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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The metric system
 Effect of heat treatment on the...
 Dietary protein and compensatory...
 Oats and alfalfa meal in pig starter...
 Effects of heating on the feeding...
 The effect of antibiotic supplementation...
 Mixture of grain sorghum and corn...
 Performance and carcass characteristics...
 First crop and regrowth (ratoon)...
 Nutritional evaluation of triticale...
 High moisture grain sorghum in...
 Dry-rolled grain sorghum, ground...
 Effect of chlorachel-250 and CSP-250...
 Evaluation of sulfonamide feed...
 Influence of heat stress on semen...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Annual swine field day
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066190/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual swine field day
Series Title: Research reports University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Sciences
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Pork Producers Association
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Place of Publication: Marianna Fla
Creation Date: 1982
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Swine -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 27th (1983); title from cover.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70866734
lccn - 2006229374
System ID: UF00066190:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    The metric system
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Effect of heat treatment on the feeding value of cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) for finishing swine
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Dietary protein and compensatory growth of growing-finishing swine
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Oats and alfalfa meal in pig starter diets
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Effects of heating on the feeding value of aflatoxin contaminated corn for finishing swine
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The effect of antibiotic supplementation on rye utilization by starting, growing and finishing swine
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Mixture of grain sorghum and corn in swine grower and finisher diets
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Performance and carcass characteristics of swine as affected by the consumption of peanuts remaining in the field after harvest - First year study
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    First crop and regrowth (ratoon) crop grain sorghums in diets for growing-finishing swine
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Nutritional evaluation of triticale in swine starter diets
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    High moisture grain sorghum in swine growing and finishing diets
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Dry-rolled grain sorghum, ground grain sorghum and ground corn in swine growing and finishing diets
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Effect of chlorachel-250 and CSP-250 on performance of starting, growing and finishing swine
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Evaluation of sulfonamide feed additives in controlling atrophic rhinitis in swine
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Influence of heat stress on semen quality and respiratory rates of boars in Florida and Oklahoma
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
Full Text



Research Reports


27th Annual

\ swine


Field Day
NOVEMBER 3, 1982 MARIANNA, FLORIDA


SWINE RESEARCH FACULTY
Dr. G. E. Combs
Dr. M. T. Coffey
Dr. R. O. Myer
Dr. C. E. White





SPONSORED BY
Animal Science Department
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Florida Pork Producers Association


6- -A








TABLE OF CONTENTS


The Metric System
Pages
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Reports, Gainesville

1. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Feeding Value of Cowpeas
(Vigna sinesis) for Finishing Swine . . . .. 1-3

2. Dietary Protein and Compensatory Growth of Growing-Finishing
Swine . . . . .. . . . .4-12

3. Oats and Alfalfa Meal in Pig Starter Diets. . . ... 13-16

4. Effects of Heating on the Feeding Value of Aflatoxin
Contaminated Corn for Finishing Swine . . .... 17-21

5. The Effect of Antibiotic Supplementation on Rye Utilization
by Starting, Growing and Finishing Swine. . . ... 22-25


Agricultural Research Center Station Reports, Marianna

6. Mixtures of Grain Sorghum and Corn in Swine Grower and Finisher
Diets . . . . . . . 26-29

7. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Swine as Affected by
the Consumption of Peanuts Remaining in the Field after Harvest -
First Year Study . . . . . .. 30-38

8. First Crop and Regrowth (Ratoon) Crop Grain Sorghums in Diets
for Growing-Finishing Swine . . . .... .39-43

9. Nutritional Evaluation of Triticale in Swine Starter Diets. 44-50

10. High Moisture Grain Sorghum in Swine Growing and Finishing
Diets . . . . .. . . . .51-56

11. Dry-Rolled Grain Sorghum, Ground Grain Sorghum and Ground Corn
in Swine Growing and Finishing Diets . . .. 57-61


Agricultural Research Center Station Reports, Live Oak

12. Effect of Chlorachel-250 and CSP-250 on Performance of Starting,
Growing and Finishing Swine . . . .... .62-67

13. Evaluation'of Sulfonamide Feed Additives In Controlling Atrophic
Rhinitis in Swine . . . ... . .68-71

14. Influence of Heat Stress on Semen Quality and Respiratory Rates
of Boars in Florida and Oklahoma. . . . ... 72-80











THE METRIC SYSTEM


In this publication, we have reported our results in the metric system.
Most scientific publications require that the metric system be used and
this publication is in that category. Following are some of the conversion
factors that have usefulness in livestock and farm work. We hope that these
will be helpful as reference information.


ENGLISH


METRIC


inch
foot
yard
mile
square inch
cubic inch
cubic yard
acre
ounce
pound
pound
fluid ounce
liquid pint
liquid quart
gallon


METRIC


2.54
30.48
0.9144
1.609
6.452
16.387
0.7646
0.4047
28.50
453.6
0.4536
29.573
0.4732
0.9463
3.7853


centimeters
centimeters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
cubic centimeters
cubic meters
hectares
grams
grams
kilograms
milliliters
liters
liters
liters


ENGLISH


centimeter
meter
kilometer
square centimeter
hectare
gram
ki 1 ogram'
kilogram
metric ton
milliliter
liter
liter
liter
kiloliter


0.394
39.37
0.6214
0.155
2.471
0.03527
34.274
2.205
2205.0
0.0338
38.81
2.1134
1.057
264.18


inches
inches
miles
square inches
acres
ounces
ounces
pounds
pounds
fluid ounces
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons






Department of Animal Science 1 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-3 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE FEEDING VALUE OF
COWPEAS (Vigna sinesis) FOR FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Cowpeas are leguminous plants commonly cultivated for human consumption
and in many parts of the world as a feed for livestock. Lowpeas vary in
crude protein content from 18 to 29 percent and are good sources of lysine
with methionine and tryptophan being the most limiting amino acids. Like
other leguminous seeds, cowpeas contain a trypsin inhibitor which has been
reported to be heat labile. However, the temperature needed to destroy the
inhibitor has not been well defined (Borchers, R. and C. W. Ackerson, 1950).

This study was conducted to determine if heating cowpeas in a gas fired
commercial roaster to 121 C would improve their utilization when fed to
finishing swine.

Experimental

Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 48 kilograms (kg) were allotted based
on weight, sex and ancestry to five dietary treatments with three repli-
cations per treatment and six pigs per replication. All diets were formu-
lated to contain 17.5% crude protein. Cowpeas were substituted for corn
and soybean meal at 20 and 30 percent of the diet. These two dietary levels
of cowpeas were duplicated using cowpeas which were heated to a temperature
of 1210C over a gas flame in a commercial roaster. The five dietary treat-
ments are designated as follows: corn-soy control (CS), 20% cowpeas (P-20),
20% cowpeas cooked to 1210C (PC-20), 30% cowpeas (P-30), 30% cowpeas cooked
to 1210C (PC-30).

All pigs were housed in a semi-enclosed concrete floored barn with
feed and water supplied ad libitum during the entire experiment. The pigs
were weighed and feed consumption determined bi-weekly. Upon completion of
the 32 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test. Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data is presented in table 2.

There were no differences in feed intake (ADF) for pigs fed any dietary
treatment. There was a reduction (P<.01) in average daily gain (ADG) and
feed efficiency (FE) for pigs receiving the twenty percent cowpea diets
when compared with the corn-soy fed pigs. Pigs fed the 30 percent cowpea


'Experiment 278.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.






S2 -


diets gained slower and were less efficient (P<.01) than those pigs fed
either the corn-soy or 20 percent cowpea diets. There were no performance
differences between pigs fed the heat treated cowpea diets and those fed
the untreated cowpea diets. The data indicated that cowpeas are of limited
value when used at 20-30% of the diet and that heating to 1210C did affect
their utilization by finishing swine. Cowpeas may be economical to use
in the diet of finishing swine when the cost of feed ingredients indicate
that slower pig growth is economically acceptable.


Summary

Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 48 kg were studied to determine if
addition of cowpeas at 20 and 30 percent of the diet affected pig performance.
In addition, the effect of heating cowpeas to a temperature of 1210C and
feeding at the same dietary levels of 20 and 30 percent was studied.

No differences were observed with ADF for pigs fed any of the five
dietary treatments. Both ADG and FE were reduced (P<.01) for pigs fed the
20 percent cowpea diets when compared with the corn-soy fed pigs. Further
reductions in ADG and FE were observed (P<.01) when the level of cowpea
supplementation was increased to 30 percent.

Heat treatment of cowpeas did not affect pig performance at either the
20 or 30 percent level of cowpea supplementation. It was concluded that
heating the cowpeas to 1210C in a commercial roaster did not improve pig
performance.





-3-


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


20% 30%
20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Ingredients CS Cowpeas cooked Cowpeas Cooked'

Ground yellow corn 82.60 70.40 70.40 76.40 76.40
Soybean meal (48%) 14.50 6.70 6.70 0.70 0.70
Cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) --- 20.00 20.00 30.00 30.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

iCowpeas in these diets were cooked in a commercial roast-a-tron at a tem-
perature of 1210C.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and
2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.






TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE

20% 30%
Control 20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Treatment Corn-soy Cowpeas Cooked Cowpeas Cooked

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 48.63 48.54 48.55 48.49 48.58
Final weight, kg 99.97 95.85 95.56 90.04 91.96
Daily gain, kg 0.97a 0.89b 0.89 0.79c 0.82
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.80 2.77 2.65 2.71
Feed/gain 2.81a 3.14 3.11 3.38c 330


differ significantly


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts
(P<.01).






Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-4 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


DIETARY PROTEIN AND COMPENSATORY GROWTH OF
GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1

G. E. Combs and M. T. Coffey2


Under certain economic situations, swine producers may want to consider
feeding for less than maximum performance. As protein supplement feeds are
normally a high cost feedstuff, the challenge is to formulate diets on the
basis of the current economic situation that will result in acceptable per-
formance and the greatest economic return.

The objective of this study was to determine if the pig could be fed
protein restricted diets during the growing stage and compensate for the
reduced performance during the finishing phase.

Experimental

Two experiments were conducted with 252 growing-finishing crossbred pigs.
All pigs were housed in concrete-floored pens equipped with self-feeders and
automatic watering devices. Each experiment consisted of a grower period and
a finisher period. During the grower period, pigs were fed diets containing
12, 14 or 16 percent protein until they weighed approximately 68 kg. During
the finisher period, two pens from each of the grower period treatments were
fed diets containing 12, 14 or 16 percent protein to market weight.

EXPERIMENT 1

Grower period. One hundred forty-four pigs averaging 32 kg body weight
were allotted on the basis of initial weight, litter and sex to the three
treatment groups. Each of these groups consisted of 6 pens containing 8 pigs
each.

Finisher period. After 8 weeks on the grower diets, the average body
weight for all pens was 67 kg. The pigs were switched at this time to
finisher diets until reaching a market weight of 96 kg.

EXPERIMENT 2

Grower period. One hundred eight pigs averaging 26 kg body weight were
allotted to experimental pens on the basis of initial weight, litter and sex
to the three treatments. Six pens containing 6 pigs each were utilized with
each of the groups.

Finisher period. The pigs averaged 68 kg after 8 weeks on the grower
diet. At this time, they were fed the finisher diets until they averaged a
market weight of 93 kg.


1Experiment 257A and 257B. See Res. Rept. AL-1979-2 for previous work in this
area.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Animal
Science Department, Gainesville.






-5-


Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized for experiment 1 in tables 2, 3 and
4 and for experiment 2 in tables 5, 6 and 7.

During the grower period in both experiments, the pigs given the 12
percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently (P<.05) than
pigs fed diets containing 14 or 16 percent protein. These findings are in
agreement with previous results (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) and were expected
as the National Research Council recommends 14-16 percent dietary protein for
pigs in this weight range.
Performance data collected during the finisher period showed inconsis-
tencies. Rate and efficiency of gain were different (P<.05) among treatments
for experiment 1; whereas in experiment 2, these parameters were not different
(P<.05). Also, in contrast to previous work (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet during the grower period did not exhibit com-
pensatory gain during the finisher period when changed to either the 14 or
16 percent protein diets. The causes of the discrepancies between the experi-
ments in this study and between this and other studies are not readily apparent.

Performance data for the entire grower-finisher periods show that in
experiment 1, the gain of pigs fed the 16-14 protein sequence was higher
than that of pigs fed the 12-12, 12-14, 12-16 or 14-12 sequence. The daily
gain of pigs on the remaining treatments was similar to that of pigs fed
the 16-14 protein sequence. Feed efficiency in general followed the gain
data in that pigs given the 12 percent diet during either period were less
efficient than other treatment groups. In experiment 2, pigs fed the 12
percent protein diet during the grower phase gained less (P<.05) than pigs
on other treatments. Feed efficiency differences were non-significant (P<.05)
but as was found in experiment 1, pigs fed the 12 percent protein diet at
any time tended to be the most inefficient.

Summary

Two experiments utilizing 252 pigs were conducted to compare the per-
formance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14 or 16 percent protein during
all or part of the grower-finisher periods. During the grower period, pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently than
those given the 14 or 16 percent protein diets. Rate and efficiency of gain
during the finisher period were not improved by feeding 14 or 16 percent
protein diets to those pigs given the 12 percent diet during the grower
period. The performance data for the entire grower-finisher period indicated
that the pigs did not exhibit compensatory growth. Consequently, the results
of this study would not support the previous observation (Fla. Res. Rept.
1979-2) that pigs have the ability to compensate during the finishing stage
for protein inadequate diets fed during the grower stage.





- 6 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


% Protein 12 14 16

Gr. yellow corn 88.75 84.00 78.75

Soybean meal 8.25 13.00 18.25

Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60

Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00

Iodized salt 0.20 0.20 0.20

Trace minerals (CCC)1 0.10 0.10 0.10

Vitamix premix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00


'Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%cobalt and
2% calcium.
2Containedl3,200mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.





- 7 -


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14
AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER PERIOD)
Experiment 1


Protein, % 12 14 16

Number of pigs 48 48 48

Avg. initial weight, kg 31.8 31.8 31.8

Avg. final weight, kg 63.4 67.7 69.6

Avg. daily gain, kg .641 .73 .77

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.14 2.14 2.15

Avg. feed/gain 3.341 2.93 2.79


ISignificantly different (P<.01) from 14 and 16 percent protein.












TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (FINISHER PERIOD)
Experiment 1


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Avg. initial weight, kg 63.9 63.2 63.2 67.6 67.6 68.0 69.6 69.8 69.4

Avg. final weight, kg 93.6 92.0 93.3 92.7 98.9 99.9 99.2 100.8 97.9

Avg. daily gain, kgI .71 .69 .72 .60 .75 .76 .70 .74 .68

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.71 2.41 2.29 2.40 2.49 2.56 2.69 2.60 2.43
Avg. feed/gain2 3.82 3.49 3.18 4.00 3.32 3.36 3.84 3.51 3.57

ITreatments 5, 6 and 8 significantly (P<.05) different from treatment 4.
2Treatment 4 significantly (P<.05) different from all other treatments.
Treatment 1 and 7 significantly (P<.05) different from treatments 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9.
Treatments 2, 8, 9 significantly (P<.05.) different from treatments 3, 5 and 6.
Treatment 3 significantly (P<.05) different from all other treatments.












TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16
PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER-FINISHER PERIODS)
Experiment 1


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

Avg. initial weight, kg 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8

Avg. final weight, kg 93.6 92 93.3 92.7 98.9 99.9 99.2 100.8 97.9

Avg. daily gain, kg' .68 .66 .68 .67 .74 .75 .74 .76 .73

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.42 2.25 2.20 2.27 2.29 2.34 2.38 2.37 2.29

Avg. feed/gain2 3.56 3.41 3.24 3.39 3.09 3.12 3.22 3.12 3.14


1Treatment 8 significantly (P<.05)
2Treatment 1 significantly (P<.01)
Treatments 2 and 4 significantly
Treatments 3 and 7 significantly


different from 1, 2, 3 and 4.
different from all other treatments.
(P<.O1) different from all other treatments.
(P<.05) different from all other treatments.





- 10 -


TABLE 5. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14
AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER PERIOD)
Experiment 2


Protein, % 12 14 16

Number of pigs 36 36 36

Avg. initial weight, kg 26.2 26.2 26.2

Avg. final weight, kg 62.4 69.3 72.1

Avg. daily gain, kg .611 .73 .78

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.13 2.21 2.33

Avg. feed/gain 3.491 3.03 2.99

1Significantly (P<.05) different 14 and 16 percent protein.












TABLE 6. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (FINISHER PERIOD)
Experiment 2


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Avg. initial weight, kg 62 62.5 62.5 69 69.5 69.3 72.2 72.2 72.1
Avg. final weight, kg 85.3 85.2 90.6 95.4 95.4 93.3 97.0 98.2 99.5

Avg. daily gain, kgI .55 .54 .67 .63 .62 .57 .59 .62 .65
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.36 2.18 2.37 2.65 2.46 2.22 2.64 2.60 2.64

Avg. feed/gaini 4.29 4.04 3.54 4.21 3.97 3.89 4.47 4.19 4.06

'Differences non-significant (P<.05);











TABLE 7. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16
PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER-FINISHER PERIODS)
Experiment 2


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Avg. initial weight, kg 26.2 26.2 26.3 26.2 26.3 26.1 26.2 26.2 26.2

Avg. final weight, kg 85.3 85.2 90.6 95,4 95.4 93.3 97.0 98.2 99.5

Avg. daily gain, kgi .59 .59 .64 .69 .69 .66 .70 .71 .73

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.18 2.16 2.27 2.40 2.33 2.20 2.45 2.45 2.47

Avg. feed/gain2 3.62 3.66 3.55 3.48 3.38 3.33 3.50 3.45 3.38


1Treatments 1, 2 and 3 significantly (P<.05) different from
2Differences non-significant (P<.05).


all other treatments.






Department of Animal Science 13 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-5 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


OATS AND ALFALFA MEAL IN PIG STARTER DIETS1
G. E. Combs and M. T. Coffey2


Recent research data indicate that the use of high fiber starter diets
is an effective method of reducing post-weaning scours and improving per-
formance of young pigs.
The present study was conducted to compare the performance of pigs fed
diets containing 10% oats, 20% oats or 5% alfalfa meal.

Experimental

The pigs used in this study were weaned at three weeks of age directly
onto the experimental diets. One hundred forty-four pigs were allotted on
the basis of initial weight, litter and sex to four treatment groups. Six
replicate pens of six pigs each were used to make a total of 36 pigs per
treatment group. All pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery equipped with
elevated pens having expanded metal floors and wire-mesh sides. Each pen
contained an automatic waterer and self-feeder.
The dietary treatments and diet composition are presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data is presented in table 2.

There were no differences (P<.05) in average daily gain among the
dietary treatments. Pigs fed the 20% oats diet (4.2 fiber) tended to con-
sume more feed which is probably a reflection of the lowered energy content.
Differences in feed efficiency were not significant (P<.05), but as the
fiber level of the diets increased, feed/gain tended to increase and was
highest with the 20% oats diet.
Scouring was not a problem in this experiment. This is probably the
major factor contributing to the .similarity of performance among treatment
groups.

Summary

One hundred forty-four pigs weaned at three weeks of age were used to
study the influence of fiber level and fiber source on performance. Rate
and efficiency of gain was not different (P<.05) among pigs fed a corn-soy


IExperiment 273.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Animal
Science Department, Gainesville.





14 -

control '(2.5% fiber) 10% oats diet (3.4% fiber), 20% oats diet (4.2% fiber)
or 5%l a.alfa meal diet (3.6% fiber). The incidence of scours was minimal
which precludes an assessment of the ability of high fiber diets to prevent
or.alleviate scours ,in young pigs.





- 15 -


TABLE 1. DIETARY TREATMENTS AND DIET COMPOSITION


Control Oats Oats Alfalfa meal
10% 20% 5%
Fiber, % 2.5 3.4 4.2 3.6

Gr. yellow corn 72.61 62.80 53.80 68.30
Gr. oats ---- 10.00 20.00 -----
Alfalfa meal ---- ----- 5.00
Soybean meal 24.19 24.00 23.00 23.50
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
ASP-2503 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

1Generously supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contains
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%
cobalt, and 2% calcium.
2Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of premix.
3Contained 44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine, 22 g procaine
penicillin per kg of supplement.





- 16 -


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED STARTER DIETS CONTAINING
10% OATS., 20% OATS OR 5% ALFALFA MEAL


Control Oats Oats Alfalfa meal
10% 20% 5%

Avag. initial weight, kg 5.28 5.28 5.29 5.28
Avg. final weight, kg 22.99 22.42 23.42 22.76

Avg. daily gain, 'kg .36 .35 ... .35
,A. daily feed, ig .73 .71 .78 73

Avg. feed/gain' 2.03 2.03 2,11: 2..09


ITreatment means not different (P<.05).






Department of Animal Science 17 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-6 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


EFFECTS OF HEATING ON THE FEEDING VALUE OF AFLATOXIN
CONTAMINATED CORN FOR FINISHING SWINE1

G. E. Combs and M. D. Harrison2


Previous research results3 indicated that heating aflatoxin infested
corn to a temperature of 190C was effective in reducing aflatoxin content
without damaging the corn to the extent of adversely affecting pig perfor-
mance.

This study was conducted to confirm these findings and to verify re-
ports that folic acid supplementation was also effective in alleviating
the growth depression which accompanies the consumption of aflatoxin con-
taminated corn.

Experimental

Forty-two finishing pigs weighing approximately 68 kg were allotted on
the basis of weight, sex and litter to seven treatment groups. All pigs
were housed in semi-enclosed pens equipped with an aluminum slatted floor,
self-feeders and automatic watering devices.

The corn was purchased from a producer that had experienced considerable
death loss in pigs fed diets using this corn. Analyses from two laboratories
showed that this uncleaned corn contained 1955 ppb aflatoxin (1813 ppb as
B1 and 141 ppb as B2).

Heating this uncleaned corn in a Roast-A-Tron gas-fired roaster pro-
duced the following results:
Exit Temperature 0C

Aflatoxin, ppb 150 165 190
B1 1175 1100 580
B2 120 115 65

Total 1295 1215 645

Heating to 1900C resulted in the largest amount of aflatoxin destruction.
However, subsequent attempts to duplicate these findings resulted in the corn
being reduced to a black gelatinized material which could not be used in
swine diets.


1Experiment 280.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Harrison, Graduate Assistant, Animal Science
Department, Gainesville.
3Cereal Chem. 55:15, 1978.






- 18 -


Further experimentation showed that cleaning the contaminated corn re-
duced the aflatoxin content to a total of 1175 ppb (BI-975; B2-100 and
G1-100). When this cleaned corn was heated to an exit temperature of 1750C,
the aflatoxin content was further reduced to a total of 550 ppb (B1-450 and
B.2-100). This corn and this temperature along with uncontaminated corn were
then used to form the following dietary treatments.
Treatment

No. Description,

1 Uncontaminated corn (UC)
2 Uncontaminated corn heated to 1750C (UC-175)
3 Uncontaminated corn heated to 1750C + folic acid (UC-175 FA)
4 Aflatoxin corn (AC)
5 Aflatoxin corn heated to 1750C (AC-175)
6 Aflatoxin corn heated to 1750C + folic acid (AC-175 FA)
7 50% uncontamisnated corn + 50% aflatoxin contaminated corn
heated to 1750C (50% UC-AC-1750C)

The composition of the basal diet is shown in table 1.

Results and Discussion

Performance data are summarized in table 2.

Comparison of average daily gain figures for pigs fed diets containing
uncontaminated corn and unheated aflatoxin corn (treatments 1 and 4) shows
that sufficient aflatoxin was present to cause a 22 percent depression in
this performance parameter. Further comparisons show that heating the afla-
toxin corn (treatment 5) resulted in an increased rate of gain. The addition
of folic acid to the heated corn (treatment 6) resulted in an additional in-
crease that surpassed that of pigs fed uncontaminated corn. The dilution of
the aflatoxin corn with uncontaminated corn (treatment 7) improved daily gain
over that obtained with unheated aflatoxin corn (treatment 4) but the improve-
ment was considerably less than that observed by heating the contaminated
corn to 1750C. The daily gain of pigs fed uncontaminated corn heated to 1750C
with and without supplemental folic acid (treatments 2 and 3) was depressed
when compared to pigs fed the uncontaminated control diet (treatment 1).
Feed efficiency comparisons show that with pigs fed diets containing ,>,,
aflatoxin corn, improvement occurred only with the diet in which the. corn was
heated and supplemented with folic acid (treatment 6). With the uncontaminated
corn, feed efficiency was not improved by either heat or heat plus folic acid.

Summary

An experimentwas conducted with 42 finishing pigs to determine if
heating aflatoxin-infested corn was an effective procedure for reducing afla-
toxin content. The growth promoting effect of supplemental folic acid when
added to diets containing aflatoxin contaminated corn was also evaluated.
Performance data show that pigs fed diets containing aflatoxin contaminated






-19-


corn that had been heated to 1750C gained 16 percent faster than pigs
given diets containing unheated aflatoxin infested corn. Pigs fed a
diet containing this heat treated corn plus supplemental folic acid
showed a 23 percent increase in rate of gain and a 13 percent increase
in feed efficiency when compared to pigs fed the unheated corn diets.






- 20 -


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION1


Ingredient %

Ground yellow corn 78.75

Soybean meal 18.25

Dynafos 1.60

Limestone 1.00

Iodized salt 0.20

Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10

Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10


IFolic acid when used was added at the level of 2 grams/ton.
2Generously supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contains
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%
cobalt, and 2% calcium
3Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of premix.















TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF FINISHING PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING HEATED AND UNHEATED AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATED CORN1


Treatment no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
& description UC UC-1750C UC-1750C FA AC AC-1750C AC-1750C FA 50% UC-AC-1750C

Item

Avg. initial weight, kg 67.8 67.7 67.8 67.8 67.8 67.7 67.8

Avg. final weight, kg 99.8 97.6 95.8 92.6 97.4 100.0 95.1

Avg. daily gain, kg .76 .71 .67 .59 .70 .77 .65

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.78 2.55 2.25 2.01 2.38 2.29 2.38

Avg. feed/gain 3.66 3.59 3.36 3.41 3.40 2.97 3.66

IExperimental period 42 days.






Department of Animal Science 22 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-7 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON RYE UTILIZATION
BY STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2


Previous research has indicated that rye could replare up to 50% of the
corn in a corn-soy diet without affecting pig performance and that the re-
sponse to antibiotic supplementation was greater with rye diets than with
corn-soy diets (Harrison et al., 1979). This antibiotic effect has also
been reported for broilers (Marusich et al., 1978). This study was con-
ducted to further evaluate the influence of dietary energy source (rye vs.
corn) on the response to antibiotic supplementation in swine diets.

Experimental

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 9 kilograms (kg) were allotted on
the basis of weight, sex and ancestry to four dietary treatment groups. Six
pigs were allotted to each pen with three pens per treatment. The dietary
treatments (table 1) consisted of a fortified corn-soy control diet (CS),
the control diet supplemented with the antibiotic ASP-250 (CSA), and two
diets which contained Weser rye substituted for corn on a weight for weight
basis, rye-soy (RS) and rye-soy plus antibiotic (RSA). The experiment was
divided into starting (9 to 30 kg), growing (30 to 60 kg) and finishing (60
to 100 kg) periods.
Corn-soy diets were formulated to provided 18.7%, 17.5% and 14.7% crude
protein (CP) during the starting, growing and finishing periods, respectively.
During the starting period, the pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery
building equipped with wire mesh cages. Pigs were housed in a concrete barn
with an aluminum slatted floor during the growing and finishing periods. All
pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering devices.
Pig weight and feed consumption was determined bi-weekly. Upon completion
of the 110 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data is presented in tables 2-4.

Starting period. Average daily gain and feed consumption were lower
(P<,05) for pigs fed either rye-soy diet when compared with pigs fed either
corn-soy diet. Addition of the antibiotic increased average daily gain
(P<.05) for pigs fed diets containing rye. Feed consumption was lower (P<.05)


1Experiment 277 and 277A.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.






- 23 -


for pigs fed diets containing rye when compared with pigs fed corn diets.
Feed efficiency was improved (P<.05) by antibiotic supplementation to the
corn-soy diet. There was no improvement in feed intake or feed efficiency
when rye-soy diets were supplemented with antibiotic.

Growing period. Both average daily gain and average daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) by the substitution of rye for corn. Supple-
mentation of the rye-soy diet with antibiotic increased (P<.05) average
daily gain and average daily feed intake to the same level as the control
(CS). There was a 6.3% improvement in average daily gain when antibiotic
was supplemented to the corn-soy diet. Supplementation of the rye-soy
diet with antibiotic resulted in an 11.8% improvement in average daily gain.
There were no differences in feed efficiency during the growing period.

Finishing period. There were no differences in average daily feed in-
take during the finishing period. Substitution of corn with rye again re-
sulted in a reduction (P<.05) in average daily gain. The addition of the
antibiotic improved (P<.05) average daily gain for pigs fed rye-soy diets.
Pigs fed the rye-soy diet were less efficient (P<.05) than any other treat-
ment group. Addition of antibiotic improved (P<.05) feed efficiency of the
pigs fed the rye-soy diet.

Wallace (1970) cited the nutrient sparing effect as one of the possible
modes of action of antibiotics in livestock diets. The improved pig per-
formance due to the presence of antibiotics in rye diets could be attributed
to an improvement in nutrient absorption. Rye contains a complex carbohydrate,
pectin, that interferes with nutrient absorption in monogastric animals. The
absence of pectin in corn could explain the difference in the response to
antibiotics of pigs fed rye when compared with pigs fed corn.


Summary

Seventy-two crossbred pigs having an average weight of 9 kg were used
to evaluate the effect of antibiotic supplementation on the utilization of
diets containing rye by starting, growing and finishing swine. Pigs fed
rye-soy diets consumed less feed and gained at a slower rate (P<.05) than
pigs fed corn-soy diets. The addition of the antibiotic (ASP-250) to the
rye-soy diet improved average daily gain by 17.9, 11.8 and 14.5% for starting,
growing and finishing swine, respectively. Supplementing corn-soy diets with
antibiotic improved average daily gain for starting, growing and finishing
swine by 7.5, 6.3 and 4.7%, respectively. The percent improvement in average
daily gain due to antibiotic supplementation in rye-soy diets was twice as
great as for pigs fed corn-soy diets. However, the antibiotic supplementation
of the rye-soy diet did not provide performance equal to that of the corn-
soy diets.

Literature Cited

Harrison, M. D., J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs. 1979. The feeding value of
Florida grown Weser rye for weanling and growing-finishing swine. Anim.
Sci. Res. Rept. AL-1979-6.

Wallace, H. D. 1970. Biological responses to antibacterial feed additives in
diets of meat producing animals. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1118.













TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


Starter Grower Finisher
CS CS + ASP CS CS + ASP CS CS + ASP
or or or or or or
Ingredient RS RS + ASP RS RS + ASP RS RS + ASP

GrainI 72.05 71.80 74.25 74.00 82.10 81.95
Soybean meal (49%) 25.00 25.00 22.00 22.00 15.00 15.00
Dynafos (IMCC) 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05
ASP-250 --- 0.25 --- 0.25 --- 0.15


'Yellow corn or Weser rye.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride;
22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.
Contained 44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine, 22 g procaine penicillin per k, of supplement.





- 25 -


TABLE 2. STARTING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 9.06 9.07 9.06 9.06
Final weight, kg 31.49 32.86 25.75 28.49,
Daily gain, kg 0.53a 0.57a 0.39c 0.46b
Daily feed, kg 1.08 1.05 0.88b 0.95
Feed/gain 2.03 1.85a 2.20C 2.04bc


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 3. GROWING PERIOD

Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 35.2 34.9 34.9 34.5
Final weight, kg 68.9 b 70.6 63.7 66.2 b
Daily gain, kg 0.80ab 0.85a 0.68 0.76b
Daily feed, kg 2.04a 2.12a 1.72c 1.96
Feed/gain 2.55 2.49 2.53 2.59

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 4. FINISHING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 68.9 70.6 63.7 66.2
Final weight, kg 97.5 100.4 86.6 92.5
Daily gain, kg 0.86a 0.90a 0.69c .79
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.78 2.74 2.74
Feed/gain 3.18a 3.09a 3.97b 3.48

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).






Department of Animal Science 26 -
Research Report MA-1982-1 Agricultural Research Center
July 1982 Marianna, Florida


MIXTURES OF GRAIN SORGHUM AND CORN IN
SWINE GROWER AND FINISHER DIETS1

R. 0. Myer and D. W. Gorbet2


Extensive research has been done in Florida on the use :f Florida-
grown grain sorghum in diets for growing-finishing swine. This research
has shown that the rate of gain of pigs fed grain sorghum diets was similar
to that of pigs fed corn diets; however, feed efficiency was usually slightly
poorer, being about 96% of that obtained with corn based diets (1-5). Limited
research has been conducted on the evaluation of various mixtures of Florida-
grown grain sorghum and corn as the primary energy source in swine grower and
finisher diets.

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of growing-finishing
swine fed diets containing various mixtures of Florida-grown grain sorghum and
Florida-grown corn.

Experimental

Ninety crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 26 kg were allot-
ted to pens of six pigs each by sex, weight, and litter origin. Each pen was
assigned at random to one of five dietary treatments within each of three reD-
licates. Composition of the experimental diets is presented in table 1. The
diets contained as the grain source either grain sorghum, corn, or mixtures of
the two in the following proportions: 50:50, 75:25 and 25:75. The grain
sorghum (50:50 mix of Funks G522 DR and Ring Around 811A) and corn were grown
at the Marianna ARC. The dietary levels of soybean meal and supplemental
minerals and vitamins were constant across the five treatments. The grain
sorghum and corn were ground in a hammer mill equipped with a 0.48 cm screen
before incorporation into the diets. The pigs were fed grower diets to an
average pen weight of 55 kg per pig and finisher diets to an average weight
of 98 kg at which time the trial was terminated. The pigs were housed in
1.8 x 6.1 m pens with solid concrete floors and were given feed and water
ad libitum. Average daily weight gain, feed to gain ratios, and feed intake
were computed on a pen basis for the grower phase, the finisher phase, and
the entire feeding period. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance
for a randomized complete block design, and Duncan's new multiple range test
was used to compare treatment means.

Results and Discussion

There were no differences (P>.10) in average daily weight gain, average
daily feed intake or feed to gain ratios among dietary treatments during the

Experiment MA-1981-02.
2Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition, and Gorbet, Associate Professor
of Agronomy, University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Marianna.






- 27 -


grower or finisher phases or the entire feeding period (table 2). During
the finisher phase, there was a slight trend of higher feed to gain ratios
with increasing level of grain sorghum in the diet. This trend was not
evident during the grower phase.

From feed to gain ratios, the grain sorghum used in this study was esti-
mated to have 97% the feeding value of the corn that was used. This value is
slightly higher than an average value of 95% obtained in other feeding trials
conducted in Florida (1,2,4) or that reported by the NRC (6). However, this
value is in agreement with an average value of 97% obtained in previous feed-
ing trials done at the Marianna ARC (3,5).

The results of this study indicate that grain sorghum can replace up to
75% of the corn in typical corn-soybean meal rations for growing-finishing
swine without any affect on daily weight gain or feed efficiency.

Summary

An experiment involving 90 crossbred pigs with an average initial weight
of 25 kg was conducted to compare corn and grain sorghum and three mixtures of
these two grains as primary energy sources in grower and finisher diets. The
proportion of corn and grain sorghum in the three mixtures were: 50:50; 25:75
and 75:25. Diets were formulated with corn and grain sorghum being equal in
lysine content. Daily weight gains and feed efficiencies of pigs fed diets con-
taining either grain sorghum or the grain sorghum-corn mixtures were not dif-
ferent (P>.10) from pigs fed diets containing corn.

Literature Cited

1. Hammell, D. L. and J. T. Johnson. 1976. Performance of growing-finishing
swine fed Florida grown bird resistant grain sorghum and non bird resistant
grain sorghum. University of Florida, Live Oak ARC Res. Rep. SW-1976-2,
Gainesville, FL.

2. Combs, G. E. and J. L. Copelin. 1979. Grain sorghum in swine starter,
grower and finisher diets. University of Florida, Animal Science Res. Rep.
AL-1979-3, Gainesville, FL.

3. Jilek, A. F., V. D. Leibbrandt and D. W. Gorbet. 1979. Comparative perfor-
mance by pigs fed diets containing corn, bird resistant and nonbird resistant
sorghum grain from weaning to market weight. University of Florida, Marianna
ARC Res. Rep. MA-1979-1, Gainesville, FL.

4. Combs, G. E., J. L. Copelin and D. W. Gorbet. 1980. Performance of swine
fed sorghum diets supplemented with fat. University of Florida, Animal
Science Res. Rep. AL-1980-4, Gainesville, FL.

5. Jilek, A. F. and D. W. Gorbet. 1980. Performance of growing-finishing
swine fed sorghum diets supplemental with fat. University of Florida,
Marianna ARC Res. Rep. MA-1980-1, Gainesville, FL.

6. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of Sciences,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.






- 28 -


TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS


Dietary treatment ____
1 2 3 1 5
Ingredient Grain
Corn (C) Sorghum (GS) 75 C:25 iS 50 GS 25 C:75 GS

Grower diets,
(26 to 55 kg):

Corn 77.35 -- 58.01 38.68 19.34
Grain sorghum -- 75.35 19.34 38.68 58,0,
Soybean meal (44%) 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.3. 1.30 1.3o 1,30 1.)
Calcium carbonate .. .80 .8, .60 -
Salt .30 .30 .30 .30 .30
Vitamin premix .20 .20 .20 .20 .20
Vitamin prefix .05
Trace mineral premix .05 .05 .055

Finisher diets,
(55 to 98 kg):

Corn 83.70 -- 62.77 41.85 20.93
Grain sorghum -- 83.70 20.93 41.85 62.77
Soybean meal (44%) 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00
Dicalcium phosphate .q .90 .90 .90 .90
Calcium carbonate .90 .90 .90 .90 .90
Salt .30 .30 .30 .30 .3
Vitamin premix .15 .15 .15 .15 .15
Trace mineral premix2 .05 .05 .05 .05


1Provided per kilogram of diet (at .20%): vitamin A, 4400 I.U.; vitamin D3, 7J:'-
I.U.; vitamin E, 18 I.U.; vitamin K activity 2.6 mg; ri;3flavin, 3,b rg; d-
pantothenic acid, 14 mg; niacin, 18 mg; choline chloride, 400 mg; vitamin B -.
18 jg; and selenium, .09 mq.
2Supplied by Calcium Ca.'b.,-te Company, Quincy, IL. Provided per kilog. a:i of di:
zinc, 100 mg; iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg; copper, 5 mg; and iodine, .08 nig.






- 29 -


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF


GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING GRAIN SORGHUM OR
MIXTURES OF GRAIN SORGHUM AND CORN'


Dietary grain source2
1 2 3 4 5
Item Grain
Corn (C) sorghum (GS) 75 C:25 GS 50 C:50 GS 25 C:75 GS

Grower phase,
26 to 55 kg:

Daily weight gain, kg .88 .82 .92 .90 .84
Daily feed intake, kg 2.17 2.05 2.23 2.19 2.08
Feed/gain 2.48 2.49 2.43 2.44 2.48

Finisher phase,
55 to 98 kg:

Daily weight gain, kg .77 .78 .77 .77 .81
Daily feed intake, kg 2.55 2.71 2.60 2.61 2.74
Feed/gain 3.30 3.45 3.36 3.39 3.38

Overall,
26 to 98 kg:

Daily weight gain, kg .81 .80 .82 .81 .82
Daily feed intake, kg 2.39 2.44 2.46 2.46 2.46
Feed/gain 2.98 3.06 2.99 3.03 3.00


1Three replicates were conducted; performance data represents 18 pigs per treatment.
-Treatment means in the same line (or row) are not significantly different (P>.10).







Department of Animal Science 30 -
Research Report MA-1982-2 Agricultural Research Center
August 1982 Marianna, Florida


PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SWINE AS AFFECTED
BY THE CONSUMPTION OF PEANUTS REMAINING IN THE FIELD AFTER
HARVEST---FIRST YEAR STUDY1,2

R. 0. Myer, R. L. West, K. L. Durrance, R. L. Reddish,
C. L. Brasher and D. W. Gorbet3


A substantial amount of peanuts usually remain in the field after harvest.
These unharvestable peanuts usually average 500 to 600 kg per hectare and can
be as high as 1000 kg per hectare. Pigs are often used to recover these un-
harvestable peanuts by allowing them to glean or "hog off" the remaining peanuts.
However, pigs fed peanuts develop carcasses with very soft and oily fat and are
subsequently discounted at the markets because of difficulty in cutting and
merchandising their carcasses. Preliminary research at the Marianna ARC has
shown that growing-finishing pigs can obtain one-third of their weight gain from
gleaning peanuts, if the other two-thirds was from the consumption of a corn-
soybean meal diet, and produce acceptable carcasses with firm fat (1). This
finding was true whether the pigs obtain their weight gain from gleaning peanuts
during the first, middle or last third of the growing-finishing period. Daily
weight gains of these pigs gleaning peanuts for one-third of the growing-finishing
period were found to be similar to or slightly less than that of pigs fed a corn-
soybean meal diet during the entire growing-finishing period. However, more
detailed research is needed to determine when and how long pigs can glean peanuts
during the growing-finishing period and still produce acceptable carcasses. At
the same time questions concerning daily weight gain and daily peanut consumption
by the pigs while on the fields need to be answered.

The present study is the first year of a two-year study designed to evaluate
performance and carcass characteristics of swine allowed to glean peanuts remain-
ing in the field after harvest during part or all of the growing-finishing period.

Experimental

Thirty-six crossbred pigs (Hampshire x Duroc-Yorkshire-Hampshire) with an
average initial weight of 28 kg were allotted by sex, litter origin and initial
weight into groups of six pigs each. Each group was assigned at random to one
of the following six treatments.


1Experiment MA-1981-07, Project MA 01872.
2The assistance of Keith Blue, Caren Prichard, Carl Wigington, Harvey Standland,
John Crawford and Mary Chambliss is gratefully acknowledged.
3Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition, University of Florida, ARC,
Marianna. West, Associate Professor of Meat Science; Durrance, Professor,
Extension Swine Specialist; and Reddish, Professor, Extension Meats Specialist,
Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville. Brasher,
Extension Agent, Jackson County, FL and Gorbet, Associate Professor of Agronomy,
University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.






- 31 -


1. Control I; pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 28 to 102 kg
in confinement on concrete (C).

2. Control II; pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 28 to 102 kg
in a dirt lot (CCC).

3. Pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 28 to 79 kg in a dirt lot
and then gleaned peanuts from 79 to 102 kg (CCP).

4. Pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 28 to 54 kg in a dirt lot
and then gleaned peanuts from 54 to 103 kg (CPP).

5. Pigs gleaned peanuts from 28 to 77 kg and then fed a corn-soybean
meal diet from 77 to 101 kg in a dirt lot (PPC).

6. Pigs gleaned peanuts from 28 to 101 kg (PPP).

A 15 hectare harvested peanut (variety: Florunner) field at the Marianna
ARC was used. The field was divided into .8 hectare sections and enclosed with
electric fencing. Starting from one side of the field, initial assignment of
treatment groups to the .8 hectare sections was done at random. Each .8 hectare
section was gleaned by a group of pigs until about 90% of the remaining peanuts
were consumed after which this group was moved to the nearest available ungleaned
section. An estimate of peanuts left in the field after harvest was determined
by weighing the amount of peanuts at randomly chosen 1 m2 areas within the
sections. This procedure was repeated after the pigs were removed from the
sections to obtain estimated peanut consumption. Representative samples of
peanuts were collected after the start and near the end of the experimental
period for proximate and fatty acid analyses. Pigs were given a mineral mix
(1) and water ad libitum while on the fields.
One of the two groups of pigs that were given the corn-soybean meal diet
during the entire growing-finishing period was maintained in a confinement pen
with a solid concrete floor. The other group was maintained in a .8 hectare dirt
lot enclosed with electric fencing. Pigs which were given the corn-soybean meal
diet during part of the growing-finishing period were kept in .8 hectare dirt
lots during these times. A 15% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet (table 1)
was fed from 28 to 54 kg and 13% crude protein finisher diet (table 1) was fed
from 55 to 102 kg. Feed was offered ad libitum and consumption recorded.

Pigs were removed from the experiment in groups of two within treatment
group at an average weight of 102 kg per pig (full weight). These pigs were
trucked to the University of Florida Meats Lab in Gainesville, weighed and
slaughtered. After chilling, each carcass was scored for fat firmness and fat
color. Other carcass data obtained included the following: dressing percentage,
average backfat thickness, carcass muscling score, carcass length, loin eye area,
lean color, lean firmness, and marbling score. The left side of each carcass was
fabricated for determination of four lean cut yield percentage. A backfat sample
(opposite the 10th rib) was obtained from each carcass, vacuum packaged, and
stored at -40 C until analyzed for fatty acid composition. For the determination
of fatty acid composition, the backfat and peanut samples were extracted using
the procedure of Lumen et al. (2) followed by methylation4 and gas chromatographic
analysis.
4Meth-Prep II, Applied Sciences.






- 32 -


Data (except feed/gain) were analyzed by the analysis of variance pro-
cedure with the experimental unit being the individual animal. Duncan's new
multiple range test was used to compare treatment means.

Results and Discussion

Average daily weight gain (ADG) of pigs recovering (gleaning) peanuts
remaining in the field after harvest during the entire growinj-finishing (G-F)
period (28 to 102 kg; PPP) was much lower (P<.01) than that of pigs fed a corn-
soybean meal-based diet and raised in a dirt lot during the entire G-F period
(CCC; table 2). This lower ADG equates to 35 extra days for these pigs gleaning
peanuts to obtain market weight of 102 kg. Pigs gleaning peanuts during only
the last third of the G-F period (79 to 102 kg; CCP) and given a corn soybean
meal diet during the first two-thirds (28 to 79 kg), had an ADG over the entire
G-F period that, while slightly lower, was not significantly different (P>.05)
from that of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet in a dirt lot during the entire
G-F period.

Pigs gleaning peanuts during the first two-thirds (28 to 77 kg; PPC) or
the last two-thirds (54 to 103 kg; CPP) of the G-F period and given a corn-
soybean meal diet during the other third of their respective G-F periods had
ADG over the entire G-F period that were similar (P>.05; table 2). These ADG
were greater (P<.05) than that of pigs gleaning peanuts during the entire G-F
period, but lower (P<.05) than that of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet in a
dirt lot during the entire G-F period. These similar but lower ADG of pigs
from these two treatments would mean an extra 15 days for them to reach market
weight as compared to pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet during the entire G-F
period. The similar ADG of pigs from these two treatments indicates that pigs
can glean peanuts during the first two-thirds or the last two-thirds of the
G-F period with equal effect on overall ADG. This finding was in spite of the
very low ADG that was observed during the first one-third of the G-F period
(table 2) for pigs that gleaned peanuts during the first two-thirds of the G-F
period (PPC). However, when these pigs were placed on a corn-soybean meal diet
-during the last one-third of the G-F period, they showed evidence of compensatory
gain as indicated by a high rate of gain during this period (table 2).

The consumption of peanuts remaining in the field by pigs to obtain part
of their weight gain during the G-F period resulted in a feed savings of 157,
168, and 83 kg per pig for pigs gleaning peanuts during the first two-thirds,
last two-thirds and last third, respectively, of the G-F period. The estimated
amount of whole peanuts required per unit of weight gain (feed to gain ratio)
of pigs on the various gleaning treatments was found to vary from 4.4 to 5.5
(air dry basis). The estimated feed to gain ratios obtained in the present
trial for pigs gleaning peanuts were less than the estimated feed to gain ratios,
which ranged from 5.6 to 7.2, obtained in a previous trial conducted at the
Marianna ARC (1). However, the previous trial was started at a later date in
the year than the present trial. The longer time period between harvest and
the gleaning process may have led to greater deterioration of the peanuts that
were missed during harvest, thus lowering their feeding value.






- 33


As expected, pigs gleaning peanuts during the entire G-F period had carcass
fat that was considerably softer, as indicated by much higher (P<.01) average
score (table 3), than that from pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet in a dirt lot
during the entire G-F period. With the other treatments, decreases in carcass
fat firmness, as reflected by higher scores, appeared to be proportional to the
amount of weight that the pigs gained while gleaning peanuts. However, the
increase in the average fat firmness score (table 3) for pigs gleaning peanuts
during just the last one-third of the G-F period was not significantly different
(P>.05) from the average score obtained from pigs fed a corn-soybean diet in a
dirt lot during the entire G-F period. Interestingly, for pigs gleaning peanuts
for two-thirds of the G-F period, the feeding of a "hardening diet" (corn-soybean
meal diet) to these pigs during the first one-third or last one-third of the G-F
period had the same effect on carcass fat firmness.

The detrimental effect that the consumption of peanuts by pigs had on carcass
fat firmness is further supported by changes in backfat fatty acid composition
(table 4). The consumption of peanuts resulted in a higher percentage of un-
saturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids. Fat high in unsaturated
fatty acids tends to be liquid at room temperature, hence the fat is soft. Like
with fat firmness scores, the change to a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty
acids appeared to be proportional to amount of weight gained while the pigs.
gleaned peanuts. This change in fatty acid composition appears to reflect the
fatty acid profile of the peanuts (table 4). Unlike fat firmness scores, pigs
gleaning peanuts during the first two-thirds of the G-F period had a lower (P<.05)
ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids than pigs gleaning peanuts during
the last two-thirds of the G-F period. This finding tends to indicate that feed-
ing a "hardening diet" would be of more benefit during the latter part of the
G-F period than during the early part.
Carcass fat color from pigs that were allowed to glean peanuts, even only
during the last one-third of the G-F period, was darker (P<.05), as indicated
by higher scores (table 3), than that of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet in a
dirt lot during the entire G-F period. This darkening of carcass fat color was
most apparent from pigs that gleaned peanuts for two-thirds or the entire G-F
period.
Marbling of the loin eye from pigs that gleaned peanuts during all of the
G-F period or from pigs that gleaned peanuts during just part of the G-F period
and fed a corn-soybean meal diet during the other portions of the G-F period was
less (P<.05), as indicated by lower scores (table 3), than that from pigs fed a
corn-soybean meal diet in a dirt lot during the entire G-F period. Even allow-
ing pigs to glean peanuts only during the last one-third of the G-F period
resulted in decreased (P<.05) marbling scores. It is not known whether these
observed decreases in marbling may be a direct effect from the consumption of
peanuts by the pigs or (and) the result of the darker fat color masking the
visibility of marbling.
Average backfat thickness, dressing percent, carcass leanness, carcass
length, loin eye area and USDA grade of pigs from any of the peanut gleaning
treatments were not different (P>.05) from those of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal






- 34 -


diet in a dirt lot during the entire G-F period (table 3). Only pigs gleaning
peanuts during the entire G-F period had an average lean color score that was
lower (P<.05) than that of pigs from any of the other treatments. Nevertheless,
the color score obtained from pigs on this treatment would be acceptable; a
score of three would be considered optimum.

There were no differences (P>.05) in any parameter measured between pigs
that were fed a corn-soybean meal diet during the entire G-F period in a dirt
lot and pigs similarly fed but maintained in a confinement p';i with a concrete
floor with the exception of percent shrink and loin eye area. The reasons for
the differences for these two parameters are not apparent.

The results of our present trial indicate that the practice of allowing
G-F pigs to obtain two-thirds of their weight gain from gleaning peanuts and
the other one-third from consuming a corn-soybean meal diet would result in these
pigs producing carcasses that would likely be discriminated against by the meat
packer because of soft carcass fat. However, data from our present trial as
well as our previous trial (1) shows that pigs can gain one-third of their weight
during the G-F period from gleaning peanuts and the other two-thirds from the
consumption of a corn-soybean meal diet and produce acceptable carcasses.
Just exactly how much weight pigs can gain while gleaning peanuts is not known
at this time but appears to be between one-third and two-thirds of the total
weight that can be gained during a typical G-F period. The results from our
present and previous trials also suggest that it doesn't matter when during
the G-F period the pigs gain weight from the consumption of peanuts (i.e.,
first third vs. the last third), the effect on carcass fat firmness and fatty
acid composition appears to be the same.

Summary

An experiment involving thirty-six crossbred pigs with an average initial
weight of 28 kg was done to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics
of swine allowed to glean (recover) peanuts remaining in the field after harvest
during part or all of the growing-finishing period. Pigs gleaning peanuts during
just part of the growing-finishing period were fed a corn-soybean meal based diet
during the other portion. Daily weight gain, carcass fat firmness and color,
backfat fatty acid composition, and loin eye marbling were detrimentally affected
by allowing growing-finishing pigs to glean peanuts. Except for marbling, these
effects appear proportional to the amount of weight gained while pigs gleaned
peanuts. The feeding of a "hardening diet" (corn-soybean meal diet) to the pigs
either during the first or last one-third of the growing-finishing period had
about the same effect on carcass fat firmness.

Literature Cited

1. Myer, R. 0., A. F. Jilek, C. L. Brasher and D. W. Gorbet. 1981. Peanut
harvesting losses as a feed source for growing-finishing swine---a pre-
liminary study. Univ. of Florida, Marianna ARC Res. Rep. MA-1981-4,
Gainesville, FL.

2. de Lumen, B. 0., V. C. White and M. E. Bailey. 1974. Effect of processing
on the major fatty acids of separable porcine tissues. I. Influence of
roasting fresh pork. J. Anim. Sci. 39:309.






- 35 -


TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF CORN-SOYBEAN MEAL DIETS


Grower Finisher
Ingredient (28 to 55 kg) (55 to 102 kg)

Corn 77.25 83.70

Soybean meal (44%) 20.00 14.00

Dicalcium phosphate 1.30 .90

Calcium carbonate .80 .90

Salt .30 .30

Vitamin premix .20 .15

Trace mineral premix2 .05 .05

1At .20% of the diet, provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 4400 I.U.;
vitamin D3, 700 I.U.; vitamin E, 18 I.U.; vitamin K activity, 2.6 mg;
riboflavin, 3.5 mg; d-pantothenic acid, 14 mg; niacin, 18 mg; choline
chloride, 440 mg; vitamin B12, 18 pg; and selenium, .09 mg.
2Provided per kilogram of diet: zinc, 100 mg, iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg;
copper, 5 mg; and iodine, .08 mg.








TABLE 2. DAILY WEIGHT GAIN (KG) OF SWINE GLEANING PEANUTS DURING PART OR ALL
OF THE GROWING-FINISHING (G-F) PERIOD1


Portion of G-F period
First Second Third Total Days to
Treatment2 (28 to 54 kg) (54 to 78 kg) (78 to 102 kg) (28 to 102 kg) 102 kg

(C) .81a .88a .81b .84a 166
CCC .79a .80ab .72b .79ab 172
CCP .74a .78abc .64bc .72bc 180
CPP .73a .62c .68bc .68c 187
PPC .50b .75abc 1.02a .68c 187
PPP .54b .69bc .52 .56d 208


1Each treatment mean is based on information from 6 animals
during the second week of the experiment).


(5 animals for PPC, one pig died, cause unknown,


2(C) = control I, pigs given a corn-soy diet from 28 to 102 kg in confinement on concrete; CCC = control II,
pigs given a corn-soy diet from 28 to 102 kg in a dirt lot; CCP = pigs given a corn-soy diet from 28 to 79 kg
in a dirt lot and then gleaned peanut fields from 79 to 102 kg; CPP = pigs given a corn-soy diet from 28 to
54 kg in a dirt lot and then gleaned peanut fields from 54 to 103 kg; PPC = gleaned peanu't fields from 28 to
77 kg and then given a corn-soy diet from 77 to 101 kg in a dirt lot; and PPP = pigs gleaned peanut fields
from 28 to 101 kg.
a,b,c,dMeans in the same column without a common superscript are significantly different (P<.05).





- 37 -


TABLE 3. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SWINE GLEANING PEANUTS DURING PART OR ALL OF
THE GROWING-FINISHING PERIOD1


Treatment2
(C) CCC CCP CPP PPC PPP
In transit shrinkage, % 2.4a 1.2b 1.9ab 1.3b 2.4a 1.9ab
Dressing percentage 74.7a 76.0abc 77.2bc 77.8c 75.5ab 76.6bc
Fat firmness score3 1.5a 1.3a 1.8a 32b 3.2b 4.0c
Fat color score4 1.0a 1.0a 1.7b 2.7c 2.3c 2.8c
Avg. backfat5, cm 2.8a 2.8a 2.9a 2.9a 2.7a 2.9a
Carcass length5, cm 79.6 79.9a 78.2a 78.9a 79.3a 79.3a
Loin eye
Area, cm x cm 37.3a 41.7b 41.9b 41.5ab 37.9ab 39. ab
Lean color score6 3.0a 3.0a 2.7a 3.0a 3.0a 2.0b
Lean firmness score7 2.3ab 2.2ab .8b 2.5a 2.3ab 2.2ab
Marbling score8 7.8a 7.2a 4.3b 3.5b 3.4b 3.2b
Muscling score9 9.0a 8.8a 8.7a 8.7a 8.5a 8.7a
USDA grade 1.2 1.0.2a .3 aa .a 1a .2a
Lean cuts, % 59.3a 60.8a 60.9a 61.3a 61.3a 61.8a
Percent lean10 58.1a 60.2a 60.0 5a 58a 59.0a 59.8a


1Each treatment mean is based on information from 6 animals (5 animals for PPP, one pig
died, cause unknown, during the second week of the experiment).
2See footnote 2, table 2.
31 = firm; 2 = slightly firm; 3 = slightly soft; 4 = soft, oily.
41 = white; 2 = creamy; 3 = slightly dark; 4 = dark.
5Adjusted to 100 kg.
6Wisconsin system: 1 = extremely pale; 2 = pale; 3 = uniform; 4 = moderately dark;
5 = dark.
Wisconsin system: 1 = soft and watery; 2 = moderately soft and moderately watery; 3 =
moderately firm and moderately dry; 4 = firm and dry; 5 = very firm and very dry.
81 = devoid; 2 = practically devoid; 3 = traces; 4 = slight; 5 = small; 6 = modest; 7 =
moderate; 8 = slightly abundant; 9 = moderately abundant; 10 = abundant.
97 = moderately thick minus; 8 = moderately thick; 9 = moderately thick plus; 10 = thick
minus; 11 = thick; 12 = thick plus; 13 = very thick minus.
1Neb Guide procedure: % lean = 12 + .45 (hot carcass wt, lb) + 5 (loin eye area, in2)
11 (fat over loin eye, in)] + hot carcass wt, lb.
a,b,cMeans on the same line (or row) without a common superscript are significantly
different (P<.05).






- 38 -


TABLE 4. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BACKFAT OF PIGS GLEANING PEANUTS DURING
PART OR ALL OF THE GROWING-FINISHING PERIOD1



Fatty acid, %
2 Saturated (S) Unsaturated (U)
Treatment C14 C16 C18 C16:1 C18:1 C18:2 U:S

(C) 2 25 10 4 49 11 1.8a
CCC 1 25 10 4 48 12 1.8a

CCP 1 19 6 3 53 18 2.8b

CPP 1 14 4 2 54 24 4.0d

PPC 1 16 5 3 50 24 3.4c

PPP <1 13 3 1 53 29 5.2e

Peanuts3 0 12 1 0 51 35 6.8


'Each treatment mean is based on information from 6
one died, cause unknown, during the second week of


animals (5 animals for PPP,
the experiment).


See footnote 2, table 2.

3Average of two separate samples.
a,b,c,d,eMeans in the same column without a common superscript are significantly
different (P<.05).







Department of Animal Science 39 -
Research Report MA-1982-3 Agricultural Research Center
August 1982 Marianna, Florida


FIRST CROP AND REGROWTH (RATOON) CROP GRAIN SORGHUMS IN
DIETS FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1,2

R. 0. Myer, D. W. Gorbet and G. E. Combs3


The long growing season in Florida allows the potential of getting two
crops per year on the same land. Grain sorghum planted in April is usually
ready for harvest in late July or early August. After harvest, the sorghum
plants can be cut back and if there is sufficient moisture, a regrowth or
ratoon grain crop is possible. This ratoon crop is usually ready for harvest
in late November. Since the climatic conditions differ during grain develop-
ment of the two crops (July vs. October), there may be differences in the
nutritional value of the grain for swine.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of growing-
finishing swine fed diets containing either first crop or ratoon crop grain
sorghum or corn as the primary energy source.

Experimental

The grain sorghum used in this study was grown under irrigation at the
Marianna ARC during the 1981 cropping season. Four different commercial
varieties, Funk G522 DR, Dekalb DK 61 and DK 64, and Gold Kist GSA 1290,
were planted in April. The first crop was harvested in early August and the
ratoon crop was harvested in early December. Amino acid composition of both
crops of each variety of grain sorghum was determined with an amino acid
analyzer4 according to the manufacturer's recommended procedures. Crude
protein was determined using the macro-kjeldahl technique. Test weight
(weight per unit of volume) was also determined. Equal portions of the four
varieties were blended within each of the two crops for use in the feeding
trial.

Seventy-two crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 34 kg were
assigned to pens of six pigs each by sex, initial weight and litter origin.
Each pen was assigned at random to one of four dietary treatments within each
of three replicates. The four treatments included the following dietary



Experiment MA-1981-10.
The assistance of Bill Johnson and his staff is gratefully acknowledged.
3Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition and Gorbet, Associate Professor
of Agronomy, University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Marianna;
and Combs, Professor of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
4Model D-500, Durrum, Palo Alto, CA.






-40 -


grain sources: 1) corn, 2) first crop grain sorghum, 3) ratoon crop grain
sorghum, and 4) 50:50 mix of ratoon crop grain sorghum and corn. Compositions
of the experimental diets are given in table 1. The pigs were fed a grower
diet until they reached a pen average of 58 kg per pig and then fed a finisher
diet to 89 kg at which time the feeding trial was terminated. The level of
soybean meal and supplemental minerals and vitamins in the diet was constant
across all dietary treatments within the grower or finisher phases. The grain
sorghum and corn were ground through a hammer mill equipped with a .32 cm
screen before incorporation into the experimental diets. The pigs were housed
in a semi-enclosed building in 2.4 x 4.8 m pens with solid concrete floors.
Feed and water were given ad libitum. Average daily weight gain, feed to gain
ratios (feed conversion), and daily feed intake were computed on a pen basis
for the grower phase, the finisher phase, and the entire growing-finishing
period. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance for a randomized block
design.


Results and Discussion

Grain test weight, crude protein content, and amino acid composition of
each of the four grain sorghum varieties for the first crop and the regrowth
(ratoon) crop are given in table 2. Average grain test weight was lighter
for the ratoon crop grain sorghum than for the first crop. This lighter aver-
age test weight was primarily due to low test weight of both Dekalb varieties
of grain sorghum, particularly DK 61. Grain fill for these two varieties for
the ratoon crop was not complete at the time of the first killing frost which
could explain their low test weight. Crude protein content of the ratoon crop
of the four varieties tended to be lower and more variable than that observed
for the first crop of these varieties. However, the average contents of the
various essential amino acids, particularly lysine, were similar between the
two grain crops, but like that observed for crude protein, the levels of the
individual essential amino acids tended to vary more among the four varieties
for the ratoon crop.

The inclusion of either the first crop or the ratoon crop grain sorghum
as the primary energy source in diets for growing-finishing swine resulted
in no difference (P>.10) in daily weight gain and feed conversion (table 3).
The first crop or ratoon crop grain sorghum used in the feeding trial was an
equal portion blend of the above four varieties. The rate and efficiency of
weight gain of growing-finishing swine fed diets containing either crop of
grain sorghum was not different (P>.10) from that of pigs fed the corn based
diets or the diet containing the 50:50 mixture of corn and ratoon crop grain
sorghum.

The data from this study indicate that the first grain crop and the ratoon
grain crop from double cropped grain sorghum are equal in feeding value when
used as the primary energy source in diets for growing-finishing swine.

Summary

An experiment involving 72 crossbred pigs was conducted to evaluate the
performance of growing-finishing swine (34 to 89 kg) fed diets containing
either first crop or ratoon (regrowth) crop grain sorghum or corn as the primary






- 41 -


.:ergy source. Diets were formulated with corn and tle grain sorghui as
isonitrri-' .us (isolysine) ingredients. Daily weight gaq"ns and ri-': e,fl
-iencies ;f pigs fed diets containing ratoon crop grain *lcor.t;.hl. Vm lo.
Lo those c! pigs fed diets containing either first crop grain sorghum or
corn. Ratpon grain crop and first grain crop from double c'Fpped jgc')i
sor hum ii. ar to l. equal in "'eding value Mwhe uspd vi i; p'
s~,ce in Iets to growigq-fir shing swine.








TALLE 1. FERCiJTAGE COMPOSITION :~7 :P"'7T:7l "T


Grower isheI
nardient 34 to 8 .g) '

S3ra in 79.90 ;- i
Soybean meal (48%) 17.50 .
Dicalcium phosphate 1.L5 .00
Ground limestone ..7 .7
Salt 1 .30 .>"
Vitamin premix .20 .15
Trace mineral premix .' .05
Antibiotic premix' --
100.nn 100.-

Calculates composition', as rea:
rain GY(r,
Cu n .; ghum"
Crude -rateini 15,50 4 .60
Lysine .75 .73 6' 6
Calcium .63 ,63 .56
Phosphorus .56 .56 .50 ,5n


1At .15%, provided the following per kilogram of diet: vimir 00;: 1.U.i
vitamin D3, 528 IU.J; vitamin E, 13.2 I.U.; vitamin Y .c' v.- n : I-,
flavin, 2.G mg; d-pantothenic aiid, 10 mg; niacin, 1 mgn ch'~r.p ch'-ri '
330 mg; vitamin B12, 13 pg; and selenium, .066 mg.

2Provided the following per kilogram of diet: zinc, 120 mg; iron, 60 mag
manganese, 33 mg; copper, 6.6 mg; and iodine, ,09 mg.

provided the following per kilogram of diet: chlortetracycli~a, 8 mg,
sulfamethazine, 88 mg; and penicillin, 44 mg.

4Calculated using NRC (1979) table values.











TABLE 2. TEST WEIGHT, CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT AND AMINO ACID COb li~v0.O OF FIRST CROP AiD\
REGROWTH (RATOON) CROP GRAIN SORGHUMS (AIR-DRY BASIS)


_ First crop .


Funk Dekalb Dekalb Gold Kist
G522 DR DK 61 DK 64 GSA 1290


Average


Ratoon croo
-Iunk eka.b Deka b Gold Kist
G522 DR DK 61 DK 64 GSA 1290 Average


Test weight, g-literl

Cruue protein
(N x 6.25), %

Essential amino acids, %
Lysine
Threonine
T-oleucine
Methionine
Arginine
Histidine
Ltucine
Phenylalanine
Valine

Non-essential
amino acids, total, %


Tryptophan not determined.

2Cystine not determined.


Item


815


9.4


.21
.37
.40
.16
.36
.22
1.38
.48
.42


6.0


855


9.4


.22
.38
.39
.17
.39
.25
1.36
.49
.44


6.1


890


9.6


.21
.36
.38
.16
.37
.23
1.35
.52
.42


6.1


855


9.3


.21
.35
.39
.16
.37
.21
1.28
.49
.41


5.7


855


9.4


.21
.36
.39
.16
.37
.23
1.34
.49
.42


6.0


825


8.9


.21
.33
.37
.18
.34
.20
1 .23
.43
.34


5.5


710


9.3


.25
.37
.40
.17
.37
.21
1.25
.47
.42


5.7


815


8.9


.23
.34
.38
.17
.34
.20
1.28
.47
.42


5.7


900


8.5


.18
.34
.37
.17
.33
.19
1.27
.44
.40


5.4


810


8,9


.22 .
.34 4
.38
.17/
.34
.20
1.26
.45
.39


5.6


_ ~_~ _~ ~~_











TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING
FIRST CROP OR RATOON CROP GRAIN SORGHUM1


Dietary grain source2
Grain sorghum, Grain sorghum,
Corn (C) first crop ratoon crop (RGS) 50C:50RGS

Grower phase, 34 to 58 kg
Daily weight gain, kg .76 .81 .81 .80
Daily feed intake, kg 2.19 2.28 2.35 2.26
Feed/gain 2.89 2.82 2.87 2.80

Finisher phase, 58 to 89 kg
Daily weight gain, kg .82 .80 .84 .84
Daily feed intake, kg 2.60 2.56 2.67 2.59
Feed/gain 3.16 3.20 3.19 3.09

Overall, 34 to 89 kg
Daily weight gain, kg .80 .81 .83 .82
Daily feed intake, kg 2.43 2.45 2.54 2.45
Feed/gain 3.04 3.01 3.06 2.97


1Three pens per treatment, six pigs per pen;
Research Unit, Gainesville.


experiment was conducted at the University of Florida Swine


2Treatment means on each line (or row) are not significantly different (P>.10).






Department of Animal Science 44 -
Research Report MA-1982-4 Agricultural Research Center
July, 1982 Marianna, Florida


NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TRITICALE IN SWINE STARTER DIETS1
R. 0. Myer and R. D. Barnett2


Triticale, a synthetic crop derived from crossing wheat and rye, shows
promise as a feed grain that can be produced in Florida and throughout the
Southeast. Triticale usually contains higher levels of crude protein and,
more importantly, lysine than corn, grain sorghum, or soft red winter wheat.
Lysine is an essential amino acid that is usually the most limiting in swine
diets. Previous research has shown Florida-grown triticale (Beagle 82) to
be equivalent in feeding value to corn in swine growing and finishing diets
(1,2). This study was conducted to evaluate Florida-grown triticale not only
as a corn replacement but also as a partial protein supplement replacement
in starter diets for young swine.

Experimental

Two varieties of triticale, Beagle 82 and B227, were used in this study.
Beagle 82 is a variety recently jointly released by the University of Florida
and the University of Georgia, and B227 is a variety developed by Desert
Seed Company of Canyon, Texas. Both varieties were grown at the Quincy AREC
during the 1980-81 cropping season. Amino acid composition of both triticales 3
as well as the corn used in the study was determined with an amino acid analyzer
according to the manufacturer's recommended procedures. Crude protein was deter-
mined using the macro-kjeldahl technique.

Eighty crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 9.5 kg were assigned
to pens of four pigs each by sex, initial weight and litter origin. Each pen
was randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments within each of three
replicates. The five dietary treatments were as follows: 1) corn-soybean meal
control; 2 and 3) Beagle 82 triticale or B227 triticale at the same dietary
level as the corn in the control diet (corn replacement only); and 4 and 5)
same as 2 and 3 except that the diets were formulated to be equal in lysine con-
tent to the control diet (corn and partial soybean meal replacement). The
latter two experimental diets were formulated assuming that the lysine content
of the triticale equalled .4%. The composition of the experimental diets is
presented in table 1. The dietary levels of supplemental minerals and vitamins
were constant across the five treatments. Feed and water were given ad libitum.


Experiment MA-1982-01.
2Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition, University of Florida,
Agricultural Research Center, Marianna and Barnett, Associate Professor
of Agronomy, University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Quincy.
3Model D-500, Durrum, Palo Alto, CA.






- 45 -


Pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery in pens with expanded metal floors
with a wood overlay across one end of each pen. Supplemental heat was
provided by infra-red heat lamps. Pigs were weighed at the end of the second
week and at the end of the 32-day experimental period. Feed consumption was
determined at the end of the 32-day period. Blood (orbital) was collected
at the end of the third week of the experimental period from oe randomly
selected barrow and gilt per pen. Serum urea (3) and albumin (4) concen-
trations were determined.

Average daily weight gain (during the first 2 weeks and for the entire
32-day experimental period), feed to gain ratios, average daily feed intake
and serum urea and albumin concentrations were computed on a pen basis. The
data were analyzed by analysis of variance for a randomized complete block
design, and upon a significant F test, Duncan's new multiple range test was
used to compare treatment means.

Results and Discussion

Crude protein and essential amino acid contents of the two varieties of
triticale and corn used in this study are shown in table 2. As a percent of
their crude protein content, Beagle 82 triticale and B277 triticale contained
76 and 60%, respectively, more lysine than the corn.

Average daily weight gain of pigs fed diets containing either triticale
variety was not different (P>.05) from that of pigs fed the corn-soybean meal
control diet (table 3). This lack of difference with average daily weight
gain was true whether the triticales served as a corn replacement or when the
triticale diets were formulated to be equal in lysine content to the corn-soybean
meal control diet (corn and partial soybean meal replacement). Feed to gain
ratio of pigs fed diets containing Beagle 82 triticale either as a corn replace-
ment or as a corn and partial soybean meal replacement was not different (P>.05)
from that of pigs fed the corn-soybean meal control diet. However, when B227
triticale was used in the diet for the starter pigs as a corn and partial soy-
bean meal replacement, the feed to gain ratio was higher (P<.05) than that from
pigs fed the diet containing B227 triticale as a corn replacement only. This
detrimental effect on feed efficiency when B227 triticale was used as a corn
and partial soybean meal replacement indicates poor nutritional availability
of the lysine in this triticale. This poor availability of lysine was not
apparent when Beagle 82 triticale was used in the diet. The reasons) for the
apparent poor availability of lysine is not known but may be due to protease
inhibitors such as trypsin inhibitors which are known to occur in relatively
high levels in some varieties of triticale (5,6). Trypsin inhibitors inter-
fere with the proper function of the enzyme trypsin and causes reduced utili-
zation of dietary protein. Interference with dietary protein utilization would
interfere with the utilization of dietary lysine as well as other essential
amino acids.


Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO.






- 46 -


Serum urea concentrations were higher (P<.05) in pigs fed the triticale
diets in which the triticales were only a corn replacement than in pigs fed
the triticale diets which were equal in lysine content to the corn-soybean
meal control diet (table 3). However, serum urea concentrations from these
pigs fed the triticale diets equal in lysine content to the corn-soybean meal
control diet were still higher (P<.05) than those of pigs fed the control diet.
Serum urea concentrations are sometimes used as an index of dietary protein
quality and adequacy; however, the higher serum urea concentrations observed
for the pigs fed the triticale diets are probably due to thf nigher crude pro-
tein content of these diets (table 1) (7). There were no differences (P>.05)
in serum albumin concentrations in the young pigs due to treatment. Serum
albumin concentrations are sometimes used to evaluate protein (amino acid)
adequacy of a diet (7). There was a trend, however, of decreased serum albumin
concentrations for pigs fed the B227 triticale diet formulated to be equal in
lysine content to the corn-soybean meal control diet. This decrease in serum
albumin concentration further supports the hypothesis of lowered amino acid
availability, especially lysine, in the B227 triticale.

The results of this study indicate that Beagle 82 triticale, but not B227
triticale, can effectively replace all the corn and the level of dietary soy-
bean meal (44%) can be reduced from 25% to 20% in a typical corn-soybean meal
based diet without affecting performance of young starting pigs.

Summary

Eighty pigs with an average initial weight of 9.5 kg were fed nutrition-
ally adequate diets containing either corn or triticale (Beagle 82 or B227)
with equal quantities of protein supplement (soybean meal) or triticale with
sufficient soybean meal to provide dietary lysine levels equal to that in the
corn-soybean meal diet. Rate of weight gain was similar for pigs fed the corn
diet or any of the triticale diets. Feed efficiency of pigs fed the Beagle 82
triticale diet either formulated to be equal in added soybean meal or equal in
lysine level to the corn-soybean meal diet was similar to that of pigs fed the
corn diet. With pigs fed diets containing B227 triticale, feed efficiency was
similar to that of pigs fed the corn diet when the triticale diet was similar
in quantity of soybean meal, but poorer when the triticale diet was equal in
lysine content. Florida produced Beagle 82 triticale, but not B227 triticale,
can satisfactorily replace all the corn and 20% of the soybean meal (44%) in
a typical corn-soybean meal based diet for young starting pigs.

Literature Cited

1. Jilek, A. F. and R. D. Barnett. 1980. Comparison of triticale with wheat
and corn in swine grower and finisher rations. Univ. of Florida, Marianna
ARC Res. Rep. MA-1980-2.

2. Jilek, A. F. and R. D. Barnett. 1981. Triticale and wheat as energy
sources in swine grower and finisher rations. Univ. of Florida, Marianna
ARC Res. Rep. MA-1981-1.






- 47 -


3. Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum
or plasma without deproteinization. Amer. J. Med. Technol. 33:361.

4. Doamas, B. T. and H. G. Biggs. 1972. Determination of serum albumin.
In G. R. Cooper (Ed.) Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry. pp 175-
188. Academic Press, New York.

5. Erickson, J. P., E. R. Miller, W. G. Bergen and F. C. Elliott. 1978.
An evaluation of several winter selections of triticale as a source
of protein and energy for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 46:417.

6. Erickson, J. P., E. R. Miller, F. C. Elliot, P. K. Ku and D. E. Ullrey.
1979. Nutritional evaluation of triticale in swine starter and grower
diets. J. Anim. Sci. 48:547.

7. Eggum, B. 0. 1976. Indirect measure of protein adequacy. In D. J.
A. Cole (Ed.) International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition.
pp 249-258. European Assoc. Anim. Prod. Pub. 16, Buttersworths, London.




TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS


Dietary treatment
Triticale
Corn and partial
soybean meal
Ingredient Corn replacement replacement1
Corn (equal soybean meal) (equal lysine)
(control) Beagle 82 B227 Beagle 82 B227
Grain 71.50 71.50 71.50 76.50 76.50
Soybean meal (44%) 25.00 25.00 25.00 20.00 20.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
Calcium carbonate 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Salt .40 .40 .40 .40 .40
Vitamin premix .25 .25 .25 .25 25
Trace mineral premix .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Antibiotic premix4 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
5 1 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated composition as fed:
Crude protein 16.7 20.6 19.6 19.0 18.0
Lysine .91 1.05 1.02 .92 .89
Methionine + cystine .55 .62 .62 .57 .57
Threonine .65 .77 .74 .71 .67
Ca .79 .81 .81 .80 .80
p .62 .65 .65 .64 .64
Analyzed composition:
Dry matter 89.2 86.4 86.2 86.2 86.2
Crude protein (N x 6.25),
as fed 18.5 23.0 23.0 21.5 20.2

1Diets were formulated with the lysine content of the triticales = .4%.
2Provided the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 5500 IU; vitamin D3, 880 IU; vitamin E, 22 IU;
vitamin K activity, 3.3 mg; riboflavin, 4.4 mg; d-pantothenic acid, 18 mg; niacin, 22 mg; choline chloride,
550 mg; vitamin B12, 22 ig; and selenium, .1 mg.
provided the following per kilogram of diet: zinc, 200 mg; iron, 100 mg; manganese, 55 mg; copper, 11 mg;
and iodine, .15 mg.
4Provided the following per kilogram of diet: Chlortetracycline, 88 mg; sulfamethazine, 88 mg; and
penicillin, 44 mg.
5Calculated by using NRC (1979) table values and, for corn and the triticales, crude protein, lysine,
methionine and threonine levels as shown in table 2.






- 49 -


TABLE 2. CRUDE PROTEIN AND ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID1 COMPOSITION OF
TRITICALE AND CORN (AIR DRY BASIS)



Beagle 82 B227
Amino acid Triticale Triticale Corn


Crude protein (N x 6.25) 13.4 12.0 7.9
Lysine 2 .44 .40 .25
Methionine .19 .19 .14
Threonine .45 .40 .28
Arginine .65 .62 .38
Histidine .2'8 .25 .21
Isoleucine .38 .34 .23
Leucine .90 .80 .95
Phenylalanine + tyrosine .80 .80 .52
Valine .55 .50 .35

1
Tryptophan not determined.
Cystine not determined.











TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG STARTER SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING EITHER BEAGLE 82 OR B227 TRITICALE1


Dietary treatment
Triticale
Corn and partial
Item soybean meal
Corn replacement replacement2
Corn (equal soybean meal) (equal lysine)
(control) Beagle 82 B227 Beagle 82 B227
Avg. daily weight gain, kg
Day 0 to 14 .43a .46a .49a .46a .43a
Day 0 to 32 (overall) .59a .63a .64a .61a .59a
Feed/gain 1.95ab 1.87a 1.91a 1.87a 2.02b
Avg. daily feed intake, kg 1.15a 1.18a 1.23a 1.14a 1.18a
Serum constituents (at 3 wk)
Urea, mg-dl- 13.8a 20.6c 20.5c 17.7b 18.2b
Albumin, g.dl-1 3.4a 3.5a 3.7a 3.3a 3.2a


IAverage initial weight, 9.5
2 pigs per pen).
2Diet formulated with lysine
ton of mixed diet) was used


kg; 32-day test; 4 pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen (serum constituents,

content of the triticales = .4%; 20% less soybean meal (44%) (100 lb less per
in these two diets as opposed to the three other diets.


a,b,cMeans in the same row (or line) without a common superscript differ (P<.05).







Department of Animal Science 51 -
Research Report MA-1982-5 Agricultural Research Center
August 1982 Marianna, Florida


HIGH MOISTURE GRAIN SORGHUM IN SWINE GROWING AND FINISHING DIETS1,2

R. 0. Myer, K. L. Durrance, D. W. Gorbet,
C. E. White and G. E. Combs3


Grain sorghum many times is harvested in the high moisture state and then
artificially dried for safe storage. An alternative to drying would be to store
the high moisture grain directly. High moisture storage can be accomplished by
either adding an organic acid preservative, usually propionic acid, or ensiling
the grain in an air-tight (oxygen limiting) structure. In the latter storage
method, the grais undergoes anaerobic fermentation; this process does not
occur when a preservative is used. r':;,, -: research conducted in Florida has
shown that, on a dry matter basis, the feeding value of propionic acid treated
high moisture 3;rain sorghum is essentially equivalent to that of dry sorghum for
growing-finishing swine (1,2).

The objective of the present study was to compare grain sorghum that has
been harvested and stored (oxygen limiting) in a high moisture state to con-
ventional dry grain sorghum and dry corn in regards to 1) nutrient composition
and 2) performance of growing-finishing swine when included in the diet.

Experimental

The grain sorghum used in this study, consisting of equal areas of four
commercial varieties (Funk G522 DR, Dekalb OK 61 and DK 64, and Gold Kist GSA
1290), was grown under irrigation at the Marianna ARC during the 1981 cropping
season. An e---..i portion of each of the four varieties was harvested in the
h~gh moisture state (25%) and stored in air-tight plastic bags which were placed
in steel drums (55 gal.), Each of the four varieties was stored separately, but
they were blended together for the feeding trial. The remaining portion of each
of the four varieties was harvested at about 19% moisture content, batch dried
t 12% moisture, sampled, blended together, and stored in an aerated bin. Amino
acid composition of the dry grain and the high moisture grain of each variety
was determined with an amino acid analyzer4 following the manufacturer's recom-
mended procedures. Crude protein was determined using the macro-kjeldahl technique.


1Experiment MA-1982-2A; Project MA-01872.

2The assistance of Carl Wigington, Harvey Standland, John Crawford and Mary
Chambliss is gratefully acknowledged.

3Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition and Gorbet, Associate Professor
of Agronomy, University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Marianna;
Durrance, Professor and Extension Swine Specialist and Combs, Professor of
Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville;
and White, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition, University of Florida,
Agricultural Research Center, Live Oak.

4Model D-500, Durrum, Palo Alto, CA.






- 52 -


Fifty-four crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 33 kg were
allotted by sex, initial weight and litter into pens of six pigs each. Within
each of three replicates each pen was assigned at random to one of three dietary
treatments. The treatments included the following three dietary grain sources:
1) conventional dry corn, 2) conventional dry grain sorghum and 3) high moisture
grain sorghum. Compositions of the experimental diets are given in table 1.
The pigs were fed grower diets until they reached a pen average of 56 kg per pig
and then fed finisher diets to 80 kg at which time the feeding trial was termi-
nated. The feeding trial was terminated early due to the lacK of high-moisture
grain. The level of soybean meal and supplemental minerals and vitamins in the
diet was constant (dry matter basis) across the dietary treatments within the
grower or finisher phases. The dry grain sorghum and corn were ground through
a hammer mill equipped with a .48 cm screen before incorporation into the experi-
mental diets. Due to difficulty in grinding, the high-moisture grain sorghum was
passed through a roller mill with a visual spacing between the rollers of about
1 to 2 mm. To prevent spoilage, a preservativeO (50% propionate) was added to the
high moisture grain sorghum diet at a level of .5% of the diet. The pigs were
housed in confinement pens with solid concrete floors. Feed and water were offered
ad libitum. Average daily weight gain and on a dry matter basis, feed to gain
ratio (feed efficiency) and average daily feed intake were computed on a pen basis
for the grower phase, the finisher phase and the entire growing-finishing period.
The data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance for a randomized
block design.

Results and Discussion

Crude protein contents and amino acid compositions of the dry and high
moisture grain sorghum of each variety are given in table 2. On a dry matter
basis, crude protein content of each of the four varieties of grain sorghum after
oxygen limiting high moisture storage was similar to that found in the dry counter-
parts of these varieties; however, lysine and arginine contents were consistently
lower among the four varieties after high moisture storage. This apparent loss
in lysine content is of significance because lysine is usually the first limiting
essential amino acid in swine diets. The reason for this 25% average decrease in
lysine content is not known. MacPherson and Violante (3) noted a decrease in
lysine and arginine contents of ryegrass silage in which there was a slow fall in
pH in the early stages of the ensiling process. This decrease was not apparent
when the drop in pH was fast. The contents of the other essential amino acids
(tryptophan not determined) appeared to be unaffected by an anaerobic high moisture
storage.

The inclusion of either dry or high moisture grain sorghum as the primary
energy source in diets for growing-finishing swine resulted in no difference (P>.05)
in average daily weight gain and feed efficiency (dry matter basis; table 3). The
dry or high moisture grain sorghum used in the feeding trial was an equal portion
blend of the above four varieties. Over the entire growing-finishing period, the
rate of weight gain of pigs fed diets containing either dry or high moisture grain
sorghum was actually greater (P<.05) than that of pigs fed the diets containing
corn; however, feed to gain ratios (dry matter basis) were not different (P>.05).


5Mono Prop, Anitox Corp., Buford, GA.







- 53 -


The data from this study indicate that on a dry matter basis, high moisture
grain sorghum from oxygen limiting storage is similar in feeding value to dry
grain sorghum when used as the primary energy source in diets for growing-finishing
swine. This similarity in feeding value was in spite of the average decrease in
lysine content observed for the grain after high moisture storage; however, the
diets used were formulated to be in slight excess of the suggested lysine require-
ments for growing-finishing swine (4). The calculated lysine content of the dry
and high moisture grower diets, using the analyzed lysine contents obtained for
the grain sorghums, were .76% and .71%, respectively. The suggested lysine require-
ment for the 20 to 35 kg pig is .70% of the diet (4). The results obtained in
this study are in agreement with those of similar studies conducted either with
preserved high moisture grain sorghum (1,2,5) or with anerobically stored high
moisture grain sorghum (5,6,7).

Summary

An experiment involving 54 crossbred pigs was conducted to evaluate the per-
formance of growing-finishing swine (33 to 80 kg) fed diets containing either dry
or high moisture (from oxygen limiting storage) grain sorghum or dry corn as the
primary energy source. Diets were formulated with corn and the grain sorghums
as isonitrogenous ingredients (dry matter basis). Daily weight gains and feed
efficiencies (dry matter basis) of pigs fed diets containing high moisture grain
sorghum were similar to those of pigs fed diets containing dry grain sorghum.
Grain sorghum harvested and anaerobically stored in the high moisture state appears
to be equal in feeding value to dry grain sorghum when used as the primary energy
source in diets for growing-finishing swine.

Literature Cited

1. Hammell, D. L. 1974. Effect of feeding acid preserved grains on performance
of pigs. Univ. of Florida, Live Oak ARC Res. Rep. ARCLO 74-1, Gainesville,
FL.

2. Hammell, D. L. 1975. Performance of pigs fed acid preserved corn and grain
sorghum. Univ. of Florida, Live Oak ARC Res. Rep. ARCLO 75-1, Gainesville,
FL.

3. MacPherson, H. T. and P. Violante. 1966. The influence of pH on the metabolism
of arginine and lysine in silage. J. Sci. Food Agr. 17:128.

4. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of Sciences,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

5. Allee, G. 1979. Dig out the dry matter facts of feeding wet corn. Hog Farm
Management, June 1979, p. 82.

6. Robbins, B. S., C. V. Maxwell and W. G. Luce. 1971. High moisture milo for
swine. Oklahoma Agr. Exp. Sta. Misc. Pub. 85:109.

7. Crenshaw, J. D. and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1982. High moisture milo for swine.
Nebraska Swine Rep. E.C. 82-219, Institute of Agr. and Natural Resources,
Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln.






- 54 -


TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS


Grower Finisher
(33 to 56 kg) (56 to 80 kg)
Ingredient Dry High moisture Dry High moisture

Grain 77.35 89.73 83.70 97.10
Soybean meal (44%) 20.00 20.00 14.00 14.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.30 1.30 .90 .90
Calcium carbonate .80 .80 .90 .90
Salt 2 .30 .30 .30 .30
Vitamin premix 3 .20 .20 .15 .15
Trace mineral premix .05 .05 .05 .05
100.00 112.38 100.00 113.40

Calculated composition, air dry basis:
Grain Grain
Corn sorghum Corn sorghum

Crude protein 15.6 15.7 13.5 13.6
Lysine .78 .76 .61 .59
Calcium .65 .65 .59 .60
Phosphorus .59 .59 .49 .49

Formulated with moisture content of high moisture grain sorghum = 25%.

2At .20% of the diet, provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 4400 I.U.; vitamin D3,
700 I.U.; vitamin E, 18 I.U.; vitamin K activity, 2.6 mg; riboflavin, 3.5 mg;
d-pantothenic acid, 14 mg; niacin, 18 mg; choline chloride, 440 mg; vitamin B12, 18 pg;
and selenium, .09 mg.

3Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Provided per kilogram of diet: zinc,
100 mg; iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg; copper, 5 mg; and iodine, .08 mg.

4Calculated using NRC (1979) table values.











TABLE 2. CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT AND AMINO AICD COMPOSITION OF DRY AND HIGH MOISTURE
GRAIN SORGHUM (DRY MATTER BASIS)


Dry High moisture
Item unk Dekalb De Gold Kist Funk Dekalb Dekalb Gold Kist
G522 DR DK 61 DK 64 GSA 1290 Average G522 DR DK 61 DK 64 GSA 1290 Average

Crude protein
(N x 6.25), % 10.4 10.5 10.7 10.3 10.5 10.6 10.3 10.5 10.2 10.4
1
Essential amino acids, %
Lysine .23 .25 .24 .23 .24 .16 .17 .19 .18 .18
Threonine .40 .42 .40 .39 .40 .38 .40 .38 .38 .38
Isoleucine .44 .44 .42 .43 .43 .44 .46 .45 .42 .44
Methionine .19 .19 .19 .18 .19 .19 .19 .20 .18 .19
Arginine .40 .43 .41 .41 .42 .36 .34 .36 .35 .35
Histidine .24 .28 .26 .24 .25 .22 .25 .22 .21 .23
Leucine 1.52 1.51 1.50 1.42 1.49 1.42 1.50 1.53 1.38 1.46
Phenylalanine .53 .54 .57 .54 .55 .52 .52 .55 .50 .52
Val ine .46 .49 .47 .45 .47 .48 .51 .50 .48 .49

Non-essential 2
amino acids, total, % 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.3 6.6 6.1 6.4 6.3 5.9 6.2


Tryptophan not determined.

2Cystine not determined.






- 56 -


TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING
HIGH MOISTURE GRAIN SORGHUM


Dietary grain sourc,
Grain Tigh moisture
Item Corn sorghum rain sorghum

Grower phase, 33 to 56 kg: a a a
Daily weight gain, kg .92 .98 .98
Daily feed intake (as fed basis), kg 2.40 2.72 3.04
Daily feed intake (dry matter basis), kg 2.20a 2.47c 2.34b
Feed/gain (as fed basis) 2.61 2.77 3.13
Feed/gain (dry matter basis) 2.38a 2.51a 2.41a

Finisher phase, 56 to 80 kg: a b b
Daily weight gain, kg .91 .95 .97
Daily feed intake (as fed basis), kg 2.85 3.20 3.74
Daily feed intake (dry matter basis), kg 2.62a 2.89 2.86b
Feed/gain (as fed basis) 3.12 3.35 3.78
Feed/gain (dry matter basis) 2.87a 3.03a 2.89a

Overall performance, 33 to 80 kg: a b b
Daily weight gain, kg .92 .97 .98
Daily feed intake (as fed basis), kg 2.63 2.98 3.41
Daily feed intake (dry matter basis), kg 2.42a 2.67b 2.62b
Feed/gain (as fed basis) 2.86 3.08 3.49
Feed/gain (dry matter basis) 2.63a 2.75a 2.68a


Three pens per treatment, six pigs per pen.
a,bTreatment means without a common superscript are significantly different (P<.05).






Department of Animal Science 57 -
Research Report MA-1982-6 Agricultural Research Center
July 1982 Marianna, Florida



DRY-ROLLED GRAIN SORGHUM, GROUND GRAIN SORGHUM AND GROUND CORN
IN SWINE GROWING AND FINISHING DIETS

Robert 0. Myer2


The feeding value of grain sorghum for swine rations is improved by
grinding as opposed to feeding the grain whole (1). Fine grinding (through
a .48 cm screen or less) is usually required to at least crack all the grain
sorghum kernels and maximize its feeding value (2). However, the inclusion
of finely ground grain sorghum in swine rations may present several problems.
Finely ground feed can absorb moisture from the atmosphere and spoilage can
occur; a potential problem in warm humid areas like Florida. Rations con-
taining finely ground grain can bridge and not flow well in self-feeders.
Proper adjustment of these feeders may be rather difficult resulting in
increased feed wastage. In addition, several studies have indicated that
a decreased dietary particle size may increase the incidence and severity
of gastric ulcers in growing-finishing swine (3,4). Evidence from an Oklahoma
study indicates that dry-rolling the grain sorghum may offer a practical pro-
cessing method of at least cracking the grain sorghum kernels without producing
too many fine particles (5).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of growing-
finishing swine fed diets containing ground corn, ground grain sorghum or
dry-rolled grain sorghum.

Experimental

Seventy-two crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 31 kg were
allotted to pens of six pigs each by sex, weight and litter origin. Pens were
assigned at random among three dietary treatments within each of four rep-
licates. The composition of the experimental diets is given in table 1. The
three experimental diets contained ground corn, ground grain sorghum or dry-
rolled grain sorghum as the grain source. The corn and grain sorghum in the
ground grain diets were ground through a hammer mill using a .48 cm screen.
The grain sorghum for the dry-rolled diet was processed through a roller mill
with the rollers set at a tolerance of about 1 to 2 mm. Samples of ground
grain sorghum and dry-rolled grain sorghum were obtained each time diets were
mixed. Particle size distribution was determined by sifting 100 g of each
sample through a 2 mm and a 1 mm opening screens. Each sample was also
examined for whole kernels. The corn and grain sorghum (25:25:25:25 mix of
Funks G522 DR, Dekalb DK 61, Dekalb DK 64 and Gold Kist GSA 1290) were grown



Experiment MA-1982-02B.
Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural Research Center,
Marianna.






- 58 -


at the Marianna Station. The dietary levels of soybean meal and supple-
mental minerals and vitamins were constant across the three treatments.
The pigs were fed grower diets to an average pen weight of 57 kg per pig
and finisher diets to an average of 96 kg at which time the trial was
terminated. The pigs were house in 1.8 x 6.1 m pens with solid concrete
floors. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Average daily weight gain,
feed to gain ratios and daily feed intake were computed on a pen basis for
the grower phase, the finisher phase and the entire growing-finishing
period. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance for a randomized
complete block design, and depending upon the outcome of the F test,
Duncan's new multiple range test was used to compare treatment means.

Results and Discussion

The distribution of particle size of the ground and dry-rolled grain
sorghum is shown in table 2. Dry-rolling the grain sorghum resulted in a
40% reduction in particles that passed through a 1 mm opening screen as
compared to grinding the grain sorghum through a hammer mill equipped with
a .48 cm screen. Dry-rolling the grain sorghum was more effective in at
least cracking the whole kernels than grinding, as indicated by a lower
percentage of whole kernels that were found in the samples (table 2).
However, the percent whole kernels found from both processing methods was
quite low. Therefore, dry-rolling grain sorghum can effectively crack all
the kernels without producing too many fine particles.

The processing methods used for the dietary grain sorghum had no effect
(P<.05) on the rate of weight gain or feed to gain ratios of pigs during the
grower phase, the finisher phase or the entire growing-finishing period
(table 3). These findings are in agreement with a previous study conducted
in Oklahoma (5). During the grower and finisher phases, rate of gain of pigs
fed the ground grain sorghum diet was similar (P<.05) to that of pigs fed the
ground corn diet. When taken over the entire growing-finishing period, the
rate of gain of pigs fed the ground grain sorghum diet was slightly but
significantly (P>.05) greater than that of pigs fed the ground corn diet.
However, feed efficiency of pigs fed the ground grain sorghum was poorer
(P<.05) than that of pigs fed the gound corn diet. This effect on feed
efficiency was observed in both the grower and finisher phases as well as
for the entire growing-finishing period. From the feed efficiency values,
the grain sorghum used in this trial was estimated to have 94% the feeding
value of the corn that was used. This value is slightly lower than an average
value of 97% obtained in previous feeding trials conductedat the Marianna
Station (6,7,8). However, this value is similar to the average value of 95%
obtained in other feeding trials conducted in Florida (9,10,11) or that
reported by the NRC (12).

The results of this trial indicate that dry-rolling is as effective a
processing method as fine grinding (.48 cm screen) grain sorghum for use in
swine growing and finishing rations. However, more research is needed to
further evaluate the effect of processing dietary grain sorghum on performance
and on the development of gastric lesions (ulcers) in growing-finishing swine.






- 59 -


Summary

An experiment involving 72 crossbred pigs was conducted to evaluate the
performance of growing-finishing swine (31 to 96 kg) fed diets containing
either ground corn or grain sorghum (.48 cm screen) or dry-rolled grain sorghum
(1 to 2 mm visual spacing) as the primary energy source. Processing method
used for the dietary grain sorghum had no effect on performance of growing-
finishing swine. Pigs fed diets containing ground grain sorghum had a slightly
greater rate of gain than pigs fed the ground corn diet; however, feed effi-
ciency was slightly poorer. Dry-rolling, which was found to produce less fine
particles, is as effective a processing method as fine grinding grain sorghum
for use in swine growing and finishing rations.

Literature Cited

1. Beames, R. 1969. A comparison of the digestibility by pigs of whole and
rolled sorghum grain fed either in restricted amounts or ad libitum.
Austrialian J. Exp. Agr. Anim. Hus. 9:127.

2. Owsley, W. F., D. A. Knabe and T. D. Tanksley, Jr. 1981. Effect of
sorghum particle size on digestibility of nutrients at the terminal ileum
and over the total digestive tract of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim.
Sci. 52:557.


3. Mahan, D. C., R. A. Pickett, T. W. Perry, T. M. Curtin, W.
and W. M. Beeson. 1966. Influence of various nutritional
physical form of feed on esophago-gastric ulcers in swine.
25:1019.


R. Featherston
factors and
J. Anim. Sci.


4. Monegue, H. J., H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs. 1976. The effect of dietary
particle size on ulcer development of pigs. Univ. of Florida, Animal Science
Res. Rep. AL-1976-5, Gainesville, FL.


5. Luce, W. G., L.
rolling of milo
Sta. Misc. Pub.


T. Omtvedt and D. G. Stephens. 1970. Grinding and dry-
and wheat for growing-finishing swine. Oklahoma Agr. Exp.
MP-84-60.


6. Jilek, A. F., V. D. Leibbrandt and D. W. Gorbet. 1979.
mance by pigs fed diets containing corn, bird resistant
resistant sorghum grain from weaning to market weight.
Marianna ARC Res. Rep. MA-1979-1, Gainesville, FL.


Comparative perfor-
and non-bird
Univ. of Florida,


7. Jilek, A. F. and D. W. Gorbet. 1980. Performance of growing-finishing
swine fed sorghum diets supplemented with fat. University of Florida,
Marianna ARC Res. Rep. MA-1980-1, Gainesville, FL.

8. Myer, R. 0. and D. W. Gorbet. 1982. Mixtures of grain sorghum and corn
in swine grower and finisher rations. Univ. of Florida, Marianna ARC Res.
Rep. MA-1982-01, Gainesville, FL.






- 60 -


9. Hammell, D. L. and J. T. Johnson.
finishing swine fed Florida grown
non-bird resistant grain sorghum.
Res. Rep. SW-1976-2, Gainesville,


1976. Performance of growing-
bird resistant grain sorghum and
Univ. of Florida, Live Oak ARC
FL.


10. Combs, G. E. and J. L. Copelin. 1979. Grain sorghum in swine
starter, grower and finisher diets. Univ. of Florida, Animal Science
Res. Rep. AL-1979-3, Gainesville, FL.


11. Combs, G. E., J. L. Copelin and D. W. Gorbet. 1980.
swine fed sorghum diets supplemented with fat. Univ.
Animal Science Res. Rep. AL-1980-4, Gainesville, FL.


Performance of
of Florida,


12. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2.
Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy
of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.




TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS


Grower phase Finisher phase
Ingredient (31 to 57 kg) (57 to 96 kg)

Corn or grain sorghum 77.35 83.70
Soybean meal (44%) 20.00 14.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.30 .90
Calcium carbonate .80 .90
Salt 1 .30 .30
Vitamin premix 2 .20 .15
Trace mineral premix .05 .05
100.00 100.00
Calculated composition3 (as fed basis):
Corn Grain sorghum Corn Grain sorghum
Crude protein 15.6 15.7 13.5 13.6
Lysine .78 .76 .61 .59
Calcium .65 .65 .59 .60
Phosphorus .59 .59 .49 .49

1At .20% of the diet, provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 4400 I.U.;
vitamin D3, 700 I.U.; vitamin E, 18 I.U.; vitamin K activity, 2.6 mg;
riboflavin, 3.5 mg; d-pantothenic aicd, 14 mg; niacin, 18 mg; choline
chloride, 440 mg; vitamin B12, 18 vg; and selenium, .09 mg.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Provided per kilogram
of diet: zinc, 100 mg; iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg; copper, 5 mg; and
iodine, .08 mg.
3Calculated using NRC (1979) table values.






- 61


TABLE 2. PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLE SIZE OF GROUND OR DRY-ROLLED
GRAIN SORGHUM1



Item Processing method
Item2 3
Ground2 Dry-rolled3

Particle size
< 1 mm 50 8 29 4
> 1 mm and < 2 mm 44 11 68 + 4
> 2 m 7 4 3 1
Whole kernels .6 .5 .1 .1

1Values reported represent an average of five separate samples.
2Hammer mill was used equipped with a .48cm (3/16") screen.
3Visual opening between the rollers was about 1 to 2 mm.






TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING GROUND
CORN, GROUND GRAIN SORGHUM OR DRY-ROLLED GRAIN SORGHUM1


Dietary grain source
Item Ground Ground Dry-rolled
corn grain sorghum grain sorghum

Grower phase, 31 to 57 kg a
Daily weight gain, kg .90a .96 .95
Daily feed intake, kg 2.41a 2.68b 2.71b
Feed/gain 2.68a 2.79b 2.86b
Finisher phase, 57 to 96 kg a
Daily weight gain, kg .87a .92a .89
Daily feed intake, kg 2.88a 3.27b 3.13b
Feed/gain 3.30a 3.50b 3.53b
Overall performance, 31 to 96 kg b b
Daily weight gain, kg .88 .93 .91b
Daily feed intake, kg 2.71a 3.01b 2.96
Feed/gain 3.07a 3.22b 3.25b

Four replicates were conducted; performance data represents 24 pigs per
treatment (23 pigs for the ground grain sorghum treatment during the
finisher phase---one pig was taken off experiment due to abrupt weight loss
as a result of a severe ulcer).
a,bMeans in the same line (or row) without a common superscript differ (P<.05).










Department of Animal Science 62 IFAS, Agricultural Research Center
Research Report SW-1982-1 Live Oak, Florida 32060
January, 1982


EFFECT OF CHLORACHEL-250 AND CSP-250 ON PERFORMANCE
OF STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1


C.E. White2 and H.N. Becker3



Antibiotics in the form of dietary additives have been used as
nutritional aides to swine management programs for 30 years. Incorporated
as feed additives, antibiotics are known to increase growth rate, improve
feed conversion and reduce occurence and severity of diseases resulting
from a variety of infections organisms. The mode(s) of action for anti-
biotics is not thoroughly understood and not all antibiotics approved as
additives in swine feeds are equally efficacious for a specific application.

Chlorachel-250 is drug mixture currently marketed for use in swine.
When Chlorachel-250 is added to swine feeds at the recommended level of
2.5 kg/metric ton, the finished product contains 100g chlortetracycline,
100 g sulfamethazine and 50 g penicillin. CSP-250 is similar in composition
to Chlorachel-250 and is also approved for use in swine. When CSP-250 is
mixed in swine feeds at the recommended level of 2.5 kg/metric ton, the
finished product contains 100 g chlortetracycline, 100 g sulfathiazole and
50 g penicillin. Neglecting possible physical characteristics attributed
to manufacturing processes, Chlorachel-250 and CSP-250 differ only in
chemical composition of the sulfonamide constiuent; i.e., sulfamethazine
or sulfathiazole.

The objective of this experiment was to compare the respective
efficacies of Chlorachel-250 and CSP-250 in improving average daily gain
and feed efficiency in starting, growing and finishing swine.




Experiment 8102
2White, Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, IFAS, Agricultural
Research Center, Live Oak, FL.

Becker, Associate Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, Veterinary
Medicine, Gainesville, FL.






- 63 -


Experimental


Seventy-two Large White x Yorkshire x Hampshire pigs were allotted by
litter, body weight (BW), and sex to receive one of three dietary treatments.
Treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal diets containing FDA
approved levels of the following feed-grade antibiotics during the starting,
growing and finishing periods.

1. Chlorachel-250 incorporated at the level of 2.5 kg/metric ton of
basal diet. This combination produced diets containing 110 ppm
chlortetracycline, 110 ppm sulfamethazine and 55 ppm penicillin.

2. Unmedicated control comprised of the basal corn-soybean meal
starting, growing and finishing diets.

3. CSP-250 incorporated at the level of 2.5 kg/metric ton of basal
diet. This combination produced diets containing 110 ppm
chlortetracycline, 110 ppm sulfathiazole and 55 ppm penicillin.


Table 1 presents the composition of diets fed. Feed and water were
offered ad libitum. Samples of each starting, growing and finishing diet fed
were analyzed by Raltech Scientific Services, Madison, Wisconsin for drug
level, uniformity of blend, and potential drug cross-contamination. All
samples submitted contained proper levels of antibiotics. Control samples
assayed free of drugs and no cross-contamination was detected. Chlorachel-250
and CSP-250 were withdrawn from finishing diets 15 days prior to slaughter.

Pigs were confined in a modified open-front finishing barn having
concrete slatted floors erected over a water-flushed gutter. Each treatment
included six replications. Each replication was made up of three pens side-
by-side with four pigs/pen. The experiment was conducted within a randomized
complete-block design (Steel and Torrie, 1960) where treatments were assigned
at random. Criteria established to determine efficacy of drugs tested in
improving growth were average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed consumption
(ADF) and feed units required per unit of gain (F:G). The average initial
BW of pigs allotted to treatments was 14.0 2.5 kg. Pen performance was
evaluated by treatment when animal reached an average weight of 56.8 kg,
100 kg and/or at 128 days when the experiment was terminated. Average pen
weight and feed consumption were measured weekly until animals reached an
average of 56.8 kg. Pig were then weighed biweekly. Bodyweight was
determined by the following equation.
BW (barrows) + BW giltss)
Mean BW/pen= 4





- 64 -


Results and Discussion

Table 2 summarizes performance data of pigs from the initial BW of
14.0 2.5 kg to an average pen weight of 56.8 kg. The ADG of pigs fed
diets containing Chlorachel-250, control and CSP-250 were .57, .64, and
.70 kg, respectively. Average daily feed consumption was 1.78 kg in pigs
fed Chlorachel-250, 1.71 kg in pigs fed the control diet and 1.77 kg in
pigs fed CSP-250. The F:G ratios of pigs fed diets containing Chlorachel-250,
control or CSP-250 were 2.65, 2.69 and 2.55 kg/kg, respectively. Pigs fed
diets containing CSP-250 were more efficient in feed conversion and had
higher ADG than pigs assigned other treatments although ADG, ADF and F:G
did not differ significantly by treatment.

Table 3 summarizes performance data following the 128 day evaluation
period. Pigs assigned treatments containing Chlorachel-250, control or
CSP-250 attained average pen weights of 97.8, 95.6 and 100.9 kg, respectively.
Average daily gain for pigs containing CSP-250 was .67 kg/day while ADG of
pigs fed the control diet and the diet containing Chlorachel-250 was .64
kg/day. Average daily feed consumption of pigs fed diets containing
Chlorachel-250, control or CSP-250 was 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 kg, respectively.
Pigs fed CSP-250 demonstrated the most efficient F:G (3.13 kg/kg) when
compared with other treatments. Feed efficiency of pigs fed Chlorachel-250
(3.24 kg/kg) was also improved when compared with pigs fed the unmedicated
control (3.30 kg/kg). Statistical analysis evaluating initial and final
average pen weights, AGD, ADF and F:G revealed no differences (P>.05)
that could be attributed to treatment. However, feed efficiency was markedly
improved in pigs fed medicated diets when compared with those fed unmedicated
diets. When pigs from this same herd were fed diets containing carbadox:
oxytertracycline, virginiamycin, or lincomycin (White and Becker, 1980), an
improvement in feed efficiency was measured. Data from this and the previous
study support the current belief that antibiotics, when fed at recommended
levels, are beneficial in promoting growth in swine.

Summary

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 14.0 + 2.5 kg BW were allotted
by litter, BW, and sex into three equal -sized groups for experimentation.
All groups were fed basal corn-soybean meal diets during the starting,
growing and finishing periods. The feeding trial was conducted over a
128 day period. Twenty-four pigs consumed basal diets plus 110 ppm chlor-
tetracycline, 110 ppm sulfamethazine and 55 ppm penicillin (Chlorachel-250).
Twenty-four received unmedicated basal corn-soybean meal diets (control),
and 24 received the basal diet plus 110 ppm chlortetracycline, 110 ppm
sulfathiazole and 55 ppm penicillin (CSP-250). Average daily gain for pigs
fed diets containing CSP-250 was .67 kg/day compared with .64 kg/day of
pigs fed unmedicated diets and diets containing Chlorachel-250. Average
daily feed consumption for pigs fed diets containing Chlorachel-250, control
and CSP-250 were 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 kg, respectively. The feed required
per unit of gain was improved in pigs fed diets containing CSP-250 (3.13
kg/kg) and Chlorachel-250 (3.24 kg/kg) when compared with pigs fed unmedicated
diets (3.30 kg/kg). These data support the current belief that antibiotics
are beneficial in promoting more efficient growth in swine.






65 -





Literature Cited



1. Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1960. Principles and Procedures of
Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.


2. White, C.E. and H.N. Becker.
virginiamycin and lyncomycin
finishing swine. University
Research Report SW-1980-1.


1980. Effect of carbadox: oxytetracycline,
on performance of starting, growing and
of Florida, Department of Animal Science,





- 66 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING DIETS


Diet Type


Starting Growing Finishing

Ground corn (No. 2) 66.90 78.75 83.90
Soybean meal (48%) 27.00 18.65 13.50
Fat (HEF) 3.00 ----- -----
Deflourinated phosphate 1.70 1.20 1.20
Ground limestone .30 .30 .30
Iodized salt .50 .50 .50
Trace mineral premix .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premix .50 .50 .50

100.00 100.00 100.00

Calculated analysis, %
Protein 19.00 16.00 14.00
Ca .80 .75 .75
P .60 .50 .50
ME (kcal/kg) as fed 3348 3209 3205


aSwine premix 35C-96. Supplies in
copper (11); iodine (1.5); sulfur


ppm: zinc (200); iron
(2.2); calcium (110).


(100); manganese (55);


Custom Premix No. 1. Supplies per pound of finished feed: 5000 IU of vitamin
A; 2500 IU of vitamin D3; 10 IU of vitamin E; 5 mg of riboflavin; 12 mg of
pantothenic acid; 25 mg niacin; 500 mg choline chloride; 20 mcg of vitamin B12.





- 67 -


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING CHLORACHEL-250
OR CSP-250 DURING THE STARTING AND GROWING PERIOD





Treatments

Criteria Chlorachel-250 Control CSP-250

Animals 23b 24 24
Average initial weight (kg) 14.0 13.9 13.9
Average final weight (kg) 56.8 56.8 56.8
Average daily gain (kg) .67 .64 .70
Average daily feed (kg) 1.78 1.71 1.77
Average feed:gain (kg) 2.65 2.69 2.55

aTreatment means did not differ (P>.05)
Pig removed for rectal prolaspe



TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING CHLORACHEL-250 OR CSP-
250 DURING THE STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING PERIODS.



Treatmentsa

Criteria Chlorachel-250 Control CSP-250
Animals 23b 24 24
Average initial weight (kg) 14.0 13.9 13.9
Average final weight (kg) 97.8 95.7 100.9
Average daily gain (kg) .64 .64 .67
Average daily feed (kg) 2.10 2.11 2.12
Average feed:gain (kg) 3.26 3.30 3.13
aTreatment mean did not differ (P>.05)
Pig removed for rectal prolaspe










Department of Animal Science 68 IFAS, Agricultural Research Center
Research Report SW-1982-2 Live Oak, Florida
May, 1982


EVALUATION OF SULFONAMIDE FEED ADDITIVES IN CONTROLLING ATROPHIC RHINITIS
IN SWINE1

C. E. White2 and H. N. Becker3


The bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica is linked with atrophic rhinitis in
swine. Switzer (1963) suggested that sulfonamide drugs may display efficacy against
Bordetella if incorporated in swine diets at adequate levels. Sulfathiazole and
sulfamethazine are currently the only sulfonamide drugs approved for use in swine
diets. Each may be added to a level of lOOg (110 ppm) per metric ton of finished
feed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of CSP-250 containing
sulfathizole and Chlorachel-250 containing sulfamethazine in controlling atrophic
rhinitis within a naturally infected herd.
Experimental

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 14.0 kg body weight (BW) were allotted
to the experiment on he basis of litter origin, sex, and BW. The experiment consisted
of three treatments containing equal-sized groups of pigs. Treatments were replicated
six times each with assignment of two barrows and two gilts per pen. The assignments
of animals and pens to treatments were randomized. The statistical design was a
randomized complete-block (Steel and Torrie, 1960) and data were subjected to an
analysis of counts chi-square test using a 3 x 2 contengency (Little and Hills, 1972).
Treatments consisted of the following feeding protocol.
1. Basal diet (control) comprised of an unmedicated corn-soybean meal formulation
containing no drugs. The protein levels in the basal diet were 19% (starting),
16% (growing) and 14% (finishing).
2. Basal diet containing CSP-250 at the level of 2.5 kg/metric ton which gave a
final concentration of 110 ppm chlotetracycline, 110 ppm sulfathizole and
55 ppm penicillin.
3. Basal diet containing Chlorachel-250 at the level of 2.5 kg/metric ton which
gave a final concentration of 110 ppm chlorteracyclie, 110 ppm sulfamethizine
and 55 ppm penicillin.



Experiment 8103
White, Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, IFAS, Agriculutral Research
Center, Live Oak, FL.
Becker, Associate Professor, Department of Preventative Medicine, Veterinary Medicine,
Gainesville, FL.







- 69 -


Starting, growing and finishing diets were fed respectively until pigs assigned
each treatment had attained 27, 55 and 100 kg bodyweight; CSP-250 and Chlorachel-
250 were withdrawn from finishing diets 15 days prior to slaughter. Nasal swabs
were made from one pig in each test pen at approximately 27 kg bodyweight. Clinical
tests revealed the presence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in 27.2% of the random group
sampled.

Following slaughter, the snout from each pig was transected at the level of the
second premolar. Hypoplasia and/or atrpohy of the turbinates contained in the severed
cross-section were quantitated by measuring the space (mm) between the turbinates and
the adjacent wall of the nasal passage. The SPF pig production criteria were used to
assess turbinate disease. These criteria are given as follows:


Hypoplasia
and/or Turbinate Severity
Atrophy (mm) Classification Score


1-3 Normal 0
3-6 Mild 1
6-9 Moderate 2
> 9 Severe 3


The atrophic rhinitis index corresponding to treatment received was calculated using
the following equation:

I = EX
N

where: I = atrophic rhinitis index
EX = classification severity score (0, 1, 2, 3) x number of respective hypoplasia:
atrophy observations scored within a classification
N = number of animals in the treatment

Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Samples of feed from each major batch
were analyzed by Raltech Scientific Services, Madison, Wisconsin to confirm drug level.

Results and Discussion

Data from nasal turbinate measurements are summarized in table 1. The atrophic
rhinitis index for animals receiving the basal diet and diets containing CSP-250 and
Chlorachel-250 was 1.17, 1.13 and .91, respectively. The number of pigs with severe
turbinate hypoplasia and/or atrophy was higher (P>.05) in groups fed the unmedicated
diet when compared with those fed diets medicated with sulfathiazole and sulfamethazine.
These data agree with those reported by White and Becker (1980) when carbadox;
oxytetracycline, virginiamycin and lincomycin were compared for respective efficacies
in controlling atrophic rhinitis in swine. In general, diets containing feed
antibiotics did not reduce the occurence of atrophic rhinitis but lowered the severity
classification score. Further, these data suggest that CSP-250 and Chlorachel-250
display therapeutic efficacy in the management of atrophic rhinitis.






- 70


Summary

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CSP-250 and
Chlorachel-250 in controlling the occurence and severity of atrophic rhinitis in
pigs infected by natural exposure to Bordetella bronchiseptica. Pigs fed diets
containing drugs had lower (P>05) atrophic rhinitis indices than those fed the
unmedicated diet. Diets containing drugs did not reduce the occurence of atrophic
rhinitis but did lower the number of observations receiving the severe classification
score. These data suggest that CSP-250 and Chlorachel-250 display therapeutic
efficacy in the management of atrophic rhinitis.
Literature Cited

1. Little, T.M., and F.J. Hills. 1972. Statistical Methods in Agricultural Research.
University of California Agricultural Extension Service, Berkley, California, USA.

2. Steel, R.G.D., and J.G. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics.
McGraw-Hill, New York.

3. Switzer, W.P. 1963. Elimination of Bordetella bronchiseptica from the nasal
cavity of swine by sulfonamide therapy. Vet. Med. 58:571.

4. White, C.E., and H.N. Becker. 1980. Use of antibiotics to control atrophic
rhinitis in swine. University of Florida Department of Animal Science, Research
Report SW-1980-2.














TABLE 1. ATROPHIC RHINITIS EVALUATIONa


Treatment
Turbinate Condition Atrophy mm. Control CSP-250 Chloracel-250
Normal 0-3 9 (37.5) 7 (29.2) 9 (40.9)
Mild 3-6 6 (25.0) 8 (33.3) 7 (31.8)
Moderate 6-9 5 (20.8) 8 (33.3) 5 (22.7)
- Severe > 9 4 (16.7) 1 ( 4.2) 1 ( 4.6)
----- -" ---- '---- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -
Total 24 (100) 24 (100) 22 (100)
Index 1.17e 1.13e .91e

aExperiment 8102
Parenthesis enclose percent of animals receiving severity score by treatment
cCalculated by SPF Association method
dPig 36-1 died 8-12-81-Necropsy revealed severe intestinal inflammation: Pig 38-6 died 5-18-81 following repair
of rectal prolaspe
eIndices in rows followed by different superscripts differ (P<.05)











Department of Animal Science 72 IFAS, Agricultural Research Center
Research Report SW-1982-3 Live Oak, Florida 32060
August, 1982



INFLUENCE OF HEAT STRESS ON SEMEN QUALITY AND RESPIRATORY
RATES OF BOARS IN FLORIDA AND OKLAHOMA1,2



R.P. Wettemann3 C.E. White4 and F.W. Bazer5




Reproductive efficiency of boars is reduced when they are exposed to
increased ambient temperatures during the hot summer months (Thibault et al.,
1966). The reduced fertility is associated with a decrease in semen quality
(McNitt and First, 1970; Wettemann et al., 1976) which persists for five
weeks after the end of heat (Wettemann et al., 1979). Increased sweating
of boars due to thermal stress is minimal (McNitt et al., 1972), so evaporative
cooling of the body is limited unless water is sprinkled on the animals. An
increase in relative humidity may reduce evaporative cooling from the body
surface. Similar to the effect of heat stress on boars, fertility of rams
is reduced after short term whole body exposure to increased ambient
temperatures (Howarth, 1969). Semen quality of bulls is also reduced by
exposure to heat stress (Skinner and Louw, 1966) and the motility of bovine
sperm does not return to normal until about 8 to 10 weeks after the end of
exposure to increased ambient temperature (Duarte Irala, 1973; Meyerhoeffer
et al., 1982). This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of
shade and shade plus water sprinklers to maintain reduced respiratory rates
and acceptable semen quality of boars exposed to increased ambient temperature
and low (Oklahoma) or high (Florida) humidity.




Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center
at Live Oak, Florida.

Oklahoma State University, Agricultural Experiment Station at Stillwater.

3Wettemann, Professor, Animal Science Department, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater.

White, Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of
Florida, IFAS, ARC, Live Oak, Florida.

Bazer, Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.






- 73 -


Experimental



Experiment 1

Twelve sexually mature boars (8 to 12 months of age) were maintained
with either shade or a shade-sprinkler during the summer months in Oklahoma
or Florida. Three boars were exposed to each treatment at each location.
The boars on the shade treatment were kept in dirt lots (Oklahoma) and
concrete lots (Florida) with access to shade under a roof at all times.
The shade-sprinkler treated boars had access to shade with a sprinkler under
it. In Oklahoma, the sprinklers were over dirt lots and in Florida sprinklers
were over concrete floors. At both locations, a pool of water 10 to 20 cm
deep was present under the sprinklers. Quality of semen samples collected
at monthly intervals (May to December) was determined for boars at the
Florida location.

Black globe temperature, wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature
and respiratory rate were recorded between 1100 and 1300 hr when the boars
were at rest. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated from dry
bulb temperature (F), and relative humidity (rh%I 100) using the formula
described by Ingraham and coworkers (1976):

[THI = db ( .55 .55 rh) (db 58)] (1)


Experiment 2

Eighteen sexually mature yearling boars were subjected to one of three
treatments during May through October in Oklahoma. Six boars were housed
in a temperature controlled chamber at approximately 21 C. A second group
of six boars was kept in outside lots with a shade provided, and a third
group of six boars was kept in outside lots and provided with shade and a
water sprinkler. The second two treatments were similar to those in
experiment 1.

Semen quality was assessed for samples collected in June, August and
October. During a three week period, which started on August 11, each boar
was hand mated to 5 or 6 gilts to estimate fertility. Gilts were maintained
together in a dirt lot with shade and sprinklers and were bred in the morning
on the first and subsequent days of estrus. Gilts were slaughtered at about
30 days after mating and numbers of corpora lutea and embryos were determined.






- 74 -


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Experiment 1

The environmental conditions during the experiment in Oklahoma and
Florida are summarized in Table 1. The range of relative humidity at mid
day during the experiment was slightly greater in Oklahoma than in Florida.
However, it is of importance to mention that in Florida dry bulb temperature
and relative humidity are inversely related. Therefore, in Florida the
lowest relative humidity measurements were recorded at mid day with much
higher humidity (80-100%) typically occurring in late afternoon, evening and
early morning hours. Ranges for dry bulb temperature and THI at both
locations were similar and the maximum black globe temperature was
slightly greater in Florida.

Respiratory rate was correlated with dry bulb temperature for shade
treated boars (Fig. 1) in Oklahoma (r=.85) and Florida (r=.75). However,
Respiratory rate was not significantly correlated with dry bulb temperature
for shade-sprinkler treated boars at either location (OklThoma, r=-.28;
Florida, r= .13). With increasing temperature, respiratory rate of shade
boars in Oklahoma increased 10.2 breaths per minute per C and the respiratory
rate of shade boars in Florida increased 5 breaths per minute per C. At 29 C
the respiratory rate of shade boars in Florida was greater than that for
Oklahoma boars (100 vs 68/min), but at 35 C the respiratory rates for shade
boars at both locations were similar and averaged 129 breaths per minute.

Although the average respiratory rate of shade-sprinkler treated boars
in Florida was slightly greater than that for boars in Oklahoma (Fig. 1),
sprinkling eliminated the increase in respiratory rate which normally occurs
when boars are subjected to increased ambient temperature. Respiratory rate
for shade-sprinkler boars was maintained at less than 59 breaths per minute
throughout the experiment.

Respiratory rate of the shade treated boars was correlated with THI
(Fig. 2) in Oklahoma (r=.92) and in Florida (r=.82). The THI was not
significantly correlated with respiratory rate of shade-sprinkler boars in
Oklahoma (r=.-1O) or Florida (r=.30). With each unit increase in THI, the
respiratory rate of shade boars increased 12.9 breaths per minute for
Oklahoma boars and 5.4 breaths per minute for Florida boars. Similar to
dry bulb temperature and THI, black globe temperature was correlated with
respiratory rate of shade boars in Oklahoma (r=.67, Y=-206.9 + 2.91x) and
Florida (r=.86, Y=119.9 + 1.26x).

Percentage of motile sperm was similar (P>.10) for boars maintained with
shade or shade-sprinklers on May 6 and June 4 in Florida (Table 2). However,






- 75 -


after boars were exposed to maximum daily temperatures greater than 35 C
for 3 weeks (June 29), the percentage of motile sperm from shade treated
boars was reduced when compared to shade-sprinkler treated boars. Semen
quality was reduced (P<.05) for shade boars at the November 5 sampling period.
The percentage motile sperm was similar for both treatments on December 4,
after boars had been exposed to maximum daily temperature less than 35 C
for 6 weeks. These data indicate that heat stress can be reduced and
semen quality can be improved by sprinkling boars to increase evaporative
cooling, even in subtropical environments.


Experiment 2

The percentage motile sperm was similar in June for boars on all
treatments (Table 3). In August, semen quality was similar for boars
maintained with a shade-sprinkler or in the cool chamber, however, the
percentage motile sperm for the boars on the shade treatment was still
slightly reduced (P>.10) in October, compared to the other two treatments,
although boars had been exposed to cooler environmental temperatures for
4 to 6 weeks. This lag in time from the end of heat stress until the
return to normal semen quality is similar to the results observed in a
study using controlled environments (Wettemann et al., 1979).

The fertility of the boars was influenced by the cooling systems
(Table 4). When boars received only shade, 44.1 percent of the gilts bred
in August were pregnant at 30 days after breeding. If boars were sprinkled
in addition to shade, 63.9 percent of the gilts became pregnant. The use
of a cool chamber to house the boars during the hot summer did not result
in a significant improvement in fertility compared to boars with both shade
and sprinklers. Litter size for the pregnant gilts at 30 days after
breeding was not significantly influenced by treatment. Thus, if pregnancy
occurred, embryonic development was normal.

The fertility of the boars provided with both shade-sprinklers and the
cool chamber boars was about 10 to 15 percent less than we normally observe
when breeding in the cooler months of the year. This reduction in fertility
could be related to heat stress of the gilts or to sexual rest of the boars.
The boars were not used for breeding nor was semen collected during the six
weeks preceding the breeding period.

All boars are not affected the same by heat stress. Heat stress may
completely inhibit sperm production in some boars but only cause slight
reductions in semen quality in others. In this experiment, matings by
five of the six boars on the shade treatment resulted in less than 50 percent
of the gilts pregnant. Whereas, more than 50 percent of the gilts bred were
pregnant when mated to four of the six shade-sprinkler boars or five of the
six cool chamber boars.






- 76 -


This trial indicates that under conditions of low relative humidity
and high ambient temperature, evaporative cooling from the body surface of
boars is sufficient to maintain acceptable fertility during exposure to
increased ambient temperature and air conditioning is not necessary.


Summary


Experiment 1

This experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of shade
and shade plus sprinklers to maintain semen quality (measured by percentage
motile sperm) and respiratory rates (RR) as measured in breaths per minute
in boars exposed to increased ambient temperature (T) and low or high
humidity. Boars were maintained with, either shade alone or a shade-sprinkler
combination during the summer in Florida (high humidity) and Oklahoma (low
humidity). Three boars were assigned to each treatment at each location.
Ambient T, black globe T, humidity and RR were recorded between 1100 and
1300. Sprinkled boars had RR less than 32/min in Oklahoma and 59/min in
Florida, whereas, RR of shade boars attained 147/min in Oklahoma and 136/min
in Florida. At 29C, RR of shade boars in Florida were greater than that
for Oklahoma boars (101/min vs 72/min), but at 35C, RR for both groups
were similar and averaged 129/min. The temperature humidity index (THI),
ambient T and black globe T were correlated (P<.001) with RR in boars provided
shade only at both locations, but were not correlated with RR of sprinkled
boars at either location. Percentage motile sperm was similar for boars
at both locations in May and June and averaged 75 2%. However, from July
through October, shade sprinkled boars had 72 3% motile sperm while boars
provided shade only averaged 38 3%.

Experiment 2

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of shade,
shade-sprinklers or a cool chamber at 21C for maintaining acceptable boar
fertility and breeding during increased ambient temperature in Oklahoma.
When boars were provided shade only 44.1% of gilts bred by them were pregnant
at day 30. However, boars provided with sprinklers in addition to shade and
boars maintained in cool chambers were bred to gilts, 63.9% and 67.8%,
respectively, became pregnant.

Data from both experiments indicate that heat stress can be reduced and
semen quality can be improved by sprinkling boars to increase evaporative
cooling and this procedure is effective even in the high humidity-subtropical
environment of Florida.






- 77 -


Literature Cited


1. Duarte Irala, P.N. 1973. Auswirkungen experimenteller warmbelastung aut
verschiedene korperreaktionen und ejakulatbeschaffenheit bei fleckviebullen
vor deren einsatz in heiben klimazonen. Thesis. Aus dem Institut fur
Haustierbesamung und-andrologie. Hanover, Germany.

2. Howarth, B., Jr. 1969. Fertility in the ram following exposure to elevated
ambient temperature and humidity. J. Reprod. Fertil. 19:179-183.

3. Ingraham, R.H., R.W. Stanley and W.C. Wagner. 1976. Relationship of
temperature and humidity to conception rate of Holstein cows in Hawaii.
J. Dairy Sci. 59:2086-2090.

4. McNitt, J.I., C.B. Tanner and N.L. First. 1972. Thermoregulation in the
scrotal system of the boar. II. Evaporative heat exchange. J. Anim. Sci.
34:117-121.

5. McNitt, J.I. and N.L. First. 1970. Effects of 72-hour heat stress on
semen quality in boars. Int. J. Biometeor. 14:373-380.

6. Meyerhoeffer, D.C., R.P. Wettemann, S.W. Coleman and M.E. Wells. 1982.
Influence of elevated ambient temperature on reproductive criteria of
beef bulls. (in preparation)

7. Skinner, J.D. and G.N. Louw. 1966. Heat stress and spermatogenesis in Bos
indicus and Bos taurus cattle. J. Appl. Physiol. 21:1784-1790.

8. Thibault, C., M. Courot, L. Martinet, P. Mauleon, F. du Mesnil du Buisson,
R. Ortavant, J. Pelletier and J.P. Signoret. 1966. Regulation of breeding
season and estrous cycles by light and external stimuli in some mammals.
J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl.) 25:119-139.

9. Wettemann, R.P., M.E. Wells, I.T. Omtvedt, C.E. Pope and E.J. Turman. 1976.
Influence of elevated ambient temperature on reproductive performance of
boars. J. Anim. Sci. 42:664-669.

10. Wettemann, R.P., M.E. Wells and R.K. Johnson. 1979. Reproductive character-
istics of boars during and after exposure to increased ambient temperature.
J. Anim. Sci. 49:1501-1505.






- 78 -


Table 1. Environmental conditions during the experiment in Oklahoma and
Florida.


Relative Humidity (%)
Dry bulb Temp (C)
THI
Black globe Temp (C)


Ranges for Variables
Oklahoma Florida

42 to 80 47 to 77
26 to 36 29 to 37
75 to 86 78 to 86
31 to 46 32 to 52


Y = 18.10 + .85x FL-SP __ --



Y 34708 .87x34 3



28 30 C 32 34 36 38


1. Relationship between Respiratory Rates of Boars and Ambient Temperature
shade, SP = shade-sprinkler)


140


120


100


80


60


40


20


Fig.
(S =


*5.0~,'
5 ~n~n~ "4,
C






- 79 -


140


120


100


80


60


40


20


- 5


- -


OK-SP


76 78 THI 80 82


84 86


Fig. 2 Relationship between Respiratory Rates of Boars and the Temperature
Humidity Index (THI) (S = shade, SP = shade-sprinkler)





Table 2. Percentage motile sperm from boars maintained with shade or shade
and sprinklers in Florida


We4
Date ter
May 6
June 4
June 29
August 4
September 4
October 4
November 5
December 4


ekly maximum
mperature (C)


394
412
451
441
442
221
321


Shade
73.82.2a
72.33.7
36.29.0
47.53.2
23.83.2
46.74.7
65.02.0
85.02.0


Treatment
Shade + Sprinkler
78.34.4
76.07.0
68.39.3
82.52.5
66.74.4
75.02.9
81.71.7
92.52.5


aMean SE


59x L-S -


-----


--






- 80 -


Table 3. Percentage motile sperm from boars maintained with shade, shade-
sprinklers or in a cool chamber from May through October





Date Shade Shade and sprinkler Cool chamber
June 1 76+3a 738 65+9
June 8 698 734 81+2
August 3 358 64+3 73+4
August 10 465 793 73+5
October 6 593 732 63+6
October 13 67+1 785 73+3


aMean SE






Table 4. Fertility of gilts bred during August to boars maintained with
shade, shade-sprinklers or in a cool chamber from May through
October



No. of No. gilts Gilts pregnant at 30 days
Treatment boars bred No. Percent No. of embryos
Shade 6 34 15 44.1 11.8.6
Shade and sprinkler 6 36 23 63.9 10.6.5
Cool chamber 6 31 21 67.8 10.4+7