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Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066146/00006
 Material Information
Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
Series Title: Citrus Station Mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission.
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Creation Date: 1964
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Taste -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Covers the previous three growing seasons.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida Citrus Experiement Station.
General Note: Description based on: 1962; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71311969
lccn - 2006229394
System ID: UF00066146:00006
 Related Items

Full Text


Florida Citrus Commission and
Citrus Experiment Station CES 68-8G
Lake Alfred, Florida 550-10/12/67-MDM

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL FROZEN CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICES PROCESSED
DURING THE 1964-65, 1965-66, AND 1966-67 CITRUS SEASONS

M. D. Maraulja and R. W. Barron
Florida Citrus Commission
and
R. W. Olsen
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


During the 1966-67 citrus season, a total of 220 samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juice were examined for flavor and color. Sample
collections were made semi-monthly from 25 commercial plants during the period
from December 15, 1966 to June 15, 1967, inclusively. One hundred and eighteen
of the total samples analyzed were from midseason packs and 102 were from late
season packs. All data are summarized and presented in Tables 1-6, together
with those for samples collected and examined during the two previous seasons,
1964-65 and 1965-66. Results for the midseason and late season samples are
shown separately in all of the tables so that varietal differences may be
compared for the three seasons.

Flavor evaluations were compiled from the opinions of flavor panel members
after each of the reconstituted juices had been tasted in accordance with
instructions given on the next page. These are shown in Table 1. A slight
increase in the flavor quality of the 1966-67 midseason products over those of
the preceding season is evident. There was little change in the late season
samples. The percentage of all samples that were graded "very good" for the
1964-65, 1965-66, and 1966-67 seasons, respectively, was 21%, 47%, and 54%.
None of the products were graded "poor" for any of the three seasons.

Differences in the color characteristics of the concentrates and reconsti-
tuted juices for the past three citrus seasons (Tables 2, 3, and 4) are evident
from the frequency distributions of Hunter Color Difference Meter "Rd", "a",
and "b" values. The slight increase in lightness (whiteness), indicated by the
larger "Rd" values, and the slight decreases in redness and yellowness, as
shown by the smaller "a" and "b" values of the 1966-67 orange concentrates,
indicate some decrease in the color quality from those of the preceding season.

The relation between the average Hunter color values and the date of packing
for both orange concentrates and reconstituted juices is shown in Tables 5 and 6.
The midseason and late season packs for the three seasons were separated on the
basis of a distinct change in redness of the concentrates when Valencia oranges
became available for processing; also, to some extent on the number of plants in
operation.


Acknowledgments

The 626 samples of Florida frozen concentrated orange juice examined for
this study were supplied by 25 companies and their cooperation was appreciated.

















Samples:


Directions:


INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices


Reconstituted commercial frozen orange concentrates.

(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do not
consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


Poor
Very poor
Unpalatable


4-3
2
1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.


(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indicating
that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.


Indicate flavor defects using only the following descript-
ive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor de-
fect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then indi-
cate that it is nondescript.





Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM










Personnel of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Marketing Service, Winter Haven,
Florida, obtained the samples from the concentrate plants and thanks are ex-
tended to them for their time, efforts, and assistance.

Members of the taste panel during the 1966-67 season were: M. D. Maraulja,
P. J. Fellers, R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, E. C. Hill, M. H. Dougherty, R. W.
Barron, S. K. Long, Louise Cherry, Alice Barber and F. W. Wenzel. The panel
members graded the flavor of the frozen concentrated orange juices and thus made
possible the flavor evaluations summarized in this report.
















































Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM











Table 1. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants1
1964-65 1965-66 1966-67
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples
Midseason Packs1
Very Good 6 5 51 45 67 57
Good 101 90 57 50 51 43
Fair 6 5 6 5 0 0
Poor 0 0 .0 0 0 0
Totals 113 100 114 100 118 100
Late season Packs
Very Good 36 42 47 50 51 50
Good 49 58 47 50 49 48
Fair 0 0 0 0 2 2
Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0
Totals 85 100 94 100 102 100
Total Packs for Entire Season

Very Good 42 21 98 47 118 54
Good 150 76 104 50 100. 45
Fair 6 3 6 3 2 1
Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0
Totals 198 100 208 100 220 100

1
Samples collected semi-monthly,from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1
to March 1, inclusively, for the 1964-65 season; from December 15 to March 15,
inclusively, for the 1965-66 season; and from December 15 to March 15, inclu-
sively, for the 1966-67 season.

2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 198 samples for the 1964-65 season,
208 samples for the 1965-66 season, and 220 samples for the 1966-67 season.
The taste panel followed instructions as previously indicated. Each of the
reconstituted juices from the concentrates for all 3 seasons were tasted once;
however, some samples were examined several times if it was considered
necessary. The data for the 1964-65 season are based on 2436 individual flavor
grades; for the 1965-66 season, on 2200 grades, and for the 1966-67 season on
2007 grades.








Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM








Table 2. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1964-65,
1965-66 and 1966-67 citrus seasons.
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference __samples-% __samples-7% samples-%
Meter Season 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67
Rd Samples 113 114 118 85 94 102 198 208 220


16.0-16.9 - 3.2 3.9 1.4 1.8
17.0-17.9 - -- 1.2 8.5 12.8 0.5 3.9 5.9
18.0-18.9 1.8 0.9 2.3 10.6 18.6 1.0 5.8 9.0
19.0-19.9 0.9 12.3 1.7 22.4 20.2 21.5 10.1 15.9 10.9
20.0-20.9 4.4 24.5 5.9 17.6 17.0 16.7 10.1 21.1 10.9
21.0-21.9 9.7 15.8 13.6 28.2 12.8 9.8 17.7 14.4 11.9
22.0-22.9 20.3 7.0 18.5 16.5 11.7 9.8 18.7 9.1 14.5
23.0-23.9 23.0 7.0 15.2 5.9 8.5 3.9 15.7 7.7 10.0
24.0-24.9 18.6 14.0 12.7 1.2 4.3 2.0 11.1 9.6 7.7
25.0-25.9 11.5 9.6 11.9 2.3 2.1 1.0 7.6 6.3 6.8
26.0-26.9 7.1 5.3 7.6 1.2 0.0 4.5 2.9 4.1
27.0-27.9 1.8 1.8 7.6 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.4 4.1
28.0-28.9 2.7 0.9 0.9 - 1.5 0.5 0.5
29.0-29.9 -- 0.9 -- 0.5
30.0-30.9 -- 1.7 --- -- 0.9
31.0-31.9 - 0.9 -- --- -- 0.5
Reconstituted Juices
17.0-17.9 -- -- 1.0 - 0.5
18.0-18.9 - - 2.9 1.4
19.0-19.9 0.9 0.9 14.1 12.8 17.7 6.6 6.3 8.2
20.0-20.9 8.8 8.0 -21.2 18.1 32.4 14.2 12.5 15.0
21.0-21.9 18.6 25.4 4.2 37.6 21.3 18.6 26.8 23.5 10.9
22.0-22.9 25.6 27.1 5.9 15.3 23.4 18.6 21.2 25.4 11.8
23.0-23.9 31.8 22.8 22.9 8.2 13.8 2.9 21.7 18.8 13.6
24.0-24.9 6.2 8.8 23.7 2.4 5.3 5.9 4.5 7.2 15.4
25.0-25.9 5.3 6.1 22.9 1.2 5.3 3.5 5.8 12.2
26.0-26.9 1.8 0.9 9.3 -- 1.0 0.5 5.0
27.0-27.9 0.9 10.2 - 0.5 5.5
28.0-28.9 -- 0.0 - -- 0.0
29.0-29.9 -- 0.9 -- 0.5



Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM











late
10 4r


Table 3. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "a" values for samples from midseason and
season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1964-65,
6 dJ J 19-67 cx,.sI itrus saon s c -


Hunter _Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples -% samples-% samples-%7
Meter Season 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67
a Samples 113 114 118 85 94 102 198 208 220
11.1-12.0 -
10.1-11.0 - - 5.3 1.0 2.4 0.5
9.1-10.0 1.8 1.2 14.9 4.9 0.5 7.7 2.3
8.1- 9.0 0.9 3.5 41.5 20.6 1.5 19.2 9.6
7.1- 8.0 1.8 2.6 0.9 22.3 25.5 52.0 10.6 13.0 24.5
6.1- 7.0 2.7 14.9 6.8 45.9 11.7 18.6 21.3 13.5 12.3
5.1- 6.0 6.2 28.1 20.3 20.0 1.1 2.9 12.1 15.8 12.3
4.1- 5.0 22.1 35.9 37.2 3.5 -- 14.1 19.7 19.9
3.1- 4.0 34.5 14.9 24.6 2.4 - 20.7 8.2 13.1
2.1- 3.0 27.4 0.9 10.2 1.2 -- 16.2 0.5 5.5
1.1- 2.0 4.4 -. -- -- 2.5
Less than 1.1 0.9 - - 0.5
Reconstituted juices

0.0 to -0.9 - 4.3 - 1.9 -
-1.0 to -1.9 -1.8 1.2 27.6 5.9 0.5 13.5 2.7
-2.0 to -2.9 0.9 2.6 5.9 40.4 41.2 3.0 19.7 19.1
-3.0 to -3.9 0.9 12.3 1.7 45.9 21.3 42.1 20.2 16.3 20.5
-4.0 to -4.9 7.1 29.8 12.7 37.6 6.4 9.8 20.2 19.3 11.4
-5.0 to -5.9 37.1 45.6 42.4 5.9 1.0 23.7 25.0 23.1
-6.0 to -6.9 -46.0 7.9 37.3 3.5 - 27.9 4.3 20.0
Less than -6.9 8.0 5.9 - 4.5 3.2


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM










Table 4. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "b" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1964-65,
1965-66 and 1966-67 citrus seasons.
Hunter _Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% _samples-% __samples-%_
Meter Season 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67
b Samples 113 114 118 85 94 102 198 208 220
More than 35.9 0.9 13.2 5.1 7.4 0.5 10.6 2.7
35.0-35.9 4.4 13.2 1.7 3.5 16.0 4.0 14.4 0.9
34.0-34.9, 18.6 28.9 5.9 4.7 19.1 1.0 12.6 24.5 3.6
33.0-33.9 32.8 21.0 14.4 28.2 30.9 1.0 30.8 25.5 8.2
32.0-32.9 34.5 20.2 21.1 41.2 20.2 8.8 37.5 20.2 15.5
31.0-31.9 8.8 3.5 22.2 21.2 6.4 17.7 14.1 4.8 20.0
30.0-30.9 - 22.8 1.2 26.4 0.5 24.5
29.0-29.9 5.9 -- 24.5 14.6
28.0-28..9 -- 0.0 -- 19.6 -- -- 9.1
27.0-27.9 0.9 1.0 - 0.9
Reconstituted Juices
More than 33.9 -
33.0-33.9 1.8 0.9 11.7 6.3 0.5
32.0-32.9 0.9 16.7 3.4 46.8 0.5 30.3 1.8
31.0-31.9 1.8 29.8 0.9 11.8 36.2 1.0 6.1 32.7 0.9
30.0-30.9 11.5 22.8 11.0 41.1 5.3 4.9 24.2 14.9 8.2
29.0-29.9 21.2 26.3 25.4 35.3 17.8 27.3 14.4 21.8
28.0-28.9 41.6 2.6 40.6 11.8 44.0 28.8 1.4 42.2
27.0-27.9 22.1 14.4 -- 27.4 12.6 20.5
26.0-26.9 0.9 3.4 4.9 0.5 4.1
25.0-25.9 - - -


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM















Table 5. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter Color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants .
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1964-65 season 198 samples 1965-66 season 208 samples 1966-67 season 220 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 5 23.7 3.3 33.2 - -
12/15 10 24.5 3.6 33.6 8 22.9 5.6 33.8 4 23.6 4.5 34.8
1/1 21 23.8 3.3 33.2 18 22.9 4.6 33.7 15 25.0 4.3 34.8
1/15 22 24.0 3.2 33.2 21 21.8 4.4 33.3 23 24.6 3.7 32.1
2/1 23 23.6 4.1 33.2 23 23.2 5.0 34.3 21 24.0 4.2 31.5
2/15 20 23.5 3.6 33.1 21 22.1 5.3 34.6 20 24.0 4.4 31.7
3/1 12 23.1 3.9 33.2 15 21.7 6.3 34.8 20 23.4 4.7 32.0
3/15 8 22.9 5.0 33.6 8 21.9 5.9 35.0 15 22.1 4.9 30.8
4/1 15 21.0 6.1 32.6 15 20.6 7.1 34.4 11 21.4 6.6 30.5
4/15 21 21.3 6.8 32.8 20 20.0 7.9 34.2 13 19.8 7.3 29.8
5/1 17 20.9 6.7 32.6 22 19.9 8.5 33.3 21 20.0 7.5 31.2
5/15 17 20.8 7.0 32.4 21 21.8 9.1 33.9 22 19.5 7.8 29.8
6/1 7 21.1 6.8 32.6 16 21.0 8.3 33.6 19 19.3 7.8 29.5
6/15 - -- - 16 20.0 8.0 30.0

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM














Table 6. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter Color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants.
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reco stituted juices
1964-65 season 198 samples 1965-66 season 208 samples 1966-67 season 220 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 5 23.3 -6.1 29.4 -
12/15 10 23.5 -6.1 29.4 8 21.9 -4.8 29.8 4 25.2 -5.6 30.1
1/1 21 22.6 -6.2 28.2 18 22.9 -5.1 29.9 15 25.5 -6.0 30.4
1/15 22 22.8 -6.4 28.5 21 22.5 -5.5 30.0 23 25.0 -6.2 29.0
2/1 23 22.5 -5.7 28.6 23 23.2 -5.1 30.7 21 25.2 -6.1 28.8
'2/15 20 22.8 -5.9 28.8 21 22.7 -4.6 31.4 20 24.8 -5.9 28.8
3/1 12 22.7 -5.6 29.5 15 22.1 -4.1 31.8 20 24.2 -5.2 28.9
3/15 8 22.8 -4.9 30.7 8 22.5 -4.1 32.2 15 23.2 -5.1 27.7
4/1 15 21.7 -3.9 30.5 15 21.8 -3.3 32.3 11 22.3 -3.8 28.5
4/15 21 21.3 -3.7 30.0 20 21.0 -2.7 32.2 13 20.9 -3.0 28.1
5/1 17 21.1 -3.8 30.1 22 21.3 -1.9 31.8 21 20.6 -3.1 29.1
5/15 17 20.9 -3.6 29.6 21 23.6 -1.8 32.4 22 20.7 -2.8 28.1
6/1 7 20.6 -4.0 29.2 16 21.8 -2.8 31.6 19 21.0 -2.8 28.0
6/15 - -- -- 16 21.5 -2.8 28.2


Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,


inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 550-10/12/67-MDM