after harvest,
start by picking clean vegetables at optimum
maturity. Pick more perishable vegetables in the
early morning when temperatures are cool. For less
perishable crops, harvest after the dew dries to
reduce the spread of disease. Always handle your
vegetables carefully to avoid puncturing, scuffing,
and bruising. This increases the shelf-life of your
produce by reducing the chances for decay
organisms to enter through these punctures or
scratches. Wash and dry harvest pails and equip-
ment daily to reduce disease spread and to remove
sand that can scratch or become embedded in your
vegetables. Prepare and grade each vegetable
according to the market preferences of the buyers or
your customers. Provide, as best you can, the proper
handling and storage conditions listed in Appendix
E or consider growing and selling only the
vegetables for which you have reasonably satisfac-


Display your vegetables in attractive, clean
containers and in a colorful way that attracts
the attention of both buyers and consumers.


tory handling equipment. When selling to produce
buyers and shippers, pack the correct amount of
uniform quality produce in clean containers (Appen-
dix E). A reputation of supplying quality vegetables
can provide repeated sales and a dependable market
for your produce.

MARKETING OPTIONS AND
BUSINESS DECISIONS
Several marketing options exist for selling a
variety of produce items. Market gardeners often
can develop a reputation of providing dependable
supplies of quality vegetables for either wholesale
produce buyers, local market outlets, or both. Local
markets include "U-pick" operations, roadside
markets, door-to-door sales, retail markets, com-
munity markets, and other types of marketing ar-
rangements. Imaginative market gardeners
sometimes develop a specialty market such as sell-
ing "organically" grown vegetables or supplying
fresh, shelled southern peas to a retail store. Obtain
more information about marketing your vegetables
by reading the publications listed in the Marketing
section of Appendix F.
Planning your production and marketing schedule
requires information about crop yields, harvest fre-
quency, and harvest duration. Although the infor-
mation listed in Appendices B and C can vary
depending on location, weather conditions, and your
crop management skills, you can estimate the
amount of land needed to produce a certain quantity








table itself can be managed such as on muck soils.
Otherwise, vegetables are irrigated with overhead
equipment or with drip irrigation systems.
Overhead systems generally cost more to purchase,
but are durable and can be used in certain situations
to prevent frost injury. In contrast, drip systems
are less expensive to install and require less irriga-
tion water and a smaller pump. However, drip
systems require regular maintenance with replace-
ment of drip lines each year or after each crop. For
more information about irrigating your vegetables,
read the publications about irrigation listed in Ap-
pendix F.
You can test your soil for moisture by removing a
handful of soil from the root zone and squeezing. If
the soil crumbles and does not keep the shape of
your hand, it is too dry and you need to irrigate.
Otherwise, you can wait a few more days and test
again. Generally, most sandy soils in Florida should
be irrigated with an inch of water every 5 to 7 days
depending on the weather.

HARVESTING, HANDLING, STORING
AND DISPLAYING VEGETABLES
Harvesting vegetables at optimum maturity re-
quires both skill and knowledge about each hor-
ticultural variety and your intended market. Learn
about the market grades required for each vegetable
(Appendix D). Know your customers or buyers and
learn their preferences. For example, a vegetable
buyer may be willing to pay a little extra if a higher
grade and quality of vegetable can be supplied
regularly. Or local shoppers may return to your
roadside stand because you offer a dependable
supply of fresh, quality produce picked at optimum
maturity.
To maintain quality and freshness after harvest,
start by picking clean vegetables at optimum
maturity. Pick more perishable vegetables in the
early morning when temperatures are cool. For less
perishable crops, harvest after the dew dries to
reduce the spread of disease. Always handle your
vegetables carefully to avoid puncturing, scuffing,
and bruising. This increases the shelf-life of your
produce by reducing the chances for decay
organisms to enter through these punctures or
scratches. Wash and dry harvest pails and equip-
ment daily to reduce disease spread and to remove
sand that can scratch or become embedded in your
vegetables. Prepare and grade each vegetable
according to the market preferences of the buyers or
your customers. Provide, as best you can, the proper
handling and storage conditions listed in Appendix
E or consider growing and selling only the
vegetables for which you have reasonably satisfac-


Display your vegetables in attractive, clean
containers and in a colorful way that attracts
the attention of both buyers and consumers.


tory handling equipment. When selling to produce
buyers and shippers, pack the correct amount of
uniform quality produce in clean containers (Appen-
dix E). A reputation of supplying quality vegetables
can provide repeated sales and a dependable market
for your produce.

MARKETING OPTIONS AND
BUSINESS DECISIONS
Several marketing options exist for selling a
variety of produce items. Market gardeners often
can develop a reputation of providing dependable
supplies of quality vegetables for either wholesale
produce buyers, local market outlets, or both. Local
markets include "U-pick" operations, roadside
markets, door-to-door sales, retail markets, com-
munity markets, and other types of marketing ar-
rangements. Imaginative market gardeners
sometimes develop a specialty market such as sell-
ing "organically" grown vegetables or supplying
fresh, shelled southern peas to a retail store. Obtain
more information about marketing your vegetables
by reading the publications listed in the Marketing
section of Appendix F.
Planning your production and marketing schedule
requires information about crop yields, harvest fre-
quency, and harvest duration. Although the infor-
mation listed in Appendices B and C can vary
depending on location, weather conditions, and your
crop management skills, you can estimate the
amount of land needed to produce a certain quantity








of vegetables over a certain time period such as 12
weeks. For example:
*Eggplant may produce 600 bushels/acre over a
10-week period or about 60 bushels could be
harvested per week. Therefore, a half acre would
be required to supply approximately 30 bushels
of eggplant per week for 10 to 12 weeks.
*Southern peas may produce 105 bushels/acre
over a 3-week period or about 35 bushels could be
harvested per week. Thus, about one acre of
southern peas should be planted 4 times at
3-week intervals to supply approximately 30
bushels per week for 12 weeks.
*An acre of yellow squash may produce 150
bushels harvested 10 times over a 3-week period.
About 50 bushels could be harvested from an
acre per week, or 15 bushels harvested every
other day. Therefore, 0.6 acre of yellow squash
would produce about 10 bushels every other day
for a total of 30 bushels per week. Yellow squash


should be planted 4 times at 3 week intervals to
provide a reasonably dependable supply for 12
weeks.
Other useful information can be estimated from
these data listed in Appendix A through E.
REMEMBER, however, that these data are
averages or estimates which depend on many fac-
tors. As you study and gain experience in your par-
ticular region of the state, modify this information
to improve your planning and decision-making pro-
cess. Always evaluate success by keeping a record of
production expenses and sales receipts. Obtain
Farm Record Books from your County Extension
Agent and figure your profit or loss. Compare the
actual production costs with your planning budgets
to determine which production and marketing ac-
tivities can be improved to increase your production
efficiencies and profits. A careful and honest evalua-
tion can increase your success and the satisfaction
of growing quality vegetables for profit.


APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF CROP MANAGEMENT AND LABOR REQUIREMENTS
General crop production skills and labor requirements to consider when choosing crops for your market garden.

Crop management Relative labor Time of peak labor
Vegetables level' requirement2 requirement3

Beans, snap medium Mechanized production and harvest
,pole medium high Trellising and multiple picking
,lima low medium Picking 2 to 3 times

Broccoli medium medium Harvesting and packing
Cabbage medium low Harvesting and packing
Cantaloupe medium low Harvesting
Carrots high Mechanized production and harvest
Cauliflower medium to high medium Harvesting and packing
Chinese cabbage medium to high medium Harvesting and packing
Collards medium medium Harvesting and packing
Cucumbers, pickling medium high Multiple picking or mechanical
slicing medium high Multiple picking
Greens, mustard & turnip medium medium Harvesting and packing
Eggplant medium to high medium Multiple harvesting

'Relative estimated comparisons of crop management skills and levels of production factors including fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation,
staking,and mulching needed for efficient production of each vegetable crop.
2Relative estimates of required labor for each vegetable crop.
Time of peak labor requirement during the life-cycle of the vegetable crop. Mechanically produced and harvested vegetables such as green
beans, radishes, carrots, celery and others normally are grown more efficiently by large-scale producers and can be purchased from a wholesale
market for retail sales at a local market.
(continued next page)









APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF CROP MANAGEMENT AND LABOR REQUIREMENTS
General crop production skills and labor requirements to consider when choosing crops for your market garden.

Crop management Relative labor Time of peak labor
Vegetables level1 requirement2 requirement3

Escarole medium to high medium Harvesting and packing
Lettuce medium to high medium Harvesting and packing
Malanga medium medium Harvesting
Okra medium high Multiple picking
Onions, bulb high medium Weeding and grading
green bunching medium high Harvesting, cleaning and grading
Peas, English medium high Harvesting 2 to 3 times
,Chinese or snow medium high Harvesting 2 to 4 times
,southern low medium Harvesting 2 to 3 times
Peppers, bell medium to high medium Harvesting 2 to 4 times
Potato, white medium Mechanized production and harvest
,sweet medium low Small harvest machinery
,boniato low low Small harvest machinery
Spinach low high Harvesting
Squash, yellow low to medium medium Multiple harvesting
,zucchini medium medium Multiple harvesting
,acorn medium low Harvesting
,butternut medium low Harvesting
Strawberry high high Multiple picking
Sweet corn medium medium Harvesting and packing
Tomato high high Trellising and multiple harvesting
Watermelon medium low Harvesting

'Relative estimated comparisons of crop management skills and levels of production factors including fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation,
staking,and mulching needed for efficient production of each vegetable crop.
2Relative estimates of required labor for each vegetable crop.
MTime of peak labor requirement during the life-cycle of the vegetable crop. Mechanically produced and harvested vegetables such as green
beans, radishes, carrots, celery and others normally are grown more efficiently by large-scale producers and can be purchased from a wholesale
market for retail sales at a local market.









APPENDIX B. AVERAGE OR ESTIMATED VEGETABLE YIELDS
Average or acceptable yields and excellent or high yields for vegetables grown commercially in Florida".
Remember yields of vegetables can range from zero to record harvests depending on weather and many
other factors, especially your management practices and skills.


Vegetables Unit


Beans, snap 28 to 30 lb. bushels
,pole 28 to 30 lb. bushels
,lima 28 to 32 lb. bushels
Broccoli 21 lb. cartons


Cabbage
Cantaloupes
Carrots

Cauliflower
Chinese cabbage
Collards


Cucumbers, pickling
slicing
Greens, mustard & turnip


50 lb. crates
lbs.

50 lb. bags
30 lb. cartons
45 to 50 lb. crates


doz. bunches
tons

55 lb. bushels
55 lb. bushels


doz. bunches
tons


Yield per acre
Average or acceptable Excellent or high
yields yields

100 to 125 150
300 350
150 to 200 250
250 to 400 400 to 500
450 to 600 700 to 900
10,000 to 25,000 25,000 to 35,000
250 to 350 400 to 500

250 to 450 500 to 900
400 to 600 700 to 900
300 to 500 600
8 to 15 20 to 25
150 to 200 250 to 300
200 to 300 300 to 400

300 to 325 350 to 400
9to 10 10to12


Eggplant 33 lb. bushels 600 to 750 800 to 900
Escarole 28 to 30 lb. bushels 500 to 600 700 to 900
Lettuce 43 to 50 lb. bushels 500 to 600 800 to 900
Malanga 50 lb. box 150 to 200 300 to 400
Okra, fresh 30 lb. bushels 200 to 400 400 to 600
soup tons 8 to 9 15
Onions, bulb 50 lb. bags 300 to 600 800 to 1200
green bunching 4 doz. bunches/carton 900 1200
Peas, English 28 to 30 lb. bushels 50 to 100 100 to 125
Chinese or snow 30 lb. bushels 100 150
southern 24 lb. bushels 100 to 140 200

Peppers, bell 25 to 28 lb. bushels 500 to 900 1100 to 1500

aSources:
1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Vegetable Summary 1978. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando.
2. Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Season 1976-77 with comparisons. Econ. Info. Rep. 85 from Food & Resource
Economics Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.
2. Seasonal Response of Vegetable Crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. Veg. Crops Res. Rep. 1-7 from Vegetable Crops
Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.
4. Personal communications from J. M. Barber, R. L. Brown, J. D. Dilbeck, L. H. Halsey, J. Montelaro and J. M. Stephens.


(continued next page)








APPENDIX B. AVERAGE OR ESTIMATED VEGETABLE YIELDS
Average or acceptable yields and excellent or high yields for vegetables grown commercially in Florida".
Remember yields of vegetables can range from zero to record harvests depending on weather and many
other factors, especially your management practices and skills.

Yield per acre
Vegetables Unit Average or acceptable Excellent or high
yields yields
Potato, white cwt. 200 to 225 250 to 300
sweet 50 lb. bushels 400 to 600 800
,boniato 50 lb. box 350 to 400 500 to 550

Spinach cwt. 30 to 40 50 to 60
Squash, yellow 42 to 44 lb. bushels 150 to 175 200 to 225
,zucchini 42 to 44 lb. bushels 400 to 800 900 to 1000
acorn 41 to 45 lb. bushels 250 to 400 450 to 600
,butternut 41 to 45 lb. bushels 200 to 300 350 to 400
Strawberry flats 1400 to 1500 1600 to 1800
Sweet corn 5 doz. ears/crates 150 to 250 300

Tomato 30 lb. boxes 600 to 800 1000 to 1200

Watermelon lbs. 20,000 to 30,000 40,000 to 50,000

aSources:
1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Vegetable Summary 1978. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando.
2. Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Season 1976-77 with comparisons. Econ. Info. Rep. 85 from Food & Resource
Economics Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.
2. Seasonal Response of Vegetable Crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. Veg. Crops Res. Rep. 1-7 from Vegetable Crops
Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.
4. Personal communications from J. M. Barber, R. L. Brown, J. D. Dilbeck, L. H. Halsey, J. Montelaro and J. M. Stephens.









APPENDIX C. VEGETABLE HARVEST INFORMATION
General harvest and timing information needed to plan vegetable production and marketing options.


Vegetables


Harvest
season'


Days
to first
harvest


Days
between
harvests


Days of
harvest duration
per crop


Beans, snap warm 50 to 60 (harvest mechanically)
,pole warm 60 to 70 3 to 4 20 to 30
,lima warm & hot 65 to 75 3 to 4 20 to 30

Broccoli* cool 65 to 90 5 to 10 20 to 40

Cabbage* cool & cold 75 to 90 7 to 10 15 to 20

Cantaloupes warm 70 to 85 5 to 7 10 to 15

Carrots cool 100 to 140 (one digging)

Cauliflower* cool 55 to 65 5 to 10 15 to 20

Chinese cabbage* cool 50 to 65 7 to 10 15 to 20

Collards, young plant cool & cold 40 to 60 (one harvest)
bunched leaves cool & cold 50 to 70 7 to 10 60 to 90

Cucumbers, pickling warm 40 to 50 3 to 4 15 to 25
,slicing warm 40 to 55 3 to 4 15 to 25

Greens, mustard & turnip cool 40 to 60 (one harvest)

Eggplant* warm & hot 85 to 100 7 to 10 50 to 100

Escarole cool 80 to 100 (one or two harvests)

Lettuce, crisphead cool 70 to 90 (one or two harvests)
,cos cool 50 to 80 (one or two harvests)
butterhead cool 50 to 70 (one or two harvests)
,leaf cool 40 to 60 (one or two harvests)

Malanga warm & hot 10 to 12 months (one digging)

Okra warm & hot 50 to 60 2 to 3 60 to 100

Onions, bulb April & May 120 to 150 (one harvest)
green bunching cool 50 to 100 (one harvest)

Peas, English (bush) early warm 60 to 80 5 to 10 20 to 30
Chinese or snow early warm 50 to 70 5 to 10 30 to 40
southern warm & hot 55 to 70 7 to 10 20 to 30
Peppers, bell* warm 70 to 85 10 to 20 20 to 40

Potato, white early warm 80 to 95 (dig mechanically)
,sweet warm & hot 120 to 140 (dig mechanically)
,boniato warm & hot 6 to 8 months (dig mechanically)

'In Florida, planting and harvest seasons vary depending on location. Specific planting dates are listed in each crop production guide
printed by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Harvest seasons listed in this table are defined as follows: hot season normally in-
cluding high rainfall during summer months; warm season during spring and fall vegetable growing periods including "winter" produc-
tion season in South Florida; cool season when temperatures may range from at or near freezing to 500F regularly; cold season when
freezing temperatures are expected regularly.
*Information for transplanted crops.
(continued next page)









APPENDIX C. VEGETABLE HARVEST INFORMATION
General harvest and timing information needed to plan vegetable production and marketing options.

Days Days Days of
Vegetables Harvest to first between harvest duration
season' harvest harvests per crop
Spinach cool 40 to 45 (one harvest)
Squash, yellow warm 35 to 45 2 to 3 15 to 30
zucchini warm 35 to 45 2 to 3 15 to 30
,acorn warm 95 to 105 (one harvest)
butternut warm 95 to 105 (one harvest)
Strawberry cool & early warm 90 to 120 4 to 7 45 to 70
Sweet corn warm 65 to 85 2 to 3 4 to 6
Tomato*, vine ripe warm 80 to 90 2 to 3 20 to 30
mature green warm 75 to 85 7 to 10 20 to 30
Watermelon warm & hot 80 to 90 5 to 7 15 to 20

'In Florida, planting and harvest seasons vary depending on location. Specific planting dates are listed in each crop production guide
printed by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Harvest seasons listed in this table are defined as follows: hot season normally in-
cluding high rainfall during summer months; warm season during spring and fall vegetable growing periods including "winter" produc-
tion season in South Florida; cool season when temperatures may range from at or near freezing to 500F regularly; cold season when
freezing temperatures are expected regularly.
*Information for transplanted crops.





APPENDIX D. VEGETABLE MATURITY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
Vegetable crop Desired maturity and quality characteristics
Beans, snap & pole Seed immature; pods crisp & uniform
lima Seed developed & plump
Broccoli Flower buds developed, but tight; clean & dark green
Cabbage Heads firm, heavy & compact
Cantaloupes Flesh firm & sweet with aroma; netting & stem at full-slip stage
Carrots Firm, uniform, dark orange, crisp with 0.5 to 1.0 inch diameter
Cauliflower Curd white, clean and compact
Chinese cabbage Heads firm, clean & compact
Collards Leaves fresh, dark green, young & tender
Cucumbers, pickling Small to medium size (1 to 4 inches long), crisp & green
slicing Medium size (6 inches long), green & crisp
Greens, mustard & turnip Leaves fresh, green, young & tender
Eggplant Deep purple skin with immature seeds and medium quart jar size
Escarole Leaves fresh, crisp & tender

(continued next page)








Vegetable crop

Lettuce, head
cos, butterhead & leaf


Malanga

Okra

Onions, bulb
green bunching

Peas, English
Chinese or snow
southern
Peppers, bell

Potato, white
,sweet
,boniato


Spinach

Squash, yellow
,zucchini
,acorn
,butternut
Strawberry

Sweet corn


Tomato, mature green
vine ripe
Watermelon


-----


~


Desired maturity and quality characteristics

Heads compact & firm; fresh, crisp & clean
Leaves tender, crisp & clean

Corms medium size & washed

Pods young, immature & light green with immature seeds

Tight necks & dry leaf scales
Fresh, uniform & green with long white shank

Seed developed, tender & sweet
Seeds immature; pods tender, green & sweet
Seed & characteristic pigmentation developed

Firm, crisp, dark green & blocky

Smooth, firm, free of bruises & cleaned
Solid, attractive shape & size; free of bruises
Solid, attractive & washed

Leaves dark green, fresh, crisp & clean

Crisp, tender, light yellow & 2 to 5 inches long
Crisp, tender, dark green, & 3 to 6 inches long
Skin dark green & hard
Skin cream colored & hard

Berries firm, plump & red

Kernels plump, sweet, milky & tender

Seed mature; fruit uniform light green, firm & solid
Firm, plump with pink to red color

Mature with pink to red flesh, sweet & crisp









APPENDIX E. VEGETABLE PERISHABILITY, STORAGE CONDITIONS AND CONTAINERS
Perishability, optimum storage conditions, and normal container used to ship vegetables to wholesale
markets'. Market gardeners lacking adequate handling and storage facilities must strive to reduce the time
between harvesting and selling or choose crops that can be handled properly.


General perishability and
optimum storage
conditions


STORABLE3
Cold, moist (32 to 400F; 90 to 95% relative humidity)


Cabbage wirebou
Carrots plastic 1
Malanga wireboul
Cool, moist (45 to 550F; 90 to 95% relative humidity)


Potatoes


sack (10


Cool, dry (45 to 550F; 50 to 60% relative humidity)
Onions, bulb* mesh sacd
Warm, moist (55 to 600F; 80 to 85% relative humidity)


Potatoes, sweet* wirebou
boniato wirebou
Warm, dry (55 to 600F; 60 to 70% relative humidity)


Squash, acorn and butternut

LESS PERISHABLE4
Cold, moist (32 to 400F; 90 to 95% relative hi
Beans, lima
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Peas, English
,southern
Cool, moist (45 to 500F; 80 to 90% relative hi


wirebou


nd crates (50 lb. bushels)
ags in 50 lb. masters
nd crates (50 lb. bushels)


0 lb.)


ks (50 lb.)


nd crate (50 lb. bushels)
nd crate (50 lb. bushels)


nd crate (41 to 45 lb. bushels)


hampers (28 to 32 lb. bushels)
wirebound crates (50 lb. bushels)
heads wrapped with cellophane in 30 lb. wax carton
wirebound crates (28 to 30 lb. bushels)
hampers (24 lb. bushels)


Cucumber, pickling
slicing
Eggplant
Okra
Pepper, bell
Squash, yellow & zucchini
Watermelon
Warm, moist (55 to 70F; 80 to 90% relative


Tomato, mature green
vine ripe


hauled bulk to pickling plant
wax carton (55 lb. bushels)
wirebound crate or carton (33 lb. bushel)
hampers or wirebound crate (30 lb. bushel)
wax cartons or wirebound crate (25 to 28 lb. bushel)
wirebound crates (42 to 44 lb. bushels)
truckload or cartons
humidity)
carton (30 lb.) 60-700F
carton (20 lb.) 50-55F


'Source: Vegetable Harvest and Storage, USDA Fact Sheet AFS-8-13-1 for part-time farmers and gardeners.
2Vegetables are sometimes packed in other containers besides those listed. Therefore, ask your intended buyer and shipper about which
containers are acceptable for your region.
'Storable vegetables can be held for several weeks to a few months when stored under proper temperatures and relative humidities.
However, shelf;life and market quality will decrease during storage.
'Moderately perishable vegetables can be held for several days when held under proper temperatures and relative humidities.
'Perishable vegetables require special handling and storage conditions to maintain freshness and quality.
*Bulb onions and sweet potatoes must be "cured" before storing. Read the extension production guides listed in Appendix F for
details.
(continued next page)


Normal container for wholesale market2









General perishability and
optimum storage
conditions


Normal container for wholesale market2


MORE PERISHABLE5
Cold, moist (32 to 400F; 90 to 95% relative humidity)


Broccoli
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Greens, mustard & turnip
Escarole
Lettuce
Onions, green bunching
Peas, Chinese or snow
Spinach
Strawberry
Sweet corn


heads bunched in wax carton (21 lbs.)
wirebound crate (45 to 50 lbs.)
wirebound crate or bunched
various crates, cartons and plastic bags
wirebound crate (28 to 30 lb. bushels)
wax carton (45 to 50 lbs.)
wax carton (4 doz.)
wirebound crate (30 lb. bushels)
wax carton or plastic bag
pint boxes in 12 pint tray
wirebound crate (5 doz. ears)


Cool, moist (45 to 500F; 80 to 90% relative humidity)


Beans, snap & pole


hampers or wirebound crate (28 to 30 lb. bushel)


'Source: Vegetable Harvest and Storage, USDA Fact Sheet AFS-8-13-1 for part-time farmers and gardeners.
'Vegetables are sometimes packed in other containers besides those listed. Therefore, ask your intended buyer and shipper about which
containers are acceptable for your region.
'Storable vegetables can be held for several weeks to a few months when stored under proper temperatures and relative humidities.
However, shelf-life and market quality will decrease during storage.
'Moderately perishable vegetables can be held for several days when held under proper temperatures and relative humidities.
'Perishable vegetables require special handling and storage conditions to maintain freshness and quality.
*Bulb onions and sweet potatoes must be "cured" before storing. Read the extension production guides listed in Appendix F for
details.







APPENDIX F. SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Information listed below is available from the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, unless another address
is stated.
I. Vegetable Crop Production Guide and Slide/Tape Series
1. Production guide circulars
a. Growing Quality Vegetables in Florida An Introduction for Small-scale and Part-time
Market Gardeners, Circ. 473.
b. Growing Okra in Florida, Cir. 175.
c. Growing Sweet Potatoes in Florida, Circ. 440.
d. Growing Southern Peas in Florida, Circ. 478.
2. Slide/tape sets contain fundamental production information and can be viewed at your County Ex-
tension Office if requested three to four weeks in advance.
a. Growing Quality Vegetables for Profit, ST-158.
b. Growing Sweet Potatoes for Profit, ST-144 & 145.
c. Growing Okra for Profit, ST-146 & 147.
d. Growing Southern Peas for Profit, ST-156 & 157.

II. Vegetable Crop Production Guides
1. Bean Production Guide, Circ. 100
2. Cabbage Production Guide, Circ. 117
3. Cantaloupe Production Guide, Circ. 122
4. Cucumber Production Guide, Circ. 101
5. Eggplant Production Guide, Circ. 109
6. Lettuce & Endive Production Guide, Circ. 123
7. Onion Production Guide, Circ. 176
8. Pepper Production Guide, Circ. 102
9. Potato Production Guide, Circ. 118
10. Sweet Corn Production Guide, Circ. 99
11. Strawberry Production Guide, Circ. 142
12. Squash Production Guide, Circ. 103
13. Tomato Production Guide, Circ. 98
14. Watermelon Production Guide, Circ. 96

III. Other Production Information
1. General pest control
a. Florida Insect Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10.00
b. Florida Plant Disease Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10.00
c. Florida Nematode Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10.00
d. Florida Weed Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $15.00
e. Weed Control Guide for Commercial Vegetable Production in Florida, Circ. 196
f. Nutsedge Suppression in Commercial Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 12
g. Perennial Grass Control in Commercial Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 13
h. Weed Control in Market Vegetable Gardens, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 16
i. Rhizoctonia Seedling Blights of Vegetables and Field Crops, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-1
j. Downey Mildew of Cucurbits, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-2
k. Bacterial Spot of Tomato and Pepper, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-3
1. Late Blight on Potatoes and Tomatoes, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-6
m. Early Blight on Tomatoes and Potatoes, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-7
n. Control of Soilborne Diseases of Peppers, Tomatoes, and Tobacco in Transplant Beds, Plant
Protection Pointers, Extension Plant Pathology Report No. 25
o. Insects Affecting Sweet Potatoes, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Entomology Report
No. 60

(continued next page)









p. Watermelons Insect Descriptions and Their Control, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension
Entomology Report No. 64
q. Insects that Attack Cucumbers and Their Control, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Ento-
mology Report No. 65

2. Soils and fertilizers
a. Soil Testing, Circ. 239
b. Fertilizers and Fertilization, Bull. 183
c. Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide, Circ. 225
d. Soil Reaction (pH), Know Florida Soils, Soils Fact Sheet #1
e. The Florida Fertilizer Label, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-3
f. Soil Organic Matter, Know Florida Soils, Soils Fact Sheet #6
g. Soils and Plant Nutrition, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-8
h. Legumes A Possible Alternative to Fertilizer Nitrogen, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-9
i. Soil pH Adjustment, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-12
j. Crop Residues, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL13
k. Soluble Salts in Soils, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-19
1. Liming and Liming Materials, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-23
m. Nitrogen A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon)
n. Phosphorus A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon)
o. Potassium A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon)
p. Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur The Secondary Plant Nutrients, Soil Science Fact Sheet
(available soon)
q. Micronutrients Part I: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon)
r. Micronutrients Part II: B, Mo, Cl, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon)

3. Irrigation
a. Irrigation Plans Available, Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet, AE-8
b. Irrigation Systems for Crop Production in Florida, WRC Fact Sheet 8
c. Water and Nutrient Application by Drip Irrigation for Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Dept. Re-
port, 27-1979, Vegetable Crops Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville
d. The 1/128th of an Acre Sprayer Calibration Method, Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet, AE-5

IV. Harvesting and Handling Information
1. Vegetable Harvest and Storage. USDA Fact Sheet AFS-8-13-1 for part-time farmers and
gardeners. (United States Dept. of Agriculture Office of Communication, Washington, D.C.
20250)
2. How to Buy Fresh Vegetables, USDA Consumer & Marketing Service Bull. No. 143 (Superin-
tendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402) Cost $0.15
3. Harvesting Vegetables in Florida, Vegetable Crops Extension Report 10-1976, Vegetable Crops
Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.

V. Marketing Information and Record Books
1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Vegetable Summary. (Florida Crop & Livestock Reporting Serv-
ice, 1222 Woodward St., Orlando, FL 32803)
2. Costs & Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Econ. Info. Report 110, Food and Resource
Economics Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville
3. Annual Farm Income and Expense Record, Circ. 438
4. Ten-year Inventory and Depreciation Record, Circ. 439
5. Management of Roadside Markets, Circ. 484







APPENDIX G. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENGLISH AND METRIC UNITS
Metric to English English to Metric

Length


centimeter (cm)=0.394 inch
meter (m)=3.281 feet
meter (m)=1.094 yard
kilometer (km)= 0.621 mile


gram (g)=0.035 ounce
kilogram (kg)=2.205 pound
metric ton (mt)=1.102 U.S. ton


milliliter (ml)=0.035 fluid ounce
liter (L)=0.220 gallon


square meter (m)= 10.764 square feet
hectare (ha)=2.471 acre


Weight


Volume (liquid)


Area


inch (in)=2.54 cm
foot (ft)=0.305 m
yard (yd)=0.915 m
mile (mi)=1.609 km


ounce (oz)=28.35 g
pound (lb)=453.59 g
U.S. ton (t)=0.907 mt


fluid ounce (fl oz)=28.35 ml
gallon (gal)=4.546 L


square feet (ft2)=0.093 m2
acre (A)=0.405 ha


Amount/Acre


kg/ha=0.892 lb/A
mt/ha=0.446 t/A


lb/A=1.12 kg/ha
t/A=2.210 mt/ha


Pressure


kg/cm2=14.22 lb/in2 (psi)


lb/in2 (psi)=0.0703 kg/cm2


Temperature


(C x 9/5)+32=F


'F x (5/9-32)=C










































































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $1,398.90, or 23.3 cents per copy to inform Floridians
about growing vegetables in Florida. 8-6M-80.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;and Is authorized to provide research, educa-I
tional Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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