Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066146/00004
 Material Information
Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
Series Title: Citrus Station Mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission.
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: 1962-1963-1964-1965
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Taste -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Covers the previous three growing seasons.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida Citrus Experiement Station.
General Note: Description based on: 1962; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066146
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71311969
lccn - 2006229394
 Related Items

Full Text





Florida Citrus Commission and
Citrus Experiment Station CES 66-9
Lake Alfred, Florida 400-10/12/65-MDM


Some Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices Processed
during the 1962-63, 1963-64, and 1964-65 Citrus Seasons

M. D. Maraulja and R. W. Barron
Florida Citrus Commission
and
R. W. Olsen
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


A total of 198 samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juice was
examined for flavor, color, and stability during the 1964-65 citrus season.
Sample collections were made from 23 commercial plants, semi-monthly, during the
period from December 1, 1964 to June 1, 1965, inclusively. One hundred and
thirteen of the total samples analyzed were from midseason and 85 from late
season packs. Summarized data are presented in Tables 1-8, together with that
for samples examined during the two previous seasons, 1962-63 and 1963-64. Re-
sults for both midseason and late season samples are also shown in all of the
tables so that any differences in products packed during these two periods will
be evident.

Flavor evaluations were compiled from the opinions of flavor panel members
and are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The reconstituted juices were tasted in
accordance with instructions given on the next page. The degree of clarification
and gelation after storage at 400F. is given in Table 3, together with similar
data for the 1962-63 and 1963-64 seasons. The effect of storage at 80'F. has
not been determined during the last two seasons. The Hunter Color Difference
Meter "Rd", "a", and "b" values of the concentrates and the reconstituted juices
produced during three seasons are compared in frequency distribution tables
(Tables 4, 5, and 6). Increases in lightness (whiteness), redness, or yellowness
of the reconstituted juices are indicated by increases in the "Rd", "a", or "b"
Hunter values, respectively. Tables 7 and 8 show the relation between date of
packing and the average Hunter color values for both orange concentrates and re-
constituted juices. The midseason and late season packing periods for the three
seasons were separated on the basis of the marked color change in the concen-
trates when Valencia oranges became available in quantity for processing; also,
partially on the number of samples available, which indicates the number of plants
in operation. The average Hunter "a" values, as shown in Table 7, indicate a
definite increase in redness of the concentrates packed after February 15 during
the 1962-63 and 1963-64 seasons; also, after March 1 for the 1964-65 season.

The frequency distribution of the flavor grades (Table 1) for the 3 seasons
shows that the 1964-65 midseason packs were very decidedly better in flavor than
those for both previous seasons. Ninety-five percent of the midseason samples
for 1964-65 had "very good" or "good" flavor as compared to 29% for the 1963-64
and 12% for the 1962-63 products. Severe freezing weather, causing tree and
fruit damage, occurred during the 1962-63 season. The flavor of the late season
packs for the 1964-65 season was better than that in products packed during both
previous seasons with 100% of these samples graded "very good" or "good" as com-
pared with 80% for 1963-64 and 44% for 1962-63.









INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Samples:


Directions:


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices

Reconstituted commercial frozen 420 Brix orange
concentrates.

(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do not
consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor
Very poor
Unpalatable


4-3
2
1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.


(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indicat-
ing that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.


Indicate flavor defects using only the following descript-
ive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor de-
fect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then
indicate that it is nondescript.



Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/12/65 MDM










On the basis of the samples examined, the flavor of frozen concentrated
orange juices packed during the 1964-65 season was the best in many years.

Flavor retention after storage for 96 hr. at 40F., as shown in Table 2,
was the greatest in the 1964-65 samples. The percentage of the total samples
for the 1962-63, 1963-64, and 1964-65 seasons that had "good" flavor after 4
days abuse at 400F. was 1%, 18%,and 63%, respectively; the percentage having
"fair" flavor was 73%, 75%, and 37%; and the percentage having "poor" flavor
was 26%, 7%, and 0%.

The stability of the concentrates produced during the 3 seasons, after
storage for 96 hr. at 400F., was good as evidenced by data in Table 3. Definite
or extreme clarification occurred in only 1.5% of the samples for 1964-65 and
in 3% of the products for 1963-64. Only two semi-gels were found in the concen-
trates tested during these seasons.

Seasonal differences in color characteristics of the reconstituted juices
during the past three citrus seasons are evident from the Hunter Color Differ-
ence Meter values (Tables 4-8). Increases in "Rd" values indicate more light-
ness (whiteness) and a poorer color. Increases in "a" and "b" values indicate
more redness and yellowness, respectively, and a better color. The lightness of
the 1964-65 samples was slightly less than that of the 1963-64 samples, and that
of the 1962-63 products was considerably greater than it was during the other two
seasons. The redness was slightly less and the yellowness slightly greater in
the 1962-63 reconstituted juices.



Acknowledgments

The 527 samples of Florida frozen concentrated orange juice which were
collected and examined during the past three citrus seasons were supplied by
23 companies. Their cooperation was very much appreciated.

Thanks are extended to the personnel of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Marketing
Service, Winter Haven, Florida, for their time, efforts, and assistance in ob-
taining samples from the concentrate plants.

Members of the taste panel during the 1964-65 season were M. D. Maraulja,
R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, E. C. Hill, M. H. Dougherty, R. W. Barron, S. K.
Long, Louise Cherry, P. J. Fellers, and F. W. Wenzel.












Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida- 400-10/12/65 MDM








Table 1. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants1

1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs1
Very good 0 0 1 1 6 5
Good 9 12 21 28 101 90
Fair 57 73 54 71 6 5
Poor 12 15 0 0 0 0

Totals 78 100 76 100 113 100


Late season packs1
Very good 0 0 35 40 36 42
Good 38 44 35 40 49 58
Fair 48 55 17 19 0 0
Poor 1 1 1 1 0 0

Totals 87 100 88 100 85 100


Total packs for entire season
Very good 0 0 36 22 42 21
Good 47 28 56 34 150 76
Fair 105 64 71 43 6 3
Poor 13 8 1 1 0 0

Totals 165 100 164 100 198 100

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1 to
February 15, inclusively, for both the 1962-63 and 1963-64 seasons; and from
December 1 to March 1, inclusively, for the 1964-65 season.

2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 165 samples for the 1962-63 season, 164
samples for the 1963-64 season, and 198 samples for the 1964-65 season. The
taste panel followed instructions as previously indicated. Each of the reconsti-
tuted juices from the concentrates for the 1962-63 season was tasted at 3
different times and those for the 1963-64 season were tasted twice. Most of the
samples for the 1964-65 season were tasted once; however, some samples were
examined several times if it was considered necessary. The data for the 1962-63
season are based on 4577 individual flavor grades; for the 1963-64 season on 2141
grades; and for the 1964-65 season on 2436 grades.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500- 10/12/65 MDM









Table 2. Frequency distribution of flavor grades after storage for 96 hr.
at 400F. for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected
from Florida processing plants1

Flavor grade 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
after 96 hr. Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
at 400F.2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs1
Good 0 0 1 1 51 45
Fair 43 55 68 90 62 55
Poor 35 45 7 9 0 0

Totals 78 100 76 100 113 100


Late season packs1
Good 2 2 28 32 74 87
Fair 77 89 55 62 11 13
Poor 8 9 5 6 0 0

Totals 87 100 88 100 85 100


Total packs for entire season
Good 2 1 29 18 125 63
Fair 120 73 123 75 73 37
Poor 43 26 12 7 0 0

Totals 165 100 164 100 198 100

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each
processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1 to February
15, inclusively, for both the 1962-63 and 1963-64 seasons; and from December 1 to
March 1, inclusively, for the 1964-65 season.

2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 165 samples for the 1962-63 season, 164
samples for the 1963-64 season, and 198 samples for the 1964-65 season. The
reconstituted juices from the concentrates were tasted by F. W. Wenzel, M. D.
Maraulja and R. W. Olsen.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/12/65 MDM









Table 3. Comparison of frequency distribution tables for degree of clarification and gelation,
after storage at 40 F., in samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concen-
trated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1962-63, 1963-64, and 1964-65 citrus seasons
Degree of Midseason Late season Total
clarification1 samples-% samples-% samples-%
Season 62-63 63-64 64-65 62-63 63-64 64-65 62-63 63-64 64-65
Samples 78 76 113 87 88 85 165 164 198

None 100.0 96.1 98.2 100.0 94.3 92.9 100.0 95.2 96.0
Slight 0.0 1.3 0.9 0.0 2.3 4.7 0.0 1.8 2.5
Definite 0.0 2.6 0.9 0.0 2.3 2.4 0.0 2.4 1.5
Extreme 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0



Degree of
gelation

0-None 88.5 81.6 89.4 85.1 84.1 81.2 86.7 83.0 85.9
1-Very slight 11.5 17.1 8.0 12.6 11.4 17.6 12.1 14.0 12.1
2-Slight 0.0 1.3 1.8 2.3 3.4 1.2 1.2 2.4 1.5
3-Semi-gel 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.5
4-Solid gel 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


Clarification measured by percentage light tranm


Lumetron 402-E with 730
and Extreme = 85-100%.


filter and 14 ml. cell.


smittance of centrifuged reconstituted juice using
None = 0-59%; Slight = 60-69%; Definite = 70-84%;


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/12/65 MDM





Table 4.
late season
1Q96-64 and


Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values for samples from midseason and
packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1962-63,
19f4-65 citrus seasons


Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-%
Meter Season 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
Rd Samples 78 76 113 87 88 85 165 164 198


17.0-17.9
18.0-18.9
19.0-19.9
20.0-20.9
21.0-21.9
22.0-22.9
23.0-23.9
24.0-24.9
25.0-25.9
26.0-26.9
27.0-27.9
28.0-28.9
29.0-29.9
30.0-30.9
31.0-31.9


18.0-18.9
19.0-19.9
20.0-20.9
21.0-21.9
22.0-22.9
23.0-23.9
24.0-24.9
25.0-25.9
26.0-26.9
27.0-27.9
28.0-28.9
29.0-29.9


1.3
1.3
6.4
10.2
23.1
23.1
17.9
9.0
6.4

1.3


1.3
10.5
17.1
23.7
30.3
9.2
5.3
2.6


0.9
4.4
9.7
20.3
23.0
18.6
11.5
7.1
1.8
2.7


3.4
4.6
19.5
27.6
13.9
13.9
5.7
6.9
1.1
2.3
1.1


1.1
3.4
6.8
22.7
18.2
20.5
12.5
8.0
3.4
3.4


1.2
2.3
22.4
17.6
28.2
16.5
5.9
1.2
2.3
1.2
1.2


Reconstituted juices


1.3
1.3
6.4
19.2
30.8
26.9
6.4
7.7


1.3
7.9
31.7
19.7
27.6
9.2
2.6


0.9
8.8
18.6
25.7
31.8
6.2
5.3
1.8
0.9


1.1
4.6
18.4
34.5
20.7
11.5
8.1
1.1


1.1
11.4
13.6
29.6
28.4
12.5
3.4


14.1
21.2
37.6
15.3
8.2
2.4
1.2


1.8
3.0
10.9
17.6
12.1
18.3
14.0
12.1
4.8
4.2
0.6
0.6


0.6
3.0
10.3
21.3
20.0
20.6
17.0
3.6
3.6


0.6
1.8
3.7
12.8
14.6
18.9
17.7
18.3
6.1
4.3
1.2


0.6
6.1
7.9
19.5
29.9
15.9
14.6
4.3
1.2


0.5
1.0
10.1
10.1
17.7
18.7
15.7
11.1
7.6
4.5
1.5
1.5


6.6
14.2
26.8
21.2
21.7
4.5
3.5
1.0
0.5


__ _ _ _ I __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ .! __ _ _ 114J...............


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/12/65 MDM





Table 5. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "a" values for samples from midseason and
late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1962-63,
1963-64 and 1964-65 citrus seasons
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-%
Meter Season 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
a Sample 78 76 113 87 88 85 165 164 198
11.1-12.0
10.1-11.0 -
9.1-10.0 - - - - - 1.2 - - 0.5
8.1- 9.0 - - - 1.1 8.0 3.5 0.6 4.3 1.5
7.1- 8.0 3.8 - 1.8 19.5 22.7 22.3 12.1 12.2 10.6
6.1- 7.0 6.4 3.9 2.7 38.0 39.8 45.9 23.0 23.2 21.3
5.1- 6.0 16.7 3.9 6.2 29.9 19.3 20.0 23.6 12.2 12.1
4.1- 5.0 35.9 23.7 22.1 8.1 6.8 3.5 21.3 14.6 14.1
3.1- 4.0 24.4 21.1 34.5 2.3 3.4 2.4 12.7 11.6 20.7
2.1- 3.0 11.5 31.6 27.4 1.1 - 1.2 6.1 14.6 16.2
1.1- 2.0 1.3 14.5 4.4 - - - 0.6 6.7 2.5
Less than 1.1 - 1.3 0.9 - - - - 0.6 0.5
Reconstituted juices
0.0 to -0.9 - - - - - - - -
-1.0 to -1.9 - - - 2.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.5
-2.0 to -2.9 - - 0.9 19.6 6.8 5.9 10.3 3.7 3.0
-3.0 to -3.9 19.2 1.3 0.9 49.4 42.1 45.9 35.2 23.1 20.2
-4.0 to -4.9 15.4 10.5 7.1 19.6 33.0 37.6 17.6 22.6 20.2
-5.0 to -5.9 44.9 32.9 37.1 6.9 13.6 5.9 24.8 22.6 23.7
-6.0 to -6.9 15.4 39.5 46.0 1.1 3.4 3.5 7.9 20.1 27.9
Less than -6.9 5.1 15.8 8.0 1.1 - - 3.0 7.3 4.5


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/12/65 MDM








late


Table 6. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "b" values for samples from midseason and
e season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1962-63,


1963-64 and 1964-65 citrus seasons
Hunter Concentrates
Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference samples-% samples-% samples-%
Meter Season 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
b Samples 78 76 113 87 88 85 165 164 198
More than 35.9 - - 0.9 10.3 - - 5.4 - 0.5
35.0-35.9 1.3 3.9 4.4 17.2 8.0 3.5 9.7 6.1 4.0
34.0-34.9 20.5 5.3 18.6 16.1 12.5 4.7 18.2 9.1 12.6
33.0-33.9 33.3 51.3 32.8 21.9 37.4 28.2 27.3 44.0 30.8
32.0-32.9 38.5 31.6 34.5 18.4 33.0 41.2 27.9 32.3 37.5
31.0-31.9 6.4 6.6 8.8 15.0 6.8 21.2 10.9 6.7 14.1
30.0-30.9 - - - 1.1 2.3 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.5
29.0-29.9 - 1.3 - - - - - 0.6 -


Reconstituted juices
More than 33.9 - - - 4.6 - - 2.4 - -
33.0-33.9 1.3 - - 19.5 - - 10.9
32.0-32.9 5.1 - 0.9 20.7 - - 13.3 0.5
31.0-31.9 29.5 1.3 1.8 21.9 15.9 11.8 25.5 9.1 6.1
30.0-30.9 34.6 22.4 11.5 20.7 40.9 41.1 27.3 32.3 24.2
29.0-29.9 28.2 36.8 21.2 12.6 33.0 35.3 20.0 34.8 27.3
28.0-28.9 1.3 30.3 41.6 - 9.1 11.8 0.6 18.9 28.8
27.0-27.9 - 6.6 22.1 - 1.1 - - 3.7 12.6
26.0-26.9 - 2.6 0.9 - - - - 1.2 0.5
25.0-25.9 - -


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/12/65 MDM









Table 7. Relationship of
juices collected from Florida


date of packing to average Hunter Color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
processing plants1


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/12/65 MDM


Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1962-63 season 165 samples 1963-64 season 164 samples 1964-65 season 198 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 21.4 7.2 31.8 - - - 5 23.7 3.3 33.2
12/15 14 25.5 3.8 33.3 13 23.0 3.1 32.5 10 24.5 3.6 33.6
1/1 18 25.3 4.0 33.0 16 24.0 2.6 33.0 21 23.8 3.3 33.2
1/15 18 25.4 4.6 33.3 18 24.0 3.2 33.3 22 24.0 3.2 33.2
2/1 18 25.2 4.9 33.0 19 24.0 4.0 33.4 23 23.6 4.1 33.2
2/15 9 26.1 5.0 33.7 10 23.4 4.1 32.9 20 23.5 3.6 33.1
3/1 9 24.3 5.4 32.8 4 22.8 6.1 33.7 12 23.1 3.9 33.2
3/15 12 23.7 5.8 34.5 3 21.3 6.9 33.4 8 22.9 5.0 33.6
4/1 17 22.9 6.3 35.0 13 23.4 5.1 33.9 15 21.0 6.1 32.6
4/15 16 23.1 6.4 35.1 19 21.9 6.3 33.2 21 21.3 6.8 32.8
5/1 19 23.2 6.3 32.6 18 21.7 6.7 33.3 17 20.9 6.7 32.6
5/15 11 23.1 6.6 32.8 16 21.4 6.9 33.0 17 20.8 7.0 32.4
6/1 2 20.7 7.4 31.8 12 21.4 7.4 32.7 7 21.1 6.8 32.6
6/15 1 22.2 7.2 32.6 3 22.1 7.7 33.3 - -

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, incluslively, during each processing season.
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, incluslively, during each processing season.








Table 8. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants1

Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reconstituted juices
1962-63 season 165 samples 1963-64 season 164 samples 1964-65 season 198 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 23.6 -3.5 30.0 - - - - 5 23.3 -6.1 29.4
12/15 14 26.1 -5.8 30.1 13 22.6 -6.1 28.3 10 23.5 -6.1 29.4
1/1 18 27.0 -5.4 30.6 16 24.0 -6.4 29.3 21 22.6 -6.2 28.2
1/15 18 27.0 -4.7 31.0 18 24.1 -5.9 30.0 22 22.8 -6.4 28.5
2/1 18 26.4 -5.3 30.2 19 23.3 -5.9 29.0 23 22.5 -5.7 28.6
2/15 9 26.6 -4.7 31.0 10 22.8 -6.0 29.1 20 22.8 -5.9 28.8
3/1 9 25.4 -4.4 30.2 4 22.1 -4.3 30.1 12 22.7 -5.6 29.5
3/15 12 25.3 -4.0 32.1 3 21.7 -3.5 31.0 8 22.8 -4.9 30.7
4/1 17 24.6 -3.7 32.4 13 22.9 -4.9 30.2 15 21.7 -3.9 30.5
4/15 16 25.0 -3.3 33.3 19 21.6 -4.4 30.0 21 21.3 -3.7 30.0
5/1 19 24.7 -3.7 30.8 18 21.2 -3.7 30.0 17 21.1 -3.8 30.1
5/15 11 24.8 -3.4 30.9 16 21.2 -3.8 30.0 17 20.9 -3.6 29.6
6/1 2 23.0 -3.2 30.5 12 21.4 -3.4 29.7 7 20.6 -4.0 29.2
6/15 1 24.0 -3.5 30.8 3 21.6 -3.5 30.3 - - -


Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 500-10/12/65 MDM




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