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Title: Annual packinghouse day.
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Title: Annual packinghouse day.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
        Page 13
Full Text








On behalf of Mr. Marvin Kahn, Chairman of the Florida
citrus Commission Export Committee; Mr. John T. Lesley,
chairmann of the Commission Fresh Fruit Committee; and the
entiree Department of Citrus Scientific Research Staff, I
!xtend to you a sincere welcome to the Twelfth Annual
'ackinghouse Day Program.
This year's program crosses many disciplinary lines in
)ringing you information on pollution, safety, labor, export,
ind harvesting, which are the "burning issue" topics of the
lay, as well as the usual important fresh fruit subjects such
is degreening, decay control, and shipping containers. We
lope this material will be as interesting to you as it is
excitingg to us.
As always, our speakers will be available after the
meeting and will be happy to go into detail with you then,
)r by appointment later, on any problems which are pertinent
Lnd timely to your operations.


John A. Attaway /
Scientific Research Director
State of Florida, Department
of Citrus





PROGRAM


University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Wednesday, September 4, 1974


8:30 A.M.

9:10 A.M.


PRESIDING
MORNING
SESSION


9:30 A.M.


Registration

WELCOME


John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

Will Wardowski
Program Coordinator, Packinghouse Day
Agricultural Research and Education Center


John T. Lesley, Chairman, Florida Citrus
Commission, Fresh Fruit Committee


GROWTH REGULATORS


A) TANGERINE THINNING IMPROVES PACKOUT -
Adair Wheaton, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Lake Alfred.


Heavy crop loads are a major cause of small fruit and
poor packout of 'Dancy' tangerines. Spray applications of
naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or other fruit thinning materi4








can reduce crop load, increase packout, and reduce the
tendency of biennial or alternate bearing of 'Dancys'.
Returns from thinning are determined by the improved
packout achieved, the relationship between fruit size and
market prices, the presence of market site restrictions,
the value of eliminations, and other factors. There are
too many variables to make a general prediction of economic
benefits, but analyses of some of our tests suggest signifi--
cantly improved net returns from thinning. NAA has not been
cleared for use on citrus but approval is being sought.

B) 'VALENCIA' ABSCISSION THIS SEASON -
Bill Wilson and Earl Rowland, Florida
Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Two new experimental chemicals have greatly increased
our hopes for eventual successful 'Valencia' orange
harvesting by mechanical means. These compounds effec-
tively loosen mature fruit but do not damage blossoms,
foliage or green fruits. Use of the chemicals provided
the most successful experimental harvesting ever accom-
plished with air harvesters, foliage shakers and limb
shakers.

9:50 A.M. DEGREENING AND COLOR

A) GRAPEFRUIT TEST DEGREENING AND PACKOUT -
Will Wardowski, Extension Service, and
Bill Grierson, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.

The apparent high prices usually obtainable for very
early grapefruit do not necessarily mean proportionately
high net returns. This is because only the fruit shipped
fresh make a profit. Not only do early grapefruit "elimina-
tions" invariably loose money; they are most unwelcome at
the cannery as they depress grapefruit juice quality. Thus,
there is no point in picking until test samples show that
early grapefruit will degree readily. Test degreening
should be an integral part of early season maturity tests
by packinghouse managers. When about 90% will degree in
60 hours, picking becomes economically justified.








B) DEGREENING OF TOBACCO, TOMATOES AND
BANANAS Hugh Freebairn, Department of
Biology, University of Houston, Houston,
Texas.

The conditions necessary for degreening and ripening of
tobacco, tomatoes and bananas will be compared to those used
for citrus. Degreening in truck trailers, safety while using
ethyleneand mechanisms of chlorophyll degradation will be
discussed.

C) PROGRESS ON CONTROL OF NATURAL CITRUS
FRUIT PIGMENTS Henry Yokoyama, W. J.
Hsu and S. M. Poling, Western Region,
ARS, USDA, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry
Laboratory, Pasadena, California

At the Pasadena Laboratory we have developed and synthe-
sized a large number of chemical agents or bioregulators
which are effective in enhancing the color and provitamin A
content of citrus fruits. Moreover, these compounds can be
easily and cheaply synthesized from low cost and readily
available starting materials. We have three groups of bio-
regulators, so far, comprising a total of about 90 compounds.

The first group of bioregulators causes rapid and exten-
sive accumulation of red carotenoid pigment lycopene and to
a lesser extent provitamin A y-carotene, a precursor of B-
carotene.

With Group II bioregulators, fruit color goes rapidly to
deep orange and then continues on to red, accompanied by 2 to
5 fold increase in provitamin A carotenoids. Certain Group I
bioregulators cause the fruit to retain the deep orange color
for 3 to 5 weeks before red color develops. These agents
perhaps could be used to improve the color of oranges which
will be sold fresh.

Group III bioregulators are the first agents found that
produce a substantial increase in orange colored carotenoids
in oranges and other citrus fruits but form only insignificant
amounts of the red lycopene. Fruit color development, there-
fore, never goes beyond deep orange. This group of bioregula
tors are potentially of great value in improving the color of
oranges that will be sold fresh. Further work is continuing
the design and synthesis of better bioregulators of carotenoic
color.







D) ETHEPHON FOR COLORING AND LOOSENING
SPECIALTY FRUIT Roger Young and
Otto Jahn, Agricultural Research Service,
USDA, Orlando.

Ethephon (Ethrel) continues to look promising as a pre-
arvest spray for coloring and loosening specialty fruit.
rates of 200 to 300 ppm improved the external color of
Robinson', 'Lee', 'Nova', 'Page', 'Orlando', 'Dancy', 'Temple'
nd 'Murcott' fruit. In many instances, ethephon partly
oosened the fruit which reduced plugging when harvested. In
these tests, ethephon had no adverse effects on the shelf-life
>f the fruit.

E) CURING OF FLORIDA LEMONS WITH ETHEPHON -
Charles Barmore and Will Wardowski,
Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.

'Bearss' lemons harvested July 13, August 18 and
september 4, 1973 received standard packinghouse grading and
ungicides, and were treated with ethephon (Ethrel) at rates
f 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm, plus the last harvest
received 31.25, 62.5 and 125 ppm. Treatments reduced the
ime to reach marketable color by 5 to 7 days for the first,
days for the second and 3 to 4 days for the third harvest.
Simulated marketing of fruit from the two high ethephon
ates for 45 or 46 days following curing resulted in 13%
decay for untreated, and 17% and 19% for 1000 and 2000 ppm
ethephon treated fruit respectively. Fruit color differences
between ethephon rates were not apparent.

10:50 A.M. ECONOMICS

A) CITRUS ECONOMIC RESEARCH IN GAINESVILLE -
Leo Polopolus, Chairman, Department of Food
and Resource Economics, University of Florida
Gainesville.

Publically sponsored economic research relating to Florida's
citrus industry is concentrated in Gainesville. Research
programs are conducted by professional economists employed by
the Department of Food and Resource Economics of the University
of Florida, the Economic Research Department of the Florida







Department of Citrus, and the Economic Research Service of t
United States Department of Agriculture. All three of these
units are located in McCarty Hall on campus and work coopera-
tively to minimize duplication of effort and otherwise maxima
the flow of basic and applied services to the industry. The
overall purpose of this discussion is to review the basic
types of economic research programs, as well as to provide
highlights of some recent research results.

B) SLICING THE CITRUS DOLLAR- Carlie Anderson,
Extension Service, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Lake Alfred.

Based on retail sales data in Chicago and New York City,
the return to growers for the period 1965/66 72/73 has been
greater for fresh oranges than for processed oranges. Grower
share of the retail dollar from processed oranges has been
relatively more stable than their share of the retail dollar
for fresh oranges.

11:10 A.M. LABOR

A) SLOW ROLL GRADING--A PACKER'S VIEW -
Dick Birnie, Calavo Florida, Princeton,
Florida.

A slow-roll grading table is one in which the speed with
which the rollers revolve is controlled independently of the
forward speed. On a conventional grading table, the faster
the rollers move forward, the faster the fruit will turn.

The slow-roll grader controls the speed with which the
fruit rotates in front of each grader. The roller speed
control is variable and the fruit can be made to "stand
still" as it travels forward or turn backward or forward at
any reasonable speed.

As the name implies, however, the real objective is the
slow-roll of fruit as it passes in front of the grader a
slow roll so that the grader gets a better look at the passing:
fruit and can do a more accurate job of grading.







low roll advocates generally set the roller speed so that the
ruit turns over completely from once to twice as it passes in
ront of each grader. This can be accomplished no matter what
working space is allotted to each individual grader. The
system is completely flexible.

We use this type of equipment for grading limes at our
ackinghouse near Homestead. About a year ago, we converted
ur very ancient grading table to slow roll by inserting the
variable speed roll unit within our existing equipment.
ince then, we have installed a larger unit incorporating the
ame feature. We are very pleased with the performance and
eel that it has enabled us to do a better job. The graders
ike it and we like it. In the lime business, we are dealing
ith many more individual pieces of fruit per box than you all
re in the orange and grapefruit business. Our graders have to
ake decisions very fast and the slow-roll system makes it
asier to do so. It requires a little different technique, but
nce you become accustomed to it -- which doesn't take long --
t seems much more comfortable.

Our equipment was built by American Conveyor Corporation
n Miami. They have a grader operating on display here today
nd I think you will enjoy looking it over to decide if the
low-roll system is something that you think would be helpful
n your particular operation.


B) HOW TO ECONOMIZE ON WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION
AND INCREASE BENEFITS TO AN INJURED EMPLOYEE -
Edward Hurt, Law Offices of Edward H. Hurt,
P.A., 109 E. Church St., Orlando

The discussion will include:

Setting up proper systems and efficient personnel to
handle residuals of industrial accidents on the job.
Use of proper personnel to render assistance to injured
employees.
Devising systems to notify all interested parties that
an accident has happened and obtaining immediate help for the
injured employee.
Returning injured employee to employment at the earliest
possible moment in a job classification within his limitations
for a medical standpoint.







Communication between the employee and employer subse
quent to the accident.
Assisting employees to return to self-discipline stat
of working each day.
Why these simple procedures can increase benefits to
claimant while decreasing the actual cost to the employer.


11:40 A.M. EQUIPMENT

A) EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Will Wardowski,
Extension Service, Agricultural Research a
Education Center, Lake Alfred.
-----------------------------------------------------------


11:50 A.M. L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:

(1) Slow Roll Grading Table American
Conveyor Corp., Miami

(2) Serfilco and Sethco Filtration and
Purification Systems Linda Leavenworth,
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Mohamed Ismail, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred

(3) High Pressure Humidification System -
Joe Keith, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred

(4) Fruit Coloring Agents Henry Yokoyama,
Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Lab, USDA,
Pasadena, California



-----------------------------------------------------------

PRESIDING
AFTERNOON Marvin Kahn, Chairman, Florida Citrus Commissi
SESSION Export Committee

1:30 P.M. DECAY CONTROL AND CHILLING CONTROL

A) ANTHRACNOSE ON 'ROBINSON' TANGERINES -
G. Eldon Brown, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.








Anthracnose, a decay of minor importance on round oranges
grapefruit, can become quite prevalent on 'Robinson'
gerines under certain conditions. Studies with anthracnose
'Robinsons' this past season have increased our knowledge
ut the infection process of the causal fungus, Colletotrichum
eosporioides. In most instances, the fungus had not pene-
ted the peel of mature tangerines but was present on the
face in the form of microscopic structures called appressoria.
n fruit were exposed to ethylene, the appressoria formed
section hyphae which penetrated the cuticle, invaded the
l1, and produced decay. Degreening with 50 ppm ethylene
sed more anthracnose than when 5 ppm were used. Washing
Stangerines before degreening removed many of the appres-
ia and thereby reduced anthracnose severity.

B) A FLOOD APPLICATION SYSTEM FOR
THIABENDAZOLE (TBZ) Fred Hayward,
Will Wardowski, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Lake Alfred and
Drexel Dennis, Florida Division of
Fruit and Vegetable Inspection, Winter
Haven.

Samples of treatment suspensions and treated citrus
uits were taken from time to time, from a commercial
stallation of a recirculating TBZ flood application
stem, and analyzed for TBZ content. Although the electronic
ntrol system had certain inherent weaknesses, the solution
ncentrations were maintained at reasonable levels and
sidues in the fruit were somewhat higher than those obtained
th the non-recovery spray system. Residues varied directly
th pH and concentration of the treatment suspension although
ese two factors showed little correlation. Decay control
s found to be satisfactory.

C) POSTHARVEST DECAY CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS -
Andy McCornack, Florida Department of Citrus,
Lake Alfred.

Fungicides recommended for control of citrus fruit decays
e thiabendazole (TBZ), sodium o-phenylphenate (Dowicide A),
nd diphenyl (biphenyl). Benlate benomyll) has been approved
or control of postharvest decay of citrus fruit in the U. S.
Feb. 1974) with a residue tolerance of 10 ppm in or on citrus
ruits from preharvest and/or postharvest application. Benlate







has been approved in most European citrus importing countrii
but not in Canada or Japan. Use of Benlate on citrus should,
be restricted to fruit to be consumed in the U.S. or other
countries approving its use. A Canadian clearance for Benl
is a possibility by this fall. 2-Aminobutane (sec-butylamii
has been cleared in the U.S. but not in Canada, Japan or
most other countries in Europe.

Benlate is very similar to TBZ, but has more systemic
activity. Either fungicide, when properly used, can be
expected to give good control of decay. Neither fungicide,
used commercially, is effective for control of anthracnose,
sour rot or black rot. Cooling fruit before or during
shipping is a very important part of decay control.

Florida Citrus Commission Regulation, "Fungicide or
Fungistat Treatment Required for Fresh Citrus Fruit" has
been revised, establishing a minimum residue requirement
for each postharvest fungicide.

D) REMOVAL OF SODIUM O-PHENYLPHENATE FROM
SIMULATED PACKINGHOUSE EFFLUENTS BY
ACTIVATED CARBON Mohamed Ismail,
Florida Department of Citrus and Will
Wardowski, Extension Service, Lake Alfred

1100 gallons of 100 ppm sodium o-phenylphenate (Dowicidi
A) were filtered through a filteration-purification system
packed with 3 Ibs. granular activated carbon. 50% of the
Dowicide was eliminated by the carbon. Prospects for
introduction of similar, but larger systems, in packing-
houses are excellent. This may result in recycling
treated fruit rinse water, which is normally discharged int<
municipal sewers and water bodies as untreated effluent.

E) SOME BENEFITS OF INTERMITTENT WARMING OF
STORED CITRUS FRUITS Paul L. Davis,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Orlan<

Citrus fruits stored for long periods are held at low
temperatures to avoid decay, but caution must be taken to
avoid chilling injury. Grapefruit are particularly suscep-
tible to rind injury when stored at temperatures near 5C
(400F). Grapefruit were stored at this temperature for 8-
and 12-week periods and removed to higher temperatures for





-10-


hort durations at weekly and biweekly intervals. Warming
o 210C (700F) for 8 hours each week was one of the better
treatments in reducing chilling injury. Intermittent
rming of 'Temples' reduced brown staining. Decay of
Valencia' oranges was reduced by intermittent warming.

F) LATE PICKED GRAPEFRUIT CAN BE AS SUS-
CEPTIBLE TO CHILLING INJURY AS VERY
EARLY GRAPEFRUIT Bill Grierson,
Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.

The presumption that as grapefruit grows more mature, it
becomes more resistant to chilling injury is not always born
ut by the facts. When we have continued experiments late
nto the season, we have often found an unexpected increase
n chilling injury in the very late pickings. This has
iso been noted in published accounts going back into the
930's. Last year, a series of 10 pickings were made from
eptember 1973 through June 1974. As the trees grew more
ormant, the fruit grew more resistant to chilling injury at
OF (4.50C). However, as the spring growth flush started
at the end of January in this unusual season), suscepti-
'ility to chilling injury increased sharply until in the
ost-bloom period 'Marsh' grapefruit were as susceptible
:o chilling injury (shown as surface pitting) as they had
.een in September. Ethylene degreening decreased the
incidence of pitting when the fruit was green either due to
!arliness or late-season degreening. Throughout the season
:he least peel injury and least decay tended to be in
;rapefruit that had been cured at 850F and 95% relative
humidity for 48 hrs before going into refrigeration tempera-
ures.


:30 P.M. PACKING AND EXPORT

A) INVENTORY TO INVENTORY PACKING Martin
Stephens, Manager, Fresh Fruit, Golden
Gem Growers, Umatilla, Florida

Inventory to inventory packing is no panacea, but for us
t has worked well and solved a lot of problems. Each packing-
Louse has its own set of problems. This will be an attempt to
discuss the advantages and disadvantages. You can then
decide for yourself whether it might fit your operation.
inventoryy to inventory packing utilizes sized and prepared
fruit to supply packers or machines one size at a time.




-11-


B) PACKAGING FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT FOR OVER-
SEAS MARKETS Philip Hale, Agricultural
Research Service, USDA, Orlando

Five break-bulk test shipments were made from Florida-
two to Le Havre, France, and three to Tokyo, Japan, -- to
test the effectiveness of tray-pack cartons in protecting
grapefruit from deformation. The tray-pack grapefruit
arrived with significantly less deformation than conven-
tionally place-pack fruit, and, on arrival, their appearat
and condition was greatly enhanced. Although these tray-
pack cartons would cost more to handle and ship than an
equivalent amount of fruit packed and shipped in conventic
place-pack containers, buyers in Europe and Japan insist t
would pay a premium for high-quality, well-shaped fruit
arriving in good condition. Consequently, the citrus indt
should begin to examine the use of tray-pack cartons for
exporting grapefruit to overseas markets, especially the I
sizes, which seem more susceptible to damage.

C) PLANT QUARANTINE AND FUMIGATION STATUS
REPORT Bill Grierson, Chairman, Industi
Caribfly Fumigation Committee, Agricultui
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfre


The timeliness of this report precludes an abstract.
brief status report of the committee work and suggestions
for industry long range plans will be presented.


3:00 P.M. ADJOURN


NOTES










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