Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066146/00005
 Material Information
Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
Series Title: Citrus Station Mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission.
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: 1963-1964-1965-1966
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Taste -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Covers the previous three growing seasons.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida Citrus Experiement Station.
General Note: Description based on: 1962; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066146
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71311969
lccn - 2006229394
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Citrus Experiment Station CES 67-12
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM

Some Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices Processed
during the 1963-64, 1964-65, and 1965-66 Citrus Seasons

M. D. Maraulja and R. W. Barron
Florida Citrus Commission
and
R. W. Olsen
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


The color and flavor were determined for 208 samples of commercial frozen
concentrated orange juice processed during the 1965-66 citrus season. Sample
collections were made semi-monthly from 24 commercial plants during the period
from December 15, 1965 to June 1, 1966, inclusively. One hundred and fourteen
samples were from midseason packs and 94 from late:season packs. Summarized
data are presented in Tables 1-6, together with that for products examined
during the two previous seasons, 1963-64 and 1964-65. Results for both mid-
season and late season samples are shown in all tables so that any differences
in products packed during these two periods will be evident.

Flavor evaluations are based upon the opinions of the flavor panel members
who followed instructions given on the next page. Flavor evaluations (Table 1)
showed that the flavor of the midseason frozen concentrated orange juices for
1965-66 improved considerably over that for the midseason samples of the two
preceding seasons. Some improvement in flavor was also evident in the late
season products. The percentage of all samples for the 1963-64, 1964-65, and
1965-66 seasons that were graded "very good" was 22%, 21%, and 47%, respectively;
the percentage graded "fair" was 43%, 3%, and 3%. No products were graded "poor"
during either the 1964-65 or the 1965-66 seasons.

Differences in the color characteristics of concentrates and reconstituted
juices for the past three citrus seasons are evident from the Hunter Color
Difference Meter values shown in Tables 2, 3, and 4. A decrease in lightness
(whiteness), indicated by a smaller Hunter "Rd" value and increases in redness
and yellowness, as shown by larger Hunter "a" and "b" values, indicate improve-
ment in the visual color of an orange juice. Thus, the somewhat, lower "Rd"
values and higher "a" and "b" values for the 1965-66 samples indicate some
improvement in color of these products over that of samples from the two previ-
ous seasons.

The relation between the date of packing and the average Hunter color values
for both orange concentrates and reconstituted juices is shown by data in Tables
5 and 6. The midseason and late season packs for the three seasons were sep-
arated on the basis of a distinct change in redness of the concentrates when
Valencia oranges became available in quantity for processing; also, to some ex-
tent on the number of samples available, which indicated the number of plants in
operation.

Acknowledgments

The 570 samples of Florida frozen concentrated orange juice examined for
this study were supplied by 24 companies and their cooperation was appreciated.










Personnel of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Marketing Service, Winter Haven, Florida,
obtained the samples from the concentrate plants and thanks are extended to them
for their time, efforts, and assistance.

Members of the taste panel during the 1965-66 season were: M. D. Maraulja,
P. J. Fellers, R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, E. C. Hill, M. H. Dougherty, R. W.
Barron, S. K. Long, Louise Cherry, Alice Barber and F. W. Wenzel. The panel
members graded the flavor of the frozen concentrated orange juices and thus made
possible the flavor evaluations summarized in this report.











































Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM











INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Samples:

Directions:


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices

Reconstituted commercial frozen orange concentrates.

(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do not
consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor 4-3
Very poor 2
Unpalatable 1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.


(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indicat-
ing that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.



Indicate flavor defects using only the following descript-
ive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
-this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor de-
fect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then indi-
cate that it is nondescript.


Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500-10/4/66-MDM










Table 1. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants
1963-64 1964-65 1965-66
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples
___Midseason packs1
Very good 1 1 6 5 51 45
Good 21 28 101 90 57 50
Fair 54 71 6 5 6 5
Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0
Totals 76 100 113 100 114 100


__Late season packs1 _
Very good 35 40 36 42 47 50
Good 35 40 49 58 47 50
Fair 17 19 0 0 0 0
Poor 1 1 0 0 0 0
Totals 88 100 85 100 94 100


Total packs for entire season
Very good 36 22 42 21 98 47
Good 56 34 150 76 104 50
Fair 71 43 6 3 6 3
Poor 1 1 0 0 0 0
Totals 164 100 198 100 208 100

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1 to
February 15, inclusively, for the 1963-64 season; from December 1 to March 1,
inclusively, for the 1964-65 season; and from December 15 to March 15,
inclusively for the 1965-66 season.

Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 164 samples for the 1963-64 season, 198
samples for the 1964-65 season, and 208 samples for the 1965-66 season. The
taste panel followed instructions as previously indicated. Each of the reconsti-
tuted juices from the concentrates for all 3 seasons were tasted once; however,
some samples were examined several times if it was considered necessary. The
data for the 1963-64 season are based on 2141 individual flavor grades; for the
1964-65 season, on 2436 grades; and for the 1965-66 season on 2200 grades.





Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500-10/4/66 MDM





Table 2. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1963-64,
1964-65 and 1965-66 citrus seasons
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-% _
Meter Season 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66
Rd Samples 76 113 114 88 85 94 164 198 208
16.0-16.9 - - - - - 3.2 - - 1.4
17.0-17.9 - - - 1.1 1.2 8.5 0.6 0.5 3.9
18.0-18.9 - - 1.8 3.4 2.3 10.6 1.8 1.0 5.8
19.0-19.9 - 0.9 12.3 6.8 22.4 20.2 3.7 10.1 15.9
20.0-20.9 1.3 4.4 24.5 22.7 17.6 17.0 12.8 10.1 21.1
21.0-21.9 10.5 9.7 15.8 18.2 28.2 12.8 14.6 17.7 14.4
22.0-22.9 17.1 20.3 7.0 20.5 16.5 11.7 18.9 18.7 9.1
23.0-23.9 23.7 23.0 7.0 12.5 5.9 8.5 17.7 15.7 7.7
24.0-24.9 30.3 18.6 14.0 8.0 1.2 4.3 18.3 11.1 9.6
25.0-25.9 9.2 11.5 9.6 3.4 2.3 2.1 6.1 7.6 6.3
26.0-26.9 5.3 7.1 5.3 3.4 1.2 0.0 4.3 4.5 2.9
27.0-27.9 2.6 1.8 1.8 - 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.4
28.0-28.9 - 2.7 0.9 - - - - 1.5 0.5
29.0-29.9 - - - - - - - -
30.0-30.9
31.0-31.9

Reconstituted juices
17.0-17.9 - - - - - - - - -
18.0-18.9 - - - 1.1 - - 0.6 - -
19.0-19.9 - 0.9 0.9 11.4 14.1 12.8 6.1 6.6 6.3
20.0-20.9 1.3 8.8 8.0 13.6 21.2 18.1 7.9 14.2 12.5
21.0-21.9 7.9 18.6 25.4 29.6 37.6 21.3 19.5 26.8 23.5
22.0-22.9 31.7 25.7 27.1 28.4 15.3 23.4 29.9 21.2 25.4
23.0-23.9 19.7 31.8 22.8 12.5 8.2 13.8 15.9 21.7 18.8
24.0-24.9 27.6 6.2 8.8 3.4 2.4 5.3 14.6 4.5 7.2
25.0-25.9 9.2 5.3 6.1 - 1.2 5.3 4.3 3.5 5.8
26.0-26.9 2.6 1.8 0.9 - - - 1.2 1.0 0.5
27.0-27.9 - 0.9 - - - - - 0.5 -
28.0-28.9 - - - - - - - - -

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM





Table 3. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "a" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1963-64,
1964-65 and 1965-66 citrus seasons
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-%
Meter Season 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66
a Samples 76 113 114 88 85 94 164 198 208
11.1-12.0 - - - - - - - - -
10.1-11.0 - - - - - 5.3 - - 2.4
9.1-10.0 - - 1.8 - 1.2 14.9 - 0.5 7.7
8.1- 9.0 - - 0.9 8.0 3.5 41.5 4.3 1.5 19.2
7.1- 8.0 - 1.8 2.6 22.7 22.3 25.5 12.2 10.6 13.0
6.1- 7.0 3.9 2.7 14.9 39.8 45.9 11.7 23.2 21.3 13.5
5.1- 6.0 3.9 6.2 28.1 19.3 20.0 1.1 12.2 12.1 15.8
4.1- 5.0 23.7 22.1 35.9 6.8 3.5 - 14.6 14.1 19.7
3.1- 4.0 21.1 34.5 14.9 3.4 2.4 - 11.6 20.7 8.2
2.1- 3.0 31.6 27.4 0.9 - 1.2 - 14.6 16.2 0.5
1.1- 2.0 14.5 4.4 - - - - 6.7 2.5 -
Less than 1.1 1.3 0.9 - - - - 0.6 0.5 -

Reconstituted juices
0.0 to -0.9 - - - - - 4.3 - - 1.9
-1.0 to -1.9 - - 1.8 1.1 1.2 27.6 0.6 0.5 13.5
-2.0 to -2.9 - 0.9 2.6 6.8 5.9 40.4 3.7 3.0 19.7
-3.0 to -3.9 1.3 0.9 12.3 42.1 45.9 21.3 23.1 20.2 16.3
-4.0 to -4.9 10.5 7.1 29.8 33.0 37.6 6.4 22.6 20.2 19.3
-5.0 to -5.9 32.9 37.1 45.6 13.6 5.9 - 22.6 23.7 25.0
-6.0 to -6.9 39.5 46.0 7.9 3.4 3.5 - 20.1 27.9 4.3
Less than -6.9 15.8 8.0 - - - - 7.3 4.5 -


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM







Table 4. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "b" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1963-64,
1964-65 and 1965-66 citrus seasons
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-%
Meter Season 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66
b Samples 76 113 114 88 85 94 164 198 208
More than 35.9 - 0.9 13.2 - - 7.4 - 0.5 10.6
35.0-35.9 3.9 4.4 13.2 8.0 3.5 16.0 6.1 4.0 14.4
34.0-34.9 5.3 18.6 28.9 12.5 4.7 19.1 9.1 12.6 24.5
33.0-33.9 51.3 32.8 21.0 37.4 28.2 30.9 44.0 30.8 25.5
32.0-32.9 31.6 34.5 20.2 33.0 41.2 20.2 32.3 37.5 20.2
31.0-31.9 6.6 8.8 3.5 6.8 21.2 6.4 6.7 14.1 4.8
30.0-30.9 - - - 2.3 1.2 - 1.2 0.5 -
29.0-29.9 1.3 - - - - - 0.6 -

Reconstituted juices
More than 33.9 - - - - - - - - -
33.0-33.9 - - 1.8 - - 11.7 - - 6.3
32.0-32.9 - 0.9 16.7 - - 46.8 - 0.5 30.3
31.0-31.9 1.3 1.8 29.8 15.9 11.8 36.2 9.1 6.1 32.7
30.0-30.9 22.4 11.5 22.8 40.9 41.1 5.3 32.3 24.2 14.9
29.0-29.9 36.8 21.2 26.3 33.0 35.3 - 34.8 27.3 14.4
28.0-28.9 30.3 41.6 2.6 9.1 11.8 - 18.9 28.8 1.4
27.0-27.9 6.6 22.1 - 1.1 - - 3.7 12.6 -
26.0-26.9 2.6 0.9 - - - - 1.2 0.5 -
25.0-25.9 - - - - - - - - -


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM







Table 5. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter Color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants1
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1963-64 season 164 samples 1964-65 season 198 samples 1965-66 season 208 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 - - - 5 23.7 3.3 33.2 - - -
12/15 13 23.0 3.1 32.5 10 24.5 3.6 33.6 8 22.9 5.6 33.8
1/1 16 24.0 2.6 33.0 21 23.8 3.3 33.2 18 22.9 4.6 33.7
1/15 18 24.0 3.2 33.3 22 24.0 3.2 33.2 21 21.8 4.4 33.3
2/1 19 24.0 4.0 33.4 23 23.6 4.1 33.2 23 23.2 5.0 34.3
2/15 10 23.4 4.1 32.9 20 23.5 3.6 33.1 21 22.1 5.3 34.6
3/1 4 22.8 6.1 33.7 12 23.1 3.9 33.2 15 21.7 6.3 34.8
3/15 3 21.3 6.9 33.4 8 22.9 5.0 33.6 8 21.9 5.9 35.0
4/1 13 23.4 5.1 33.9 15 21.0 6.1 32.6 15 20.6 7.1 34.4
4/15 19 21.9 6.3 33.2 21 21.3 6.8 32.8 20 20.0 7.9 34.2
5/1 18 21.7 6.7 33.3 17 20.9 6.7 32.6 22 19.9 8.5 33.3
5/15 16 21.4 6.9 33.0 17 20.8 7.0 32.4 21 21.8 9.1 33.9
6/1 12 21.4 7.4 32.7 7 21.1 6.8 32.6 16 21.0 8.3 33.6
6/15 3 22.1 7.7 33.3 - - - - - - -

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM








Table 6. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter Color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants1

Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reconstituted juices
1963-64 season 164 samples 1964-65 season 198 samples 1965-66 season 208 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 - - - - 5 23.3 -6.1 29.4
12/15 13 22.6 -6.1 28.3 10 23.5 -6.1 29.4 8 21.9 -4.8 29.8
1/1 16 24.0 -6.4 29.3 21 22.6 -6.2 28.2 18 22.9 -5.1 29.9
1/15 18 24.1 -5.9 30.0 22 22.8 -6.4 28.5 21 22.5 -5.5 30.0
2/1 19 23.3 -5.9 29.0 23 22.5 -5.7 28.6 23 23.2 -5.1 30.7
2/15 10 22.8 -6.0 29.1 20 22.8 -5.9 28.8 21 22.7 -4.6 31.4
3/1 4 22.1 -4.3 30.1 12 22.7 -5.6 29.5 15 22.1 -4.1 31.8
3/15 3 21.7 -3.5 31.0 8 22.8 -4.9 30.7 8 22.5 -4.1 32.2
4/1 13 22.9 -4.9 30.2 15 21.7 -3.9 30.5 15 21.8 -3.3 32.3
4/15 19 21.6 -4.4 30.0 21 21.3 -3.7 30.0 20 21.0 -2.7 32.2
5/1 18 21.2 -3.7 30.0 17 21.1 -3.8 30.1 22 21.3 -1.9 31.8
5/15 16 21.2 -3.8 30.0 17 20.9 -3.6 29.6 21 23.6 -1.8 32.4
6/1 12 21.4 -3.4 29.7 7 20.6 -4.0 29.2 16 21.8 -2.8 31.6
6/15 3 21.6 -3.5 30.3 - - - - - - -
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/4/66-MDM




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