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CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION CES Mimeo Series 67-1
LAKE ALFRED, FLORIDA
QUARTERLY CITRUS INSECT AND MITE OUTLOOK
CAUTIONARY NOTE: This Outlook is based on the assumption that weather beyond the
period of the current E.S.S.A. 30-day Outlook will be normal. Therefore, the forecasts
given below cannot be viewed with the same degree of confidence as those in the "Insect
and Disease Summary" usually released twice each month by this Station.
Each pest has more or less regular periods of increase and decrease throughout the
year. Weather conditions (temperature, rain, humidity) may affect populations directly,
or indirectly through effects on predators, parasites and tree growth. Departures from
the average population level may be caused by conditions that occurred months before.
Other fluctuations may reflect recent weather changes. The latter influences can be
forecast only to the extent that weather forecasts are available.
RECENT SITUATION APRIL THROUGH JUNE 1966
Citrus pests generally were not of unusual concern to growers during the period.
Black scale was extremely abundant as predicted. Population at the end of June was the
highest recorded in 15 years of survey, with 78% of groves having moderate to heavy in-
festations. Glover scale was above normal abundance and widely distributed. Yellow
scale decreased in April but increased again to the record high level recorded in March.
The few important infestations were mainly in the Central and South districts. Green
scale, lesser snow scale and citrus snow scale were more numerous than expected but
only the latter was of much importance.
Rust mite infestations were at the normal moderate to high level during the period,
but citrus red mite, Texas citrus mite and six-spotted mite were below average abundance.
Aphids and brown soft scale also were below average whereas whiteflies were near normal.
Mealybug was scarce until mid-May, then suddenly increased to normal level by the end
of June. Heavy infestations occurred in scattered groves.
Melanose lesions were normally numerous on leaves in May and slightly less numerous
than normal for fruit in June.
Temperatures were somewhat lower during the period and rainfall was adequate to
abundant in most of the citrus belt. Hurricane Alma generated brisk winds over the
western part of the citrus belt on June 8 and 9, but caused:little damage.
GENERAL FORECAST JULY THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1966
Rust mite: Population will continue to increase until mid-August, then decline
through September. It is not expected to exceed the normal summer level. Between
35 and 45% of groves will develop moderate to heavy infestations. Mites will be more
numerous on fruit than on leaves.
Citrus red mite and Texas citrus mite: Population will remain below average and
generally will decline after mid-July. Only scattered infestations will be important
Glover scale: Infestations are expected to remain above average and in the high
range through August, then decline.
Purple scale and chaff scale: These scales will occur at average moderate level
usually in association with Glover scale.
Yellow scale is expected to continue above average and will occur in important
numbers in about 10% of groves.
Black scale: The record high population of June will start to subside by mid-
July as adults mature. A new generation of crawlers will appear in August and disperse
through the canopy, but will not be as destructive as the May generation.
Mealybug will continue above normal abundance until mid-July, then gradually subside.
Sooty mold will be heavy where high infestations of black scale, mealybug or white-
fly were allowed to build up. The summer oil spray will loosen the film of mold, thus
aiding removal by wind and rain.
Whitefly will contribute to sooty mold buildup where the larval form is numerous.
It is expected to be prevalent in July and late September.
700-July 8, 1966 --WAS
W. A. Simanton