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Title: Annual packinghouse day.
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        Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
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        Page 3
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On behalf of Mr. Marvin Kahn, Chairman of the Florida
Citrus Commission Export Committee; Mr. John T. Lesley,
Chairman of the Commission Fresh Fruit Committee; and the
entire Department of Citrus Scientific Research Staff, I
extend to you a sincere welcome to the Twelfth Annual
Packinghouse Day Program.
This year's program crosses many disciplinary lines in
)ringing you information on pollution, safety, labor, export,
and harvesting, which are the "burning issue" topics of the
lay, as well as the usual important fresh fruit subjects such
is degreening, decay control, and shipping containers. We
lope this material will be as interesting to you as it is
exciting to us.
As always, our speakers will be available after the
meeting and will be happy to go into detail with you then,
>r by appointment later, on any problems which are pertinent
Ind timely to your operations.




ad. a~)

John A. Attaway
Scientific Research Director
State of Florida, Department
of Citrus








PROGRAM


University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Wednesday, September 5, 1973


8:30 A.M. Registration

9:10 A.M. WELCOME

Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Director
Agricultural Research and Education Center

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus

PRESIDING
MORNING John T. Lesley, Chairman, Florida Citrus
SESSION Commission, Fresh Fruit Committee


9:30 A.M. DEGREENING AND COLOR

A) COOL COLORING Adair Wheaton, Associate
Professor, Ivan Stewart, Professor, and
Charles Barmore, Assistant Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred.

External color of most harvested citrus fruits can be
substantially improved by holding fruit at relatively low








temperaturee and ethylene concentrations for 1 to 2 weeks.
(A few varieties, such as 'Lee' and 'Murcott' lack the pig-
ients that response to this treatment.) Under these conditions,
accumulation of the orange and red pigments results in a more
Attractive and desirable fruit. Care in harvesting and coloring
:oom operation are important in maintaining decay at low levels.
resultss of pilot scale experiments varied from excellent to
lisastrous, depending primarily on the condition of the fruit
ihen it reached the packinghouse.

B) ETHEPHON FOR DEGREENING CITRUS FRUITS -
Otto Jahn, Horticulturist, and Roger Young,
Plant Physiologist, USDA/ARS, Orlando.

Ethephon (Ethrel) continues to look promising for degreening
;ome citrus fruits when applied either as a preharvest spray
)r as a postharvest fruit dip. On 'Robinson' tangerines, pre-
tarvest applications of 200 to 300 ppm, applied at or following
:olor break, have consistently reduced the time required for
conventionall ethylene degreening. Partial abscission is also
.nduced, reducing the incidence of plugging when fruit is
,ulled. On 'Bearss' lemons, postharvest fruit dips of 500
:o 1000 ppm ethephon may reduce the degreening time at 60F
.rom 30 to 50%. Residue analyses are nearing completion and
application for label clearance will be made soom for
legreening and abscission. Research is continuing on other
potentiall applications of this chemical.

C) RECOMMENDED DEGREENING CONDITIONS.-
Andy McCornack, Associate Professor,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

The requirements for good citrus degreening are: 1)
temperaturee 82 to 85F; 2) Ethylene concentration 1 to 5
arts per million; 3) Relative humidity 90 to 96%; 4) Air
circulation 100 cubic feet per minute for each pallet box
capacity of the room; 5) Ventilation fresh air should enter
he room at the rate of one air change per hour.
Poor degreening usually results from poor air movement
r insufficient fresh air entering the degreening room.
ruit picked with insufficient color break also will usually
ot degree properly. Samples for trial degreening should








be taken when early fruit are checked for legal maturity.
This is especially important for varieties such as 'Robinson'.
Ethylene concentration should be checked with an ethylene
analyzer, particularly when degreening rooms are first
started in'the fall. Increasing the ethylene concentration
over the recommended amount will increase decay but have
little, if any, effect on the degreening rate. A new
University of Florida Circular No. 389, "Recommendations
for degreening Florida fresh citrus fruits" gives the basic
information needed to operate a degreening room.

10:00 A.M. POLLUTION CONTROL

A) REDUCED BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) OF
CLEAN FRUIT -'Gene Albrigo, Assistant Profess
Fred Hayward, Associate.Professor, Agricultuz
Research and Education Center, and Eldon Brow
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

High Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in effluent water
has been the principal basis for'pollution citations of
packinghouses and canneries. Preharvest fungicide treatments
that largely prevented accumulation of sooty-mold on the
fruit surfaces reduced the BOD in the wash water by at least
50%. Difolatan as an early fall spray resulted in significant
reduced fungal populations on 'Pineapple',oranges at harvest.
Fungal populations on untreated fruit were much higher last
season on the surfaces of 'Pineapple' oranges from a grove
on the East Coast on fruit from a grove on the Ridge. These
higher fungal populations could be the result of higher humi-
dity in East Coast groves and these organisms would be expected
to result in higher BOD content of the wash water.

B) CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE EFFLUENTS: REMOVAL
OF PHENOLIC CONTAMINANTS Mohamed Ismail,
Assistant Professor, Florida Department of
Citrus, and Will Wardowski, Assistant Profess
Extension Service, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.

A new laboratory technique has been developed in which
94 to 97% of phenolic-type contaminants can be removed from
packinghouse liquid effluent in two minutes using Polyclar AT.








The polymer is effective in removing a large proportion of
Dowicide A washed off fruit, thus making packinghouse effluents
less likely to cause environmental damage and brings it
closer to meeting the strict limits set by the Florida Air
and Water Pollution Control Commission on phenolic contamin-
ants. Pilot plant testing is planned for this season.

10:20 A.M. ECONOMICS

A) IMPLICATIONS OF MECHANICAL HARVESTING ON
FRESH POOL PAYMENTS James Niles, Extension
Citrus Marketing Economist, IFAS, Gainesville.

The mechanical harvesting of Florida citrus is being
forced upon the industry out of economic necessity. Even
though packinghouse fruit will continue to be harvested
manually well into the future, such fruit will still be
affected by mechanization. Groves will be designated for
the fresh or processed markets with different cultural pro-
grams for each type of grove. Because of these differences,
an increasing divergence between the costs of fresh and pro-
cessed fruit will occur. To compensate the producer of fresh
fruit, new methods of pooling and payment should be considered
to grow high quality, packable fruit. The suggested revised
pooling system pays a premium or discount based upon the value
of fruit to the packinghouse, as measured by packout percentage

B) COMPUTERS AND THE CITRUS FRESH FRUIT
INDUSTRY Peter Grierson, Accounting Depart-
ment, Georgia State University, Atlanta.

We are all familiar with the computer's ability to
perform bookkeeping functions at great speeds. Additionally,
computers make possible the increasingly accurate crop fore-
casts of the Crop & Livestock Reporting Service and the
detailed merchandising studies of Dr. Lester's group in the
Economic Research Department of the Florida Department of
Citrus. Last season, a computer, now in the next building,
was "taught" to regulate the Brix levels in a cannery. In
many businesses, computers serve as aids to managerial decision
making in: cost reduction, profit maximizing, risk evaluation,
and similar roles. The difference for the manager is comparable








to his ability to travel on foot or in his car. My role
is that I am starting doctorate for which I need a suitable
thesis problem. I would like to use a topic which can find
direct application by the citrus industry. Management
decision analysis, particularly in fresh fruit operations,
seems to be a very suitable field. If my committee at Georg
State approves such a program, I will need to come to some,
and perhaps many, of you for data with which to work; and
for cooperation to try out techniques. I hope to be back
working with your Association and its members helping to
develop "management tools" for your industry to use.

C) AN APPROACH TO COST MINIMIZATION OF
PACKINGHOUSE OPERATIONS Mike Ziegler,
Fruit Crops Department, IFAS, Gainesville.

Managerial decision making can be greatly helped by
using modern computer-assisted systems-logic methods. Use
of available resources and allocation of costs can be express
in computer programs that show how to best minimize costs
while modernizing operations. Such a systems-logic approach
not only helps analyze current costs more accurately, but
makes possible evaluation of alternatives. Necessary
modernization of technical and business methods may be eval-
uated for risks involved and for cost minimization.

10:50 A.M. ADMINISTRATION

A) IFAS IN 1970'S Dr. K. R. Tefertiller,
Vice President Agricultural Affairs,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

11:00 A.M. SAFETY AND LABOR

A) FLORIDA CITRUS SAFETY ASSOCIATION Bob
Rice, President, Florida Citrus Safety
Association, Mulberry.

The Florida Citrus Safety Association, a non-profit
organization, was formed in 1961 by a small group of repre-
sentatives of citrus firms in Florida, and others interested
in promoting safety in the Florida citrus industry. The
Association's principal purpose is to standardize safety








operations in all phases of the citrus industry, with the
aim toward accident prevention. With fewer accidents, the
benefits to all will be manifold; reduction of time lost due
to disabling injuries; less human suffering and financial loss;
greater availability and use of man power and equipment that
might otherwise be lost through accidents; reduced insurance
cost to employers; and more profit for the advancement of the
citrus industry. The Association has formulated a complete
Safety Manual for the citrus industry. This Safety Manual
was written in cooperation with the State Department of
Commerce and is available only to Florida Citrus Safety Asso-
ciation members. Florida Citrus Safety Association dues for
a citrus organization are a modest $10.00 per year.

B) YOU ARE LOOKING FOR WORKERS, WE ARE LOOKING
FOR JOBS Mike Burns, Gavel Club No. 16,
Avon Park.

We hear of the hunt for reliable workers for the citrus
industry extending all oyer the Southeastern states and even
beyond. Meanwhile, there are willing workers to be found on
your own doorstep; and I am here to tell you of the program
that makes them available. It is called IMPACT, an acronym
for Imprisoned Men Participating Against Crime Today. The
IMPACT speaking team works through the Gavel Program, an
affiliate of Toastmasters International to which several Lake
Alfred staff members belong. The Gavel Program members are
prisoners; I am from Avon Park Correctional Institution.
We work with anyone who will work with us to see that we never
have to go back once we have paid our debt for whatever error
put us where we are. IMPACT is dedicated to telling of the
Prison Rehabilitation Program of the Division of Corrections.
In particular, it is necessary to make known the reservoir of
often highly skilled potential workers. These are men who are
working to see that they never again put themselves and
their families through the penalties of paying for a some-
times inadvertent breaking of the law. But the first step
has to come from an employer ready to give the ex-prisoner
a chance to prove that he has far better reason than most to
be a reliable employee. Potential employers interested
should contact: IMPACT; The Gavel Program, APCI; c/o Mr.
H. C. Kelley, Superintendent; P. O. Box 1100; Avon Park,
Florida 33825.








11:20 A.M. DECAY CONTROL

A) GRAPEFRUIT CHILLING INJURY Charles
Barmore, Assistant Professor, and Will
Wardowski, Extension Service, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.

Storage or shipment of grapefruit at temperatures below
50 to 600F (seasonally variable) for extended periods often
results in chilling injury (CI) expressed as rind pitting.
The most hazardous temperature range for CI is 360 to 400F.
The biochemical mechanisms) has not been isolated and is
currently under investigation at this Research Center, the
USDA, and elsewhere. Several means have been found to aid
in the suppression of CI. Waxing grapefruit and holding und,
very high relative humidity will reduce pitting. Further
suppression can be obtained with benzimidazole fungicides
such as TBZ, and storage under high CO2 cone (10%). Use of
PVC film liners has been found to be moderately satisfactory'
for controlling CO2 levels at chilling temperatures.

B) VALENCIA STORAGE Eldon Brown, Associate
Professor, Florida Department of Citrus, an<
Gene Albrigo, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred.

Problems with decay, peel disorders, and loss of intern.
quality are frequently encountered during and following cold
storage of 'Valencia' oranges. Studies directed toward ways
of reducing these storage problems have been in progress
over the past few seasons. Results of some of these studies
will be discussed today.

C) STATUS OF CITRUS POSTHARVEST FUNGICIDES -
Currie Melvin and John Smoot, USDA/ARS,
Orlando.

Currently there are six fungicides approved by EPA for
postharvest use on citrus fruits in the United States. Thesi
together with their simplified designations and maximum
allowable residues, are as follows: a) 2-aminobutane (sec-
butylamine, 2AB) 30 ppm; b) biphenyl (diphenyl) 110 ppm;








2) benomyl (Benlate) 10 ppm; d) borax 8 ppm; e) sodium
-phenylphenate (SOPP, Dowicide A) 10 ppm; and f) thiaben-
azole (TBZ) 2 ppm. One growth regulator, 2,4-dichloro-
henoxy acetic acid, isopropyl ester (a form of 2,4-D) is
allowed for postharvest use on lemons only (5 ppm). Although
ot a fungicide, this reduces decay by stimulating the
itality of the fruit, particularly of the button. Benomyl
as only a temporary tolerance for experimental use until
anuary, 1974, but may be used for all citrus fruits, both
resh and processed. Postharvest fungicides most generally
sed in Florida are TBZ, SOPP, and biphenyl, while the other
materials find limited or specialized use or are used in
their citrus areas in the United States. The approved use
nd residue tolerances indicated are for citrus fruits
marketed in the United States. Shipments to foreign countries
(including Canada) are governed by the laws of the importing
countries and may differ from the above.

D) DECAY CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POST-
HARVEST FUNGICIDES Andy McCornack,
Associate Professor, Florida Department
of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

TBZ (thiabendazole) applied at a strength of about 1000
ppm is the best postharvest citrus fungicide. The use of sodium
o-phenylphenate (SOPP, Dowicide A) is still recommended,
particularly for specialty citrus fruits. 2-Aminobutane,
(2AB, sec-butylamine) has been cleared for postharvest use with
a residue of 30 ppm in or on citrus fruits. This fungicide
(2AB) is of particular value for mold control, and shows
promise for use as an alternative fungicide if or when strains
of fungi resistant to TBZ and Benlate become a problem.
Diphenyl (biphenyl) pads do not control decay as effectively
as TBZ or 2AB but have a place in overseas shipments to Japan
as diphenyl is the only postharvest citrus fungicide approved
by Japan. A temporary tolerance for Benlate benomyll) is in
effect until January 11, 1974. Benlate has been used in four
Florida packinghouses to obtain information necessary for the
establishment of a permanent tolerance. Benlate residue on
citrus fruit has not been approved in Canada, Japan, and
several other citrus importing countries.




-9-


12:00 Noon


EQUIPMENT


A) EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Will Wardowski,
Assistant Professor, Extension Service,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.


12:10 P.M.


PRESIDING
AFTERNOON
SESSION

1:30 P.M.


L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:

(1) Plastic Citrus Pallet Box Wm. Lowry,
Lowry Mfg., Cocoa
(2) Tray Packing and Container Filling -
Robert Coates, Northeast Equipment
Company, Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
(3) Fog Humidification System Guy Williams,
Mee Industries, Rosemead, California
(4) Noise Reduction on Metal Chutes Linda
Leavenworth, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred


Marvin Kahn, Chairman, Florida Citrus Commissi
Export Committee

ABSCISSION


A) PROSPECTS OF HARVESTING'VALENCIA' ORANGES
WITH ABSCISSION CHEMICALS Bill Wilson,
Assistant Professor, Florida Department of
Citrus, Lake Alfred.

'Valencia' oranges present a very special problem
because of the presence of immature fruit at the time of
mature fruit harvest. Two new, experimental chemicals are





-10-


capable of effectively loosening 'Valencia' with little
or no damage to flowers, young foliage, or green fruits.
Exceptional loosening can be achieved during the summer
months. Poorest loosening occurs during May and coincides with
the regreening period. As yet, neither of these compounds
has any clearance for commercial trials.

B) ROOTSTOCK INFLUENCE ON ORANGE ABSCISSION
BY CYCLOHEXIMIDE Bill Cooper, USDA/ARS,
Orlando.

Experiments were conducted during April and May at a
location in Clermont, in which 'Valencia' oranges on rough
lemon, 'Cleopatra' mandarin, and sour orange rootstocks were
sprayed with cycloheximide for stimulating fruit abscission.
Fruit on trees on sour oranges and 'Cleopatra' mandarin
rootstocks loosened much more readily than fruit on trees on
cough lemon rootstocks. Fruit on 'Valencia' orange trees on
'Carrizo' citrange rootstocks, at a nearby location, were
also readily loosened by cycloheximide treatment. In light
of these results, we have made a survey of rootstocks on
trees used in all abscission tests conducted during the past
6 years, and have re-examined the data in regard to influence
of rootstock, variety, and seasonal effects on abscission
response to cycloheximide treatment.

1:50 P.M. CONTAINERS AND TRANSPORTATION

A) FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR VANS Bill Goddard,
USDA/ARS/MQRD, Orlando.

Five commercial shipments of tigit-stacked Texas citrus
were instrumented and accompanied to evaluate the USDA's
prototype 40-foot refrigerated van container. Cool-down
rates appear to be faster and temperature distribution more
uniform as compared to those of conventional equipment; no
temperatures were below the thermostat setting; and a higher
humidity level was maintained in the cargo space. The air
circulation system incorporated in the USDA prototype, known
is a lateral down-flow or pressurized system, is beginning to
appear in van specifications as a front down-flow system.
rhis trend appears to be a prediction of things to come--a
systematized approach to transport equipment; the box or
carton and transport van and its environmental control matched
to the other.





-11-


B) PROFILE OF CITRUS PACKAGING MECHANIZATION -
Earl Bowman, Agricultural Engineer, USDA/AR
Gainesville.

Highly mechanized packaging machines first installed
in a few Florida citrus packinghouses have had the limitatio
of being single-purpose machines--either for polyethylene
film bags or cartons. Bag closing mechanisms often were
the limiting factor for speed of bagging machines. Count-
fill measuring of fruit into bags has been 94 to 98% accurate
In several remodeling cases, and some new packinghouses,
semi-automatic equipment was chosen that would serve for
both film and net polyethylene bags as well as cartons and
crates. This and the use of an automatic machine, recently
introduced which handles polyethylene film bags and cartons,
indicates interest in multipurpose packaging facilities. Su
multipurpose machines must be considered, not only in terms
of how many different types of containers they can pack; but
also in terms of effect of purchase or lease cost, rate of
output, cost of packaging materials and of labor on the
ultimate per unit packing cost.

C) JAPAN GRAPEFRUIT SHIPMENT--SHIPPING
CONTAINERS AND DECAY CONTROL Phil Hale
and John Smoot, USDA/ARS, Orlando.

Results of two experimental break-bulk grapefruit ship-
ments to Japan in which 11 types of cartons and 9 decay-cont:
treatments were evaluated showed that: (a) the amount of
deformed*fruit found in all shipping containers was high,
regardless of type; (b) all cartons reached the same fatigue
level after 44 and 45 days; (c) there was no significant
difference in the cooling rate of the grapefruit among
carton types or between experimental-airflow and standard-
ventilated cartons; (d) the palletized units with shrink-filt
pallet wraps were slower to cool; and (e) better arrival
conditions of grapefruit can be obtained if thiabendazole
(TBZ), or a combination of sodium orthophenylphenate (SOPP)
and thiabendazole, is used in lieu of, or in addition to,
the currently acceptable biphenyl pads.





-12-


D) BULGE PACK: AN UNNECESSARY EVIL Edgar
Beeland, Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers
Association and General Manager, Winter
Haven Citrus Growers Association.

Volume-filled cartons this year will show a slack pack.
e place-filled cartons should immediately offer level
cks that will offer the same protection to fruit. Bulge
cks are a throw-back to the old out-dated, unlamented two
apartment rigid boxes. Buyers, domestic and foreign,
plain about misshapen, split, and crushed fruit. The
esh Shippers have recommended that all bulge packs be eli-
nated and have asked the inspection department to fully
force present regulations. Peach shippers eliminated 90%
their complaints about bruising when bulging was eliminated.

30 P.M. THE WORLD

A) THE NEEDS OF EUROPEAN FRUIT BUYERS Elmer
Close, Division of Marketing, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Tallahassee.

At the conclusion of a 5-day seminar-tour of the
ntral and South Florida fruit and vegetable areas, a
oup of European buyers made some very candid remarks con-
rning how Florida sellers can best meet the requirements
the European markets. Some of the points emphasized:
Exporters need to have a long-range export plan and a
mmitment to an export program; 2) Labels and advertising
would emphasize "Florida". Private labels don't mean any-
ing to European buyers; 3) European consumers are very
ality conscious--external appearance is a critical factor;
Containers must be of size and type to meet the needs
the European markets--generally, containers used in Florida
e too large and don't adequately protect the product.

B) PASCUAL HERMANOS, QUALITY CITRUS IN SPAIN -
Will Wardowski, Assistant Professor,
Extension Service, and Bill Grierson, Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.

Pascual Hermanos is a fruit and vegetable shipping
mpany, handling approximately 5.25 million equivalents of





-13-


Florida field boxes of citrus. One of the owners of this
10,000-employee organization, Antonio Pascual, has earned
the nickname "Poet of Quality". The company uses many
techniques to encourage employees to do a good and efficient
job. Every employee in the organization is on an incentive
program of a base wage for his job plus an incentive for
increased quality output. Tourism and industrialization are
encroaching upon the labor supply of Pascual Hermanos. They
are exploring every possible means of maintaining and
improving good labor relations in order to keep the best of
the labor rather than making do with the left-overs from
other industries. One such move is to install tennis courts
at each packinghouse for the use of the employees. The
owners of this organization frequently go to the field to
discuss the problems of picking fruit with the harvesters.
Pascual Hermanos is using many labor relation approaches
which should be considered for use in Florida citrus.

2:50 P.M. ADJOURN


NOTES




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