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The key words this year are export and pollution
control. With overseas markets playing an increasingly
important role in our distribution plans each year, the
ability to deliver fruit in good condition at greater
distances becomes more and more important with each
passing season. To accomplish this purpose we need the
right fungicides, and this means greater efforts in
securing the cooperation of both foreign regulatory
agencies and our own pollution control bodies. We hope
that our research program and this years Packinghouse
Day presentations will contribute to this aim.
The Department of Citrus Scientific Research staff
is happy to join with the University of Florida scientists
in welcoming you to this 16th Annual Packinghouse Day
John A. Attaway
Scientific Research Director
SFlorida Department of Citrus
Sixteenth Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day
University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850
Wednesday, September 7, 1977
Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Director
Agricultural Research and Education Center
John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus
Karick Price, Commissioner, Florida Department
COMMERCIAL FRUIT MOVEMENT FROM THE CITRUS
BLACKFLY REGULATED AREA Richard H. Hogan,
Attorney At Law, Richard H. Rhodes, Supervisor,
and Dr. J. C. Nickerson, Economic Entomologist,
Division of Plant Industry, Fort Lauderdale.
Regulated Area: Zone I. All fruit grown North of 54th
Street in Dade County to the Northern border of the Broward
County Line, plus two isolated groves in South Palm Beach
Zone II. All other fruit South of
Southern Blvd. (Highway 80) in Palm Beach County.
The movement of fruit from Zone II must be accompanied
by a limited fruit movement permit when transported from
the regulated area. All fruit moved from the Zone I area
must be certified leaf free or fumigated with methyl bromide
at the rate of 1-1/2 Ibs. per 1,000 cubic feet for two
The average fumigation chamber is 12' x 12' x 44'. The
construction cost has ranged from $3,000.00 to $5,000.00 for
each chamber. This cost is absorbed by the grower. There
are five chambers in Broward County and one at each of the
two Palm Beach County groves.
For the first six months of 1977 we have regulated
1.25 million boxes of fruit. From Zone I, we have either
certified leaf free or fumigated 376,000 boxes of fruit.
The amount of fruit being regulated is less than 1%
of our State's production, but this is very important so
that this dreaded insect is not allowed to spread into
our major citrus producing area. The growers, processors
and handlers have gone to a great expense in helping us
prevent the spread of the Citrus Blackfly. Their coop-
eration has been excellent and we would like to thank them
for protecting the other 99 plus percent of our industry.
I'm sure you all appreciate their cooperation too.
10:10 A.M. USING GROWTH REGULATORS TO EXTEND THE
SHIPPING SEASON OF FRESH FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT -
M. A. Ismail, W. C. Wilson, J. A. Attaway,
Florida Department of Citrus and T. A. Wheaton,
W. Grierson, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.
The Economic Research Department of the Florida
Department of Citrus projects an average 10% annual increase
in Florida's grapefruit production up to the 1981-82 season.
Production has already increased 10% in 1975-76 season, and
had we not been hit by the January, 1977 freeze, production
would have climbed at least 18% in a single year.
Numerous economic advantages can be derived from
extending the shipping season of grapefruit. These include
better prices as a result of more even distribution of
supply and lower tariffs on fruit entering the Japanese
market after June 1, when the import duty drops from 40%
to 20% ad valorem.
Grapefruit quality, however, declines as the season
draws to a close, usually in May. Peel begins to soften,
juice content and acidity declines, color gradually turns
from whitish yellow to an overripe golden yellow and seeds
start to germinate inside the fruit.
A research program is in progress on the use of growth
regulators to extend the shipping quality of grapefruit.
Growth regulators are chemicals which are capable of
modifying plant growth and developments. They have been
used to prevent color development in lemon and stop pre-
harvest drop of 'Pineapple' orange.
10:20 A.M. FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA CITRUS PACKING
COSTS Richard L. Kilmer, IFAS, Food and
Resource Economics Department and Daniel S.
Tilley, Economic Research Department,
Florida Department of Citrus and IFAS,
Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Cost efficiency has assumed a new importance during
the past few years. Packing costs for 1-3/5 bushels of
oranges and grapefruit in 4/5 bushel cartons increased 43
percent from 1967-68 through the 1975-76 season. The
purpose of this research is to determine the dollar impact
of packinghouse capacity utilization, packinghouse capacity
and packing season length on average packing cost.
Suggestions for improving the cost efficiency of the packin!
house sector will be made.
10:30 A.M. LOOKING INTO A CRYSTAL BALL: TRANSPORTATION
OF PACKED FRUIT W. Grierson, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.
There are two ways of approaching necessary changes.
The first is because it is profitable to make planned
changes, the second is only changing when forced to do so.
Just for a pleasant change it would be nice to take the
first of these alternatives.
Let us review the current situation, We are using a
modern container (the carton) supposedly standardized
(in Florida) on internal volumes that are fixed proportions
of the now non-existent 1875 nailed standard box. Not
only do these cartons not stack economically on any
accepted pallet, but also sizes have been so gerrymandered
in all citrus districts that California's supposed 7/10
bushel carton is actually a little bigger than our
supposed 8/10 (4/5) bushel carton. Since they do not fit
standard pallets, stacking patterns sacrifice much of the
strength of the carton which then has to be made up with
more expensive fibreboard. While exports grow and the
world shrinks, we find ourselves in such Alice in Wonder-
land situations as discussing how the design of a new
multi-million dollar reefer vessel can be modified to suit
these outmoded containers shipped on pallets useless in
the receiving countries unless reworked.
Now let's look in my crystal ball and see where we can
soon be with long range planning, rather than endless
short range contingency changes. The key is the metric
120 x 100 cm (47.24 x 39.37 inch) pallet that is so close
in size to our 48 x 40 inch grocery pallet that they can
handle on the same equipment. Carton sizes will have
been standardized on international metric sizes and common
to Florida, Texas and California-Arizona. All pallets
will be solid stacked with cartons in register. The
cartons will have no side vents at all. Only top and
bottom vents matched to openings in the standardized
pallets or pallet equivalents. Pallet loads will be
strapped with some such positive method as shrinkfilm,
making each pallet load a single unit with 40% more
strength for any given weight of carton and minimal fruit
damage. Why wait before moving to meet the inevitable?
10:40 A.M. POLLUTION CONTROL IN CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES--
WASTEWATER TREATMENT Everett Rubush,
Packinghouse Manager, Dundee Citrus Growers
The days of ignoring pollution to our air and water are
gone forever. Florida Statutes, Chapter 403 authorizes and
empowers the Department of Environmental Regulation to
control, abate, and prohibit pollution of air and water in
accordance with the Air and Water Pollution Control Act and
rules and regulations adopted and published by the Department
to enforce that Act.
More attention is being given to the monitoring and
measuring of industrial wastewater. Most Florida citrus
packinghouses dispose of their wastewater into municipal
treatment plants. Very few packinghouses apply some type
of wastewater treatment, reuse, or recycling, but probably
more treatment will be needed in the future. The time is
very near when all fresh fruit shippers and packers will be
required to have a treatment system to assure ample
protection of public waters. Encounter with regulatory
agencies and initiation of a wastewater treatment system at
Dundee Citrus Growers Association will be discussed.
10:50 A.M. ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE RECOVERY FROM CITRUS
FUMIGATION CHAMBERS Bill Miller, Agricultural
Research and Education Center and Mohamed A.
Ismail, Florida Department of Citrus, Lake
Currently, all Florida citrus destined for the Japanese
market and other U.S. citrus producing areas must be
fumigated to eliminate possible infestation with the
Caribbean fruit fly. Fumigation with Ethylene Dibromide is
rather costly, can cause an air pollution hazard and has
resulted in fruit damage in some instances. A method for
recovering the fumigant with activated carbon has been
developed. Regeneration techniques for the carbon material
has also been explored with reactivation efficiencies of
90 to 100%. A potential system for full-scale chamber
usage will be discussed.
11:00 A.M. BASIC RESEARCH IN POSTHARVEST CITRUS
HANDLING Charles Barmore, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.
By the time research is far enough advanced to justify
a recommendation to the industry,it often looks very simple
indeed. However, behind the final experiments presented at
meetings such as this usually lie long, detailed and far
more basic investigations. The research that shows is
usually only the "tip of the iceberg." With an
increasingly well informed industry it seems well to spend
a little time telling of the basic research on the biology
of citrus fruits and of the pathogens that prey upon them.
Investigations into carotenoid synthesis help us in seeking
to improve fruit color by natural means, knowledge of the
enzyme systems of decay-causing fungi helps in the develop-
ment and selection of fungicides. These and other examples
will be discussed.
11:10 A.M. EXPERIMENTAL POSTHARVEST CITRUS FUNGICIDES -
Andy McCornack, Florida Department of Citrus,
Five experimental fungicides were under test during
the 1976-77 citrus season to control decay of fresh citrus
fruits. Further tests were made with the growth regulator,
2,4-D, as this material has been shown to be of value
under certain circumstances for control of fresh fruit
decay. One of these experimental fungicides, imazalil,
formulated as Deccozil, was outstanding. Decay control
with this material is in the same range as Benlate and
TBZ. In addition, imazalil has two properties which set
it apart. It controls molds which have developed resistance
to Benlate and TBZ and when molds do develop in imazalil-
treated fruit, sporulation is retarded so that no mold
spores are released on the sound fruit in a carton.
Imazalil is currently going through the procedures required
to obtain approval for use as a fresh citrus fruit
11:20 A.M. PALLET BOX FUNGICIDE DRENCHERS FOR DECAY
CONTROL OF DEGREENED FRUIT Eldon Brown
and Andy McCornack, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.
Degreening with ethylene increases decay, particularly
stem-end rot. Penetration of the fruit by the stem-end rot
fungus often occurs during degreening or during inadvertent
delays encountered before packing. Aft the fungus has
started to grow into the fruit, the in-line fungicide
application may be less effective. By applying a fungicide
before degreening or delays in packing, the penetration of
the fungus can be retarded resulting in improved decay
control. Commercial pallet box drenchers as well as custom
made units have been used in some packinghouses during the
last two seasons. This discussion will cover the use and
some possible problems of bin drench applications.
CITRUS POSTHARVEST FUNGICIDE TOLERANCES -
Will Wardowski, Extension Service, Lake
Alfred and Roy McDonald, USDA, ARS,
European Marketing Research Center,
Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Five postharvest citrus fungicides are currently
approved for use in the United States. They are listed
with'their USA tolerances in Circular 359-A, Postharvest
Decay Control Recommendations for Florida Citrus Fruit.
Citrus fungicide approvals and residue tolerances for other
countries are sometimes confusing. The tolerances and
approvals for use are usually changing somewhere, and the
interpretation or enforcement of existing tolerances some-
times change. The current status of the five citrus post-
harvest fungicides in our domestic and foreign markets will
CITRUS WAX PRODUCTION AFTER HARVEST--
TEMPERATURE, ETHYLENE, HUMIDITY EFFECTS -
L. G. Albrigo, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.
Ethylene (1 to 10 ppm) and temperatures of 20 to 33C,
depending on the variety, can stimulate considerable
epicuticular wax production on harvested citrus fruits with-
in a short time period of 3 to 7 days. The influence of
humidity is less certain at this time. The possible effects
of this wax production on shelf-life through water loss
control will be discussed.
EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS & ANNOUNCEMENTS -
Bill Miller, Agricultural Research and
Education Center and Will Wardowski, Extension
Service, Lake Alfred.
NOON L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:
(1) Fruit Counter (Count-A-Lot) Larry
Jansen, FMC Corp., Lakeland, FL
(2) Fruit Flow Regulator Earl Bowman,
USDA, ARS, Gainesville, FL
(3) Fruit Stamping Machine (Video-Jet) -
American Can Co., Greenwich, CT
(4) Pallet Box Treatment Ken Parent,
Indian River Pallet Supply Co., Vero
(5) Case Erector & Carton Former James
Livingston, International Paper Co.,
Due to the early
may not appear in
will be announced
printing of this program, certain exhibitors
the above list. Any additional displays
before the lunch break.
Albin Crutchfield, Commissioner, Florida
Department of Citrus
DOMESTIC ARRIVALS OF FLORIDA CITRUS IN THE
CHICAGO ILLINOIS AREA Louis Beraha and A.
P. Merza, USDA, ARS, Market Pathology Labo-
ratory, Chicago, IL.
An investigation was made of the quality and condition
of Florida grown grapefruit, Valencia oranges and tangerines
and comparable California citrus after arrival in the Chicago
Market. For this purpose, we surveyed the GRADE certificates
issued by the USDA Fresh Products Standardization and
Inspection group in Chicago for the period October 1976 to
May 1977. The percentages were obtained ty dividing the
sum of the average defect by the total number of certificates
issued for that commodity. Admittedly these certificates
represent a very small percentage of the total unloads in
Chicago viz, less, than 4% of the total grapefruit shipped,
less than 8% of the oranges and fewer than 10% of the
tangerine shipments. The percentages demonstrate however,
what can happen to some shipments, and they serve as a guide
to all defects normally encountered. They are a useful
profile of some specific problems.
For grapefruit in this period, 2.65% had decay (mainly
green and blue mold rot), 2.95% skin breakdown, and 1.95%
physical damage. Tangerines from Florida had 8.63% decay
(about equal amounts of green and blue mold and stem-end
rot), 6.77% skin breakdown and other non-parasitic defects
and 5.11% physical damage. By comparison, California
tangerines had 6% decay (mostly green and blue mold rot),
10% skin breakdown and 6% physical damage. Florida
Valencia oranges scored 1.36% decay, 3.76% skin breakdown
and 11.78% physical damage. By comparison, California
Valencias had 2.38% decay (all green and blue mold 6.91%
skin breakdown and other non-parasitic defects)and 5.33%
A more realistic assessment of Florida Valencias on
the market was obtained for the years 1966 through 1969
and again in 1972. We sampled fruit in the February to
June periods from time of unloading until final use by the
consumer. The total waste from all sources, viz parasitic,
non-parasitic and physical damage of marketed fruit was
5.9% for 1966-1969 and 3.6% in 1972.
1:50 P.M. DISCUSSION OF DOMESTIC ARRIVALS Brantley
Schirard, Florida Division Manager, Blue
Goose Growers, Vero Beach.
2:00 P.M. GRAPEFRUIT INTERNAL DRYING OBSERVATIONS IN
JAPAN Tim Hatton, John Smoot, and Phil
Hale, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Orlando.
After arrival in Japan, 168 commerical cartons of
grapefruit, representing 18 different brands were cut
and examined for internal dryness, which resulted from
the January 1977 freeze. Off-grade (lower quality than
US #1) ranged from 0 to 39% and averaged 16%. Fruit from
the packinghouses using a separator, however, averaged
less than 9% off-grade. In addition, fruit from experimental
cartons were found to increase from 3 to 30% in off-grade
based on the extent of damage to comparable fruit cut in
Florida at time of packing. The larger the size of the
fruit, the less was the dryness caused by freeze damage.
2:10 P.M. EXPORT PACKAGING TESTS TO JAPAN Philip W.
Hale and William R. Miller, Agricultural
Research Service, U.S. Department of
Grapefruit shipped in standard cartons were compared
with grapefruit shipped in four experimental types of
shipping containers from Florida to Tokyo, Japan. The
results of five shipping tests show that the experimental
1/2-inch deeper carton (inside diameter Ci.dj 17 x 10-5/8
x 10-1/8 in. vs. 17 x 10-5/8 x 9-5/8 in.) reduced the
amount of serious deformation to the fruit surface area by
50%, as compared to fruit in standard cartons and in the
other types of experimental cartons evaluated. Upon
arrival, the amount of carton damage was about the same for
all cartons. The results indicate that shipping grapefruit
in flat packs is one way to improve the arrival condition
of Florida grapefruit in overseas markets. In addition,
two experimental wirebound bulk pallet bins each filled with
31-4/5 bushels of grapefruit were observed upon arrival.
General condition of the grapefruit appeared to be satis-
factory, with no large amounts of seriously deformed fruit.
Fruit averaged less than 1% decayed in each bin. Close
examinations of the bins showed that they arrived in excellent
2:20 P.M. DECAY CONTROL TESTS FOR GRAPEFRUIT EXPORTED
TO JAPAN John J. Smoot, Agricultural
Research Service, U.S. Department of
Five test shipments of grapefruit were conducted
from Florida to Tokyo, Japan, in April and May 1977. The
fruit for these tests was commercially picked, after which
they were processed and packed at the laboratory. The
fungicides tested included SOPP, TBZ, Imazalil and SOPP +
TBZ. When used in addition to biphenyl pads, all of these
treatments were more effective in reducing stem-end rot
and green mold than biphenyl alone. However, none was
effective in reducing the incidence of sour rot or prevent-
ing spread to other fruit in the same carton. Sour rot was
a major factor in the last test with very ripe fruit which
showed evidence of rough harvesting and handling.
2:30 P.M. THE CUBAN CITRUS PLAN A. H. Krezdorn,
Fruit Crops Department, University of
A study was made of the Cuban citrus plan during a
7-day visit to that country. The plan to develop about
200,000 hectares (500,000 acres) of citrus is a major
national Cuban project. Export of citrus is a major
objective. The land, plant material, climate, technical
information and research support needed to make the plan
succeed are available. Most of the fruit for the present
and much for the future is for fresh use. There are plans
to build citrus concentrate plants later. The system is
unique in the citrus world, being coordinated by the
junior high and high school system and under essentially
one management. Cuba has some advantages in this system
but some disadvantages also.
There are currently 300,000 planted acres and about
10,000,000 trees in nurseries. 'Valencia' sweet orange
and 'Marsh' grapefruit constitute the great majority of
the plantings but there is a considerable acreage of
'Persian' or 'Tahiti' limes and a few mandarins, largely
'Dancy'. Lemons are moving from the experimental stage
to large scale trials. There is much interest in lemons
because of demands for this fruit on European markets.
2:40 P.M. ADJOURN
This program is published at a cost
of $280.00 or 47 cents per copy to
inform growers, packers rd others
of applied research in harvesting,
fresh fruit handling and marketing.