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Title: Annual packinghouse day.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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FORWARD

IFAS and this Center take considerable satisfaction from
your continued interest in and attendance at this Annual
Packinghouse Day. We and our cooperators in presenting the
program appreciate the opportunity to share information and
receive your reactions to our activities.
The events of the past shipping season should have
impressed the importance of the fresh fruit outlet upon all
sectors of the citrus industry. Our economic welfare depends
heavily on the continuation or expansion of the fresh fruit
outlet, including that small but highly important export market.
Our experiences in the export market should impress upon
us that our importing partners in other countries expect high
quality products, specific assurances of food safety, and
absolute safety from foreign pest introductions.
These requirements can be met only through continually
higher technological proficiency based on research, and a
continually higher operating proficiency in the industry.
The agencies represented on the program intend to
contribute to the required improvements.



Herman J. Reitz, Director
Agricultural Research and
Education Center
Lake Alfred

The Florida Citrus Commission and the Department of Citrus
Scie.ti.'i- Research Staff are happy to have you with us for the
14th Annual Packinghouse Day program sponsored jointly by the
Department of Citrus and the University of Florida.
The subject matter to be covered by our speakers today
includes many of the year's pertinent topics including abscission,
pollution control, nutrition, solar energy, the Japanese market
and many others.

As the crowded program will not leave much time for
questions during the day, we hope you will take the opportunity
to discuss any of these subjects with the speakers during lunch
hour and after the session is concluded.




SJohn A. Attaway
Sc tific Research Director







PROGRAM


Fourteenth Annual Citrus Packinghouse Day

University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


Wednesday, September 3, 1975

9:00 A.M. Registration

9:40 A.M. WELCOME

Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Director
Agricultural Research and Education Center

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus

PRESIDING
MORNING John T. Lesley, Chairman, Fresh Fruit
SESSION Committee, Florida Citrus Commission


10:00 A.M. HARVESTING VALENCIA ORANGES WITH NEW
ABSCISSION CHEMICALS Bill Wilson and
Earl Rowland, Florida Department of Citrus,
Lake Alfred.

'Valencia' oranges were successfully harvested
mechanically with the aid of a new abscission chemical
RELEASE (Abbott Laboratories). This chemical is available
for limited use under experimental permit granted by EPA.









Advantages of the compound over ACTI-AID are less leaf drop
and no injury to young foliage, flowers or immature fruits.
Its main disadvantage is the tendency to injure the peel of
mature fruit more than is desired. All abscission chemicals
tend to be erratic during the "regreening" period (May).

Research continues on chemical compounds to lower the
acidity of citrus fruits and some compounds have been found
which merit further testing.

10:10 A.M. ETHEPHON RELEASED FOR USE ON LEMONS, TANGERINES
AND TANGERINE HYBRIDS Otto Jahn and Roger
Young, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory,
ARS, USDA, Orlando.

Ethephon (Ethrel) has been cleared for preharvest
degreening and loosening of tangerines and tangerine hybrids.
Recommended rates are 200 ppm for 'Orlando' and 250 ppm for
other varieties without a surfactant. Caution is suggested
until experience with this chemical is gained, to avoid
excessive leaf losses. Ethephon has also been cleared for
postharvest degreening of lemons. The recommended rate for
lemons is 1,000 ppm combined with normal degreening at 15C
(600F) without ethylene.

10:20 A.M. OSHA REGULATIONS Clark Ghiselin, Citrus
Industrial Council, Lakeland.

The enforcement of the 1920 Series Regulations
affecting the fresh fruit packinghouses is a discriminating
application of the law since others----citrus and vegetable
packinghouses in other states and vegetable packinghouses in
Florida are exempt at present under the 1910 Series.

Officials of OSHA have been advised of this discrimina-
tory problem and have been petitioned to abandon the
application of the regulations.

10:30 A.M. BENZIMIDAZOLE RESISTANT MOLDS Eldon Brown
and Andy McCornack, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Green and blue molds, major postharvest decays of citrus
fruits caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum.
respectively, can develop resistance to fungicides. Strains









of green mold resistant to the benzimidazoles, TBZ (thia-
bendazole) and Benlate benomyll), have been observed in most
major citrus producing areas, including Florida. A survey
this past season, though, did not indicate prevalence of
these resistant mold strains within selected commercial
packinghouses. A small number of resistant strains apparently
exist in the natural population. They only become prevalent
during intensive use of a specific fungicide during storage
when sporulation and reinfection can occur on treated fruit.
Numerous resistant strains of green mold have accumulated in
our storage facilities at Lake Alfred where we have been
experimenting with TBZ and/or Benlate over 10 years. All
strains exhibited resistance to TBZ, actively growing in the
presence of 20 ppm. Most strains had less resistance to
Benlate and were inhibited by a concentration of 5 ppm.
Strains resistant to the benzimidazoles do not exhibit
resistance to diphenyl, sodium o-phenylphenol, or 2-amino-
butane. The danger of infestation by resistant strains can
be minimized by good packinghouse sanitation.

10:40 A.M. POSTHARVEST WEIGHT LOSS OF FLORIDA CITRUS
FRUITS Andy McCornack, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.

The principal varieties of Florida citrus fruits were
compared to determine weight losses when held under 4 different
storage conditions: 1) 700F with 90% relative humidity, 2)
700F with ambient humidity, 3) 40F with 90% relative
humidity, and 4) 400F with ambient humidity. Fruit were
weighed, placed in mesh bags, then weighed each week for 4
weeks. The average percentage weight losses after 3 weeks
storage were as follows:

% weight losses -- 3 weeks
700F 40F
No. of Humidity
Fruit type Expts. 90% Ambient 90% Ambient
Grapefruit, seedless 7 3.3 6.0 0.5 1.1
Oranges (round) 5 5.4 12.5 1.2 2.5
Mandarins 3 7.9 13.4 0.6 2.2










Fruit held at 700F with ambient humidity became soft,
developed peel injuries, and appearance varied from fair to
very poor. Fruit appearance in the other storage conditions
was good to excellent except for a very low percentage of
chilling injury in some grapefruit stored at 40F. Weight
loss was reduced by about 50% when 'Valencia' oranges were
stored in cartons with loose fruit at 700F with ambient
humidity.

10:50 A.M. EARLY AND LATE SEASON CHILLING INJURY Will
Wardowski, Extension Service, Bill Grierson,
Agricultural Research and Education Center
and Mohamed Ismail, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.

A fresh look at an old problem sometimes explains
the exception to the expected. Grapefruit chilling injury
has been believed to be most severe in the early fall, at
the beginning of the season, and to decrease until about
January after which it was not considered to be much of a
problem until the next season. Shipping temperature
recommendations of 600F early in the season, gradually
reducing to 500F for mid- and late season grapefruit
reflected the above beliefs. Occasional late-season
severe chilling injury was written off as the exception,
poor refrigeration control, fumigation damage, or just not
explainable. Current research will likely support recent
findings that grapefruit chilling injury is directly tied
to the condition of the tree, and hence the balance and
activities of growth regulators at the time of harvest.
With this fresh look, you can expect chilling injury to be
severe when the trees are in an active growing state at the
beginning of the season, or at the end of the season when-
ever there is plenty of rain and lush growth. The revised
recommendation would then be: raise shipping temperature
when grapefruit are harvested from trees in an actively
growing condition.

11:00 A.M. A PROPOSED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR
RECYCLING OF CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE EFFLUENT -
Mohamed Ismail, Florida Department of Citrus
and Will Wardowski, Extension Service, Lake
Alfred.

Water treatment is not commonly practiced in Florida's
citrus packinghouse industry. A system is outlined for the










filtration and purification of citrus packinghouse effluent
which would allow recycling of water for fruit rinsing and
recovery of certain fungicide residues for possible reuse.
The system is strictly physco-chemical in nature. It
incorporates coagulation, filteration, floatation and
adsorption steps.

11:10 A.M. EVALUATING AND USING PACKINGHOUSE PER-BOX
COST ANALYSES Daniel Tilley, Food and
Resource Economics, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

Many packinghouses have their accountants prepare
annual per-box packing cost analyses. This paper explains
and illustrates two philosophies that auditors may adopt as
they prepare the statements. The two philosophies differ
with respect to which operating costs are allocated to
eliminated fruit. In general, it is shown: a) that the
numbers reported in the per-box costs statements depend
to a great extent on which philosophy the auditor follows,
and b) the way that you interpret and use the results
depends on how the statement was prepared.

11:20 A.M. SOLAR ENERGY ROOF COLLECTORS Earl Bowman,
ARS, USDA, Gainesville.

Possibilities for making use of metal roofs on
packinghouses as solar energy collectors are being
explored. Preliminary work has been carried on with
laboratory-scale collectors constructed with metal roofing
for experimental purposes. The results obtained and their
implications relative to feasibility aspects and further
research on use of packinghouse roofs for collecting solar
energy will be discussed.










11:30 A.M. UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PACKINGHOUSE
OPERATIONS Direlle Baird, Department of
Agricultural Engineering, University of
Florida, Gainesville and Will Wardowski,
Extension Service, Lake Alfred.

The increase in cost of fossil fuels over the past few
years has resulted in a search for alternative sources of
energy. Solar energy is receiving considerable attention
since it is plentiful, available everywhere and non-polluting.
Although sunshine is available for the taking, the taking of
it is not free. In fact, many applications of solar energy
are not yet economically feasible, even with today's high
fuel costs. However, this situation is expected to change
rapidly since the cost of fossil fuels will be increasing
while the cost of solar equipment will decrease due to
advances in technology and production methods.

The utilization of solar energy in packinghouse
operations appears to be promising since many of the operations
require heat at a relatively low temperature, the large
structures provide adequate area for mounting solar
collectors, and the solar equipment can be utilized for a
large portion of the year. Potential uses of solar energy
include surface drying of fruit, heating hot water, heating
and cooling degreening rooms, and possibly provide cooling
for cold storage. The first phase of solar energy feasibility
studies here at the Agricultural Research and Education Center
consists of a system for surface drying citrus fruit. This
system heats water through the use of roof mounted solar
collectors, stores the hot water in an insulated tank, and in
turn heats air for drying by passing it over a heat exchanger
(dryer) heated by hot water.

11:40 A.M. HUMAN INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS FROM
CITRUS PRODUCTS Edward W. Nelson, M.D.,
College of Medicine, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

Conventional food product labeling of nutrient content
does not indicate the proportion of nutrients absorbed or
assimilated by the consumer. A direct method of measurement
of dietary components absorbed from orange juice has been
devised and tested in human volunteers. The glucose content










of orange juice facilitates water and nutrient absorption.
Vitamin C and folic acid are avidly absorbed from a citrus
solution. Vitamin B, is not as well absorbed and this
difference may relate to a binding substance in orange
juice. Further experiments are necessary to define differences
in bioavailability of nutrients from food sources for consumer
information.

11:50 A.M. EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Will Wardowski,
Extension Service, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.


NOON L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:

(1) Solar Energy Fruit Drying John Petersen,
Petersen Industries, Lake Wales, Fla.

(2) Net Rope Stock Bagger Dick Rath, Filper
Corp., Fairport, N.Y. and Rodger Keller,
DuPont Vexar Div., Brandon, Fla.

(3) MGD Water Purification System Amos
Shaler, SMS Associates, State College, Pa.

(4) Reflective Tape Carton Sorting Ron
Adallent, 3 M Co., St. Paul, Minn.
(5) Burford Net Bagger Red Campbell1 Atlanta CGa.

PRESIDING
AFTERNOON Arlen N. Jumper, Chairman, Scientific Research
SESSION Committee, Florida Citrus Commission

1:40 P.M. WINDSCAR RESEARCH Gene Albrigo, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.

Abstract not submitted.

1:50 P.M. REPORT ON FUMIGATION CHAMBERS John Whitesides,
Citrus Bureau, Division of Fruit and Vegetable
Inspection, Winter Haven.

The last session of the Legislature passed a bill giving
the Department of Agriculture the authority to build










fumigation chambers for the purpose of fumigating fruit for
export to Japan and other markets requiring fumigation. A
sum of $350,000 was allocated for the construction of the
chambers.

The status of the project is as follows. We have
selected an architect, and plans and specifications for the
construction of the buildings were completed on July 16 and
were immediately advertised in the paper for bids for the
construction.

Mr. Ralph Brown has been very helpful in planning and
helping to design the fumigation chambers. The chamber on the
East Coast will be located at Ft. Pierce at the State Farmers
Market, and will consist of 14 units. The chamber in the
Polk County area will be on the Rifle Range Road just off
Highway 60 between Lake Wales and Bartow, and will consist
of 12 units.

The fumigation is done by licensed Federal-State
inspectors of the Florida Department of Agriculture working
under the supervision of Mr. Carl Gaddis of APHIS, USDA.

The Florida Citrus Commission allocated a maximum of
$5,000 to be used in constructing one fumigation chamber at
the USDA Research Laboratory at Homestead. This chamber will
be used for further research on fumigation.

2:00 P.M. AUSTRALIAN CITRUS Brian Freeman, Fruit Crops
Department, Gainesville.

A report on Australian citrus will be presented by
Mr. Freeman on leave from the New South Wales Department
of Agriculture, Horticultural Research Station, Narara,
Australia.

2:10 P.M. EXPORTING GRAPEFRUIT IN VAN CONTAINERS Bill
Miller, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory,
ARS, USDA, Orlando.

Various stacking patterns are used when loading
container vans for export markets. In recent shipping
seasons, the trend is toward the utilization of slipsheets
vs. various patterns of hand stacking. During the 1973-74
and 1974-75 shipping seasons, 12 paired test shipments were










monitored during transit for the purpose of evaluating pulp
temperature differences with various stacking patterns. In
addition, arrival condition of grapefruit was compared to
determine differences relating to stacking patterns. These
tests indicate average commodity pulp temperatures within
vans show little difference during the pulldown period (the
time when temperatures at loading are approaching the
thermostat setpoint) and during the time when the refrigeration
system is maintaining equilibrium temperature. There are,
however, differences in the uniformity (minimum and maximum)
of pulp temperatures within vans by different stacking
patterns tested. The data obtained on these paired tests
show no significant difference in decay by stacking patterns
upon arrival at destination.

2:20 P.M. SOME OBSERVATIONS OF FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT
ARRIVING IN JAPAN Tim Hatton, U.S.
Horticultural Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA,
Orlando.

The ban on Florida grapefruit shipped to Japan was
lifted February 10, 1975, and the first fruit arrived there
in early March. With few exceptions, the arrival condition
was excellent and had minimum decay. The exceptions consisted
of three paired van-container loads from two different shipments
which had ethylene dibromide (EDB) injury. One paired load had
severe EDB injury consisting of not only rind discoloration,
but chemical pitting. No EDB injury was observed in break-bulk
shipments. Some biphenyl-pad staining was observed where the
fruit was in contact with the pad; however, importers did not
consider this a serious problem.

2:30 P.M. GRAPEFRUIT TO JAPAN--SOME OBSERVATIONS
CONCERNING CARTONS, FUNGICIDES AND QUALITY -
John Smoot, U.S. Horticultural Research
Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Orlando.

Three late-season grapefruit test shipments were
conducted, breakbulk, to Japan. Benomyl applied either pre-
harvest or postharvest gave good to excellent decay control in
spite of 3- to 5-week delays in unloading. Stronger cartons
give better arrivals only if they are not overpacked. Let the
carton support the fruit.








-10-


The current fungicide situation with Japan will be
discussed.



2:40 P.M. ADJOURN



NOTES







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