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Annual swine field day
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 Material Information
Title: Annual swine field day
Series Title: Research reports University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Sciences
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Pork Producers Association
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Place of Publication: Marianna Fla
Creation Date: 1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Swine -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
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General Note: Description based on: 27th (1983); title from cover.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 70866734
lccn - 2006229374
System ID: UF00066190:00002

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Full Text



TWELFTH ANNUAL SWINE FIELD DAY

(I- "_.. September 29, 1967
AGRICULTURAL
S-i The Birth of
EXPERIMENT A New Research Unit
I rAt Live Oak, Florida

HUME LIBRARY
AP~ 72
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida


BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT


FOUNDATION STOCK





















CONTENTS


1. Swine research facilities and proposed research for the Suwannee Valley
Experiment Station. (First white)

2. High level copper in swine feeding, a summary of research in the United
States. (Second white)

3. High level copper for pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice.
(Third white)

4. The influence of level of feeding during late gestation on pig birth
weights and sow performance during lactation. (Green)

5. Influence of protein level and hormone supplementation during the
finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and
pork acceptability. (Fourth white)

6. Influence of feed additives on performance of growing pigs. (Pink)

7. Sow productivity as influenced by season (a summary of five years data).
(Fifth white)

8. Field trials with Thiabendazole and Dichlorvos in the treatment of
Strongyloides ransom infection of pigs. (Sixth white)











SWINE RESEARCH FACILITIES AND PROPOSED RESEARCH FOR
THE SUWANNEE VALLEY EXPERIMENT STATION
by Gilbert R. Hollis

The swine research program was initiated at this station on July 1, 1966. A
twenty acre tract of land adjoining the northeast corner of the experiment station
was purchased for the buildings to be constructed and pastures to be developed on.
The construction of two buildings was begun. Both buildings are the shed-type design.
One building is a central farrowing house, 15' x 132' with 22 farrowing units
(5' x 7') and a feed room. This farrowing house has two floor designs (11 stalls each)
incorporating the slotted floor principle in the farrowing stall units. One design
is the use of concrete slats supported above a gutter of water. The slats are 5
inches wide at the top, 3 1/2 inches wide at the bottom and 4 inches deep. Each slat
is 3 feet long and they are spaced 3/8 inches apart. The seven foot length of each
stall includes the 3 foot concrete slat in the back of the stall, a 3 foot solid
concrete section in the center and 1 foot of flattened expanded metal supported
above a gutter of water in front. The other design is basically the same except the
3 foot rear section of each stall has flattened expanded metal supported over the
gutter of water.

The second building is a growing-finishing unit, 16' x 196'. This includes
24 pens, each 6' x 12'; a 12' x 18' scale and work area, a 12' x 24' feed mixing
and storage room and a 4 foot alley down one side. This building incorporates three
different floor designs. These designs are (1) solid concrete, (2) partially
lottted and (3) totally slotted floors. The partially slotted and totally slotted
floors are concrete slats supported above a pond of water.

Both buildings have 1 inch insulation under the roof and the lower part and
,pper part of the front walls hinges up for summer insulation. Both buildings are
completely screened in to aid in fly control and the back walls have plastic curtains
that roll up and down to provide ventilation and warmth.

Thirty Yorkshire-Hampshire crossbred gilts were purchased, along with a purebred
PRampshire and a purebred Yorkshire male to initiate the source of swine for research
studies. All gilts were bred at eight months of age to farrow in August and
September.

Research studies will emphasize nutrition and management. Proposed initial
studies will compare the effect of floor design on gain and feed efficiency, effect
of floor design on weaning weight, use of corn silage with sows and milo vs corn
for fattening hogs.

It is hoped that our swine producers will visit these facilities often. We
are here to help so come see us.









HIGH LEVEL COPPER IN SWINE FEEDING
A SUMMARY OF RESEARCH IN THE
UNITED STATES
Compiled by H. D. Wallace
1. Early weaned baby pigs fed copper gained 22.1% faster and required 8.3% less
feed than control pigs. Young growing pigs beyond the baby pig stage gained 6.5%
faster and required 2.3% less feed when fed copper. Growing-finishing pigs fed
copper gained 3.6% faster and required 1.1% less feed. When all comparisons
(5,954 pigs) were combined, disregarding age of pigs and duration of tests, the
average improvement in gains was 8.9%, and a 3.2% saving in feed was recorded. These
values are similar to those compiled by Dr. Braude of England. For 83 experiments,
predominantly European but including some from the United States, Braude showed
that gains were improved 8.1% and 5.4% less feed was required.

2. Pigs responded to various levels of copper ranging from 50 ppm up to 375 ppm.
Levels above 250 ppm were excessive and unnecessary for maximum response. The
optimum level of supplementation was not obvious from the compiled data.

3. Neither reduction in level nor removal of copper from the diet after a period
of feeding appeared advantageous over continuous supplementation.

4. Copper sulfate, copper oxide, copper carbonate, copper chloride and copper
methionine all proved effective supplements. It is apparent that the source of
copper, of itself, is not critical. Availability, cost and mixing properties would
represent the important considerations.

5. Copper was generally somewhat more effective than antibiotics and other feed
supplements. When copper was combined with certain antibiotics, an additive
effect was observed.

6. Blood hemoglobin levels were depressed when high levels of copper were fed.
At levels above 250 ppm, depressions were often quite severe.

7. Liver tissue copper concentrations were increased due to copper feeding.
Variations were considerable among animals in given experiments. Pigs fed soybean
meal as the main protein source tended to accumulate less liver copper than pigs
fed fish or milk protein. Other than liver tissue, edible portions of the carcass
accumulated very small quantities of copper.

8. High level copper supplementation generally caused little change in carcass
characteristics. Some reports indicated that fatter carcasses resulted. This
would not be unexpected, and would be in keeping with effects caused by other feed
additive compounds which stimulate rate of gain.

9. The limited work on reproduction suggests no beneficial nor detrimental effect
due to high level copper supplementation.

10. Copper is a toxic substance and the margin of safety between beneficial and
harmful levels is not as great as for other trace elements. It is apparent that
such factors as source and level of protein, and iron and zinc supplementation,
influence toxicity. No toxicity problems would be anticipated with levels as high
as 250 ppm when the copper is thoroughly mixed with balanced diets well fortified
with zinc and iron.






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN67-8 Experiment Station
June, 1967 Gainesville, Florida


HIGH LEVEL COPPER FOR PIGS FED SHELLED CORN AND
SUPPLEMENT FREE-CHOICE I/

H. D. Wallace, B. R. Cannon, A. Z. Palmer,
J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs./


It has been demonstrated by numerous feeding experiments in this country and
abroad that growing pigs respond favorably to high level copper feeding. Most of
these experiments involved complete meal mixtures with copper added at levels from
125 to 250 ppm. Many pigs in the United States are fed on the free-choice system,
wherein.shelled corn and a complete supplement are offered in separate feeders. It
seemed important to determine how high level copper feeding could be handled advan-
tageously in this system of feeding. A balanced intake of corn and supplement is of
primary importance. Copper sulfate, being a very bitter-tasting substance, is dis-
liked when added to feed at levels of 500 ppm and above (2). In the present experi-
ment, the-first objective was to determine how. pigs would react to a supplement con-
taining 1000 ppm copper as copper sulfate. Secondly, pigs were given 'a chance to
select.supplement from four feeders containing 0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm copper. It
was hoped that data from the latter observation would help to pinpoint a level in
keeping with proper supplement intake.

Procedure

'Forty-two crossbred pigs (Landrace-Duroc x Hampshire and Duroc x Landrace) were
divided into 6 lots according to breed, sex and weight. Two lots of seven pigs each
were group-fed in concrete confinement on each dietary treatment. All.pigs were self-
fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice. Composition of the protein supplement
is presented in Table 1. Levels of copper added to supplement as copper sulfate
(CuSO4) are indicated in Table 2. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of
the experiment and dressing percent, carcass length and backfat thickness were deter-
mined according to standard procedures. Liver tissue samples and supplement.samples
were analyzed according to'the method described by.Houser (1).

Results and Discussion

Information on feed consumption, feedlot performance, carcass measurements and
copper analyses for liver tissue and feed is presented in Table 2. During the first
4 weeks of the trial control pigs (Lots 1 and 2) balanced corn and supplement intake
in a fairly commendable manner, eating less than 3 parts corn to.1 part supplement.







I/ Supported in part by a grant from International Copper Research Association,
Inc., New York, New York.

2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Cannon, Graduate Assistant; Palmer, Meat Scien-
tist; Carpenter, Associate Meat Scientist; and Combs, Associate Animal Nutri-
tionist, Department of Animal Science.







-2 -


Table 1. Composition of protein supplement offered free-choice
to all lots.



Soybean oilmeal (50%) 47.40
Meat scraps (50%) 25.00
Alfalfa meal (17%) 25.00
Iodized salt 2.00
Trace minerals 0.20
Vitamin supplements 0.40
100.00


a Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.

b Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb., respect-
ively, of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and choline chloride.



As the experiment progressed, supplement intake relative to corn consumption decreased
as expected. The overall average consumption for these two lots showed an intake
ratio of 4.4 corn to 1.0 of supplement. This represents a total protein intake of
about 17 percent of the feed consumed, which is probably somewhat above overall min-
imum protein requirements. Pigs in Lots 3 and 4, which were offered a supplement
containing 1000 ppm copper, followed a much different feed intake pattern. During
the first four weeks, supplement intake was quite low and this was reflected in slow-
er gains during this period. However, during the remainder of the experiment, con-
sumption of supplement relative to corn increased and was not greatly different from
that which would be considered normal. The initial adjustment to the high level cop-
per supplement appeared to be difficult for the pigs. In the lots in which a choice
of supplements was available (Lots 5 and 6), the intake pattern was quite good for
Lot 5, but total supplement intake was below the desired level in Lot 6. A summary
of supplement consumption for these two lots is presented in Table 3. It is inter-
esting to note that the pigs seemed to prefer the copper-free supplement. But, of
the supplements containing copper, that with 1000 ppm was consumed in greatest quan-
tity.

The overall daily gains of pigs were not greatly different for the various lots
(Table 2). The slightly poorer performance of pigs in Lots 5 and 6 was due to slow-
er gains during the first 4-week period of the experiment, when supplement intake
was inadequate.

Carcass data revealed no marked treatment effects. Copper in liver tissue was
increased four- to five-fold for pigs in Lots 3 and 4, and only very slightly for
pigs in Lots 5 and 6. These values reflect rather well the total copper intake of
the pigs.








Table 2. Influence of copper level in supplement on feed consumption, feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of growing-finishing swine.


Lot No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
---------------------- ; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Copper added to supplement, ppm 0 0 1000 1000 Choice Choice
0 0
250 250
S500 500
1000 1000


Number of pigs per lot
Average initial wt., lb.
Average final wt., lb.
Feed consumption, lb.
1st 4 weeks
Corn
Supplement
2nd 4 weeks
Corn
Supplement
3rd 4 weeks
Corn
Supplement
Entire period
Corn
Supplement
Daily gain, entire period, lb.
Feed consumed per lb. gain, lb.:
Corn
Supplement


7
58.3
205.0


568
217

1002
286

1320
239

2890
742
1.65

2.81
0.72


--------------------------- ------------------
Dressing percent 70.6
Carcass length, in. 30.75
Backfat thickness, in. 1.38


58.6
205.0


612
216

1083
223

1408
195

3103
634
1.65


58.7
200.6


675
96

1024
210

1249
202

2948
508
1.59


58.4
199.0


698
145

: 1003
208

1214
197

2915
550
1.58


58.3
208.3


663
211

1007
204

1263
211

2933
626
1.69


58.4
205.1


760
145

1072
185

1313
181

3145
511
1.65


3.03 2.97 2.96 2.79 3.06
0.62 0.51 0.56 0.60 0.50

70.6 70.5 70.8 70.1 71.7
30.07 29.75 30.50 31.03 30.42
1.50 1.50 1.42 1.34 1.46


-------------------mm-------------------------------------------------m---------em-----m-------ememew-m-m---ee
Liver copper, ppm (dry matter basis) 19.6 18.8 96.6 70.5 33.3 26.0
Feed copper, ppm (in supplement) 26.5 26.5 1176.5 1176.5 ----- ----





-4-


*Summary

The results of an experiment, designed to obtain information on the feasibility
of adding high levels of copper to the supplement for pigs in a free-choice feeding
system, are presented.

When 1000 ppm copper was added to the supplement, initial intake of supplement
was depressed below that necessary for good performance. However, the pigs gradually
adjusted and during the final phases of the experiment were consuming reasonable
amounts of supplement relative to shelled corn. Liver tissue from these pigs showed
a four- to five-fold increase in copper content. Pigs given a choice of supplements
containing different levels of copper (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) preferred the supple-
ment with no copper added. Significant quantities of the supplement containing 1000
ppm were consumed, but the other two levels were largely ignored.

Further testing is necessary before definite recommendations can be offered.


Table 3.


Supplement intake for Lots 5 and 6, lb.


Copper in supplement, ppm 0 250 500 1000


LOT 5

First 4 weeks 93 23 14 81
2nd 4 weeks 151 5 5 43
3rd 4 weeks 103 5 i9 94
Total 347 33 28 218'

LOT 6

First 4 weeks 57 29 12 47
2nd 4 weeks 147 20 4 10
3rd 4 weeks 116 11 10 44
Total 320 60 30 101


Literature Cited


1. Houser, R. H. 1966. Response of swine to high
of Science Thesis. University of Florida.


level copper feeding.


2. Wallace, H. D., R. H. Houser and G. E. Combs. 1966. A high level copper pre-
ference study with growing pigs. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN67-2.



gem
6/6/67


Master






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN67-9 Experiment Station
June, 1967 Gainesville, Florida


THE INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING DURING
LATE GESTATION ON PIG BIRTH WEIGHTS AND
SOW PERFORMANCE DURING LACTATION

H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combsal


Management of the sow gestation feeding program to provide the necessary nutri-
tion without permitting excessive gains is one of the more challenging aspects of
swine production. It is generally agreed that feed restriction is necessary. Most
swine nutritionists recommend 3-5 lb. of complete feed per head per day during ges-
tation for both sows and gilts. If forage is available, less concentrates are of-
fered.

Fetal nutritional requirements are greatest, at least quantitatively, during
the last part of the gestation period. Thus it would seem logical to offer more nu-
trients to the sow at this stage of gestation.

The present study was undertaken to determine if a more liberal feeding during
the last 4 weeks of gestation would be beneficial. Hopefully, this procedure might
increase birth weights and vigor of the pigs and improve survivability.


Experimental

The study consisted of two trials. Trial I was conducted during 1959-1960 and
Trial 2 was conducted during 1965-66.

All animals were maintained in pasture lots throughout gestation. In Trial 1
the animals were fed 4 lb. of complete feed per head per day from the time of breed-
ing to four weeks prior to farrowing. At this time the animals were divided into
two groups according to age, breed and previous performance. One group was contin-
ued on 4 lb. of feed and the other group was increased to 6 lb. of feed for the dur-
ation of gestation. All sows were fed according to appetite, up to a maximum of ten
pounds of feed per head per day during lactation.

In Trial 2 the same procedure was followed, except the feeding levels were 3
and 6 lb., respectively, during the gestation period. Feed mixtures for the two
trials are presented in Table 1.










1/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist, and Combs, Associate Animal Nutritionist, Animal
Science Department.






-2-


Table 1. Composition of diets


Trial I Trial II
Gestation
Ingredients & lactation Gestation Lactation


Ground yellow corn 37.00 61.19 65.09
Ground whole oats 36.00 20.00 10.00
Soybean oilmeal (44%) 14.00 ---- ---
Soybean oilmeal (50%) -.-- 14.30 20.30
Alfalfa meal (18%) 10.00 ---
Ground limestone 1.00 0.75 0.75
Steamed bonemeal 1.00 1.00 1.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral supplementa 0.10 0.06 0.06
B-vitamin supplement ---- 0.10 0.20
Vitamin B12 supplement ---0.10 0.10
Vitamin A and D supplement ---- 2.00 2.00



a Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Added the following to the ration (ppm):
Manganese (35.5), iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt (1.C), zinc (50.4) and
potassium (4.7).

b Contained 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000 mg. nia-
cin and 10,000 mg. choline chloride per pound of supplement.

c Contained a minimum of 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.

d Contained 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 I.U./gm.), 4 gm. vitamin D sup-
plement (9,000 I.U./gm.) and 890 gm. yellow corn.



Results and Surmary

Farrowing and lactation performance data are presented in Table 2.

In Trial i the sows fed the increased level of feed (6 lb,) during the last 4
weeks of gestation averaged more live pigs per litter (8.57 vs. 9.33) and the aver-
age birth weight of the pigs was considerably greater (2.73 vs. 2.91). Sows fed the
increased level also weaned more pigs per litter (7.52 vs. 8.21). Percent survival
was approximately the same for the two treatment groups.

In Trial 2 the sows fed the increased feed level farroved fewer live pigs
(11.10 vs. 10.51), with similar birth weights (3.01 vs. 3.03). Syws fed the in-
creased feed level weaned 9.27 pigs per litter, compared tc 9.58 for the control
group. Survival rate was about as observed in Trial 1 with no great difference be-
tween the feeding levels. Sow weight losses from pre-farrowing to weaning were ap-
proximately the same for the two groups.






-3 -


Results of the two separate trials are rather different. In Trial 1 a benefit
from increasing feed level seemed apparent, but not so in Trial 2. The differing
results are not readily explained. Chance allotment probably played a role because
of the many factors that can influence sow productivity. Initial sow condition,
forage availability and season of year may also have been important factors.

Although the data reported here are not overwhelmingly convincing, it seems
feasible to recommend that any extra conditioning of the sow be accomplished during
the latter part of gestation, rather than during early gestation. Published data
suggest that high energy intake during early gestation does not favor embryo sur-
vival. Thus, a low feed level during early gestation (3-4 lb. per head per day)
with an increase during the last 4-5 weeks, is the best recommendation that can be
offered at present.


Table 2. Summary of farrowing and


lactation performance


Trial Number


Feeding level during last
4 weeks of gestation, lb. 4 6 3
i m l ,i ,l


Number of litters

Average number live pigs per
litter

Average birth wt. per pig, lb.

Average number pigs weaned
(2 weeks of age)

Percent survival

Average sow wt. loss, lb.
(pre-farrow to weaning)


8.57

2.73


7.52

87.7


24


9.33

2.91


8.21

88.0


31


11.10

3.01


9.58

86.3


70.9


gem
6/22/67
1200 copies


2


37


10.51

3.03


9.27

88.2


72.9


__~L_


- -- ----- ----


lililllD=i~i






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN67-10 Experiment Station
June, 1967 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN LEVEL AND HORMONE SUPPLEMENTATION
DURING THE FINISHING PERIOD ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE,
CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND PORK ACCEPTABILITY/

H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter
L. A. Britt, A. C. Warnick and G. E. Combs-


Recent experimentation at the Florida Station (1,2,3,4,5,6) has emphasized the
important role of nutrition, particularly that of dietary protein, in the production
of lean pork. From these experiments it appears that commonly recommended protein
levels are too low to encourage optimum feedlot performance and lean pork'yield of
present day meat-type hogs.

The experiment presented here was designed to obtain additional information on
this important aspect of swine feeding. 'It was also designed to study the feasibil-
ity of feeding a combination of,the hormones diethylstilbestrol and methyl testoster
one. The interrelationship of dietary protein.level, sex and hormone supplementatio
was also a part of the experimental design.


Procedure

Forty-eight carefully selected crossbred pigs (Duroc-Landrace x Hampshire) ini-
tially weighing an average of 103 pounds were individually self-fed in concrete con-
finement the diets described in Table 1. The experimental design is presented in
Table 2.

Hormone treatment was discontinued 72 .hrs. prior to slaughter and all viscera
from treated animals were discarded at slaughter. The animals were slaughtered on
an individual basis as live weights reached the range of 205-210 pounds. The final
average slaughter weight for all pigs was 208.3 pounds. The pigs were slaughtered
and dressed packer style for carcass study. Carcass weights and measurements were
taken after the carcasses had been chilled for 48 hours at 34-36 degrees F. Length
of carcass was obtained by a measurement from the anterior edge of the aitch bone
(pelvis) to the anterior edge of the first rib. Backfat thickness was calculated
as an average of measurements taken at the first rib, last rib and last lumbar ver-
tebra. A tracing was made of the perimeter of the longissimus dorsi muscle (loin
eye) exposed by cutting the loin perpendicular to the vertebral column equidistant
between the tenth and eleventh ribs. The area of the loin eye muscle was then de-
termined by use of a compensating polar planimeter. The carcasses were broken down
by a standard procedure (Reciprocal Meat Conference, 1951). ....






1I Supported in part by a grant from Eli Lilly and Company, Greenfield, Indiana.

2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Palmer, Meat Scientist; Carpenter, Associate Meat
Scientist; Britt, Graduate Assistant; Warnick, Animal Physiologist; and Combs,
Associate Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.







-2-


Table 1. Composition of diets


Protein level 10 10 12 12 14 14


Yellow corn 94.05 94.05 89.25 89.25 84.10 84.10
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 2.90 2.90 7.70 7.70 .12.90 12.90
Defluorinated phosphate 1.80 1.80 1.80 ,1.80 1.70 1.70
Ground limestone 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Vitamin supplement
(Merck 1231)b 0.10 0.1 0.10 00 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin B12 supplement
(Merck-20)c 0.05 0.05 0.05C 0.05 0.05 0.05
Tylan premix 0.05 ---- 0.10 ---- 0.10 ----
Bestrone --- 0.05 --- 0.10 ---- 0.10
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00



a Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% irpn, l0%'zinc, 1% copper, 0.3%
iodine and 0.1% cobalt.

b Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb., respectively, of ribo-
flavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and choline chloride.

c Contained a minimum of 20 mg. B12 per pound.

d Tylan premix contained 10 gm. tylosin per pound and was added to the diets
not supplemented with Bestron so as to equalize tylosin fortification for all
diets.

e Bestron contained 2 gm. diethylstilbestrol and 2 gm. methyl testosterone and
10 gm. tylosin per pound. For the 12% protein diet the level of Tylan premix
and Bestron was reduced to 0.05% for the pig weight interval of 150 lb. to
slaughter weight.






-3-


Sbfle 2. Experimental 'design



Dietary protein level (%) 12 12 14 14' -
(103 lb. 150 lb.)

Dietary protein level (%) 10 10 12 12
(150 lb. slaughter)

Hormone supplement none 2 lb./ton none 2 lb./ton
(103 lb. 150 l1.)

Hormone supplement none 1 lb./ton none 1 lb./ton
(150 lb. slaughter) .


Number of barrows 6 6 6 6. .
S ,. *.4'
Number of gilts 6 6 6 6 .



Blade loin roasts were wrapped for freezing, frozen at -609 F., and stored at
00 F. Prior to cooking the roasts were defrosted overnight at 500F. The roasts
were cooked in covered Pyrex ovenware in a preheated 350 F. oven for 30-40 minutes
per pound to an internal temperature of 1700 + 50 F. Aroma and flavor were deter-
mined by a trained eight member panel with degree of sex odor and flavor being the
only palatability factors considered; panelists scored degree of odor and flavor on
the following scale: 1 designated none; 2, slight; 3, moderate; 4, strong. Aroma
was evaluated on the hot roasts by lifting the lids of the ovenware containers to
allow rising vapors to be tested. Each panelist sliced a portion of each roast for
flavor testing to assure that all testing would be on warm meat.


Results and Discussion

Feedlot performance and carcass data are summarized in Table 3.

Daily feed intake Pigs fed the lower protein level tended to consume more
feed. Such an effect has also been observed in previous trials. The reason for
this observation is not clear, but it may be explained by a compensatory effect
wherein the pig is attempting to obtain needed protein. The addition of the hormone
supplement caused a marked decrease in feed consumption (P < .01). Intake of the
barrows was reduced relatively more than.that of the gilts. Gilts consumed signifi-
cantly less feed than barrows (P < .01).

Daily gain Hormone supplemented pigs gained significantly less than control
pigs and gilts gained less than barrows (P < .01). Gains of barrows were depressed
more than gains of gilts by the hormone treatment. This interaction between sex and
hormone treatment was significant (P < .05). Pigs on the higher protein level gained
1.96 lb. per day compared to 1.87 for pigs on the lower protein level. This differ-
ence was not statistically significant.






-4-


Table 3. Influence of dietary protein level, oral hormone intake and
sex on the feedlot performance and carcass development of
swine during the finishing period.



Main expt. variables Protein level Hormone Sex
Comparison 12-10% 14-12% + Males Females


Number of animals 24 24 24 24 24 24
Av. daily feed intake, lb. 6.50 6.39 6.82 6.08** 6.69 6.20**
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.87 1.96 2.03 1.79** 1.99 1.83**
Feed required per lb.
gain, lb. 3.50 3.28** 3.38 3.40 3.38 3.39
Dressing percent 70.8 71.3 71.4 70.7 71.0 71.0
Backfat thickness, in. 1.35 1.38 1.41 1.33* 1.41 1.33*
Carcass length, in. 31.13 30.96 30.90 31.19 30.89 31.20
Loin eye area, sq. in. 3.51 3.73 3.62 3.61 3.52 3.72
Percent 4 lean cuts 48.55 49.36 48.65 49.27 48.50 49.41
b
Loin eye marbling score 15.1 14.8 14.6 15.1 15.1 14.8



a Higher protein level fed from 100 lb. to 150 lb. liveweight. Lower level fed
from 150 lb. to slaughter.

b Devoid, 0; traces, 5; small, 11; moderate, 17; very abundant, 32.

* P < .05
** P < .01



Feed required per unit gain The higher protein diet induced a significant
saving in feed (P < .01). Neither hormone supplementation nor sex influenced feed
conversion significantly. A significant interaction of protein level and hormone
supplementation (P < .05) indicated that hormone supplementation favored improved
feed conversion in the presence of adequate protein.

Carcass characteristics Dressing percent and carcass length were not signif-
icantly influenced by protein level, hormone supplementation or sex. Backfat thick-
ness was reduced by hormone supplementation and gilts showed a greater backfat
thickness than barrows (P < .05). Loin eye area measurements favored the pigs fed
higher protein (3.73 vs. 3.51 sq. in.) and gilts were superior to barrows (3.72 vs.
3.52). These differences approached significance at the 5% level of probability.
Lean cut out data showed higher values for carcasses from the higher level of pro-
tein, hormone supplemented and female pigs. Differences were not statistically sig-
nificant. Loin eye marbling scores indicated that none of the main variables had
much effect on intramuscular fat deposition.







-5-


Secondary glands, ovaries and uteri At the time of slaughter secondary sdx
glands, ovaries and uteri were examined and weighed. Seminal vesicles from hoimdne
treated barrows weighed an average of 17.9 gm. compared to 1.4 gm. for untreated an-
imals. Cowper's glands from treated barrows weighed 39.0 gm. compared to 4.2 gm.
for untreated animals. It was evident that the hormone treatment also stimulated
ovaries and uterine tissue, as measured by gross tissue weights. The stimulation
was especially marked on the 14% protein diet. The ovarian weights were stimulated
by hormone feeding on the 14% protein diet, but not on the 12% diet.

Aroma and flavor of loin roasts Since one of the hormones fed was methyl tes-
tosterone, a male sex hormone, it seemed important to check the pork for boar aroma
or undesirable flavor. Results of a panel evaluation are presented in Table 4. Nei-
ther protein level nor sex Showed much influence on the scores recorded for flavor
and aroma. However, a marked influence was observed due to hormone supplementation.
Several supplemented pigs yielded roasts which, when cooked, exhibited a very un-
desirable aroma and flavor. Both gilts and barrows were affected, and to about the
same degree. It is not clear from this study which of the hormones was responsible
for imparting the odor and off-flavor to the pork. However, in view of the informa-
tion available from other experiments, it is likely due to the testosterone.


Table 4. Influence of hormone supplementation on aroma and flavor of
cooked loin roastsa.



Protein level 12-10 12-10 14-12 14-12
Hormone none + .none +
Sex M F M F M F M F


No. animals 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Av. aroma score 1.07 1.11 1.88 .1.73 1.07 1.14 1.85 1.85
Av. flavor score 1.06 1.03 1.65 1.55 1.08 1.10 1.67 1.78


a Scores coded as follows: none, 1; slight, 2; moderate, 3; strong, 4.



Summary

Forty-eight pigs were used in an experiment to study the effects and interrela-
tionships of protein level, hormone supplementation and sex on feedlot performance,
carcass characteristics and pork acceptability. The experimental period extended
from an initial weight of 103 lb. to a final slaughter weight of 208 lb.

Pigs fed the higher level of protein (14-12%) gained faster and much more ef-
ficiently than those fed the lower level of protein (12-10%). Carcass measurements
indicated that the higher protein level was desirable in terms of carcass leanness.

Hormone supplemented pigs consumed less feed, gained slower and yielded some-
what leaner carcasses than non-supplemented pigs. The hormone treatment imparted an







-6-


undesirable aroma and flavor to the pork. This effect was about equally noticeable
in barrows and gilts.

Barrows ate more feed, gained faster and yielded fatter carcasses than gilts.





Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D.., M. E. Palmer, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1963. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-7.

2. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, Ghazi Taki and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-16.

3. Crum, R. C., Jr., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-3.

4. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1965. A study
of the relationship of feed restriction and dietary protein level in finishing
hogs. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-9.

5. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966. Feed
.restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 706.

6. Wallace, H. D., L. A. Britt, J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs.
1966. Effects of dietary protein levels and amino acid supplementation on the
feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-3.


















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Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN68-1 Experiment Station
July, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

INFLUENCE OF FEED ADDITIVES ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING PIGSI/

H. D. Wallace, M. E. Demaree and G. E. Combs-


High level copper, Aureo S-P-250 (combination of chlortetracycline, sulfametha-
zine and penicillin) and NF-180 (Furazolidone) have all been used effectively as
feed additives for growing swine. The experiment summarized in this report was de-
signed to study the relative effectiveness of the three materials. It was also de-
sired to compare the response of smaller, less thrifty pigs to that of larger, thrift
tier pigs.

Procedure

Sixty-four crossbred (Landrace-Duroc x Hampshire) and purebred Duroc pigs were
divided into eight lots of eight pigs each according to breed, sex and weight. Two
lots were fed on each of the following treatments:

1. Basal diet
2. Basal diet + 250 ppm copper as CuSO4
3. Basal diet + 2 lb. ASP-250/ton
4. Basal diet + 2 lb. NF-180/ton

All pigs were self-fed in concrete pens. The basal diet is presented in Table 1.
The experiment was terminated after 73 days. Pig gains were analyzed for significance
by the analysis of variance.

Results and Discussion

Information on feedlot performance is presented in Table 2. The pigs were div-
ided into two test groups designated as Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 included the
smaller, poorer-doing pigs which averaged about 22 lb. initially. Group 2 included
the larger, thriftier pigs which averaged about 42 lb .initially.

The difference in performance of pigs between the two groups was significant
(P < .01).

Although not statistically significant, all three feed additives copper,
ASP-250 and NF-180 seemingly improved rate of gain and feed conversion for the
small pigs (Group 1). Response was essentially the same for all additives.







i/ Supported in part by a grant-in-aid from American Cyanamid Co., Princeton,
New Jersey.

2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Demaree, Graduate Assistant; and Combs, Animal
Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.







-2 -


None of the additives improved performance of the heavier, thriftier pigs
(Group 2).

These results tend to substantiate the general observation that feed additives
are more helpful for smaller, less thrifty pigs than for larger, thriftier animals.



Table 1. Basal Diet


Ground yellow corn 76.37
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 20.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace mineral mixturea 0.05
B-vitamin premix 0.05
B12 supplements 0.03
Vitamin A and D premixd 1.00
100.00


a Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc,
1% copper, 0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.

b Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb.,
respectively, of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin
and choline chloride.

c Contained 20 mg. Bi2 per lb.

d Contained 140,000 I.U. vitamin A and 50,000 I.U. vitamin
D3 per lb.






-3-


Table 2. Influence of feed additives on performance of growing pigs



Treatment Basal Basal Basal +
Basal + copper + ASP-250 NF-180



Group 1

No. pigs per lot 8 8a 8 8
Average initial wt., lb. 22.1 22.4 22.0 22.0
Average final wt., lb. 129.0 136.1 137.1 137.8
Average daily feed, lb. 3.82 3.90 3.91 3.92
Average daily gain, lb. 1.46 1.56 1.58 1.59
Feed per lb. gain, lb. 2.62 2.50 2.47 2.47


Group 2

No. pigs per lot 8 8 8 8
Average initial wt., lb. 42.8 42.6 41.8 41.5
Average final wt., lb. 172.3 170.6 171.3 170.0
Average daily feed, lb. 5.11 5.08 5.05 5.21
Average daily gain, lb. 1.77 1.75 1.77 1.76
Feed per lb. gain, lb. 2.89 2.90 2.85 2.96



a One pig removed from experiment after 3 days due to anal prolapse.


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Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN68-2 Experiment Station
July, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

SOW PRODUCTIVITY AS INFLUENCED BY SEASON.: ::
(A SUMMARY OF FIVE YEARS' DATA)

H. D. Wallace, M. E. Demaree and G. E. Combs/- ::


A report in 1962 (1) summarized sow performance in the University of Florida
sow herd over a two-year period, as influenced by season. Results indicated that
performance was better during the cooler months, when measured in terms of number
of pigs per litter, weaning weights and conception rates. The present report sum-
marizes reproductive performance of the University herd for the ensuing five-year
period.

..Procedure

Breedin -- --

The sow herd consists of 2 breed'groups purebred Durocs and Duroc x Landrace
Fl crossbreds. Approximately 12 purebred Durocs and 50 crossbreds are maintained in
the herd.,

The Duroc sows are bred either'to Duroc boars to furnish replacements for the
Duroc herd, or to Landrace boars to.furnish replacements .for the crossbred herd.
The crossbred sows are bred to Hampshire boars. Pigs from'this 3-way: cross consti-
tute the main source of pigs for feeding experiments. : :

Definite breeding groups have "n6ot been formed and held constant, but, rather,
are formed at each breeding period.. depending on the animals available. The objective
has been to expose about 25 sows at.each-breeding period. -The breeding season cov-
ers a.21-day period and is spaced every two.months so as to provide a total of six
farrowings per year.

Hand mating is practiced exclusively.'; Sows are mated either once ortwice dur-
ing the heat period. Data on the comparison of one vs. two matings has been the
subject of a previous report (2).

Feeding and Management of Sows During Gestation ,

All sows are maintained on forage during gestation. In the months of November,
December and January, forage is not usually abundant; however, good forage is gen-
erally available during the remainder of the year.

Sows are hand-fed once per day in groups of 8-10 animals. The level of concen-
trates fed depends on forage conditions,.condition of the sows, and stage of gesta-
tion. .






j/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Demaree,'Research Assistant; and Combs, Animal
Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.







S", *" -1A 'i ; '


-2-


A flushing procedure is followed in which the concentrate level is increased
50 percent 10 days prior to breeding and throughout the breeding period. After the
sows are settled, the feeding level is reduced to 3-5 lb. per head per day. Thirty
days prior to farrowing the level is raised to 5-6 lb. per head per day. Also, com-
mencing 30 days prior to farrowing, Hygromycin is added to the gestation ration to
help eliminate worm infestation to the young pigs. This treatment is continued dur-
ing the lactation period.

The gestation ration is described in Table 1.


Table 1. Composition of rations fed sows during
and lactation


gestation


Lactationi-7


Ground yellow corn
Ground whole oats
Soybean meal (50% protein)
Steamed bonemeal
Ground limestone :
Iodized salt 1
Trace mineral supplement-
B-vitamin supplement
Vitamin B12 supplement" :
Vitamin A and D supplement .-


61.19
20.00
14.30
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.06
0.10
0.10
2.00
100.00


65.09
10.00
20.30
1.00
S 0.75
0.50
0.06
0.20
0.10
2.00
.100.00


1 Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Adds the following to the ration (ppm):
Manganese (35.5), Iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt (1.0), zinc (50,4) and
potassium (4.7).

2 Contains 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000 mg. niacin
and 10,000 mg. choline chloride per pound of supplement,

3 Contains a minimum of 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.

4 Contains 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 IU.gm.), 4 gm. vitamin D supple-
ment (9,000 IU/gm.) and 890 gm. yellow corn.

5 The gestation ration contains approximately 16.percent crude protein and the
lactation ration contains approximately 18 percent crude protein.



Feeding and Management of the Sows at Farrowing and During Lactation

The pregnant sows are moved to the farrowing barn on the 110th day of gesta-
tion, where each is thoroughly cleaned with soap and water and sprayed with benzene
hexachloride to remove lice.


_ _


"':"" ;.f.;..i~
r


Gestation_5/







- 3 -


All sows are fed twice per day while in the farrowing barn, being driven from
the farrowing stalls or pens to the individual feeding stalls located in the adjoin-
ing wing. Prior to farrowing, each sow is fed 3 lb. of concentrates each morning
and evening. On the day of farrow feed is offered only if the sow appears hungry.'
The next day 3-4 lb. of feed is offered. This amount is increased each day, so that
by the end of the first week of lactation most sows are consuming 8-9 lb. feed per
day. This feed level is maintained during the second week, at the end of which the
pigs are weaned.

The lactation ration is also described in Table 1.

Care and Management of Litters

On the day of birth pigs. are weighed and ear-notched for identification. Navel
cords are tied off if necessary, and the navel treated with a tincture of iodine.
Needle teeth are carefully clipped.

Injectable iron is administered to all pigs between 3 and 5 days of age, and
male pigs are castrated at one week of age.

Heat lamps are used as needed to provide warmth for the baby pigs.:- Pens are
cleaned each morning. A special effort is made to provide a dry environment for
the pigs at all times. Wood shavings serve as bedding. Automatic-drinking cups
provide fresh water for the sows and litters.

Results and Discussion

A summary of all farrowings is presented in Table 2. The relationship of sea-
son to pig losses during the first two weeks of lactation is presented graphically
in Figure 1.

A total of 503 litters was farrowed, with an average of 11.17 live pigs per
litter. The average birth weight for all pigs farrowed was 2.96 pounds. An aver-
age of 9.39 pigs was weaned per litter at two weeks of age, giving an average sur-
vival rate of 84.06%. The average two-week weight of the 4723 pigs weaned was 7.31
pounds.

Of the 26 farrowings, only one (October, 1965) was a failure. Several sows in
this group aborted their litters prior to entering the farrowing barn. Except for
three sows, the ones that farrowed had small litters. Negative tests for Brucellosis
and Leptospirosis were obtained. The cause of poor performance was not determined.

As one would expect, the seasonal influences are not expressed as clear, uni-
form patterns. A careful examination of the data shows that early spring farrowings
(February through April) have generally been the most successful. This has been re-
flected in higher survival rates and heavier weaning weights. Sows farrowing at this
period have an environmental temperature advantage at breeding, during gestation, and
during lactation. The most difficult period to farrow, without the benefit'of temp-
erature-controlled buildings, is during the period from June through October. Lit-
ter size has been satisfactory during this period, but pig survival has averaged low-
er. Sows are restless, and do not take care of their pigs as well during these hot
months.








Table 2. Seasonal farrowing performance of University of Florida sow herd
August 1962 March 1967


Date Number Live pigs Av. birth Av. no. pigs Av. weaning Percent
of litters per wt. per weaned weight survival
farrow. farrowed litter pig lb. per litter (2 weeks) birth to
lb. weaning

August 1962 14 11.71 2.82 9.64 7.21 82.32
October 1962 24 11.33 2.73 10.08 7.21 88.97
December 1962 26 10.46 2.78 9.08 7.36 86.76
February 1963 21 11.71 2.99 10.43 7.84 89.02
April 1963 18 11.17 3.10 10.00 7.55 89.55
June 1963 22 11.82 i 3.00 9.55 6.74 80.77
August 1963 17 12.47 2.96 10.41 6.81 83.49
November 1963 19 10.32 3.14 8.32 7.62 80.61
January 1964 20 11.65 2.81 9.55 7.28 81.97
, March 1964 17 12.18 2.95 10.94 7.00 89.86
May 1964 27 12.30 3.17 10.30 7.03 83.73
July 1964 19 12.21 2.99 9.32 6.70 76.29
September 1964 20 11.95 2.90 10.00 6.71 83.68
November 1964 21 10.86 2.90 9.43 7.20 86.84
January 1965 16 13.00 2.91 10.75 7.19 82.69
March 1965 17 11.94 3.16 10.35 7.95 86.70
May 1965 18 11.17 3.09 9.28 6.86 83.08
August 1965 18 12.28 2.98 8.50 6.38 69.23
October 1965 10 6.80 3.17 5.70 8.13 83.82
January 1966 19 10.89 2.98 8.95 7.80 82.13
March 1966 20 10.75 3.06 9.55 7.73 88.84
June 1966 22 9.45 2.98 8.23 7.32 87.02
August 1966 19 9.11 3.01 7.47 7.50 82.08
October 1966 17 10.76 2.81 9.65 7.84 89.62
January 1967 16 10.13 2.71 8.00 7.82 -79.01
March 1967 26 10.50 2.91 9.08 7.67 86.45


WEIGHTED MEANS 503 (Total) 11.17 2.96 9.39 7.31 84.06









Figure 1.


Influence of Season on Productivity
(University of Florida Sow Herd)


Losses from birth to weaning
I Number pigs weaned per litter


Oct. Dec. Feb. Apr. June
1962 1962 1963 1963 1963


Aug. Nov. Jan.
1963 1963 1964
Season of Farrow


Mar. May
1964 1964


13.0-



12.0-


11.0-



10.0-



9.0-



8.0-


7.0-


6.0-


*Aug.
1962


July
1964


Sept.
1964


Nov.
1964


Jan.
1965


--


3"/1
JS

I~








Figure 1 (Continued). Influence of Season on Productivity
(University of Florida Sow Herd)



El Losses from birth to weaning

rI Number pigs weaned per litter


12.0 -

$4


l1.0 -




o 10.O -
00


*4
a
. 4




S9.0 -


-a
8.0
Z 8.0


7.0 -




6.0 -


-U


Mar. May Aug. Oct.
1965 1965 1965 1965


Jan. Mar. June
1966 1966 1966
Season of Farrow


-I
I,
,I
//
II


Aug. Oct. Jan. Mar.
1966 1966 1967 1967


13.0 -


' J







-7 -


For the five-year period, pig losses during the first two weeks of lactation
have averaged 16 percent. The greatest losses occurred in August 1965, when 31 per-
cent of the live pigs born did not survive. Baby pig scours were a serious problem
during this farrowing.

Summary

A compilation of the University of Florida sow herd performance during the past
five years is presented. The data emphasize that the period of greatest stress comes
during the warm summer months of June through October. However, a year-around mul-
tiple farrowing program has proven quite feasible, even though a sophisticated en-
vironmental control system has not been used in the program.


References

1. Wallace, H. D. and G. E. Combs. 1962. Sow productivity as influenced by sea-
son (A summary of two years' data). Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series No. 63-2.

2. Wallace, H. D. and G. E. Combs. 1962. Sow productivity as affected by single
vs. double matings. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series No. 63-4.



















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7-17-67
1200 copies








Department of Veterinary Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. VY67-4 Experiment Station
June, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

Field Trials with Thiabendazole and Dichlorvos
in the Treatment of Strongyloides ransom Infection of Pigs

S.E. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., F.C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S.
and
C.B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M.

Summary

Thiabendazole* at the rate of 1 lb./1,000 -bs. feed for a 14 day
period was very effective in eliminating the eggs of Strongyloides
ransomi from the feces of weanling pigs which were recovering from
a severe outbreak. A single feeding of dichlorvos** was only:parti-
ally effective in eliminating the eggs from the feces. Neither
medication was effective in increasing:body weights statistically
in pigs having severe clinical signs of parasitism at the time of.
treatment.

Thiabendazole Paste+ was also effective in reducing the number of
eggs of S. ransomi in suckling pigs. However, where the medicated
feeding schedule was used in pigs with access to sow's milk and un-
medicated sow's feed, the:reduced intake of medicated feed:resulted
in incomplete elimination of eggs from the feces.

Introduction

As indicated by reports coming to the Department, the swine pro-
ducers, county agents, and practicing veterinarians continue to be
faced with losses in young pigs caused by the parasitic worm
Strongyloides ransomi. This report concerns trials that were
carried out on a farm in central Florida where an outbreak of
strongyloides was considered the main cause of retarded growth and
deaths. Post-mortem and fecal examinations established S. ransomi
as the major cause of illness. The operation consisted of feeder-
pig production with 4 farrowings a year. The outbreak was confined
to one farrowing comprising about 40 pigs. According to the owner
the pigs.farrowed :just prior or after the outbreak were not serious-
ly affected. In fact, the.pigs:in the farrowing after the outbreak
were considerably heavier than the pigs of the affected farrowing,
though 3 months younger.

*Thiabendazole, experimental product, Lot.64 RTS 11, Merck, Sharp,
& Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.
**Dichlorvos, active ingredient in AtgardRV, a product of Shell
Chemical Company, New York, N.Y.
+Thiabendazole Paste, experimental product, Lot 66 RTS 825, Merck,
Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.


6/67:800









-2-


The purpose of these trials was: (1) to evaluate two new worm
remedies for removal of adult strongyloides under a farm condition;
(2) to determine if any weight advantage could be realized by treat-
ment of pigs already severely stunted by strongyloides infection
and (3) to evaluate treatment in suckling pigs of subsequent far-
rowings.

Experimental Procedure for Weanling Pigs:

Thirty-four pigs were available from the farrowing in which the
outbreak occurred. All pigs had been treated by the owner with
piperazine and were receiving hygromycin in the feed prior to being
placed on trial. These medications were not used during the trials.
Although all the pigs were within 4 days of the same age there was
considerable weight range (15 to 641bs. at 10 weeks of age). The
pigs were assigned to three groups of 11 or 12 pigs each on-the basis
of pig size so that the groups were as nearly alike as possible.
Each group of pigs was kept in a sand lot of similar size, drainage,
and previous stocking.

At 10 weeks of age Group I pigs were untreated and served as con-
trols. Group II pigs were started on feed containing thiabendazole
at the rate of 1 lb./1,000 lbs. feed. Only the medicated feed was
available to these pigs for a two week period. Group III pigs
received a single feeding of dichlorvos at the recommended level
(median dosage 18mg/pound body weight). Body weights and fecal
samples for determining the number of strongyloid eggs per gram of
feces (epg) were taken from each pig at age 10 (pretreatment), 11,
13, 15 and 17 weeks. The Group I pigs served as untreated controls
until 15 weeks of age when they were treated with dichlorvos in the
same manner as Group III.

Results and Conclusions of Trial with Weanling Pigs The results
of the two worm remedies on the numbers of S. ransomi eggs passed
in the feces are given in Table 1.

At 10 weeks of age the pretreatment average counts of the Groups
I, II, and III were similar (20,590; 21,264; and 20,480 epg). This
suggested the assignment of pigs resulted in three groups that were
similar in terms of infection.

At 11 weeks of age control Group I had an average count of 21,996
epg. The pigs of Group II, after one week of continuous thiabenda-
zole in the feed (0.1%), passed no eggs in the feces. The pigs of
Group III, one week after the single treatment with dichlorvos, were
passing an average of 9,654 epg or less than half the pretreatment
average.

The average strongyloid egg count of control Group I continued
to decrease naturally through the 13th week of age while Group II
remained negative and Group III increased slightly.







-3-


At 15 weeks of age pigs of control Group I averaged 11,274 epg,
Group II pigs were still negative, and the average of Group III
pigs was down to 3,540 epg. At this time the owner indicated that
a number of ascarids had been seen in the feces of the control group
but not in the other groups. This prompted the treatment of the
control group at this time with dichlorvos.

:The final averages at 17 weeks of age were 460 epg in Group I,
0 in Group II, and 4,037 in Group III.

Within the conditions of this trial the 14 day feeding schedule
with 0.1% thiabendazole in the feed was highly effective in elim-
inating the eggs of S. ransomi from the feces of weanling pigs for
the entire seven week period of observation. The single feeding of
dichlorvos to Group III at 10 weeks of age resulted in a 52% reduc-
tion in the average epg from the pretreatment value in one week,
while the single feeding to Group I at 15 weeks of age resulted in
a 95% reduction in epg. The increased efficacy in the latter group
of older pigs may be due in part to natural loss of S. ransom
which is common for this age pig.

The average body weights of the pigs for the three groups are
presented in Table 2. The wide range of individual pig weights
made interpretation of results difficult, but in general it was con-
cluded that there was very little difference between groups. There
was no statistical difference in average body weight between Groups
I and II or Groups I and III at 15 and 17 weeks of age. Likewise,
there was no statistical difference in average daily gain between
Groups I and III.

The weights of the pigs in Groups I and II were undoubtedly in-
fluenced by ascarid infection. During the trial period no treat-
ment for ascarids was instituted in Group II and only at 15 weeks
of age in Group I. Dichlorvos is effective in removing ascarids.

It was therefore concluded that although treatment was of definite
value in reducing the contamination of the premises, no weight ad-
vantage was observed when treatment was administered to-pigs already
clinically ill or stunted from infection with S. ransomi. To
maintain normal weight gains treatment must be-instituted prior to
severe clinical signs of parasitism.

Experimental Procedure for Suckling Pigs Two litters of suckling
pigs from the second farrowing following the outbreak were selected
to evaluate a treatment schedule.

One litter received 200mg/pig of a paste formulation of thiabenda-
zole orally at 11 days of age. At 25 days of age a medicated feed
containing o.1% thiabendazole was creep fed for 14 days. During the
period on medicated feed the pigs also had access to sow's milk
and the unmedicated sow's feed.








-4-


A second litter was retained as an untreated control'group.

Body weights and epg of feces were determined for these two
litters over a 4 week period.

An indirect influence,on these litters existed since all other
litters of this farrowing were provided with o,1% thiabendazole in
the feed at about 4 weeks of age. Thus, the: level of contamination
on the farm, in general, was surpressed. ,

Results and Conclusions of.,Trial with Suckling Pigs The results <
the treatment schedule on average epg of feces are given in TableW

At 11 days of age, average.pretreatment counts suggested Litter.
T pigs possessed a heavier infection than Litter C (391,000 and
133,500 epg respectively, or nearly 3 times as great).

At 18 days of age the pigs of control Litter C showed an increase
in average epg of feces while Litter T pigs 1 week after treatment
showed a-95% reduction (from 391,000 to 19,524 epg) .

At 25 days of age, the average epg of Litter C dropped 86% from
the prior week. ,This suggested a natural, loss of worms. The average
epg of Litter T dropped only slightly.

SAt 39 days of age, Litter C had dropped to 9,600,epg while the
pigs of Litter T after the 2 week period on medicated feed averaged
776 epg. Although the average epg count of treated Litter T was
only 8% of untreated Litter C, tests conducted elsewhere have con-
sistantly resulted in complete clearance of adult S. ransomi from
pigs fed o.1% thiabendazole in the.feed for 14.days. The litters on
trial here, however,, had access to sow's milk and unmedicated sow's
feed which resultedi.n a reduced consumption of medicated feed.

The average body weights of the pigs in the two litters were not
statistically different at age 39 days. However, the pigs in treated
Litter T initially had an average epg count nearly three times as
great as the controls and presumably a greater level of infection.
Yet their average weight at age 39 days was slightly greater than
the untreated controls. Thus,,their weights in the absence of the
treatment might have been considerably less.

Two pigs from Litter T died during the 4 week observation period
from causes determined primarily: as other than from S. ransomi.
Worm recoveries from these two pigs were 0 and 500 adult worms.

Nearly all pigs of the farrowing experienced a 1 week,period.of
diarrhea at 2 to 3 weeks of'age which was not solely attributable
to S. ransomi and was presumed to be the colibacillosis syndrome.







Table 1. The Influence of 0.1% Thiabendazole in the feed (TBZ/F) or Dichlorvos
(AtgardR V) on Strongyloid Eggs Per Gram of Feces (epg) in Weanling
Pigs Recovering from Severe Infection with Strbngyloides-ransomi.

Pigs Age 10 Weeks Age 11 Weeks Age 12 Weeks Age 13 Weeks Age 15 Weeks Age 17 Weeks
Group Per Av.epg Treat- Av. epg Treat- Treat- Av epg Treat- .Av epg Treat- Av epg Treat-
Group ment ment ment ment ment ment


I 11 20,590 None 21,996 None None 18,717 None 11,274 Dichl- 460 None
orvos

Start On Off
II 12- 21,264 /F 0 TBZ/F TBZ/F 0 None 0 None 0 None

III 11 20,480 Dichl- 9,654 None None 10,159 None 3,540 None 4,037 None
orvos





Table 2. The Influence of 0.1% Thiabendazole in the feed (TBZ/F) or Dichlorvos
(AtgardR V) on Body Weight (Pounds) of Weanling Pigs Recovering from
Severe Infection with Strongyloides ransomi.

Pigs Age 10 Weeks Age 11 Weeks Age 12 Weeks Age 13 Weeks Age 15 Weeks Age 17 Weeks
Group Per Av. Treat- Av.Wt. Treat- Treat- Av. Wt. Treat- Av. Wt. Treat- Av. Treat tal Tota
Group Av.
Initial ment ment ment ment ment Final meant ai.y Av.
Wt.. Wt. Gain Gain

I 11 37.4 None.. 41.6 None None 48.5 None 58.2 Dichl- 66.5 None 0.59 29.1
orvos

1I 12 34.9 Start 39.2 On Off 48.3 None 59.1 None 66.9 None 0.65 32.0
TBZ/F TBZ/F TBZ/F
III 11 34.7 Dichl- 39.3 None None 47.5 None 59.6 None 69.0 None 0.70 34.3
orvos






Table 3.


The Influence of a Treatment Schedule Consisting of Thiabendazole
(200/pig orally) Plus 0,1% Thiabendazole in the Feed (TBZ/F) on
Strongyloid Eggs Per Gram of Feces in Suckling Pigs.


Pigs Age 11' Days Age 18 Days .Age 25 Days Age 39 Days
Litter er Pretreatment Treatment Av. epg Av. epg Treatment Av. epg Treatment
Litter Av. epg


C 10 133,500 None 140,800 19,340 None 9,600 None

T 10 391,000 TBZ 19,524 18,438 TBZ/F 776 OFF
Orally On TBZ/F


Table 4. The Influence of a Treatment Schedule Consisting of Thiabendazole
(200 mg/pig orally) Plus 0.1% Thiabendazole in the Feed (TBZ/F) on
Body Weight (Pounds) in Suckling Pigs.






AN


FUTURE TRENDS AND DEMANDS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE COW-CALF
PRODUCER IN THE U.S. ......... __

by i 'i- .; '

T. J. Cunha AU u G ]
Department of Animal Science
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida I l. C F iiL I


Changes are taking place in cow-calf operations and even more dramatic ones

will occur in the future. The producer of "beef steaks" can be proud of still pro-

ducing the number one prestige entry on the dinner menu. However, to retain this

lofty position will require many changes in the future. The cowman must be flexible

and open minded about changes which will be needed to meet competition from abroad

and from other products. Cattlemen with know-how and the determination to implement

new money saving and money making techniques will stand the best chance of being

successful in the future.

Meat Substitutes

The problem of meat substitutes must be faced by the cattle industry. They

are also being called technically designed meats, analogs, imitations, alternatives

and other names. I do not believe they will significantly affect the U.S. market

for beef in the next 10 years. However, in the long run, they will undoubtedly

have a more important effect and all cattlemen will need to keep abreast of these

developments and react accordingly to meet the situation. Presently, meat substi-

tutes take only a minor part of the market and are mainly competitive with ground

meats. They are being used as meat or protein extenders at low levels in processed

meats (sausages, frankfurters, etc.), soups, simulated hamburger beef patties and







*Talk given at Beef Cattle Day at Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana on
January 9, 1969.






-2-


other products. To date, meat substitutes have encountered some problems in imi-

tating individual cuts of meat such as roasts, steaks or chops. The major problem

has been that of flavor and to some extent texture. The best way for the cattle

producer to meet this competition is to be aware of the developments along this line

and to react to them in a positive manner. Among other things, he will need to con-

tinually increase efficiency of operation, produce even higher quality beef and

do a much better job of marketing it. The Animal Research Scientist will need to

help in finding new ways of improving beef production efficiency as well as beef

quality. Very little is known about what causes beef to be tender, juicy, flavorful

and have superior eating quality. Marbling of beef is not the big factor we once

thought it was in this regard. Marbling is still associated with a good piece of

beef but there are other factors involved which, unfortunately, we don't know

enough about to apply to beef production and feeding programs. This is the real

challenge for the immediate future and our meat and food scientists need to concen-

trate on it. The Meat Packing and Food Distribution Industries likewise have a

challenge to do an even better job of processing, distributing and merchandising

beef. Cattlemen will need to use their influence to make sure that all areas

related to the beef industry follow through on these and other problems. Cattlemen

have tremendous influence and should never underestimate what they can accomplish

in this regard.

If all segments of the beef industry do their job, we will still be enjoying

steaks and roasts for many years to come. However, we should not be complacent and

ignore the potential market penetration of meat substitutes. There is little need

to produce meat substitutes in the present U.S. economy. This is not the case,

however, in many other countries. As meat substitutes are developed and as their

price decreases they will have more of a market in developing countries whose

economy limits how much the consumer can spend for meat.






-3-


Beef Imports

Beef imports should be restricted by a definite quota assigned to each country

involved. This would allow cattlemen in foreign countries, as well as in the U.S.,

to better plan their operations which necessarily need long term planning. There

should be a definite top limit of U.S. beef consumption (presently it is about 10

per cent) assigned by law to beef imports. We should also insist that U.S. stan-

dards of meat inspection and sanitation be followed by foreign countries shipping

beef to the U.S.

Some claim that imported beef is mainly lean meat which is used mostly for

hamburger and processed meats and consequently does not affect the price of the top

grades of beef in the U.S. This is not true. This is because 40 per cent of all

beef consumed in the U.S. is ground beef. Moreover, 25 per cent of the "good" and

"choice" grade beef is also sold as ground beef. Thus, beef imports coming into

the U.S. affect the price of all grades of beef.

We should also realize that beef production cannot be turned off and on like

a faucet. It takes 5 to 6 years to increase beef production. Thus, we should

never give away too high a percentage of the U.S. beef market to foreign countries.

If we do, we may find ourselves in a situation like the one where Fidel Castro of

Cuba turned off the water at Guantanamo Bay to our Armed Services located there by

previous agreement. A foreign government which is friendly today might change its

policy toward us tomorrow. Moreover, droughts, disease outbreaks and other un-

foreseen circumstances could seriously affect the ability of foreign countries to

always ship the U.S. a pre-determined amount of beef yearly. If we depend on them

for too much of our beef, we might find ourselves short of beef and a wait of 5 to

6 years before we can expand our own production. Thus, beef imports are very impor-

tant and U.S. cattlemen should insist on better legislation in Congress to spell out

a definite top level on beef imports and a definite quota system for each of the

foreign countries interested in shipping beef to the U.S.






-4-


Need to Eliminate the Waste Tallow Problem

As cattlemen strive for increased efficiency, they will need to decrease the

trimmable fat in finished cattle. While some of this can be accomplished through

feeding and decreasing the weight of finished cattle, much can also be done by

breeding and selection. Our University of Florida Meats Scientists have observed

many carcasses of finished steers of the same weight and grade with considerable

variation in the amount of fat over the rib-eye area. They have observed many choice

grade carcasses with only 0.3 inch (some only 0.2 inch) of fat over the rib-eye,

whereas most others had 0.5 inch and considerably more at times.

The Livestock Division of the USDA Consumer and Marketing Service recently

estimated that about 2.4 billion pounds of fat were trimmed from the commercially

fed beef in 1967. They also stated that the production and transportation of this

fat cost in excess of $1.5 billion dollars more than its ultimate value. It is esti-

mated that at least one-half of this excess fat could be eliminated through improved

breeding, feeding and management practices without sacrificing eating quality in the

beef. Elimination of this waste fat would mean a saving of about $35 for each fed

animal marketed in the U.S. in 1967. This is one reason why breeding and selection

programs are needed to produce carcasses with desirable eating qualities and meati-

ness but with a low amount of trimmable fat.

USDA tests have shown that a difference of only one yield grade results in a

difference of $20 in saleable cuts from each animal. In some cases, the difference

in yield is even greater. At our last Field Day at the Range Cattle Station at Ona,

Florida, Drs. A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter cut up two carcasses which weighed

the same (650 Ibs.) and graded the same (Good +) at slaughter. The carcass with a

high yield grade (1.0), however, cut out $67.44 more in yield of saleable cuts

which could be sold over the meat counter than the low yield grade (4.5) carcass.

This resulted in 67 per cent more profit by the retailer from the high yielding






-5-


carcass. This is only one of many examples which could be cited to justify the

need to select high yielding cattle in our breeding programs. Cattlemen need to

re-evaluate the type of animal being raised. Their goal should be to produce meat

type animals that hang up thickly muscled carcasses having high quality lean meat

and a minimum of excess fat. We know that thickness of muscling is a heritable

trait. Thus, cattlemen can select for it in their breeding programs. As we make

changes, however, we should be careful never to decrease but rather increase the

quality of beef and the prestigious reputation it has established over the years.

Use New Technology Sooner

One of the biggest problems cattlemen face at the present time is in not apply-

ing new technology sooner. A few years ago, a USDA survey showed that the average

farmer still took 15 years before applying new research findings which had been

shown to be practical and economical. In the future, increasing competition from

abroad, from meat substitutes and from other meats and fish will make it mandatory

that cattlemen apply new research findings as soon as possible after they have been

found to be practical and economical.

Too many cattle operations are about as follows. The calf was mothered by an

ordinary cow which did not produce enough milk. It was sired by an ordinary bull

which had no productivity behind it and probably was no better than the cow it was

bred to. The only excuse for the bull being used was that it was a purebred bull --

but in some cases it was one that probably should have been castrated. The calf was

too small at weaning time and as a result it could not do well on grass or silage or

other roughage feed without considerable help from concentrate feeding. In some

cases, the calf was no heavier the following spring than when it was weaned. Also,

many calves will increase in size and frame by the following spring but the nutri-

tion of the grass available may be inadequate for the calf to express its full po-

tential. This calf may not get a well balanced ration until it hits the feedlot






-6-


(if the feedlot is a good one). This story can be repeated too many times and it

means U.S. cattlemen need to keep from "being their own biggest competition". For

example, at our University of Florida Beef Research Unit we are producing 400 pounds

of beef per acre on a practical, economical program. But still the average beef

production in Florida is 40 pounds of beef per acre -- or 1/10 as much. We have a

few top cattlemen in Florida also producing 400 pounds of beef per acre -- but the

majority are at too low a level of beef production.

Beef production programs in the future need about the following type of pro-

gram:

1. Use heifers from production tested herds. Select replacement heifers from

cows which are good mothers, heavy milkers, calve regularly and have the

ability to produce offspring with good growth potential and high yielding,

maximum quality carcasses.

2. Use bulls from production tested herds. Use a bull with excellent gain-

ability and weight for age. He should have a sire with a background of

siring calves with high yielding, maximum quality carcasses. Use bulls

that are considerably better than the cows they will be bred to in order

to maximize improvement in the herd.

3. Use a production testing program with the cow herd. Select and cull

according to production. Test all prospective herd sires for gaining

ability during a 100 to 180 day post weaning period begun soon after wean-

ing. This should be done on your ranch with a growing ration designed to

keep the bulls in a thrifty condition but not fat. The poor gainers should

be eliminated and the top ones kept. The mark of a real bull can also be

seen in the carcass of his offspring. Cattlemen will need carcass data

to properly evaluate a bull and his offspring in the future.






-7-


4. Make use of the latest recommendations on feeding, nutrition, management

and disease control.

The cow-calf producer will increasingly need to have data to indicate "gain-

ability" and "doing ability" of his calves in the feedlot. Moreover, he will also

need information on their potential carcass quality grade and yield grade since this

will become increasingly important. As the feedlot industry becomes more sophis-

ticated it will become harder to sell calves at a top price without some indication

of their "performance potential". Pre-conditioning of calves will also be used

more. Whether this should be done on the ranch where the cattle are produced, at a

central location where they are gathered, or in the feedlot still remains to be

determined. Likewise, who should pay the cost of pre-conditioning is still being

argued. Cow-calf producers will need to closely follow developments on this prob-

lem as more research and study is made on it. Publicity on pre-conditioning is run-

ning ahead of research to properly answer all the questions being asked.

200% Calf Crop

At the present time we are stressing that cattlemen get as close to a 100 per

cent calf crop as possible. In the not too distant future, we may be asking cattle-

men to go after a 200 per cent calf crop. As we develop better milking cows it

would seem that the better ones should be able to take care of two calves. Experi-

mental evidence is already available to indicate this might be the case. It's true

that many problems remain to be worked out (retained placenta, re-breeding on sche-

dule, free-martin heifers, controlling number of calves born and their sex, etc.)

and many persons think it impossible to solve them. However, we are not going to

make much progress until we go after problems that at the moment seem "impossible".

Ten years ago most of us thought that getting a man to circle the moon was impos-

sible in the 1960's. It was accomplished a few days ago. We need more "aiming at






-8-


the moon" type of research in increasing the calf crop, increasing carcass quality,

decreasing feed required per pound of gain, increasing weaning weights, etc. We

have already weaned a few 800 pound calves in Florida. If a few calves can reach

this weight, we need to find out how to produce more of them. In November of 1968,

I saw dairy cows in New Zealand raising 2 or 3 calves from birth to two months of

age. After 2 months the calves were weaned and then placed on concentrates for

awhile and then later were fed on pasture. The cows were returned to the milking

herd to finish their lactation period with no apparent decrease in the normal milk

production which would have occurred had they not suckled 2 or 3 calves for 2

months.

The Oklahoma Station has already begun research to increase the number of

calves raised per cow. Hormone treatments resulted in 52 cows dropping 29 singles,

12 sets of twins, 8 sets of triplets, 2 sets of quadruplets and one set of quin-

tuplets for a total of 90 calves. Most of the 21 calves that died sometime after

birth did so because they were small and weak. They were lost from cows that had

more than two calves. The cows raising two calves did okay. They weaned 796 Ibs.

of calf per cow versus 462 Ibs. for the cows raising a single calf. This is 334

more pounds of calf or 72 per cent more calf production per cow. The Oklahoma

Station is planning future experiments that will stop at twins. This research is

the forerunner of more to come there, at Florida and elsewhere. It eventually will

make it possible to aim for 200 per cent calf crops and possibly even higher later

on. The Finnish Landrace sheep average weaning 3.5 lambs whereas the average in

the U.S. is around 1.3. Thus, we should not feel that two calves per cow is impos-

sible.

Increase in Cow-Calf Operations in the Midwest

A larger percentage of the calves which used to be sent to the Midwest for

finishing are now being fed in feedlots of the West, Southwest and the Southeast.






-9-


Thus, the Midwest will need to produce more of its own feeder calves in the future.

A considerable shift has already occurred in the increase in cow-calf numbers to

the Cornbelt and the Southeast. The greatest increase in beef cow numbers in the

future will occur in these two areas of the U.S.

Confinement Feeding

There will be an increase in confinement feeding of cow-calf operations in

the future. The Texas Station has already demonstrated this feasibility over a

span of 6 calf crops. The performance of the cows fed in confinement was as good

as with the cows kept on pasture. The costs of production, however, were about

$5.00 more yearly per cow in confinement. This $5.00 figure might be different in

the Midwest because (1) of high corn silage yields per acre and (2) because Midwest

operations can more readily adapt to confinement feeding of cows on a year around

basis if necessary. Many cow-calf operations in the Midwest are already essentially

confinement feeding for about 4 to 5 months of the year when good grazing is not

available. The Purdue Station already has preliminary data indicating that a beef

cow herd can be maintained in drylot throughout the year with as good a performance

level as other means of feeding and handling them.

Silage Will Be Used In Greater Amounts

More corn silage will be used in cow-calf operations in the future. Silage

will also be made from the cob and stalk, much of which is presently being wasted,

when corn is shelled in the field. The use of machinery for shelling corn in the

field and which will facilitate picking up the cob and stalk for silage production

will make a tremendous amount of silage available in the Midwest for cow-calf

operations. The cob and stock part of the corn plant has about 39 per cent the

feeding value of the corn plant as per data by Dr. W. M. Beeson of Purdue Univer-

sity. He also estimates that enough energy is produced from the stalks and cobs






- 10 -


from each 1.5 acres (with 15 tons of whole corn plant yeild) to maintain a cow and

calf yearly. If the yield of the whole corn plant is 20 tons per acre, the cobs

and stalks from one acre can support a cow and calf yearly. These figures indicate

the big potential of corn stalk-cob silage as a feed for the beef cow herd and

another reason why cow-calf operations will increase in the Midwest. Grain sorghum

silage and grain sorghum waste will also be used in increasing amounts for cow-calf

operations in the future. The grain sorghums will especially be used in areas where

they will do better than corn silage because of moisture and other conditions.

Summary and Conclusions

Many changes will occur in U.S. beef cow-calf operations in the future. Com-

petition from beef imports, meat substitutes and rising land values and taxation

rates make it imperative that cattlemen produce more and better quality beef per

acre. Beef substitutes will not significantly affect the market for beef in the

next 10 years. However, in the long run they will have a more important effect and

cattlemen should not be complacent and ignore them. If all segments of the beef

industry do their job, we will continue to enjoy steaks and roasts for many years

to come. Beef imports should be better controlled by legislation limiting the total

amount imported and fixing a definite quo a for each country involved. This would

allow U.S. and foreign cattle producers to better plan their operations. Consider-

able emphasis needs to be placed on producing more of a meat type beef animal with

a thickly muscled carcass having high quality lean meat and a minimum of excess fat.

Cattlemen need to make maximum use of production tested animals in order to maximize

mothering ability, high reproduction rate, high weaning weights, excellent "gaining"

and "doing ability" in the feedlot and maximum carcass quality (including high

yielding animals with a minimum of excess fat and maximum eating qualities). The

Cornbelt and the Southeast will have the greatest increase in beef cow numbers in the






- 11 -


future. More use of corn and sorghum silage, corn cob and stalk silage and sorghum

waste silage will be used in cattle feeding programs. Confinement feeding of cow-

calf operations will increase under certain conditions in some areas of the U.S. as

mechanization increases.















































TJC:lcb
2/10/69
100 copies




30

~sC 1~


Farrowing Barn


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Baby Pig Barn, Laboratory and Lagoon


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HUME LIBRARY

APR 72


I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida


FIFTEENTH ANNUAL SWNE FIELD DAY
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
NOVEMBER 12,1970









CONTENTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA REPORTS



1. INFLUENCE OF HIGH DIETARY LEVELS OF VITAMIN D ON PERFORMANCE
OF YOUNG AND GROWING FINISHING SWINE (FIRST WHITE)

2. INFLUENCE OF HIGH DIETARY LEVELS OF VITAMIN A ON YOUNG PIG
PERFORMANCE (FIRST BLUE)

3. INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED ENVIRONMENT ON PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG
PIGS (SECOND WHITE)

4. CANE MOLASSES FOR GROWING PIGS (GREEN)

5. HIGH LEVEL COPPER AS A GROWTH STIMULANT FOR FINISHING HOGS
(THIRD WHITE)

6. NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE (PINK)

7. DRIED DISTILLERS' GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES FOR GROWING-FINISHING
PIGS (FOURTH WHITE)

8. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON THE PROTEIN REQUIREMENT OF GROWING-
FINISHING SWINE (YELLOW)


SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION REPORTS

9. A STUDY OF VARIOUS FEED ADDITIVES IN A PIG STARTER MEDICATION
PROGRAM (SECOND BLUE)

10. WHEAT AND BARLEY AS A REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN GROWING-
FINISHING SWINE RATIONS (FIFTH WHITE)








Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Series No. AN70-5 Experiment Station
January, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

INFLUENCE OF HIGH DIETARY LEVELS OF VITAMIN D ON
PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG AND GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

G. E. Combs.and H. D. Wallacel'


The preventive and curative properties of vitamin D for rickets and other

bone abnormalities has been recognized for several decades. The current practice

of raising swine in confinement decreases their'bpportunity of obtaining vitamin D

by action of the sunlight on the skin which consequently may increase the need for

supplemental dietary vitamin D.

The present study was conducted to compare the performance of pigs that were

fed diets containing relatively small amounts of calcium and phosphorus and zero,

adequate or excessive levels of supplementary D2 in the absence of sunlight.

Experimental

Vitamin D2 was added to corn-soy diets to provide 0, 900, 9,000 or 90,000 I.U.

per pound of feed. All pigs were housed in completely enclosed concrete floored

pens. Feed was supplied ad libitum in self feeders and water by automatic waterers.

The test period was divided into 3 separate phases:

Phase I Forty pigs weaned at 3 weeks of age allotted to 4 treatment groups.

Each treatment consisted of 2 replicated pens of 5 pigs each. This phase was

of a 7 week duration. The composition of the diets fed is presented in Table 1.

Phase II All pigs in replication 2 were removed from test at the end of phase

I. The remaining 20 pigs (replication 1) continued on their respective treat-

ments for a 5 week period. The composition of the diet fed during this phase

and during phase 3 is presented in Table 1.

Phase III At the end of phase 2 all but 1 pig in each treatment was removed

from test. The remaining 4 pigs were littermates and were continued on their

1/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.





2-


respective diets for an additional 5 weeks. At the termination of this phase

the 4 remaining pigs were slaughtered and the femur bones removed for analysis.

At the end of each phase blood samples were drawn for determination of cal-

cium, phosphorus, cholesterol and urea nitrogen.

Results and Discussion

The results of this study are summarized in Table 2.

Phase I During the initial 7 weeks of the experiment the average daily gain,

daily feed consumption, feed efficiency, blood urea nitrogen and serum cholesterol

was not significantly (P < .05) different among treatment groups. Significant

(P < .05) differences in serum calcium were found among treatments but no trend

with dietary vitamin D was established. Pigs which received 0 or 90,000 I.U./lb.

had the highest concentration of serum calcium while the lowest concentration was

found with the group receiving 9,000 I.U. vitamin D/lb. With serum phosphorus

significant (P < .05) treatment differences were also found and a trend toward in-

creasing phosphorus concentrations with increasing levels of supplemental vitamin

D was evident. Pigs that were fed 90,000 I.U. vitamin D/lb. had significantly

higher serum phosphorus levels than those given 0 supplemental vitamin D.

Phase II Level of dietary vitamin D did not significantly (P < .05) influence

rate of gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, blood urea nitrogen, or serum calcium

with pigs fed diets containing 0, 900, 9,000 or 90,000 I.U. vitamin D/lb. for a

period of 12 weeks. Pigs fed the diet containing 9,000 I.U. of D/lb. had signifi-

cantly (P < .05) higher cholesterol levels than those given either 900 or 90,000

I.U. vitamin D/lb. In contrast to phase I, pigs given 0 supplemental vitamin D

had significantly (P < .05) higher phosphorus levels than those given 900 or 9,000

I.U./lb. The 0 and 90,000 groups were not significantly (P < .05) different.

Phase III Since only 1 pig per dietary treatment was used in this phase

statistical analysis of the data was not possible. However it is evident that





- 3-


the high levels of vitamin D-did not materially influence rate or efficiency of

gain. The magnitude of differences in blood urea nitrogen and serum phosphorus

was quite large but no trend with respect to level of supplemental vitamin D was

apparent. The femur ash percent decreased slightly with increasing levels of

dietary vitamin D. In general the pig that .received 0 supplemental vitamin D had

a higher percentage of ether extractable material in the femur than the pigs given.

supplemental vitamin D.

Summary
Pigs weaned at 3 weeks of age were fed fortified corn-soy diets supplemented
with 0, 900, 9,000 or 90,000 I.U. vitamin D2 per pound for a period of 17 weeks.
These pigs were housed in the absence of sunlight and fed ad libitum in self-feeders
Rate and efficiency of gain did not differ significantly (P < .05) among the

treatment groups. The practical implication of this finding is that the intentional
or inadvertent omission of vitamin D from diets containing approximately 0.5% calcium
and phosphorus does not materially influence pig performance. Also quantities of

vitamin D several hundred times that of the pigs requirement does not adversely
influence rate and efficiency of gain.
Table 1. Composition of Diets Fed/
Ingredient Phase 1 Phase 2 and 3
lb. lb.
Ground yellow corn 50.10 79.40
Soybean meal (50%) 34.00 17.70
Cane sugar 10.00
Tallow 3.00
Defluorinated phosphate 1.00 1.1
Limestone 0.50 0.4
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplements 0.20 0.20
Antibiotic~S 0.10 0.10
Vitamin D premix 0.50 0.50
___ _100.00 1U.
1/ Diets contained 0.55% calcium and 0.52% phosphorus.
2/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn, 57; Fe, 70;
Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
3/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound of diet the
following: vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.;
pantothenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin
B12, 9 mcg.
4/ Contained 40 gm. of Aureomycin per pound.






-4-


Table 2. Influence.of High Dietary Levels Of
Vitamin D2 On Performance of Swine


Feed/ Blood
gain Urea
lb. N
mg./100
ml.


Serum
Choles-
terol
mg./100
ml.


Serum
Ca
mg.100
ml.


Serum
P
mg./100
ml.


Femur Fat
Ash in
%. Femur
7,


Phase I
I.U. D2/ib.
0
900
9,000
90,000

Phase II
I.U. D2/lb.
0
900
9,000
90,000

Phase III
I.U. D2/lb.
0
900
9,000
90,000


U-


SMeans in same
significantly


column within phases
(P < .05).


bearing different superscript letters differ


Av.
init.
Wt., lb.


Av.
final
Wt., lb.


Av.
Da.
Gain
lb.


Av.
Da.
feed
lb.


13.7
13.7
13.7
13.6


55.8
54.7
56.7
54.8


1.00
0.97
1.02
0.98



1.90
1.59
1.69
1.79



1.86
1.82
1.68
1.68


2.10
2.11
2.33
2.11



3.98
3.36
3.49
3.83



6.34
5.91
5.66
6.51


12.1ab
11.8ab
11.3b
12.4a



11.1
11.1
11.0
11.1


2.11
2.17
2.28
2.09



2.09
2.11
2.06
2.14



3.41
3.25
3.37
3.87


7.5a;
7.8a
8.6ab
9.1b



9.0a
8.2b
8.4b
8.7ab


17.2
17.9
17.9
19.0


23.3
21.0
'19.3
22.6



.14.5
23.0
21.6
13.0


98.8 .
83.3
88.9
92.1



96.2ab
91.4b
108.8a
86.4b



90.0
81.0
112.0
84.0


50.6
49.5
49.4
48.0


24.0
15.4
18.'
19.3


- --


--






Department of Animal Science
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-6
January, 1970


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF HIGH DIETARY LEVELS OF
VITAMIN A ON YOUNG PIG PERFORMANCE

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace -


The vitamin A requirement of young pigs from about 10 to 45 pounds body

weight is approximately 900 I.U. of vitamin A per pound of diet. Starter diets

composed primarily of corn and soybean meal unless supplemented with vitamin A

are often marginal with respect to meeting the pigs' requirement.

This study was initiated to determine the influence of excessive quantities

of vitamin A upon rate and efficiency of gain with early weaned pigs.

Experimental

Forty pigs weaned at two weeks of age were allotted to 4 replicated pens of

5 pigs each. Feed was offered ad libitum with self feeders and water was suppli

by automatic watering devices.

The supplemental vitamin A content of the 4 diets over the 6 week feeding

period was as follows:

Treatment No. 1 2 3 4

Vitamin A, I.U./lb.
1st two weeks 6,000 24,000 96,000 384,000
2nd two weeks 2,000 8,000 32,000 128,000
3rd two weeks 1,000 4,000 16,000 64,000

The composition of the diet fed is presented in Table 1.


Results and Discussion

A summary of the results is presented in Table 2.

The average daily intake of vitamin A during the 42 day experimental period

was 3,000, 12,000, 48,000 and 184,000 i.U. for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respec-

tively. This wide range in vitamin A consumption did not result in significant

1/ Combs and all.a~c Ani-tal. itrltli,~st, AmI-Tl. Scieer.ce 1)epartrent.


ed




-2-

(P < .05) treatment differences in either daily gain, daily feed consumption or

feed required per unit of gain.
Although the experimental period was of relatively short duration it is
evident that the intentional or the unintentional addition of large quantities
of vitamin A to starter diets does not adversely affect rate or efficiency of gain.
Summary

Forty pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were fed a corn-soy starter diet that con-
tained various levels of supplemental vitamin A for a 42 day period. No significant
(P < .05) differences were found in the daily gain, feed consumption or feed efficient
of pigs consuming an average of 3,000, 12,000, 48,000 or 184,000 I.U. of vitamin Ada'/

Table 1. Composition of Diet

Ingredient lb.
Ground yellow corn 50.59
Soybean meal (50%) 23.60
Cane Sugar 10.00
Tallow 3.00
Steamed bonemeal 1.30
Ground limestone 0.30
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace minerals ./ 0.10
Vitamin supplement 2/ 0.31
Antibiotic suppleWent 2/ 0.30
Vitamin A premix 10.00
1/ Supplied the following in PPM: Mn, 57;
Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
2/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound
of diet the following: Vitamin D, 400 I.U.;
riboflavin, 4.4 mg.; pantothenic acid, 10
mg.; niacin, 20 mg.; and vitamin B12, 9 mcg.
3/ Contained 10 gm. Aureomycin per pound.
4/ Vitamin A (10,000 I.U./gm.) and cane sugar
were used to provide the quantity of supple-
mental vitamin A required for each dietary
treatment.

Table 2. Influence of High Dietary Vitamin A on Growth of Young Pigs

Treatment No. 1 2 3 4
Av. Daily vitamin A intake, I.U. 3,000 12,000 48,000 184,000

Number of pigs 10 10 10 10
Av. initial weight, lb. 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8
Av. final weight, lb. 40.4 40.6 39.9 40.0
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.74
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.51 1.53 1.44 1.61
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.00 2.03 1.95 2.19
Days on test 42 42 42 42







Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-9 Experiment Station
May, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED ENVIRONMENT
ON PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS -

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace-/


A previous study (Fla. Ani. Sci. Mimeo. Series 70-1) showed that young pigs
could readily adapt to several environmental temperatures; no significant (P < .05)
differences in rate or efficiency of gain were found with pigs maintained at either
ambient temperature, 650 F or 80 F. Knowledge of the response obtained from a
wider range of temperatures would be of value to the present day producer that
follows a confinement program. The present experiment was designed to study the
influence of 5 environmental temperatures on the performance of young pigs.

Experimental

Fifty pigs weaned at two weeks of age were allotted from outcome groups to
5 treatments. The treatments consisted of the following temperatures: (1) ambient
temperature, (2. constant 600 F, (3) constant 700 F, (4) constant 800 F and
(5) constant 90 F.

During the 8 week experimental period the ambient temperature ranged from a
low of 370 F to a high of 930 F with an average maximum and minimum temperature
of 830 F and 570 F, respectively. Pigs in the ambient temperature group were
kept in semi-enclosed concrete floored pens. Wood shavings were used for bedding
with this group and with the pigs housed in the temperature controlled pens. All
pens were equipped with automatic waterers and self-feeders. The composition of
the diet fed is presented in Table-.

Results and Discussion

The overall performance is presented in Table 2. No significant differences
(P < .05) were found among treatments for either rate of gain, feed consumption
or feed efficiency. Although these total performance data.were not significantly
different the gains when expressed on a weekly basis indicated that temperature
influenced growth rate during the early weeks of life (Table 3). For the first
3 weeks those pigs kept at constant 800 and 900 F gained faster than those at
either 600 or 700 F. Then, with the exception of the 5th week, gains were similar
for all treatments for the remainder of the experiment. These data would confirm
the previous findings (AN70-1) that the young pig will perform satisfactorily
when exposed to a wide range of environmental temperatures.

Summary

Fifty pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were used to study the effect of environ-
mental temperature upon rate and efficiency of gain.
The total performance data (8 weeks) showed that-pigs maintained at constant
temperatures of 600, 700, 800 or 900 F or at ambient temperature did not differ
significantly (P < .05) in rate or efficiency of gain.
1/ Acknowledgement is made to the Florida Power Corp. for providing the heat
pumps and technical assistance.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.





-2 -


Table 1. Composition of Diet 1/


Ground yellow corn 47.16
Soybean meal (50%) 25.64
Sugar 10.00
Tallow 12.00
Steamed bone meal 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace minerals 2/ 0.10
Vitamin Suppement 3/ 2.30
Antibiotic 0.30
100.00

1/ Diet contained 18% protein.
2/ Supplied the following in PPM: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co,
1.6 and Zn, 100.
3/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound of diet the following:
Vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.;
pantothenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12, 9 mcg.
4/ Contained 10 gm. of Aureomycin per pound.


Table 2. Performance of Pigs Housed At
Various Environmental Temperatures

Temperature OF
Ambient 60 70 80 90
Av. initial wt., lb. 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.5
Av. final wt., lb. 57.0 51.8 53.4 58.5 53.3
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.85 0.75 0.78 0.87 0.78
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.53 1.38 1.42 1.70 1.48
Feed/gain, lb. 1.80 1.84 1.82 1.95 1.90


Table 3. Cummulative Daily Gains By Weeks

Temperature OF
Week No. Ambient 60 70 80 90
1 .02b .00c .00c .01b .04a
2 .10b .07c .05d 11b .15a
3 .15b .11c .11c .18a .17a
4 .27 .22 .20 .31 .28
5 .40 .31b .30b .43a .40a
6 .56 .46 .46 .57 .54
7 .65 .55 .54 .68 .66
8 .85 .75 .78 .87 .78

Means on same line bearing different superscript differ
significantly (P < .05).






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-10 Experiment Station
May, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

CANE MOLASSES FOR GROWING SWINE

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace -


Results of previous experiments (Fla. Ani. Sci. Mimeo. No. 69-13) indicated
that young pigs 2 to 5 weeks of age could readily utilize diets that contained
up to 20% cane molasses but an adaptation period may be required if higher dietary
levels are used, The objective of this study was to evaluate gain, feed efficiency
and nutrient digestibility by growing swine fed diets containing various levels
of cane molasses.

Experimental

Forty pigs averaging 28 Ibs. were allotted to 5 treatments from outcome
groups formed on the basis of litter and initial weight. The pigs were maintained
in individual concrete-floored pens for a 49-day experimental feeding period.
Feed and water were available ad libitum.

The composition of the diets is presented in table i. Chromic oxide was
incorporated into all diets during the final week and fecal samples were collected
from each pig the 4th and 5th day following chromic oxide addition. Blood samples
were collected from each pig on the final day of the experiment. The data were
analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and treatment means evaluated
according to accepted procedures.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data is presented in table 2.

Pigs fed the diet containing 40% molasses gained significantly less than
those given the 0 or 20% molasses diets. However, the absence of significant
differences between the 0, 10 and 20% groups,the 10, 20 and 30% groups and the
10, 30 and 407. groups illustrates that increasing levels of dietary molasses does
not necessarily result in a reduction of gain. A similar situation was found
with the feed consumption and feed efficiency data in that although differences
were found between treatments no definite relationship between these criteria and
dietary molasses level was evident.

Digestibility of dry matter, ether extract and protein was significantly
affected by level of dietary molasses. Neither dry matter nor ether extract
digestion coefficients showed a close association with dietary molasses levels.
With protein, a digestion-molasses level relationship was established. Pigs given
the 0% molasses diet had a larger coefficient than pigs fed diets containing
molasses at any level; coefficients for those fed the 10% molasses diet were larger
than the 20, 30 and 40% levels; the coefficients for the three highest levels of
molasses were similar.

1/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science.






-2-


Plasma glucose and plasma urea nitrogen were not significantly altered by
dietary treatment.

Summary

A study was conducted with forty growing pigs to evaluate diets containing
0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% cane molasses.

The gain of pigs fed the 40% molasses diet was significantly less than pigs
given diets containing either 0 or 20% molasses. The similarity of gains among
these and the remaining treatments showed only trends rather than a definite
molasses level gain depression relationship. Similar results were obtained for
feed intake, feed.efficiency and digestibility of dry matter and ether extract.
The three highest levels of dietary molasses reduced protein digestibility when
compared to either the 0 or 107 molasses diets.


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS
Ingredient Percent Molasses
0 10 20 30 40
% % % % %

Ground yellow corn 71.20 59.70 47.70 35.70 23.20

Soybean meal (507) 24.00 25.50 27.50 29.50 32.00

Moiassesb 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00

Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50

Trace mineral mixc 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

Vitamin mixd 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

Antibiotic 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

a Calculated essential amino acid requirements with the exception of methionine,


were fulfilled by corn and


soybean meal.


b Standard molasses produced from sugar cane grown on organic soil: analyzed
9.97 protein (N x 6.25). This protein was not included in calculation of iso-
nitrogenous dietary treatments.
c Supplied the following to the diets in p.p.m.: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6
K, 7.5 and Zn, 100.
d The following vitamins were added to provide a calculated total per lb. of diet:
vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.; pantothenic acid,
10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg.; vitamin B12, 10 mcg.
e Contained 5 gm. procaine penicillin and 15 gm. streptomycin per lb.





- 3 -


TABLE 2. Performance Of Pigs Fed Diets Contaiuing
Various Levels of Cane Molasses


Level of Molasses
1 20


30 40


initial wt., lb.
final wt., lb.
daily gain, lb.
daily feed, lb.
feed/gain, lb.


Av. digestibility %
Dry matter
Ether extract
Crude protein
Plasma glucose (mg./100)
Plasma urea nitrogen (Mg./100)


Item


28.2
107.5
1.62a
3.56ab
2.20bcd
2 .20


28.2
99.9
1.46abc
3.1 0bcd
2.12d


94.5ab
74.6ab
77.1b
91.0
25.3


28.2
105.8
1.58ab
3.80a
2.42ab


92.6d
68.1bed
70.9c
86.0
24.5


95.3a
71.9bc
82.6a
87.0
22.7


28.2
98.5
1.43bd
3.41abc
2.39abc


92.9cd
69.6bcd
67.9c
92.0
24.1


28.2
93.0
1.32 dcd
abcd
3.34
2.53a


94.0abc
94.0a
84.2a
69.7c
89.0
25.1


abcd Treatment means on the same line bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .05).


----


.


LI k I


Item -









Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-11 Experiment Station
May, 1970 Gainesville, Florida


HIGH LEVEL COPPER AS A GROWTH
STIMULANT FOR FINISHING HOGSI/


H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and E. W. Lucas2-



The critical minimum requirement of swine for copper has not been adequately
defined; however, it is generally accepted that 5-10 ppm in the diet is
sufficient for all classes of swine. The use of higher levels of copper (125-
250 ppm) as a growth stimulant has been studied extensively during the past
fifteen years. A compilation of the many experiments conducted between 1955 and
1967 was made by Wallace (1). This report emphasized the effectiveness of high
level copper and the feasibility of using copper as a routine feed additive.
These experiments demonstrated that young pigs respond more dramatically to
copper supplementation than do older pigs. Also there was a clear tendency for
copper fed pigs to lose much of the early advantage when fed copper continuously
throughout the growing-finishing period.

This study was designed to obtain performance response data to copper
supplementation using older pigs which had not previously been fed high levels
of copper. The main object was to determine if healthy, thrifty pigs would
respond to a level of 125 ppm copper as copper sulfate during this less
critical period of the production cycle.


Experimental
The study consisted of two trials conducted simultaneously but with no
direct replication intended. The first trial (trial 1) involved a total of
thirty-six crossbred barrows (Duroc, Yorkshire and Hampshire). The animals
were divided into similar groups of eighteen pigs each, based on weight and
litter. These animals were fed in concrete confinement and one group was
supplemented with high level copper. The other trial (trial 2) involved
forty-eight gilts from the same litters as the barrows of trial 1. They were
also divided into two groups as in trial 1 but were maintained in 1/2 acre dirt
lots during the course of the trial.




!/Supported in part by a grant-in-aid from International Copper Research Associa-
tion, Inc., New York, New York. Grateful acknowledgement is also given Chas.
Pfizer & Co., Terre Haute, Indiana for supplying the vitamin mixture and
Calcium Carbonate Company of Quincy, Illinois for supplying the trace mineral
supplement.

2/Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists and Lucas, graduate assistant, Depart-
ment of Animal Science.







All pigs were self-fed and water was provided by automatic watering devices.

Both trials were initiated on October 28, 1969. On January 19, 1970 three
of the heavier pigs in the control pen and four of the heavier pigs in the copper
supplemented pen were weighed off test in trial 1. On January 22, 1970 eight of
the heavier pigs in the control pen and six of the heavier pigs in the copper
supplemented pen were weighed off test in trial 1. On January 28, 1970 the
remaining pigs of trial 1 and all pigs of trial 2 were weighed off test. Thus
the gilts of trial 2 averaged a few more days on test than the barrows of
trial 1.

The basal feed mixture is presented in Table 1. Gain data were analyzed for
statistical significance using the analysis of variance procedure.


Results and Discussion

The results of the study are summarized in Table 2. As previously pointed
out the two trials were not intended to be designed replications so there is
little purpose to be served by making a comparison of the two trials. However,
it is interesting to note that the gilts fed in the dirt lots were generally
much less efficient in feed conversion (3.4 for barrows and 4.0 for gilts).
Granting that the gilts were somewhat heavier initially and also finished at a
heavier average weight, both of which would not favor feed conversion, this
difference seems unusually great.. This is particularly so when we realize that .
gilts normally convert feed somewhat more efficiently.than.barrows. .Possible
explanations include, adverse effects of cold wet weather, more exercising and
greater exposure to internal parasite infection.

In both trials the copper supplementation increased the level of feed
intake some but exerted no marked influence on feed conversion. The rate of gain
was also slightly greater in the copper supplemented groups. However theee.differ-
ences were not statistically significant.


Summary

A total of eighty-four growing-finishing pigs were utilized to test the
supplementary value of 125 ppm copper fed as copper sulfate (CuS04). The copper
supplemented pigs consumed more feed than the control pigs, converted feed to
gain at the same level of efficiency as control pigs and gained slightly faster
but not significantly faster than control pigs.


Literature Cited

1. Vallace, H. D. 1967. High Level Copper in Swline Feeding. A review of
research in the United States. Published by International Copper Research
Assoc., Inc. New York, New York.








Table 1. Basal Feed lFixture


Ingredient Percent

Ground yellow corn 78.75
Soybean oilmeal (50% protein) 18.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace minerals1/ 0.15
Vitamin supplement/ 0.10
100.00

i/ Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese. 10%
iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper, 0.3% iodine
and 0.1% cobalt.
'/ Contained 6,000 mg. riboflavin, 20,000 mg.
niacin, 12,000 mg. pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg. choline chloride, 10,000 mcg.
vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I. U. of vitamin
A and 400,000 I. C. U. of vitamin D3
per pound.


Table 2. Influence of High Level Copper Supplementation On
Feedlot Performance of Growing-Finishing Swine


TRIAL I TRIAL 2
CASTRATE IIALES FEMALES
FED IN CONCRETE CONFINEMENT FED IN SMALL DIRT LOTS

COPPER COPPER /
TREATMENT CONTROL SUPPLEMENTED1/ CONTROL SUPPLEMENTED-/


Number of pigs
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Av. daily feed intake, lb.
Av. daily gain, lb.
Feed required per unit gain
Av. number of days on test


18
59.6
220.6
6.24
1.84
3.41
87.8


18
58.3
223.3
6.40
1.86
3.44
88.5


23-Y
72.0
233.7
7.04
1.76
4.00
92.0


24
71.0
239.5
7.34
1.83
4.01
92.0


/ Copper was fed as copper sulfate (CuSO4) at a level to contribute 125 ppm
of copper to the diet.
2/ One pig was stolen from this lot on Nov. 10, 1969. Feed and average initial
lot weights were adjusted so that the data presented represent performance
of the remaining twenty-three pigs.







Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-12 Experiment Station
May, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace-/


Most reports would indicate that the ability of the pig to utilize non-protein
nitrogen (NPN) is extremely limited. However, the present and predicted world
shortage of protein requires that every possibility of alleviating this situation
continue to be researched.

This study was initiated to evaluate diammonium phosphate (Duophos2) in the
diets of growing-finishing swine.

Experimental

Sixty pigs were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from outcome groups formed
on the basis of initial weight. Pigs were housed in concrete-floored pens equipped
with self feeders and automatic waterers. During the last week of the experiment
chromic oxide was added to all diets to facilitate determination of digestion
coefficients for dry matter, ether extract and protein. Blood samples were ob-
tained from each pig on the last day of the experiment.

The dietary treatments and the composition of diets fed are presented in
table 1.

Results and Discussion

The data are summarized in table 2. Overall the results show that the pigs
receiving 15% protein gain more slowly than those given 17% protein (1.52 vs 1.71).
The gains of pigs fed 5% NPN protein at either protein level was markedly depressed;
feed efficiency was also adversely affected at this level of NPN protein: A compari-
son of the 0% and 3% NPN protein groups showed no significant differences (P < .05)
at either level of protein.

Digestibility of dry matter was not significantly (P < .05) influenced by
level of protein. The mean coefficient for all pigs given 17% protein was 80.8%
as compared to 81.8 for those fed the 15% protein diet. As the level of NPN
protein increased dry matter digestibility decreased. Neither ether extract nor
protein::digestibility.were significantly affected .byprotein.level or by quantity
of dietary NPN.

Blood urea nitrogen was significantly (P < .05) higher in pigs given 17% pro-
tein. The 3 and 5% levels of NPN also increased significantly (P < .05) the blood
urea nitrogen levels.

Summary
Sixty pigs having an initial weight of 77 pounds were fed diets containing
either 151 or 17% protein. At each of these levels diammonium phosphate contri-
buted 0, 3 or 5% NPN protein.

I7 Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science.
2/ Duophos supplied by International Minerals and Chemical.Corp.







2 -

Pigs fed the 17% protein diets gained significantly faster than pigs given
the 15% protein diets. JBoth gain and feed efficiency were adversely influenced
when 5% NPN protein was present. The gains of the 0% and 3% NPN protein groups
were not significantly (P> .05 different. Digestibility of dry matter decreased
with increasing levels of NPN protein whereas level or source of protein did not
influence protein or ether extract digestion.


Table 1. Treatments and Diet Composition
-


Protein level %
Corn-soy protein %
NPN protein %
Treatment No.


Ingredient, lb.
Corn
Soybean meal
Duophos
Limestone
Defluor. phos.
Salt
Trace miner a-
Vitamin mix -
Pro-Strep.3/


17
17 14 12
0 3 5
4 5 6


74.00
20.70


2.50
.50
.10
1.20
1.00


78.53
14.00
2.67
2.00

.50
.10
1.20
1.00


81.45
9.30
4.45
2.00


.50
.10
1.20
1.00


79.00
15.70


2.50
.50
.10
1.20
1.00


83.53 86.15
9.00 4.60
2.67 4.45
2.00 2.00

.50 .50
.10 .10
1.20 1.20
1.00 1.00


I/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 48; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
2/ Provided per pound of diet: vitamin A, 1400 I.U., vitamin D, 400 I.U.; ribo-
flavin, 4.4 mg.; pantothenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12, 10mcg.
3/ Contained 5 gm. procaine penicillin and 15 gm. streptomycin/lb.


Table 2. Performance Of Pigs Fed Diets Containing
Diammonium Phosphate As A Source of NPN
Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
NPN protein % 0 3 5 0 3 5


initial wt., lb.
final wt., lb.
daily gain, lb.I/
daily feed, lb.
feed/gain, lb.


Av. Digestibility %
Dry matter/.'
Ether extract
Protein
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/100)3/


77.30
183.90
1.78
5.58
3.13


77.30
175.90
1.64
5.60
3.41


82.90 82.30
48.10 37.50
77.90 78.30
15 17


1/ Protein levels and NPN levels sign. different
2/ Sign. affected by NPN level (P < .05)
S/ Sign. affected by protein level and NPN level


(P < .05).


(P < .05).


77.30
146.00
1.14
5.13
4.50


80.20
49.90
78.50
22


77.40
186.60
1.82
6.49
3.57


82.70
42.60
78.00
18


77.00
185.40
1.81
5.67
3.13


80.50
48.50
78.50
23


77.30
167.20
1.50
5.94
3.96


79.30
41.50
77.30
21


1.00 1.00







Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-13 Experiment Station
June, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

DRIED DISTILLERS' GRAINS WITH, SOT~BLES
FOR GROWING-FINISHING PIGS .-

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace /


Dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDG/S) did not significantly influence
.rate or efficiency of gain when included in starter diets at levels of 10 or 20%
;(Fla. Ani. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. 69-14).

The present study was initiated to study the effects of DDG/S upon growth
performance and nutrient digestibility when added to the diets of growing-finishing
swine.

Experimental

Eighteen pigs averaging 51 lb. were allotted to three treatments from outcome
groups. The treatments were diets containing 0, 10 and 20% DDG/S (table 1). The
pigs were group-fed in concrete-floored pens for a period of 73 days. Feed and
water were available ad libitum. When the animals weighed about 100 lb. and again
at the termination of the experiment, digestibility of dry matter, protein and
ether extract was determined.

Results and Discussion

The results are summarized in table 2.

Daily gains were not significantly affected by the addition of either 10% or
29% DDG/S. Daily feed consumption tended to increase with increasing levels of
DDG/S. The pigs fed the 10 and 20% DDG/S diets consumed 7% and 147. more feed than
those given 0% DDG/S. Thisincrease in consumption may be a reflection of the
decrease in digestibility of dry matter protein and ether extract. During both
phase 1 and phase 2 the pigs fed 20% DDG/S had the lowest digestion coefficients
followed by the 10% DDG/S group and the highest being found with the group fed 0%
DDG/S. These data would suggest that with DDG/S apparently depressing nutrient
digestibility an increase in feed consumption must occur in order to maintain equal
weight gains among the treatments.

Summary

Growing-finishing pigs (initial weight, 51 lb.) were fed diets containing 0,
10 or 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles. Daily.gain, feed consumption and
feed efficiency were not significantly (P < .05) influenced by treatment. But there
was a definite trend of increased feed consumption with increasing levels of distill
grains. Digestibility of dry matter, protein and ether extract was significantly
(P < .05) influenced by dietary level of distillers grains. In general the degree o4
depression in digestibility was correlated with the dietary level of dried distiller:
grains with solubles.

1/ This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the Distillers' Feed
Research Council, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science.







- 2


Table 1. Composition of DWets

DDG/S
Ingredient 0 10 20
lb. lb. lb.

Ground yellow corn 77.20 71.70 66.20
Soybean meal 18.00 13.50 9.00
DDG/S 0.00 10.00 20.00
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals/ 0.10 0.10 0.10
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.50 2.50
Vitamin mix 2/ 1.20 1.20 1.20
Pro-Strep 3/ 0.50 0.50 0.50
100.00 100.00 100.00

1/ Supplied the following (ppm): Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6; K, 7.5
and Zn, 100.
2/ The following vitamins were added to provide a calculated total per lb. of
diet: Vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin 4.4 mg.; panto-
thenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg.; vitamin B12, 10 mcg.
3/ Contained 5 gm. procaine penicillin and 15 gm. streptomycin per lb.


Table 2. Summary Of Performance Of Growing-Finishing Pigs
Fed Diets Containing 10 and 20% DDG/S

DDG/S
0 10 20

Phase 1 1/
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.70 1.70 1.66
Av. daily feed, lb. 4.50 5.08 5.38
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.64 3.00 3.25
Av. digestibility % b b
Dry matter 95.7a 94.9a 94.0b
Protein 76.0a 780a 67.1b
Ether extract 83.0a 73.9ab 67.3

Phase 2 21
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.82 1.81 1.89
Av. daily feed, lb. 5.87 6.29 6.67
Av. feed/gain, lb. 3.22 3.48 3.56
Av. digestibility %7
Dry matter 94.8a 93.7a 90.0
Protein 78.9a 75.0a 59.0b
Ether extract 52.8a 41.5b 36.4

1/ Phase 1 includes the initial 5 weeks of the experiment; the
initial and final weights in this phase were 50.7 and 107.8
lb., respectively.
2/ Phase 2 includes the entire experimental period; the average
final weight during this phase was 184.8 lb.
abc Treatment means on the same line bearing different superscript
letters differ significantly (P < .01).







Department of Animal 'ctence f orida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN' 1-1' .. i Experiment Station
July, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON THE PROTEIN
REQUIREMENT OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE 1/

H' .'D Wallace, E. W. Lucas
SA. Palmer and 'G;-E;.''C6mbs 2/ :


Differences in performance and carcass development between gilts and barrows
.are well documented (1).. Barrows tend to gain:weight more rapidly but less
efficiently while gilts yield leaner'carcasses'as evidenced by longer carcasses,
less backfat, larger loin eye measurements and-higher percentages of the four
lean cuts..

These differences in performance and carcass' characteristics suggest the
strong possibility that differences in nutritive requirements also exist. The
report by Wallace .(2) demonstrated that i.lts were. .penlized-more than barrows
when dietary protein levels were low. The present study was undertaken to further
evaluate protein requirements of the two sexes. -

Experimental

,..Forty-eight crossbred pigs (Duroc x Landrace) were allotted to 24 pens of
two pigs -eaph according to litter sex and weight'. Twelve pairs. of gilts and
twelve pairs of barrows were randomly assigned to four protein level sequences"
(17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13-11 and 14-12-10) giving a total of six pigs of each
sex on each of the protein level sequences. Protein levels were adjusted down-
ward as the.average pig weight in each pen reached 100 pounds and then a second
downward adjustment was made when weights averaged 150 pounds.

All pigs were self-fed in small concrete pens with water furnished by
automatic watering devices.

Composition of the various feed mixtures is presented in Table 1.

All animals were slaughtered at a final weight of'220 +'5 pounds according
to standard procedure and carcass cut out data were obtained according to pre-
viously described procedures (1).

Results and Discussion

A summary of the results is presented..it.nTable 2.

Gilts gained less rapidly than6barrows at all 'levels of dietary protein.
Thi' overall differencedin rate of gain was statistically significant (P < .01).

1/ The data presented in this paper were taken from swine-unit experiment No. .195.
2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Lucas, graduate assistant; Palmer,, Meat Scientist;
and Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.







- 2 -


The influences of protein level sequences on daily gain were not statistically
significant (P < .05) but a definite trend is evident for both gilts and barrows.
As protein levels were reduced rates of gain were also reduced. Gilts appeared
to be affected slightly more by the reduction in protein than barrows, although
the data are not conclusive in this regard.

Feed intake data were variable from pen to pen but barrows ate more feed
per head per day and were generally less efficient than gilts in feed conversion.
An exception to this was on the low protein regime where the barrows were consid-
erably more efficient in feed conversion than gilts (3.40 vs. 3.74). This obser-
vation suggests that the low protein sequence (14-12-10) was penalizing gilts
more than barrows.

Gilts and barrows showed similar dressing percentages with no protein level
effect evident. Gilt carcasses had less backfat, were longer and exhibited larger
loin eye measurements than barrow carcasses. Gilts excelled barrows in four lean
cuts (P < .01) and this superiority was in evidence at all protein level sequences.
Lean cut percentages trended downward with protein level reductions. Barrow
carcasses appeared to be more markedly affected in this regard than gilt carcasses.
Marbling scores which represent a subjective appraisal of the amount of fat dis-
tributed throughout the longissimus dorsi muscle were quite similar except for
barrows fed the low protein levels. In this case the value indicated markedly
more intermuscular fat deposition.

Summary

An experiment involving forty eight pigs has been conducted to determine the
influence of sex giltss vs. barrows) on dietary protein requirements. Four dietary
protein level sequences were studied (17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13,11 and 14-12-10).

Both gilts and barrows gained most rapidly and most efficiently on the highest
protein sequence. Carcass measurements which reflected leanness (backfat thick-
ness, loin eye area and percent lean cuts) were also favored by the higher protein
intake. The data suggest that gilt performance, in terms of daily gain and feed
conversion, may have been more adversely affected than barrow performance by
suboptimum protein intake. However, the carcass data did not substantiate this
observation.

The usual differences between gilts and barrows were noted. Gilts gained
slower, but more efficiently and yielded leaner carcasses.





Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966.
Feed restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Bulletin 706.

2. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects on Muscle Char-
acteristics and Quality. Chapt. 8. The Pork Industry: Problems and
Progress. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.













Table 1. Composition of Experimental Diets
~m_rmn-laaprsar~m~i bc s ~ ~ i~-lTi S~` nTI- C1Cl U.-CI -==I


Percent Protein


Ingredient 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10


Ground yellow corn 75.70 78.20 80.70 83.20 85.70 88.20 90.70 92.95
Soybean oilmeal 20.50 18.00 15.50 13.00 10.50 8.00 5.50 3.25
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals premixa 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
B-vitamin premixb 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin B12 premixc 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Vitamin A & D premixd 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00. 1.00
Copper oxide (CuO) (19 gm) (19 gn) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gil) (19 gm)


a/ Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper, 0.3% fodine and 0.1% cobalt.
b/ Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb., respectively of riboflavin, pantothenic
acid, niacin and choline chloride.
c/ Contained 20 mg, B12 per lb.
d/ Contained 4.6 gm. Vitamin A supplement (30,000 I.U./gm.), 0.25 gm. -Vitamin D supplement
(200,000 I.U./gm.) and 449 gm. yellow corn per lb.
















Table 2. Influence of dietary protein level on the performance
and carcass characteristics of gilts and barrows .

Sx .:, -. Gilts Barrows
P tein level, % 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10


No. pigs 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Av. initial wt., lb. 29.3 .30.5 30.5 31.8 30.1 30.5 30.5 30.6
Av ..:inal'wt., lb. 223.2 222.0 218.3 219.8 220.8 222.3 225.3 225.0
Daily gain, lb. 1.67 1.62 1.57 1.51 1.77 1.78 1.69 1.68
Dail, feed intake, lb. 5.26 5.33 5.17 5.64 5.69 5.92 5.70 5.72
Feed oer unit gain 3.17 3.29 3.29 3.74 3.21 3.33 3.37 3.40
Av. number days on test 117.2 118.5 119.3 124.3 .108.0 108.0 115.0 116.0
Dressing percent .71.4 71.8- 71.7 71.0 71.0 71.5 72.2 71.3
Back.at thickness, in. 1.35 .1.43 1.42 1.50 1.45 1.63 1.77 1.63
Carc-ss length, in. 30.60 30.52 30.52 30.83 30.18 30.00 30.07 29.75
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.24 4.39 4.25 3.95 3.88 3.82 3.73 3.62
Percent 4 lean uuts 51.5 51.0 50.7 49.2 49.2 47.4 46.9 45.3
Marbling score- : 9.1 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.8 10.4 9.3 13.1


a/ Slight degree of marbling designated by 8; small, 11;


modest, 14.







Suwannee Valley Experiment Station Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Mimeograph Series No. SVS 70-6 Live Oak, Florida
March, 1970

,A Study of Various Feed Additives in a Pig Starter Medication Program

G. R. Hollis ./

Supplementation of swine rations with antibiotics continues to be a widespread
practice. This is particularly true with pig starter rations. However, the question
still arises as to which antibiotic or combination of antibiotics are most beneficial.

The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of neomycin,
terramycin and a combination of neomycin and terramycin in a pig starter medication
program.

PROCEDURE

Ninety-six, five-week-old crossbred pigs (Hampshire X Yorkshire-Hampshire and
Yorkshire X Yorkshire-Hampshire) were divided into outcome groups according to weight
litter and sex and allotted to twelve pens of eight pigs each. Three pens of pigs
were fed on each of the dietary treatments shown below.

1. Basal Non-Medicated
2. Basal + 150 gm. neomycin per ton
3. Basal + 150 gm. terramycin per ton
4. Basal + 150/150 gm. neo-terramycin per ton

The composition of the basal diet is presented in Table 1. All pigs were self-
fed ad libitum in solid concrete and partially-slotted concrete floored pens and
water was supplied by automatic waterers. The pigs averaged approximately 24 Ibs.
liveweight initially and the feeding experiment lasted until the pigs consumed the
first 50 pounds of feed following weaning.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Average daily feed consumption, feed required per pound of gain and average
daily gain for individual pen are presented in Table 2. Pigs fed the basal diet
with no antibiotic supplementation gained slower than the pigs on all other treat-
ments. Pigs which received the basal + terramycin and basal + neo-terramycin diets
gained at a similar rate. Table 3 indicates that the pigs on the basal diet consumed
less feed than the other groups, which could partially explain the slower gain pro-
duced by this group. However, a summary of the feed required per pound of gain
(Table 3) reveals that the control pigs required considerably more feed per pound
of gain than the treated groups. Pigs receiving the basal + neo-terramycin ration
gave the most efficient gain (2.04).

There was no evidence of scours in any of the groups at any time during the
28 day trial. All groups did exhibit loose bowels on the second and third day of
the trial, but none could be classified as scours. It should be pointed out that
these pigs were put on test the day they were weaned, they were moved from the
farrowing house to the test pens in another barn, and the temperature dropped from
a high of 63 on that day to a low of 19 the next morning. So, all of these pigs
were put through a tremendous stress at the initiation of this trial. The only
mortalities that occurred were two pigs, one on the basal + neomycin group and one
in the control group. Neither death was attributed to scours.
1/ Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Suwannee Valley Experiment Station. The
assistance of Terryl Brady, Swine Herdsman, is gratefully acknowledged.






- 2-


These results indicate, that under the conditions of this experiment, that the
addition of neomycin, terramycin or neo-terramycin to a pig starter ration gave a
consistent response in improvement of gain and acc-rded a 7.0 15.7% saving in
amount of feed required per pound of gain.

Summary
Ninety-six pigs, weaned at five weeks of age were used to study the effect of
various antibiotics in a pig starter medication program.

Pigs that received a starter ration with either neomycin, terramycin or
neo-terramycin added, gained faster on less feed than pigs that received the contre
ration. No scours were observed in any group at any time during the trial.

Table 1. Composition of Basal Diet
Ingredient %
Ground yellow corn 61.40
Soybean meal 27.50
Cane sugar 5.00
Fat 3.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00
Iodized salt .50
Trace mineral premix 1/ .10
Vitamin premix 2/ -50
CALCULATED ANALYSIS:
rude protein 19.15
Calcium .72
Phosphorus .72
17 Adds in p.p.m. to 1 ton of complete feed: Manganese (60), zinc (50), iron (30),
copper (5), cobalt (2) and iodine (1 1/2).
2/ Provides per lb. of complete feed: Vit. A (5000 I.U.); Vit. D (2500 I.U.);
Vit. E (5 I.U.); Riboflavin (5 mgs.); Pantothenic acid (12 mgs.); Niacin
(25 mgs.); Choline Chloride (500 mgs.) and Vit. B12 (20 mcg.). Provided
through the courtesy of Charles Pfizer and Company.

Table 2. Summary of Individual Pen Performance -f Pigs
on a Pig Starter Medication Program
Basal Basal Basal +
+ + Neo-
Treatment Basal Neomycin Terramycin Terramycin
(Average Daily Feed Consumed)
Replicate 1 1.99 2.08 2.35 2.24
Replicate 2 1.88 2.08 1.55 1.62
Replicate 3 1.40 1.85 1.85 1.85
(Feed Required per lb. gain)
Replicate 1 2.46 2.08 2.26 2.08
Replicate 2 2.36 2.07 2.31 2.05
Replicate 3 2.44 2.20 2.18 2.00
(Average Daily Gain)
Replicate 1 0.81 1.00 1.04 1.08
Replicate 2 0.79 1.01 0.67 0.79
Replicate 3 0.57 0.84 0.85 0.92

Table 3. Complementary Action of Neomycin and Terramycin
in a Pig Starter Medication Program
Basal Basal Basal +


Treatment Basal
Number of pigs 24Z
Ave. initial wt., lb. 25.2
Ave. final wt., lb. 43.5
Ave. daily gain, lb. 0.72
Ave. daily feed, lb. 1.76
Feed per lb._gain, lb!. 2.44


Neomycin
24
25.0
48.6
0.95
2.00
2.11


Terramycin
24
23.5
46.2
0.85
1.93
2.27


Neo-
Terramycin
24
23.7
47.8
0.93
1.90
2.04







Suwannee Valley Experiment Station Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Mimeograph Series No. SVS 70-7 Live Oak, Florida
June, 1970

Wheat and Barley as a Replacement for Corn in Growing-Finishing Swine Rations

SG. R. Hollis and A. Z. Palmer-


When price fluctuations justify, other cereal grains, such as wheat and.
barley may be used in growing-finishing swine rations as a partial or complete
replacement for corn. During at least part of the year, usually other than
at corn harvesting time, higher corn prices can be overcome if wheat or barley
is available at lower prices, based on equivalent feed values.

If the relative value of ground yellow corn is 100 percent, the feeding
value of ground wheat is considered to be 95 percent and the feeding value of
ground barley is considered to be 86 percent in growing-finishing swine rations.
Work conducted at Kentucky (1) suggests that wheat has approximately 95% of the
value of corn when substituted for one-half or all of the corn in diets for
growing-finishing swine. Similarly, work at North Carolina (2) indicated that
barley, in a complete pelleted diet, was worth approximately 90 percent the
value of corn.

With the above thoughts in mind as to the relative value of wheat and
barley to corn-and because of the increased acreage of these cereal grains
being grown in West Florida, this feeding trial was initiated to evaluate the
feeding value of wheat and barley in growing-finishing swihe rations.

Procedure

Ninety-six crossbred pigs (Yorkshire X Hampshire-Yorkshire and Hampshire
X Hampshire-Yorkshire)'were divided into outcome groups according to weight,
litter and sex and allotted to twelve pens of eight pigs each. Four pens were
fed on each of the following dietary treatments:

I. Corn-Soybean Meal
2. Wheat-Soybean Meal
3. Barley-Soybean Meal

The composition of the experimental diets are presented in Table 1. All
rations were properly fortified with minerals and vitamins to meat the require-
ments of the growing-finishing pig. The pigs were started on the 17% protein
rations at approximately 60 pounds liveweight and switched to the 15% protein
ration when the average weight of the pigs in each lot reached 120 pounds.
The pigs were self-fed in shaded, completely slotted concrete floor pens with
free access to fresh water. All pigs were weighed on and off test in a "full"
state of fill. All pigs were individually weighed off test for slaughter at
200 5 pounds. The pigs were then trucked approximately 65 miles for slaughter
at the University of Florida Meats Laboratory, Gainesville.


l/ Hollis, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Suwannee Valley Station and Palmer,
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department. The assistance of D. E. Franke,
Assistant Animal Geneticiest; Terryl Brady, Swine Herdsman; Roger West, Meats
Laboratory Manager; Mrs. Linda Standish, Laboratory Technologist and Jack
Farrell, Laboratory Technician is greatfully acknowledged.





- 2-


The pigs were weighed, slaughtered and dressed packer style; carcass weights
and measurements were taken after the carcasses had been chilled for 24 hours at
34-36 degrees F. Dressing percent was calculated using Gainesville unloading
or slaughter weights and 24 hour chilled carcass weights.

Length of carcass was obtained by a measurement from the anterior edge of
the aitch bone (pelvis) to the anterior edge of the first rib. Backfat thick-
ness was an average of measurements taken at the first rib, last rib and last
lumbar vertebra, Tracing was made of the perimeter of the longissimus dorsi
muscle (loin eye) exposed by cutting the loin perpendicular to the vertebral
column mid-way between the tenth and eleventh ribs; the area of the loin eye
tracing was determined by use of a compensating polar planimeter. The carcasses
were broken down by a standard procedure. Degree of marbling of the loin eye
was determinedsubjectively on a scale with slight plus being 9; small minus, 10;
small, 11; small plus, 12; modest minus, 13; modest, 14; modest plus, 15;
moderate minus, 16. Color of lean was determined on the loin eye on a 1-5
scale with 1 being very dark; 2, slightly dark; 3, grayish pink-ideal; 4,
light; and 5, very light. Firmness of lean of the loin eye was determined
subjectively on a 1-5 scale with 1 being firm; 2, medium firm;3, medium soft;
4, soft; and 5, very soft.

Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance technique (3). Differences
between treatment means were tested for significance using Harvey's (4) mod-
ification of Duncan's Multiple Range Test(5). The analysis of variance provided
adjusted means which more accurately reflect treatment, breed of sire, and
barrow and gilt differences. For example the effect of feeding treatment, as
such, may be presented with breed of sire and sex differences minimized or held
constant.

The wheat and barley used in this trial was purchased in the Walton County
(DeFuniak Springs), Florida area during the first week of June, 1969. This
was during the harvest season and wheat was selling for $1.20 per bushel and
barley for 90 per bushel. At the time, corn was selling for $1.45 $1.50
per bushel.

Prior to initiation of the trial, the wheat and barley were chemically
analyzed for crude protein, calcium and phosphorus. All experimental rations
were then formulated on the basis of the protein content of the grain as
analyzed.

Results and Discussion

A summary of results is presented in Tables 2 and 3. The data indicated
that the pigs receiving the corn ration gained significantly faster (P<.01)
than pigs receiving either the wheat or barley ration. Also, the pigs receiv-
ing the corn ration required less feed per pound of gain, However, when using
the costs.of the various rations as presented in Table 1 and the pounds of
feed required per pound of gain as presented in Table 2, it was calculated
that feed costs per pound.of gain were 10.3, 10.3 and 11.5 cents for the
barley, wheat and corn groups, respectively. Thus, a more economic gain was
attained on the wheat and barley rations than on the corn rations because of the
cost of the various cereal grain's at the time of purchase and the lower level
of soybean meal-supplementation required toobtain the desired protein content
(Table 1).







-3-


Fi re'cei .ng the barley ration had significantly less (P '.05) chilled
carcass weights, and dressing percent than pigs on the wheat or corn ration.
Also, the barley pigs had significantly less (P .01) backfat than pigs on
the wheat or corn. There was no significant difference in carcass length
and loin eye area between any treatments. The pigs receiving the wheat ration
cut out a lower percentage of ham (P : .01) and loin (P<.01) and as a result
a lower percentage of four lean cuts (P <.01) than pigs on the barley or corn
ration. -The analysis of the two different sires (Table 3) indicated that:the
Yorkshire sired pigs gained significantly faster (P ,.Ol) but the Hampshire
sired pigs hung up carcasses that carried less backfat (P .01), yielded
larger loin eye areas (P <.05) and cut out higher percentage of ham (P< .05),
loin, picnic and butt (P< .01) and thusly a higher percentage of four lean
cuts (P .01). A comparison of sexes indicated that male pigs gained signif-
icantly faster (P .01) while female pigs excelled in all carcass character-
istics where significant differences were observed.

Summary

Ninety-six pigs were fed in an experiment to evaluate wheat and barley as
a replacement for corn in growing-finishing swine rations. Pigs receiving the
corn ration had faster daily gains on less feed per pound of gain, however,
the feed cost per pound of gain was less for pigs receiving the wheat and
barley rations. Based on average daily gain and under the conditions of this
experiment wheat had approximately 90% and barley 87% the value of corn when
substituted for all of the corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs. It
should be noted, however, that use of both wheat and barley permitted lower
levels of soybean meal supplementation than did corn in bringing these
rations to the desired protein level.

When using the costs of the various rations as presented in Table I and
the pounds of feed required per pound of gain as presented in Table 2, it was
calculated that feed costs per pound of gain were 10.3, 10.6 and 11.5 cents
for the barley, wheat and corn groups, respectively.

Pigs receiving the barley ration yielded carcasses with lower dressing
percent and less chilled carcass weights. However, the barley pigs carried
less backfat while the pigs receiving the wheat ration cut out carcasses that
yielded lower percentage of ham, loin and total four lean cuts.

The usual performance and carcass differences due to sex were observed.
Barrows gained faster but gilts had less backfat, larger loin eyes and a.
higher percent of four lean cuts.

Literature Cited
1. Cromwell, G. L., J. R. Overfield and V. W. Hays. 1969, Comparison of
Corn and Wheat in diets for Growing-Finishing Swine. An. Sciences Res.
Progress Report 181, p. 23.
2. Clawson, A. J. and W. L. Alsmeyer. 1970. Wheat and Barley in Diets for
Growing-Finishing Pigs. J. An. Sci. 30:316 (Abstr).
3. Steel, R. G. D, and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of
Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.
4. Harvey, Walter R. 1960. Least Squares Analysis of Data with Unequal
Subclass Numbers. ARS 20-8 U.S.D.A.
5. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and Multiple F Tests. Biometrics
11:1.











Table 1, Composition of Diets


Ration Treatment Corn Wheat Barley
50-120 120 Ibs. 50-120 120 lbs. 50-120 120 Ibs.
Ingredients lbs. to mkt. lbs. to mkt. lbs. to mkt.

Ground Yellow Corn (81 ) 76.50 81.30 --- --- --- ----
Ground Wheat (13.66%)- --- 86.50 91.90 --- --
Ground Barley (12.80) -- ----- 84.50 89.95
Soybean Meat (50%) 20.50 15.60 10.50 5.00 12.50 7.00
Deflourinated Phosphate 1.40 1.50 1.35 1.40 1.30 1.40
Ground Limestone 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.55
Trace Mineral Premix2/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Iodized Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vitamin Premixl/ 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
FEED COST PER HUNDRED/ $3.69 $3.55 $3.03 $2.84 $2.94 $2.75


Calculated Analysis:
Crude Protein, % 17.06 15.03 17.06 15.05 17.07 15.02
Calcium, % .71 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70
Phosphorus, % .60 .59 .60 .60 .60 .60


All rations formulated
indicated.


on the basis of the protein content of the grain as


Adds in ppm to I ton complete feed: Manganese (100), iron
cobalt (1), iodine (3), zinc (100) and calcium (91).


(100), copper (10),


Provides per pound of complete feed: Vit. A (2500 I U), Vit. D (250 I U),
riboflavin (4 mg.), pantothenic acid (12 mg.), Niacin (20 mg.) choline
chloride (40 mg.) and Vit. B12 (9 mcg.). Provided through the courtesy of
Chas. Pfizer and Co.

Ingredient costs were: ground yellow corn, 2.60/cwt. (1.45/bu.); ground
wheat, $2.18/cwt. (1.31/bu.); ground barley, $2.00/cwt. (0.96/bu.); soybean
meal, $5.60/cwt.; deflourinated phosphate, $4.30/cwt.; ground limestone,
$1.00/cwt.; trace mineral premix, $7.00/cwt; iodized salt, $2.25/cwt.; vitamin
premix, $25.00/cwt.; mixing, grinding and handling, $0.35/cwt.






- 5 -


Table 2. Effect of Wheat, Barley and Corn on Feedlot
Performance and Carcass Characteristics


T(1) (2) (3) Level of significance/
Feeding Treatment Barley Wheat Corn 1 vs 2 1 vs 3 2 vs 3

FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE
Number of pigs 32 30 30 -- -- --
Initial wt., lb. 60.47 61.83 57.93 NS NS NS
Final wt., Ib.1/ 198.02 198.70 199.42 NS NS.. NS
Ave. daily gain. lb. 1.46 1.49 1.67 NS ** *
Feed/gain, Ib.-I 3.63 3.61 3.17

CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS
Intransit shrink, % 2.14 1.10 1.74 ** NS *
Chilled carcass wt., lb. 139.40 142.47 142.60 NS
Dressing % 70.40 71.71 71.50 NS
Backfat thickness, in, 1.05 1.20 1.15 ** NS
Carcass length, in." 31.10 0.72 30.80 NS NS NS
Loin eye area, sq. ip. 4.09 3.90 4.17 NS NS NS
Ham % 20.69 19.96 20.84 ** NS **
Loin % 18.18 17.17 18.19 ** NS **
Picnic % 10.98 '10.69 10.53 NS NS
Butt % 6.96 6.68 '6.80 NS NS NS
Four lean cuts % 56.81 54.47 56.38 ** NS *

LOIN EYE QUALITY
MarblingL/ 13.97 19.54 11.00 ** NS **
Color of lean 5/ 3.00 3.07 3.29 NS NS NS
Firmness.of lean6/ 2.17 2.22 2.44 NS .NS NS
-- ----"

1/ Data based on pen totals, not individual animals.

* = P< .05; ** = P '.01; NS = No significance.

./ Gainesville weight (shrunk weight).

4/ Small degree indicated by 11; modest, 14; moderate, 17; slightly abundant, 20.

/Very dark indicated by 1; slightly dark, 2; grayish pink-ideal, 3; light, 4;
very light, 5.

SFirm indicated by '; medium firm, 2; medium soft, 3; soft, 4; very soft, 5.











Table 3. Effect of Sex and Sire on Feedlot Performance
and Carcass Characteristics


Sire 1 Sire 2 Stat Sex Stat.
Yorkshire Hampshire Sig.- Barrows Gilts Sip.

FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE
Number of pigs 70 22 -- 47 45
Initial wt., Ib. 60.92 59.23 NS 60.27 59..88 NS
Final wt., lb.2/ 198.83 198.60 NS 199.23 198.20 NS
Ave. daily gain lb. 1.60 1.48 ** 1.61 1.47 **
Feed/gain, Ib.W 3.48 3.47 -- 3.44 3.51

CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS
Intransit shrink, % 1.45 1.87 NS 1.65 1.67 NS
Chilled carcass wt., lb. 141.19 141.79 NS 141.92 ..141,06 NS ..
Dressing % 71.02 71.39 NS 71.22 71.18 NS
Backfat thickness, in. 1.22 1.05 ** 1.16 1.10 *
Carcass length, in. 30.88 30.86 NS 30.68 31.06 *
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.01 4.09 3.90 4.21 **
Ham % 20.21 20.78 20.18 20.81 **
Loin % 17.21 18.48 ** 17.65 18.03 NS
Picnic % 10.41 11.05 ** 10.68 10.79 NS
Butt % 6.56 7.06 ** 6.77 6.86 NS
Four lean cuts % 54.39 57.38 ** 55.27 56.49 *

LOIN EYE QU LITY
Marbling-L 13.60 16.08 NS 15.00 14.68 NS
Color of lean5/ 3.18 3.06 NS 3.13 3.11 NS
Firmness of lean6/ 2.40 2.15 NS 2.22 2.33 NS


1/ = P < .05; ** = P < .01; NS = No significance.

2/ Gainesville weight (shrunk weight).

3/ Data based on pen totals, not individual animals.

4/ Small degree indicated by 11; modest, 14; moderate, 17; slightly abundant, 20.

5/ Very dark indicated by 1; slightly dark, 2; grayish pink-ideal, 3; light, 4;
very light, 5.

6/ Firm indicated by 1; medium firm, 2; medium soft, 3; soft, 4; very soft, 5.