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Program for ... annual Citrus Processor's Meeting.
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Title: Program for ... annual Citrus Processor's Meeting.
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Creation Date: 1974
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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text




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FOREWORD
Once again I join with Dr. Attaway to extend to you a cordial
welcome from our respective organizations. I, on behalf of the
Lake Alfred Center and the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences of the University of Florida, express our hope that this
will be both a productive and a pleasant meeting. I take this
opportunity to acknowledge the full and unstinting cooperation
of the Florida Department of Citrus in carrying out the programs
of research at this Center.
We will have a full measure of varied problems to deal with
this year. These problems arise from biology,as with the Caribfly,
from governmental regulations, as for the nutrition labeling re-
quirements, from the fuel situation, where conservation of energy
must preoccupy many of us, from the general field of economics,
where inflationary trends in prices and wages seem beyond control,
and in many other areas.
Not all of these problems are the responsibility of this
Center, but many of them are. We hope that today's program will
have a direct bearing on some of your problems.
The Lake Alfred Center shares i the financial problems of
the Country, and we earnestly soli p your continued por


rman J. Reitz, Director
Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred

On behalf of the Scientific Research Staff of the Florida
Department of Citrus, it is my pleasure to welcome you to the
Silver Anniversary Citrus Processors' Meeting. It was 25 years
ago, in 1949, that the Annual Processors' Meeting was established
by Dr. Fred W. Wenzel of the University of Florida.
Nutrition and Juice Definition continue to be the areas of
greatest emphasis by the processing research staff here at the Lake
Alfred Center. This year's presentations will include a complete
report of the nutritional labeling data for FCOJ and an interesting
update on DOC sponsored nutrition research at the University's
Department of Medicine in Gainesville. In the juice definition
area, the effect of varied extracting and finishing conditions on
juice quality parameters will be considered in greater depth.
If you need further details on any areas of our research,
please feel free to contact the staff for individual discussions
after the conclusion of the meeting. .---


John A. Attaway
Scientific Research Directo'
Florida Department of Citrus






PROGRAM


University of Florida
Agricultural Research & Education Center
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


9:00 A.M.

9:30 A.M.


Chairman:


9:45 A.M.


Registration

Welcome
Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Director
Agricultural Research and Education Center

David 0. Hamrick, Chairman, Florida Citrus Commission
Processing Committee


I. Effect of Processing Methods on Orange Juice
Quality Factors.


A. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON JUICE
YIELD, FLAVOR, COLOR, SINKING PULP, OIL, LIMONIN,
GLYCOSIDES, AND WATER INSOLUBLE SOLIDS 1973-74
JUICE DEFINITION PROGRAM J. A. Attaway,
Scientific Research Director; R. W. Barron,
Chemist II; R. D. Carter, Research Chemist; P. J.
Fellers, Food Technologist; J. F. Fisher, Research
Chemist; E. C. Hill, Research Bacteriologist; R. L.
Huggart, Chemist III; R. W. Wolford, Research
Chemist, Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred;
and A. H. Rouse, Chemist, University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.


1. Hard and Soft Extraction.

Hard and soft extractions which might be performed commer-
cially were made on both Brown and FMC equipment in the Center
pilot plant on oranges harvested at 6 different times each for
'Hamlin, 'Pineapple,' and 'Valencia' varieties through their
respective commercial maturity periods during the 1973-74 season.
Extracted juices were finished softly, pasteurized, canned, and
analyzed for 28 physical and chemical characteristics.

Hard squeeze produced lower quality juices than soft squeeze.
Variations of 7 chemical and physical characteristics and yields
of hard and soft extracted juices are demonstrated.










2. Hard and Soft Finishing

Hard and soft finisher variations were performed on both hard
and soft extracted orange juices from fruit harvested 6 times each
for 'Hamlin,' 'Pineapple,' and 'Valencia' varieties through their
respective commercial maturity periods during the 1973-74 season.
Juices were pasteurized, canned, and analyzed for 28 chemical and
physical characteristics.

Hard finishing produced lower quality juices than soft finish-
ing. Variations of 7 chemical and physical characteristics and
yields of hard and soft finished juices are demonstrated.

10:05 A.M. B. CORRELATION OF ORANGE JUICE CAROTENOID
ABSORBANCE AND COLOR SCORE OF JUICE
DEFINITION PROGRAM SAMPLES D. R. Petrus,
Research Biochemist; R. L. Huggart, Chemist
III; and M. H. Dougherty, Engineer IV,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

For quite some time, two independent investigations have
been conducted on the characteristics of orange juice. One by
R. L. Huggart et al. using the Hunter Citrus Colorimeter to
determine the color score of orange juice samples. The other
investigation by D. R. Petrus and M. H. Dougherty utilized visible
and ultraviolet absorption spectrometry to study the physical
characteristics of alcoholic solutions of orange juice. This
presentation is concerned with the visible absorption and what
conclusions may be drawn from it and its correlation with the
color score as determined by the Hunter Citrus Colorimeter.
Single strength samples of 'Hamlin,' 'Pineapple,' and 'Valencia'
orange juices were used for the investigations.

The visible absorption spectra obtained from alcoholic
solutions of orange juices revealed absorption maxima at 465, 443,
and 425 nm. These are due mainly to the carotenoids present. The
sums of the absorption intensity at the absorption maxima were
used for determining correlation with color scores. The results
gave correlation coefficients of r = 0.973 or greater.











II. Interesting New Parameters of Orange Juice
Quality.

10:20 A.M. A. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN ORANGE JUICE -
B. S. Buslig, Research Biochemist and R. D.
Carter, Research Chemist, Florida Department
of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Juices obtained from the juice definition program (JDP) of
the 1972-73 and 1973-74 seasons were analyzed for particle size
distribution with the Model T Coulter Counter. Results indicate
recognizable differences between juices prepared by various ex-
traction and finishing methods. Statistical analysis of the dis-
tribution between size ranges and methods of preparation, along
with correlations between other juice parameters are discussed.

10:35 A.M. B. LIMONIN A KEY TO COMMERCIAL FCOJ QUALITY
FOUND BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS -
J. A. Cornell, Associate Professor, Associate
Statistician, Department of Statistics, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Previous studies have shown that flavor quality of orange
juice is influenced by many factors (variables). Expressing flavor
quality in the form of a functional relationship of one or more
independent variables enables us to determine the degree of
importance of each of the variables as well as estimate or predict
flavor quality knowing the values of the independent variables.
In the past, however, attempts at finding the form of an adequate
functional relationship between flavor quality and the flavor
variables have not been entirely successful.

A stepwise multiple regression analysis was made of the data
from the juice definition program analyses (JDP) of 60 samples of
commercial FCOJ packed during 2 seasons, 1970-71 and 1972-73. It
was found that the value of limonin was highly correlated with the
value of the flavor quality of FCOJ. This knowledge of the
importance of limonin combined with the knowledge of the previously
known important variables enable us to express flavor quality as a
function of limonin and the other variables in numerous functional
forms. Each of the resulting forms of the relationship was found
to be significantly better than any of the relationships used in
the past. A review of the stepwise multiple regression techniques
used as well as the results found will be presented in detail.










10:55 A. M. C. LIMONIN DETECTION IN CITRUS JUICES BY HIGH
PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY J. F. Fisher,
Research Chemist, Florida Department of Citrus,
Lake Alfred.

In order to use high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)
for the quantitative detection of limonin in citrus juices, these
complex juices must be simplified prior to HPLC analysis. Straight
extraction procedures are not sufficient to produce the required
preliminary fractionation.

A procedure which does clean up the juice extremely well re-
quires excessive time and manipulations. It appears that this
cleanup procedure in conjunction with HPLC will afford a quan-
titative method for citrus juice limonin. However, a shorter less
drastic cleanup procedure is required for practicalness.



OJ BREAK


III. Characteristics of Commercial Citrus Juices
Packed During the 1973-74 Season.

11:20 A. M. A. CHILLED ORANGE JUICE R. W. Barron, Chemist
II, Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Thirty chilled orange juice samples were examined for flavor
during the 1973-74 citrus season. Samples were collected on approx-
imately the first of each month from 4 to 7 plants represented at
any one collection period out of 9 plants in Florida. Chilled
orange juices were graded by an Agricultural Research and Education
Center taste panel. Flavor scores were based on a 9 category
hedonic scale ranging from like extremely to dislike extremely.
The flavor scores fell in 4 categories, like moderately, like
slightly, neither like nor dislike, dislike slightly, and the
percentage of samples that fell in these categories were 17, 47,
33, and 3% respectively for the 1973-74 season; 9, 79, 9, and 3%
for the 1972-73 season; and 13, 64, 23, and 0% for the 1971-72
season.











11:30 A.M. B. FCOJ R. W. Barron, Chemist II, Florida
Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

During the 1973-74 citrus season, 228 samples of commercial
FCOJ were examined for flavor and color. In addition, physical
and chemical analyses relating to juice quality were conducted.
Twenty-two commercial plants in Florida participated in the survey
in which products were collected semi-monthly during the season
with 12 to 20 plants represented at any one collection period.
Reconstituted juices were graded for flavor by an Agricultural
Research and Education Center taste panel. A 9 category hedonic
scale for flavor going from like extremely to dislike extremely
was used for this study. The flavor grades for samples in the
like very much, like moderately, like slightly, neither like nor
dislike, or dislike slightly category were respectively 1, 58, 37,
3, and 1% for the 1973-74 season; 5, 60, 29, 6, and 0% for the
1972-73 season; and 8, 62, 26, 3, and 1% for the 1971-72 season.

Color differences in the reconstituted juices were measured
with a Hunterlab Citrus Colorimeter. The average Citrus Red and
Citrus Yellow values this season and last were about the same but
not as good as the 1971-72 season.

11:40 A.M. C. CANNED GRAPEFRUIT JUICE M. H. Dougherty,
Engineer IV; J. F. Fisher, Research Chemist;
and P. J. Fellers, Food Technologist, Florida
Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

One hundred and sixty-eight samples of commercial single
strength grapefruit juice were collected and analyzed during the
1973-74 citrus season. The juices were analyzed for Brix, acid,
naringin, and limonin. In addition, each juice was evaluated for
flavor by a selected taste panel from the Agricultural Research
and Education Center.

Flavor scores were based on a 9-category hedonic scale. All
juice flavor grades fell within the scale's middle categories of
"like moderately," "like slightly," "neither like nor dislike,"
and "dislike slightly," with the frequency being 81, 72, 14, and 1
samples, respectively. Bitterness and sourness were the two main
reasons for grading the juices down flavorwise.








-6-


11:55 A.M. LUNCH



Chairman: Arlen N. Jumper, Chairman, Florida Citrus Commission
Scientific Research Committee


IV. Studies in Citrus Juice Nutrition.


1:30 P.M. A. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH
PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA -
James Cerda, Associate Professor of Medicine,
University of Florida, Gainesville.


Results to be published shortly in a national journal demon-
strate that orange juice is an excellent source of potassium for
hypertensive individuals who excrete excessive potassium as a
consequence of diuretic therepy. Experiments to be conducted with
the University of Florida cross-country team will be designed to
study the effect of potassium depletion in athletes in hot climates.

The importance of orange juice as a source of folic acid is
now well demonstrated. Folic acid is a very important vitamin
in the diet of pregnant women, women using the contraceptive pill,
alcoholics, epileptics using the drug Dilantin and those suffering
from folate deficiency anemia.










1:45 P. M. B. A RECAP OF NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION FOR FCOJ
LABELING S. V. Ting, Research Biochemist,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

With the promulgation of the nutrition labeling regulations
by the FDA in March, 1973 more pertinent and up-to-date data on
the nutrient content of citrus products are urgently needed. A
program, to assay all citrus products for these nutrients de-
signated by FDA in the nutrition labeling regulations, was under-
taken by the Florida Department of Citrus with the assistance of
personnel from the USDA Processed Foods Inspection and the Univer-
sity of Florida College of Medicine. Because of the scope of the
project and the limitation of time and facilities, we began our
study with the frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) which is
the most important of all citrus products economically. It is also
more uniform in quality than the other products which will be
studied as the program continues.

All 7 vitamins and mineral nutrients in the "mandatory" list
and 7 of the 12 nutrients in the "optional" list of the nutrition
labeling regulations were analyzed on samples taken from 23 con-
centrate plants at regular intervals between February and September
of 1973 and again between January and March of 1974. These time
periods were considered to cover both the early and late season
packs. The 5 nutrients in the "optional" list that were not
analyzed are vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B12, iodine, and biotin.
They are either absent or occurring only in nutritionally in-
significant amounts in orange juice.

The average values of these nutrients of the "mandatory" list
in percent U.S. RDA found in 6 fluid ounces of 12.80 Brix re-
constituted FCOJ by this study are: vitamin A (as carotenes), 1.4;
vitamin C, 131; thiamine, 9.8; riboflavin, 2.4; niacin, 2.0;
calcium, 1.8; and iron, 1.1.

The values of nutrients in the "optional" list were found to
be as follows: vitamin B6, 4.9; folic acid (analyzed by two
laboratories), 16.9 and 20.3; phosphorus, 3.3; magnesium, 4.9;
zinc, 0.7; copper, 4.4; and pantothenic acid, 3.3. The values
recommended for the nutrition labeling of FCOJ are presented.









V. Specialty Products.


2:00 P. M.


A. PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE WITH
AN EXPERIMENTAL WASTE HEAT EVAPORATOR -
R. J. Braddock, Assistant Food Scientist
and J. W. Kesterson, Chemist, University of
Florida Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.


Evaluation is in progress of an experimental low-temperature,
3-stage evaporator designed to utilize heat from feed mill stack
gases and operate without the need for a steam boiler. With this
equipment, both 350 Brix molasses and citrus juice concentrate may
be manufactured simultaneously. The 1800 F vapors from flashing
the press liquor are used to make juice concentrate in the 3-stage
evaporator. Because of the low evaporation temperature, the juice
must be heat stabilized prior to concentration. In preliminary
experiments, 60-650 Brix concentrate of good flavor quality and
very low viscosity has been manufactured. The 350 Brix molasses
is dried back on the pulp in the feed mill.

Objectives of this project are as follows: 1) to minimize
fuel cost for processing citrus, 2) eliminate air pollution by
feed mills, 3) produce high quality concentrate, and 4) have a
functional pilot plant facility available to the citrus industry
for evaluation of processing costs and other variables related to
production of quality citrus products.


2:15 P. M.


B. TOTAL PEEL OIL CONTENT OF COMMERCIAL CITRUS
VARIETIES: A FOUR-YEAR STUDY J. W.
Kesterson, Chemist and R. J. Braddock,
Assistant Food Scientist, University of
Florida, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.


The total peel oil content was determined for each of 12
different citrus cultivars. Data for lime and tangelo oils were
collected for 3 years, tangerine, grapefruit, and orange oils for
4 years and lemon oils for 5 years. The Florida Citrus Industry
is producing approximately 30 million pounds of coldpressed oils
and d-limonene annually, out of a total potential of 92 million
pounds (1972-73 season). This suggests that improvement in equip-
ment, processing, and handling techniques are needed to realize
the optimum yield of oil.

OJ BREAK








VI. Grapefruit Quality Program.

2:45 P. M. A BRIEF OUTLINE OF 1974 EARLY GRAPEFRUIT
STUDIES NOW IN PROGRESS S. V. Ting,
Research Biochemist and M. H. Dougherty,
Engineer IV, Florida Department of Citrus,
Lake Alfred.

The quality of grapefruit juice has been greatly improved
during recent years since we have learned more about the chemical
constituents, i.e. naringin and limonin, directly related to the
quality of the juice and the technology required to regulate these
constituents in the final product.

Early grapefruit from packinghouses which do not conform to
grades of standards for fresh fruit use either due to size, blemishes,
or other defects are usually channeled to processing. Quality of
juice produced from these fruit sometimes only conform to the minimum
standards.

A study was initiated this season to determine how much in-
fluence processing techniques have on the quality of juice pro-
duced from these fruit and from some early maturing fruit directly
from the grove. The variables to be made in this first study are
those of pressures on the extractor and the finisher.

This program began this season as soon as we were able to
get grapefruit eliminations from packinghouses which met the
minimum standards for processing in September. It will continue
through December and early January of the following year when
most grapefruit would have reached maturity. Both the seedy and
seedless varieties are included in this study. Samples will be
taken also from selected groves of these two varieties periodically
beginning at a time when the fruit reaches the minimum standards
of maturity for processing.

Juice obtained from these samples with different extractor
and finisher conditions are analyzed for the different quality
factors, i.e., Brix, acid, ratio, pulp content, oil, naringin,
limonin, and vitamin C. Correlations of these factors with flavor
will also be studied.
Flavor deterioration studies will be made on juices stored at
temperatures between 40 and 800 F. A flavor survey on consumer
preference will also be made on juices produced early in the season
under different extractor and finisher conditions and those produced
when the fruit has reached a higher degree of maturity under the
same extractor conditions.







-10-


VII. The State Test Room.

2:55 P. M. COLOR SCORE, MATURITY RATIO,AND PERCENT
JUICE YIELD OF STATE TEST ROOM ORANGE
JUICE SAMPLES R. W. Wolford, Research
Chemist and R. L. Huggart, Chemist III,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Commercial Samples Fresh orange juice color score and
maturity (oBrix/acid ratio) were determined in a State Test Room
at a commercial plant during the 1971-72, 1972-73, and 1973-74
citrus seasons on approximately 1,068, 2,460, and 1,562 samples,
respectively. Juice color was determined with a Hunter Citrus
Colorimeter. Due to the large number of samples, sample size was
reduced by starting at a random point, then using each 10th entry.
The average value by weeks is presented for color and maturity.

There is a good correlating trend between color and maturity
both in midseason and late season samples, however, the maturity
ratio is much lower at a given color score in the late season
juices. During the midseason break, there is a short reversal of
the color-maturity trend as the last of the midseason fruit came
in with the first of the late season variety. Unprocessed juice
color of December samples would score from 33 to 35 points as FCOJ.
Color would round off to a score of 36 in January or February and
reached almost 39 points in the late season juices of the 1972-73
season. Color of reconstituted FCOJ would be different from Test
Room juice due to differences in OBrix and pulp particle size and
amount resulting from processing and blending operations.

Education Center Samples Color score, maturity,and percent
yield on a weight of juice per 90-pound field box of fruit are pre-
sented from Juice Definition Program juices for the 1972-73 season.
These values are from known 'Hamlin' 'Pineapple,' and 'Valencia'
varieties of fruit. The samples examined were unprocessed juices
from the Center State Test Extractor.

'Valencia' juices were the best in color followed by 'Pineappl
and 'Hamlin.' Ratio increased in each variety as the season pro-
gressed. The percent juice yield was highest for the 'Pineapple'
followed by the 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin.' In the 'Hamlin' and
'Pineapple' varieties, there was a trend toward lower juice yield
as the fruit matured, however, the 'Valencia' showed little
difference in yield as the season progressed.







-11-


These Abstracts are for limited distribution only. Information
herein is not to be used for publication without permission.


Acknowledgment for helpful assistance is made to Fred Schopke,
Ben Wood, Irene Pruner, Betty Murphy, Mary Smith, Alice Barber,
Margaret Swift, Sharon Lovejoy, Faye Martin, Bernice Mercer, Joe
Collins, Fred Givens, Roy Albright, Bud Collins, Charles Oswalt,
Bert Robertson, Phyllis Towns, Tony Trama, Terry Longtin,and to
all other personnel of either the University of Florida Agricultural
Research and Education Center or the Florida Department of Citrus
who helped in many and various ways.


NOTES