Having been to Japan on the diphenyl problem this
ar I have come to appreciate even more the importance
the international markets and their sensitivity to
gulatory questions. I think you will find the following
pers very interesting as a number of them address these
oblems and the related questions concerning pollution and
The staff of the Scientific Research Department of the
O.C. is happy to join the I.F.A.S. staff in welcoming
u to this, the 17th Annual Packinghouse Day.
cohn A. Attaway
Scientific Research Diretr
Florida Department of Citrus
Seventeenth Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day
University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850
Wednesday, September 6, 1978
Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Director
Agricultural Research and Education Center
John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus
Danforth Richardson, Commissioner and Chairman,
Fresh Fruit Committee, Florida Department of Citrus
THE ALTERNARIA THREAT TO NEW TANGERINE HYBRIDS -
Jack Hearn and John Smoot, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, SEA, FR, Orlando.
One strain of Alternaria infects the rind of young fruit
in the spring or early summer, but its presence is most
noticeable at harvest. This disease has been a serious
problem in some Dancy tangerine groves during the past few
years. In many cases, the disease was not recognized until
the fruit arrived at the packinghouse. The high cost of
disease control may be excessive unless the fruit price is
also high. One of our experimental citrus hybrids is very
susceptible to Alternaria disease on its leaves, young
twigs and fruit. We have found that resistance to this
disease is inherited, and we are trying to evaluate the
Alternaria susceptibility of new hybrids before reaching a
decision on their release as new varieties. These evaluations
have been in the laboratory, greenhouse, nursery, and field.
One of the difficulties is to develop a rapid laboratory or
nursery technique that approximates field conditions.
10:10 A.M. ETHREL AND ANTHRACNOSE OF ROBINSON TANGERINES -
Eldon Brown, Florida Department of Citrus and
Charles Barmore, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.
Ethrel (ethephon), a chemical which produces ethylene
upon degradation, is registered for preharvest use on
Robinson tangerines for improving fruit color and loosening.
Use of the material by the industry since registration has
been sporadic because color and loosening responses have
been inconsistent. Studies during the past three seasons have
shown that a preharvest Ethrel spray will significantly
reduce anthracnose in Robinson tangerines following postharvest
ethylene degreening. Control of anthracnose was achieved even
when the Ethrel spray had relatively little effect on color.
Postharvest Ethrel dips before degreening did not reduce
anthracnose. Factors responsible for anthracnose control
which result from the use of a preharvest Ethrel spray
will be discussed.
10:20 A.M. WINTER TEMPERATURE AS A FACTOR IN GRAPEFRUIT
CHILLING INJURY Kaz Kawada, Jim Soule, Fruit
Crops Department, Gainesville and Bill Grierson,
AREC, Lake Alfred.
In addition to many other factors, midwinter temperatures
affect the susceptibility of grapefruit to postharvest
chilling injury as determined by holding tests at 4.4C
(40F). Grapefruit is most susceptible to chilling injury in
the fall and again in the late spring but tends to be
resistant to chilling in midwinter, susceptibility seeming to
be related to the growth cycle of the entire tree. The extent
of this winter resistance to chilling varies considerably
with grove temperature. The warmer the midwinter period
the more resistant the grapefruit is to chilling and vice
versa. Using five season's data, a very strong correlation
(r=0.96) was found between temperature and susceptibility to
chilling injury. Mathematically this is expressed as Y =
34.39 + 6.96x where x = average departure from the long
term average winter temperature between November and February
and Y = the number of days in storage at 4.40C before onset
of chilling injury. Current research on control of chilling
injury is predicated on the theory that certain forms of
stress cause the fruit to form plant hormones (growth regulator
that protect against such injury.
10:30 A.M. USE OF GROWTH REGULATORS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COLOR OF 'RUBY RED'
GRAPEFRUIT Mohamed A. Ismail, Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.
The harvesting season of 'Ruby Red' grapefruit was success
fully extended with growth regulator sprays, Gibberellic
acid (GA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D),
applied in June, resulted in significant retention of
yellow external and pink internal colors of 'Ruby Red'
grapefruit through March of the following year. GA is more
effective than 2,4-D in preventing the development of over-
ripe golden appearance of late-harvested fruit, while 2,4-D
is useful in reducing excessive preharvest drop.
10:40 A.M. DYE AS A TOOL TO DETECT PEEL INJURY OF CITRUS
FRUITS Andy McCornack, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.
A colorless dye, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium
chloride) can be used as a tool to determine the amount and
severity of mechanical injury which occurs to citrus fruits
during picking, hauling and handling in the packinghouse.
TTC dyes unhealed mechanical injuries of the fruit surface
The procedure used this past season was to take
3 samples of fruit from the packingline: 1. unwashed (after
dumping), 2. washed fruit, and 3. dryed fruit (before
waxing). Fruit from each location were placed in plastic
pans big enough to hold 6 to 8 grapefruit. Sufficient dye
was added to cover the bottom half of the fruit, leaving the
top half of the fruit undyed for comparison. Dye strength
was 1 level teaspoon in 1 gallon of water. Fruit were left
in the dye for 2 hours or longer, then removed and dried
with paper towels. The amount of injury was evaluated 24
hours later. Areas of the fruit surface with fresh bruises,
scratches or breaks were dyed red. Comparing the amount
of red on the fruit taken from the different locations
usually showed an increase in peel injury with increased
10:50 A.M. STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENTS IN THE FLORIDA CITRUS
PACKINGHOUSE INDUSTRY Richard L. Kilmer, IFAS
and Daniel S. Tilley, FDOC, Food and Resource
Economics Department, Gainesville.
The Florida citrus packinghouse industry has undergone
significant changes in the number and size of packinghouses.
From 1952 through 1971, the number of firms packing fresh
citrus decreased 40 percent (276 to 165 packinghouses).
Since 1971, the number has been relatively stable although
the average volume packed per firm has increased 22 percent
in response to an increase in total industry output.
Firm managers need information that will help them respond
to future structural adjustments. The effect of capacity,
entrepreneurial ability, plant operating characteristics
and physical plant variables on average citrus packing
costs are quantified. The citrus packinghouse industry
was found to have significant potential for continued
structural adjustments that will result in improved cost
11:00 A.M. SEPARATION OF FROZEN GRAPEFRUIT WITH SPECIFIC
GRAVITY T. T. Hatton and R. H. Cubbedge,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, SEA, FR,
The use of emulsions adjusted to three different levels
of specific gravity resulted in beneficial separation of
sound and frozen grapefruit following the January 1977
freeze. Fruit sank or floated in the emulsion, then it was
cut and rated as U.S. No. 1, U.S. No. 2, or below, depending
on the extent of internal dryness or freeze damage. Specific
gravities of 0.78 and 0.80 were significantly better than
0.82 in yielding U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 fruit, regardless
of fruit size. No difference existed between specific
gravities of 0.78 and 0.80. Results suggest that a more
accurate separation of frozen fruit can be accomplished after
a freeze by adjusting the specific gravity of the emulsion
according to the observations made after samples of fruit
have been cut.
11:10 A.M. AN INTERNATIONAL VIEW OF FLORIDA'S CITRUS
INTERNAL QUALITY STANDARDS Will Wardowski,
Extension Service and Bill Grierson, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.
Citrus fruit quality standards inevitably emphasize the
best qualities of fruit from each growing district and place
minimum emphasis on qualities that are more difficult to
attain. Arid climates with cool nights favor external
appearance but at the cost of low Brix and high acid. Warm,
humid areas like Florida produce fruit with poorer external
appearance but greater juice and sugar and less acid. Thus
Florida has a natural advantage over arid climates in
producing citrus with high internal quality, and the internal
maturity standards reflect this advantage. World wide ours
are the highest standards for sugar, sugar-acid ratio, and
juice content for citrus fruit. However, juice content
standards for Florida are written in a way to be
unintelligible to buyers around the world, partially
cancelling the advantage of higher quality and higher standards
For example, U.S. gallons of juice per box means nothing out-
side of Florida, but could easily be expressed as % juice
(weight/weight) and thus be directly comparable to the OECD
(European) standards. Grapefruit juice standards could be
expressed in a simple formula, with fruit diameter as a
variable to adjust for the size factor or as % juice for each
size. Any time our internal standards are expressed in
internationally accepted terms, our fruit look very good.
So why don't we do it?
11:20 A.M. SURFACE MOISTURE DRYING OF FRESH CITRUS W.
M. Miller, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.
With rising fuel costs, greater concern has developed to
investigate both total consumption of energy and efficiency
of energy utilization. In citrus packinghouses, surface
moisture drying is one of the most energy intensive operations.
To characterize this process, background data on quantity
of moisture involved, mechanical removal techniques and
the drying process are required. Experimental work has shown
that the drying rate is a function of humidity ratio
difference and air velocity.
Energy efficiency will be discussed as it relates to
current drying operations, potential redesign and solar
adaptability. A heat balance of a typical fresh citrus
drying unit is presented.
11:30 A.M. ENERGY CONSERVATION IN CITRUS DRIERS Harold
Morrison, Mechanical Engineer, Winter Haven and
Jim Ellis, Lake Garfied Citrus Co-op., Bartow.
Steam savings of 40% have been demonstrated on a 200
MBH roller drier heater unit at Lake Garfield Citrus Co-op.,
Bartow. This was accomplished by 1) excluding cold air from
the drier area; 2) returning a portion of the hot air discharge
to the heater intake; and 3) installing automatic controls to
maintain constant temperature in the drier.
With limited recirculation, no important increase in
relative humidity of the drying air was observed. These
findings are confirmed by a study of drier operation theory
on a psychrometric chart.
Other methods of improving drier operation will be
briefly discussed: 1) insulation; 2) mop curtains; 3) conveyor
belt squeegees; 4) steam cutoff during shutdown; 5) pregrading
to eliminate cannery and cull fruit; and 6) the desirability
of steady vs. start-stop operation.
Cost reduction from these improvements should pay back
their installation in two seasons operation.
11:40 A.M. FARM LABOR CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION (FEDERAL)
AS IT PERTAINS TO PACKINGHOUSES Oraville A.
Day and Albert F. Mickler, Lake Region Packing
This short presentation will inform the attendants of
this Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day of some of the throes
and affirmative actions taken by our company following
a Department of Labor compliance check in 1977. An up date
will be presented of procedures, remedial actions and pending
inquiries which have been made to the U.S. Department of
Labor regarding their interpretation of the FLCRA as it
pertains to employees in a packinghouse and the applicability
of the definition of "migrant" workers in covered employment.
11:50 A.M. EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS & ANNOUNCEMENTS -
Bill Miller, Agricultural Research and
Education Center and Will Wardowski,
Extension Service, Lake Alfred.
NOON L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:
(1) Carton Forming Machine E. McDowell and D.
Robertson, McDowell International Packaging
Systems, Winter Park, FL and Bill Robinson,
American Machinery Corp., Orlando, FL.
(2) Corrugated Carton Equipment L. C. Steele
(Mkt. and Sales Manager) International Paper,
(3) Energy Conservation Equipment for Fresh
Fruit Dryers H. Morrison, Mechanical
Engineer, Winter Haven, FL.
(4) Physical-Chemical Waste Treatment Facility -
M. A. Ismail (FDOC) and E. H. Pearch (Neptune
Microflow representative) LOCATION: Haines
City Citrus Growers Assn., Haines City.
TIME: 3:15-5:00 P.M.
(5) Pilot Plant Dryer for Energy Studies W. M.
Miller, Agricultural Research & Education
Center, Lake Alfred, FL.
(6) Ventura Labeling System, Norman Dierker (Mgr.
Decco East Pennwat Corp., Monrovia, CA.
e to the early printing of this program, certain exhibitors
y not appear in the above list. Any additional displays
11 be announced before the lunch break.
ESIDING Albin Crutchfield, Commissioner and Chairman,
TERNOON Marketing & Economics Committee, Florida
SSION Department of Citrus
40 P.M. CITRUS FRESH FRUIT PACKING--WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
STATUS Ralph Maloy, Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation, Orlando.
Last April of this year we were looking with some
prehension toward the pollution abatement requirements of
me twenty (20) fresh fruit packers in Indian River County.
were apprehensive about excessive cost and the possibility
not being able to accomplish total retention.
Now we are looking back with relief. The costs averaging
5,500 were not excessive and on-site retention possible
except in one instance.
The solutions have been relatively simple; screening,
settling and on-site disposal by either percolation or spray
irrigation and the concern over the new usage of phenolic decay
inhibitor has been taken care of by soil bacteria.
:50 P.M. TREATMENT AND RECYCLING OF CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE
WASTEWATER Mohamed A. Ismail, Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred and Mack Watson, Haines City
Citrus Growers Association, Haines City.
The composition of citrus packinghouse wastewater and
he relatively small volume generated (in comparison to processing
plants), makes it suited for treatment by physical-chemical
leans. A complete system for treatment and reuse of citrus
ackinghouse wastewater was designed and installed at Haines
ity Citrus Growers Association packinghouse. The system
ombines the use of a 12,500 gpd physical-chemical plant and
pumps, tanks, and lines for delivery of wastewater from the
packinghouse and return of treated water back to the line.
Treatment of wastewater through the system resulted in more
than 95% reduction in COD and suspended solids, making the
treated effluent suitable for prewetting and rinsing of
fruit. Further work is planned for complete purification and
chlorination of treated water to make it fit for use for
final rinsing of fruit.
2:00 P.M. THE USDA ROTTERDAM FACILITY Lawrence A. Risse,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, SEA, FR,
The USDA Rotterdam facility is called the European
Marketing Research Center. The Center was established in
1969. Currently two professionals, two research
assistants, and a secretary are stationed at the Center. The
mission of the Center is to conduct a research program that wil
contribute to more efficient marketing of U.S. agricultural
products in Europe. The objective of this research is to
help increase agricultural exports by improving the arrival
condition of products and reducing physical losses, and costs
of handling, packaging and transportation. Research is
divided into three areas -- evaluating test shipments,
providing technical marketing information, and assisting U.S.
Agricultural Attaches in Europe.
2:10 P.M. VARIOUS ASPECTS OF POSTHARVEST FUNGICIDES FOR
THE JAPANESE MARKET John J. Smoot and Paul L.
Davis, U.S. Department of Agriculture, SEA,
The current status of postharvest fungicides for fruit
exported to Japan will be discussed.
During the 1977-78 shipping season, some problems were
encountered following the use of biphenyl and SOPP. Biphenyl
residues in excess of 70 ppm (maximum allowed) occurred in
a number of lots of fruit shipped in the fall of 1977. Residue
in shipments made later in the season, however, were well
below this tolerance, generally in the range of 20-40 ppm.
The absorption of biphenyl by the fruit varies with cultivar
and increases with time and higher temperatures. Removal of
the pads or ventilation of the fruit does not appreciably
reduce the residues. There is indication that early
harvested fruit absorbs more biphenyl than fully mature fruit.
This aspect is presently being more fully investigated. A
reddish brown speckling and discoloration was sporadically
observed, both here and on the Japanese market. This
condition was generally associated with sand bruising and
otherwise slightly injured fruit being discolored by the
THE SUNBELT DIXIE--A NEW SHIPPING CONCEPT
2:20 P.M. I. THE SHIP AND ITS FACILITIES Gene Albrigo
and W. Grierson, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.
2:30 P.M. II. HANDLING IN TOKYO AND IMPROVED PALLET
STACKING PATTERNS Phil Hale, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, SEA, FR, Orlando.
The ship Sunbelt Dixie was observed during loading at
the Port of Tampa and unloading in Japan on her maiden voyage
with Florida grapefruit and oranges. Two decks are specifically
designed for palletized produce shipment which allows transport
of approximately 280,000 cartons of citrus. Deck design,
potential performance, loading and unloading characteristics
will be discussed. Information regarding physiological
disorder problems of late season grapefruit shipments has
been examined and will be presented.
2:40 P.M. ADJOURN
This program is published at a cost
of $280.00 or 47 cents per copy to
inform growers, packers and others
of applied research in harvesting,
fresh fruit handling and marketing.