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Title: Annual packinghouse day.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Back Cover
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The Department of Citrus also takes great pleasure in
relcoming you to the Eleventh Annual Packinghouse Day
program The presence of Mr. Arlen Jumper, Chairman of the
'lorida Citrus Commission Scientific Research Committee,
ind Mr. Marvin Kahn, Chairman of the Export Committee, as
participants in today's program is strong evidence of the
interestt the Department of Citrus has in our fresh fruit
-esearch program.
Research during the past year has continued to emphasize
lecay control, residue problems, coloring of fruit, storage
Lnd handling. In cooperation with the U.S.D.A., there will
le some very interesting material on marketing and trans-
portation. The findings of all groups should be very
interestingg to you as well as pertinent to your problems.
:f you need further information, please feel free to contact
members of the staff for more detailed discussions.









John A. Attaway I
Scientific Research Director
State of Florida, Department of
Citrus













PROGRAM


University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Wednesday, September 27, 1972


8:30 A.M. Registration

9:30 A.M. WELCOME

Herman J. Reitz
Horticulturist and Head
Agricultural Research and Education Center

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

John A. Attaway
Director of Scientific Research
State of Florida, Department of Citrus


CHAIRMAN: Arlen N. Jumper, Chairman, Florida Department
of Citrus, Scientific Research Committee

9:50 A.M. PACKINGHOUSE OPERATIONS

A) CITRUS DECAY CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS -
Andy McCornack, Associate Professor,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

Decay control of citrus fruit depends not only on
postharvest fungicidal treatments, but handling during
picking and until the fruit is consumed. Decay is increase<
by rough handling, delay in handling between picking and
packing, low humidity, and degreening with ethylene.








Fungicidal treatments, when properly applied will reduce
decay losses. Of the approved postharvest citrus fungicides,
thiabendazole (TBZ) is the most effective but sodium o-
phenylphenate (SOPP or Dowicide A) and diphenyl pads are
of value. Under a temporary tolerance which expires
January 11, 1973 (an extension is anticipated), Benlate can
be used on citrus fruit intended for the fresh fruit market.
Citrus fruit should be kept at a high relative humidity
(90% or above) as much of the time as possible between
picking and packing. Degreening time should be as short as
possible and the concentration of ethylene maintained below
10 ppm. Fruit should not be exposed to ethylene after
degreening is completed. Cooling fruit is an effective
method of reducing decay.

B) TBZ RESIDUES: HOW TO STAY WITHIN THE LAWS -
Fred Hayward, Associate Professor, Agricul-
tural Research and Education Center, Lake
Alfred.

Residues of TBZ in or on citrus fruits are limited by
the tolerance of the FDA to a maximum of 2 ppm. Florida
regulations require a minimum of 1/20 of this amount or 0.1
ppm. If the recommendations for the application of TBZ to
citrus fruits, as given by McCornack and Wardowski in Exten-
sion Circular 359, are followed, there should be no difficulty
in obtaining residues within the legal range.
It is almost impossible to exceed the tolerance of
2 ppm by these methods unless multiple applications are
made. Several factors in the treatment procedure may vary
to give residue levels below the minimum. Among these are
treatment of excessively wet fruit, poor agitation of the
TBZ suspension, insufficient time of exposure, clogged
spray nozzles, and possibly inadequate drying before the
polisher brushes.

C) PHENOLICS IN WATERS: SPIRIT AND LETTER
OF THE LAW Mohamed Ismail, Assistant Professor,
Florida Department of Citrus and Will Wardowski,
Assistant Professor, Extension Service, Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center, Lake
Alfred.

The Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act set a limit
of 1 ppb on phenolic type compounds in water bodies receiving









municipal, industrial, or agricultural effluents. Waste
water from several packinghouses has been examined for its
phenolic content and was found to contain high levels of
phenolics. There are three main sources of phenolics
in packinghouse effluents. These are:
1. Sodium ortho-phenylphenate, used as a fungicide.
2. Citrus Red No. 2, l-(2,5-dimethoxyphenzylazo)-2-nap
used in Color-Add.
3. Crushed and decayed fruits, leaves, and other plant
materials.
Although it is fairly easy to reduce the level of
phenolics in waste waters by proper water treatment procedure
the limits set by the law are unrealistic and are difficult
if not impossible to enforce.

D) $$$ CAN SHRINK DURING DEGREENING Doug
Deason, Assistant Professor, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.

Citrus fruits are most susceptible to weight loss and
dehydration during the few hours immediately following
picking. Thus, for fresh fruit, minimizing the time between
harvesting and waxing is crucial in avoiding unnecessary
weight loss and in reducing the development of unsightly
peel injuries during subsequent marketing. If delays during
this critical period are inevitable, the fruit should be
kept under as high humidity as possible. This immediate
postharvest period includes the normal degreening process.
In degreening trials at Lake Alfred in 95-98% relative
humidity, weight losses were consistently held to 1% or less
of initial fruit weight. In one 70-hour grapefruit degreen-
ing test, weight loss was less than 0.5%.
Reduction of weight loss during degreening from the
normally expected 2% or more to 1% or less represented an
increase in saleable fruit amounting to $.04 per field box,
delivered in prices at the time being $2.50 F.O.B. per
carton for fresh fruit and $2.00 per box for eliminations.

E) PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ELECTRONIC SORTING -
Jerry Gaffney, Agricultural Engineer, USDA,
ARS, Gainesville.

There are several potential applications for the use
of photoelectric sorting equipment in Florida citrus packing.








houses. One of these is sorting fruit for color. Machines
wouldd be used to sort out the best colored fruit for the
fresh market or to sort fruit into uniform color groups for
betterr market appeal. During the degreening season, fruit
wouldd be sorted into different groups on the basis of chloro-
hyll level so that each group could be degreened according
o its needs.
One of the most significant applications of photoelec-
ric sorting would be to use machines for automatic grading
f citrus for surface blemishes. Manual grading is very
costly and is subject to human error. The use of automatic
trading equipment has the potential for reducing costs and
improving consistency.
Although there are no commercial installations of
hotoelectric sorting machines in Florida packinghouses at
he present time, several machines have been tested on citrus
ith fair success. At least four manufacturers have machines
under development which should be available, in the near
uture, for sorting fruit for color and for surface blemishes.

Future developments in electronic sorting techniques
ay make it possible to detect internal quality factors such
s Alternaria decay, freeze damage, and solids and acids
ontent.

F) GRADING BEFORE DRYING, FUNGICIDE, AND WAX
APPLICATIONS Tom Greer, Alturas Packing
Company, Bartow.

After one season of having all grading immediately
following the washer, we have experienced more efficient
se of color-add, wax (including fungicide), and dryer
pace. Removing eliminations immediately relieves bottle-
ecks along the packinghouse line. The economics look good
because we own our waxer, buying water wax with TBZ (thia-
endazole) fungicide. Last season, we saved $3,277 on TBZ
water wax by not treating the eliminations, even though we
an less fruit than normal. We expect the savings to be
greater this season.

0:50 A.M. GROVE FINDINGS

A) BLEMISHES ON CITRUS RIND CAUSED BY THE
GREASY SPOT FUNGUS Jack Whiteside,
Associate Professor, Agricultural Research
and Education Center.









Recently, we have learned that the fungus, Mycosphaerell
citri, which causes the serious leaf disease known as greasy
spot, is responsible for certain fruit blemishes of hitherto
unknown origin. This fungus invades citrus rind only
through the stomatal openings and causes death and consequent
darkening of relatively few cells around each point of entry.
The resulting specks are therefore confined to areas between
the oil glands. When only the stomatal cells themselves or
a very few cells adjacent to the stomata are killed, this
produces the relatively inconspicuous symptom previously
referred to as 'microspeck.' Sometimes a larger number of
cells are killed, thereby forming specks that can be large
enough to fuse with their neighbors. The more severe type
of reaction occurs more commonly on grapefruit and 'Temples'
than on other kinds of citrus, giving rise to a condition
previously described on grapefruit, as 'pink pitting,' a
disease which is now known to be caused by the greasy spot
fungus. Infection of citrus rind by this fungus is also a
major cause of poor fruit coloring. Living cells adjacent
to the specks retain chlorophyll for much longer than normal,
and a green cast often persists even after fruit has been
treated with ethylene.
Rind blemishes caused by the greasy spot fungus can be
prevented by the same treatments that are used to control
greasy spot on the foliage.

B) COLORING CITRUS FRUIT WITH ETHREL Roger
Young, Plant Physiologist and Otto Jahn,
Horticulturist, USDA, Orlando.

Ethrel has been evaluated as a preharvest coloring
agent on 'Robinson', 'Lee', 'Nova', 'Dancy', 'Hamlin', 'Temp
and 'Murcott' fruit. At rates of 200 to 300 ppm, Ethrel
induces partial to total degreening, carotenoid accumulation,
and better peel color when applied at color break. This
beneficial coloring response reduces the postharvest degree
time required in ethylene gas which, in turn, reduces storage
decay. Ethrel also has promise as a postharvest coloring
agent for varieties difficult to color on the tree, such as
'Bearss' lemon.









11:10 A.M. STORAGE

A) SOME ASPECTS OF LONG-TERM STORAGE OF CITRUS
FRUITS Gene Albrigo, Assistant Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.

The results from Pineapple and Valencia orange and
grapefruit storage studies continue to look promising.
Information about the best time of harvest for storage and
he effects of pre and postharvest treatments on storage
quality is being accumulated. Preharvest sprays of the
ntitranspirant Pinolene continue to show promise in main-
aining peel moisture which has resulted in improved peel
quality of stored citrus fruits. The future outlook for
ong-term storage of citrus will be discussed.

B) PROBLEMS WITH ALTERNARIA ROT IN STORED
FRUIT Eldon Brown, Associate Professor,
Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred.

The increased practice in the industry of storing fruit
Ln extended cold storage for summer sale has placed more
importance on decay caused by Alternaria citri. This organ-
sm frequently develops under such storage conditions and
acceptable control has not always been achieved with fungi-
ides. The newer materials, thiabendazole and benomyl
(Benlate), provide no control whatsoever. Alternaria rot
s rather insidious in that frequently it develops in the
enter of the fruit producing no external evidence of decay.
uch rot escapes detection until the fruit is peeled for
consumption, an experience not very conducive to repeat
uying by the consumer. Alternaria rot may also develop
t the stem end, a form of the decay which can be detected
rom external peel discoloration. Fungicides are being
ested in a search for more effective materials; but at the
resent, sodium o-phenylphenate is the most effective fungi-
ide available.

C) VACUUM STORAGE FOR RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY -
Charles Barmore, Assistant Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.

A research discovery by Dr. S. E. Burg of the University
bf Miami (that fruits will keep for extraordinary periods








at a high degree of vacuum) now shows promise of commercial
application. The storage life of grapefruit and other
fruits have been prolonged when the air pressure surrounding
the tissue is lowered (hypobaric storage). This technique
accelerates the escape of ethylene from the tissue, thus
reducing cellular activity. The technique is also readily
adapted for fruit at low temperatures. The incidence of
chilling injury on grapefruit is reduced when stored at
40F. Controlled ventilation with air saturated with water
is essential for preventing tissue anaerobiosis and dehy-
dration, respectively. Effect on decay will also be discuss

11:40 A.M.

A) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, USDA,
REORGANIZATION Tim Hatton, USDA/ARS,
Orlando.

The Agricultural Research Service of the USDA experience
an extensive reorganization July 1, 1972. Nationally,
there are now four regions, and New Orleans was selected
as the site of the Southern Regional Office. Future research
efforts will be coordinated closely with Land-Grant univer-
sities, and all units in Florida report directly to the
(Acting) Area Director, Gainesville. Because of the esta-
blished close working relationship between the USDA and
the University of Florida, changes relating to Florida citrus
research activities will probably be minimum as a result of
this reorganization.

B) EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Will Wardowski
Assistant Professor, Extension Service,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.



12:00 Noon L U N C H Equipment Demonstrations:
(1) USDA Prototype Rope Stock Bagger Earl
Bowman, USDA, Gainesville
(2) Vexar Attachment on Burford Bagger, Pak-It
Mfg. Co. Red Campbell, Pak-It Mfg. Co.,
Atlanta
(3) Improved Van Container Bill Kindya, USDA,
Orlando
(4) Portable Color Measuring Unit Otto Jahn,
USDA, Orlando









(5) Plastic Returnable Bulk Shipping Container -
Wm. Lowry, Lowry Mfg., Holland, Ohio



1:30 P.M. PACKAGING AND MARKETING

A) CARTON STANDARDIZATION AND PRODUCT IDEN-
TIFICATION Will Wardowski, Extension
Service, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred.

The Packaging Committee of the Produce Packaging
Association has recommendations for produce identification
on cartons which, possibly, no Florida citrus packer meets.
The reason for such standards is to allow the warehouse
produce handlers to move more of your citrus efficiently
through the markets. Container standardization sounds like
a remote problem until you visit any produce warehouse,
practically any day of any year, and see the mixed pallets
of cartons, boxes, baskets, and bags being loaded for indi-
vidual stores. We should work toward container standardiza-
tion (not only of dimensions but more importantly of labeling)
for all produce rather than for individual crops. These
innovations would increase efficiency, reduce costs, improve
speed of handling and quality, and increase volume and
profits.

B) WHAT BUYERS WANT IN FLORIDA CITRUS -
Foster Heseltine, Marketing Specialist,
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Tallahassee.

In an effort to bridge the communication gap between
the Florida fruit and vegetable industry and the receivers
of their products a survey was conducted by the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Marketing
Division. This talk will highlight the responses from the
major chains east of the Mississippi concerning Florida
citrus. Specific comments will be made concerning bag
masters, poly and vexar bags, stability of cartons and
labeling.








C) FRESH GRAPEFRUIT MARKET STRUCTURE -
Ronald Ward, Assistant Professor,
University of Florida, Food and Resource
Economics Department, Gainesville.

The buying and selling of fresh grapefruit occurs
through the process of communication and exchange. Buying
and selling functions may be made directly between a retail
chain and a packer, while intermediaries, such as sales
agencies, may perform part of these functions. These alter
native channels of communication and exchange form the
vertical market structure for the fresh fruit industry.
There is a direct cost associated with the use of each
channel of distribution and bargaining power at the packer
level may change under different channel uses. A knowledge
of these costs and bargaining positions is essential for
directing any vertical market structural changes.

D) METRIFICATION Bill Grierson, Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred.

Regrettable as it may seem, the USA is rapidly aspirin
to the dubious honor of being the most backward of the grea
nations with regard to weights and measures. In some
fields (for example, manufacturing of engine parts) the
ultimate necessary change-over will be painful and increase
ly expensive with every year's delay. This is not so with
the fresh citrus industry. We can change with little
trouble and great advantage due to the fact that our current
containers (Florida, California, and Texas) are even more
illogical than those used in most industries. Thus, their
passing will encounter minimal resistance from conservative
factors in trade channels. Moreover, we have the great
advantage that the standard 48" x 40" grocery pallet corres
ponds almost exactly to the metric 120 cm x 100 cm unit.
Through the nationwide GAC Container Committee, it is
thus perfectly feasible to devise a system of containers
that will fit current grocery warehouse equipment, world-
wide export standards, and the inevitable metric standards
of the not-too-distant future. There is nothing new nor
startling about the idea of using the metric system. It is
used every time anyone of us do a titration in a standard
maturity test or measure the cc's of juice from a given siz





-10-


f grapefruit. So why get all hung up on staying with a
system of measurements originally based on a legendary king's
personal dimensions and a citrus box standardized in 1875?
If the British can change to decimal currency, surely
he U. S. citrus industry can set an example for the rest
f the North American produce industry by going metric now.
'he obstacles to this are only mental, not physical.

,:20 P.M. TRANSPORTATION

A) VAN CONTAINERS: IMPROPER DESIGNS HURT
EVERYONE Bill Goddard, Mechanical Engineer,
USDA/ARS/TFRD, Orlando.

Everyone is hurt by improperly designed van containers--
:he shipper, the carrier, and the consumer.
The shipper because of poor protection and costly
transportationn of his products to domestic and overseas
markets.
The carrier because of inefficient and inflexible van
ontainers for use in transporting perishable products.
The consumer because of poor protection of the original
arm freshness in perishable food products he buys.

Today's discussion will focus on the more important
eficiencies in container design and recommended remedies
r changes.

B) GRAPEFRUIT EXPORT TESTS FOR FUNGICIDE
EVALUATION John Smoot, USDA/ARS, Orlando.

During the 1970-71 shipping season, nine.test shipments
ere made to Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from Florida in
commercial loads of grapefruit to evaluate biphenyl, SOPP
Dow-hex), TBZ, and various combinations of these fungicides
or decay control. The results generally showed that: (1)
OPP was better than wax only, (2) TBZ treatments were better
han SOPP, (3) TBZ at 3,000 ppm was better than TBZ at 1,000
pm, (4) a combination of SOPP followed by TBZ was better
han either alone, and (5) biphenyl pads were better than
o pads. During the 1971-72 season, three export tests
ere conducted to evaluate benomyl in addition to the other
treatments; but due to low incidence of decay, results
ere inconclusive.






-11-


C) OVERSEAS COMPETITORS ARE TRANSPORTATION
INNOVATORS Bill Goddard, Mechanical
Engineer, USDA/ARS/TFRD, Orlando.

Some personal observations of industry interest in
refrigerated and controlled atmosphere transport equipment.
This interest, its degree or depth, its chronology, its
impact on world economics, and other evidences of its
importance, all help to separate real from imaginary compe-
titors. The subject matter of this interest determines the
field of competition.

2:50 P.M. ADJOURN



NOTES
NOTES










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