Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066146/00002
 Material Information
Title: Some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons
Series Title: Citrus Station Mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission.
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: 1960-1961-1962-1963
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Taste -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Covers the previous three growing seasons.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida Citrus Experiement Station.
General Note: Description based on: 1962; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066146
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71311969
lccn - 2006229394
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Full Text




Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 64-9
October 8, 1963

Somane Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates Processed during
the 1960-61, 1961-62, and 1962-63 Seasons

M. D. Maraulja and R. W. Barron
Florida Citrus Commission
and
R. W. Olsen
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


The flavor, stability, and color were determined for samples of commercial
frozen orange concentrates processed during the 1962-63 citrus season. It should
be pointed out that the worst freeze of the century occurred in Florida during
this season on December 12, 13 and 14, 1962. These samples were collected seit-
monthly over the period of December 15, 1962 to June 15, 1963, inclusively. A
total of 165 samples from 23 commercial plants were analyzed; 78 of these were
from midseason packs and 87 were from late season packs. Summarized data are
presented in Tables 1-8, together with that for samples examined during the two
previous seasons, 1960-61 and 1961-62. Results are shown in all of the tables
for both the midseason and late season samples so that any differences in pro-
ducts packed during these two periods will be evident.

Flavor evaluations are based upon the opinions of the flavor panel members
who followed instructions given on the next page; the results are presented in
Tables 1 and 2. During the period from December 27, 1962 to August 21, 1963,
each of the juices was tasted three times. Samples were stored at 40" and 800 F,
and the degree of clarification and gelation that occurred after storage is given
in Table 3 along with similar data for the 1961-62 season. The Hunter Color
Difference Meter "Rd", "a", and "b" values of concentrates and reconstituted
juices produced during two seasons are shown in frequency distribution tables
(Tables 4, 5, and 6). Increases in lightness (whiteness), redness, or yellowness
of the reconstituted juice is indicated by increases in the "Rd", "a", or "b"
Hunter values, respectively. The relation between the date of packing and the
average Hunter color values is shown by data listed in Tables 7 and 8 for both
orange concentrates and reconstituted juices. The midseason and late season
packing periods for the three seasons were separated on the basis of the marked
change in color of the concentrates when Valencia oranges become available in
quantity for processing and on the number of samples available, which indicated
the number of plants in operation.

Flavor evaluations (Table 1) showed that the flavor of both the midseason
and late season samples for 1962-63 were not as good as that for orange concen-1
trates evaluated during the 1960-61 and 1961-62 seasons. The percentage of all

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500-10/8/63 MDM










INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices


Reconstituted commercial frozen 42 Brix orange
concentrates.


Directions:


(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do
not consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor
Very poor
Unpalatable


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.


(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indicat-
ing that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.

Indicate flavor defects using only the following descriptive
terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to this list.
If you are not sure of the type of flavor defect in any
juice, which you score 4 or lower, then indicate that it is
nondescript.


Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 WW


Samples:






-2-


sampl s for the 1960-61, 1961-62, and 1962-63 seasons that were graded "good" was
43%, 6% and 28%, respectively; the percentage graded "poor" for these three
season s was 1%, 3% and 8%. The decrease in the flavor quality of the 1962-63
products resulted from the necessity of having to use freeze-damaged oranges
following the severe freeze of December 12, 13, and 14, 1962. A similar decrease
in the flavor quality of commercial frozen orange concentrates was previously
found following the freezes that occurred in Florida during the 1957-58 season.
Of the 13 1962-63 samples that were graded "poor", 12 of these were graded "poor"
because of having a bitter, astri gent, immature, or stale flavor and 1 sample
because of a "buttermilk" flavor..

Data in Table 2 show that flavor deterioration after storage at 40F. for
96 hr. was greater in the 1962-63 samples than in those packed during the 1960-
61 and 1961-62 seasons. The percentage of all samples for the 1960-61, 1961-62,
and 1962-63 seasons that were graded fair after storage at 40F. for 96 hr. was
99%, 81%, and 73%, respectively; the percentage graded "poor" for these three
seasons was 1%, 3%, and 26%. Samples from the 1962-63 season that were graded
"poor" after abuse were bitter, astringent, heated and fermented.

From the data in Table 3, it is evident that the 1962-63 concentrates were
more stable than those from the 1961-62 season. There was no significant gelatin
after abuse in the 1962-63 samples and only one showed extreme clarification after
storage for 24 hr. at 80F.

A marked increase, above that found in the 1961-62 samples, in the amount of
lightness (whiteness) in the 1962-63 reconstituted juices is indicated by the
Hunter "Rd" values (Tables 4 and 8). Greater Hunter "a" and "b" values (Tables 5,
6, and 8) for the 1962-63 reconstituted juices indicate an increase in the redness
and yellowness, respectively. An increase in lightness (whiteness) lowers the
color quality of orange juice, whereas an increase in the redness and yellowness
improves the color of the juice. Therefore, the color quality of the 1961-62 and
1962-63 orange concentrates was about the same. Also, the color of the 1962-63
samples was similar to that found for samples packed during the 1957,58 season,
when major freezes also occurred in the citrus areas of Florida. (See Reports
for Ninth Annual Citrus Processors' Meeting, Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
October 2, 1958).

Acknowledgments

The 558 samples of Florida frozen orange concentrate examined for this study
were supplied by 23 companies and their cooperation was appreciated. Personnel of
the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Marketing Service, Winter Haven, Florida, obtained the
samples from the concentrate plants and thanks are extended to them for their time,
efforts, and assistance.

Members of the taste panel during the 1962-63 season were M. D. Maraulja,
R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, E. C. Hill, M. H. Dougherty, R. W. Barron, S. K. Long,
Louise Cherry, G. E. Alberding, and F. W. Wenzel. The taste panel members graded
the flavor of the frozen orange concentrates and thus made possible the flavor
evaluations summarized in this report. Their help, opinions, and willingness to
be on the taste panel were appreciated very much.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500-10/8/63 MDM









Table 1. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants1
1960-61 1961-62 1962-63
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs1
Good 27 24 73 72 9 12
Fair 82 75 25 25 57 73
Poor 1 1 3 3 12 15
Totals 110 100 101 100 78 100


Late season packs1
Very good 0 0 24 25 0 0
Good 57 67 58 60 38 44
Fair 28 33 12 12 48 55
Poor 0 0 3 3 1 1
Totals 85 100 97 100 87 100


Total packs for entire season
Very good 0 0 24 12 0 0
Good 84 43 131 66 47 28
Fair 110 56 37 19 105 64
Poor 1 1 6 3 13 8

Totals 195 100 198 100 165 100

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 15
to March 15, inclusively, for the 1960-61 season; from December 1 to March 15,
inclusively, for the 1961-62 season; and from December 1 to February 15,
inclusively, for the 1962-63 season.
2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 195 samples for the 1960-61 season,
198 samples for the 1961-62 season, and 165 samples for the 1962-63 season.
The taste panel followed instructions as previously indicated. Each of the
reconstituted juices from the concentrates was tasted at 3 different times.
The data for the 1960-61 season are based on 4066 individual flavor grades;
for the 1961-62 season on 4751 grades; and for the 1962-63 season on 4577
grades.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM











Table 2. Frequency distribution of flavor grades after storage for 96 hr.
at 10F. for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected
from Florida processing plants-
Flavor grade 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63
after 96 hr. Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
at W40F.2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs 1
Good 0 0 1 1 0 0
Fair 108 98 97 96 43 55
Poor 2 2 3 3 35 45

Totals 110 100 101 100 78 100

Late season packs
Good 0 0 31 32 2 2
Fair 85 100 64 66 77 89
Poor 0 0 2 2 8 9

Totals 85 100 97 100 87 100

Total packs for entire season
Good 0 0 32 16 2 1
Fair 193 99 161 81 120 73
Poor 2 1 5 3 43 26

Totals 195 100 198 100 165 100

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 15
to March 15, inclusively, for the 1960-61 season; from December 1 to March 15,
inclusively, for the 1961-62 season; and from December 1 to February 15, in-
clusively, for the 1962-63 season.
2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 195 samples for the 1960-61 season, 198
samples for the 1961-62 season, and 165 samples for the 1962-63 season. The
reconstituted juices from the concentrates were tasted by F. W. Wenzel, M. D.
Maraulja and R. W. Olsen.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 31/A/63 MDM





Table 3.
samples at 40F.
juices collected


Comparison of frequency distribution tables for degree of clarification and gelation after storage of
and 80eF., in samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated orange
semi-monthly during the 1961-62 and 1962-63 citrus seasons


After 96 hr. at 40'F. After 24 hr. at 80F
Degree of 1 Midseason Late season Total Midseason Late season Total
clarification samples % samples % samples % samples % samples % samples %
Season 61-62 62-63 61-62 62-63 61-62 62-63 61-62 62-63 61-62 62-63 61=62 62-63
Samples 101 78 97 87 198 165 101 78 97 87 198 165
None 86.6 100.0 93.6 100.0 89.9 100.0 86.6 99.0 88.2 98.0 87.4 98.0
Slight 3.8 0.0 3.2 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0
Definite 8.6 0.0 3.2 0.0 6.1 0.0 2.9 0.0 5.4 0.0 4.0 0.0
Extreme 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 10.5 0.0 5.4 1.0 8.1 1.0

Degree of
gelation
0-None 71.4 88.5 74.2 85.1 72.8 86.7 83.8 94.9 80.6 92.0 82.4 93.3
1-Very slight 23.8 11.5 23.6 12.6 23.7 12.1 11.4 5.1 17.2 8.0 14.1 6.7
2-Slight -----. 1.9 0.0 2.2 2.3 2.0 1.2 3.8 0.0 2.2 0.0 3.0 0.0
3-Semi-gel 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0
4-Solid gel 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmittance of centrifuged reconstituted juice using Lumetron 402-E
with 730 filter and 14 ml. cell. None 0-59%; Slight 60-69%; Definite 70-81%; and Extreme 85-100%.




Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Cammission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM









Table 4. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1961-62 and 1962-63 citrus seasons
Concentrates
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % samples %
Rd Season 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62 1962-63
Samples 101 78 97 87 198 165
18.0-18.9 3.2 1.5 -
19.0-19.9 6.5 3.4 3.0 1.8
20.0-20.9 1.3 22.6 4.6 10.6 3.0
21.0-21.9 1.0 1.3 25.8 19.5 12.7 10.9
22.0-22.9 6.6 6.4 17.2 27.6 11.6 17.6
23.0-23.9 16.2 10.2 14.0 13.9 15.1 12.1
24.0-24.9 16.2 23.1 4.3 13,9 10.6 18.3
25.0-25.9 18.0 23.1 3.2 5.7 11.1 14.0
26.0-26.9 22.8 17.9 1.1 6.9 12.7 12.1
27.0-27.9 10.5 9.0 1.1 5.6 4.8
28.0-28.9 4.7 6.4 2.3 2.5 4.2
29.0-29.9 1.0 2.1 1.1 1.5 0.6
30.0-30.9 1.0 1.3 0.5 0.6
31.0-31.9 2.0 1.0

Reconstituted juices

19.0-19.9 3.2 1.5
20.0-20.9 12.9 6.0 -
21.0-21.9 1.9 33.4 1.1 16.7 0.6
22.0-22.9 7.6 1.3 29.0 4.6 17.6 3.0
23.0-23.9 21.9 1.3 16.1 18.4 19.3 10.3
24.0-24.9 33.3 6.4 3.2 34.5 19.3 21.3
25.0-25.9 21.9 19.2 2.2 20.7 12.6 20.0
26.0-26.9 11.4 30.8 11.5 6.0 20.6
27.0-27.9 1.0 26.9 8.1 0.5 17.0
28.0-28.9 1.0 6.4 1.1 0.5 3.6
29.0-29.9 7.7 3.6


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM










Table 5. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "a" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1961-62 and 1962-63 citrus seasons

) Concentrates .. ........
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % sample %
a Season 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62 1962-63 1961.62 1962-63
Samples 101 78 97 87 198 165
11.1-12,0 -
10.1-11.0 -- -
9.1-10.0 -
8.1- 9.0 1.1 0.6
7.1- 8.0 1.0 3.8 3.2 19.5 2.0 12.1
6.1- 7.0 0.0 6.h 29.0 38.0 13.6 23.0
5.1- 6.0 6.7 16.7 47.3 29,9 25.8 23.6
4.1- 5.0 12.4 35.9 18.3 8.1 15.2 21.3
3.1- 4.0 32.h 24.4 2.2: 2.3 18.2 12,7
2.1- 3.0 37.0 11.5 1.1 19.7 6.1
1.1- 2.0 8.6 1.3 4.5 0.6
Less than 1.1 1.9 1.0 -

Reconstituted juices

0.0 to -0.9 -
-1.0 to -1.9 2,3 1.2
-2.0 to -2.9 19.6 10.3
-3.0 to -3.9 1.9 19.2 20.4 49.4 10.6 35.2
-4.0 to -4.9 4.8 15.4 49.4 19.6 25.7 17.6
-5.0 to -5.9 26.7 44.9 26.9 6.9 26.8 24.8
-6.0 to -6.9 56.1 15.4 2.2 1.1 30.8 7.9
Less than -6.9 10.5 5.1 1.1 1,1 6.1 3.0


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM













Table 6. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "b" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1961-62 and 1962-63 citrus seasons

Concentrates
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % samples %
b Season 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62 1962-63 1961-62 1962-63
Samples 101 78 97 87 198 165
More than 35.9 3.8 10.3 2.0 5.4
35.0-35.9 10.5 1.3 17.2 5.6 9.7
34.0-34.9 29.5 20.5 16.1 15.7 18.2
33.0-33.9 31.4 33.3 2.2 21.9 17.6 27.3
32.0-32.9 18.1 38.5 6.5 18.4 12.6 27.9
31.0-31.9 4.8 6.4 29.0 15.0 16.2 10.9
30.0-30.9 1.9 49.4 1.1 24.2 0.6
29.0-29.9 -- 12.9 6.1

Reconstituted juices
More than 33.9 4.6 2.4
33.0-33.9 1.3 19.5 10.9
32.0-32.9 5.1 20.7 13.3
31.0-31.9 3.8 29.5 21.9 2.0 25.5
30.0-30.9 22.9 34.6 2.2 20.7 13.1 27.3
29.0-29.9 33.3 28.2 9.7 12.6 22.2 20.0
28.0-28.9 31.4 1.3 65.5 47.5 0.6
27.0-27.9 7.6 22.6 14.7 -
26.0-26.9 -
25.0-25.9 1.0 0.5 -


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM






Table 7. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants1
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1960-61 season 195 samples 1961-62 season 198 samples 1962-63 season 165 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 23.7 4.4 33.3 1 21.4 7.2 31.8
12/15 4 23.4 3.9 32.8 11 25.3 4.0 33.5 14 25.5 3.8 33.3
1/1 18 25.2 4.7 33.8 17 25.4 3.3 33.6 18 25.3 4.0 33.0
1/15 22 25.7 4.1 34.1 21 25.7 2.7 32.3 18 25.4 4.6 33.3
2/1 22 25.3 4.9 34.0 18 25.8 3.2 34.4 18 25.2 4.9 33.0
2/15 23 25.3 5.3 33.4 20 25.5 3.4 34.0 9 26.1 5.0 33.7
3/1 17 24.3 5.6 33.3 10 26.3 3.0 32.7 9 24.3 5.- 32.8
3/15 4 24.9 5.8 34.4 3 25.0 3.2 32.0 12 23.7 5.8 34.5
4/1 3 22.6 8.5 34.0 4 23.7 --.6 32.0 17 22.9 6.3 35.0
4/15 15 22.4 8.2 34.0 15 22.3 5.1 31.3 16 23.1 6.4 35.1
5/1 20 22.7 7.8 33.8 21 22.7 5.0 30.8 19 23.2 6.3 32.6
5/15 19 22.2 8.2 33.6 20 21.5 5.8 30.8 11 23.1 6.6 32.8
6/1 17 22.1 8.1 33.3 21 21.7 6.0 30.5 2 20.7 7.4 31.8
6/15 11 22.3 8.1 33.3 16 21.2 6.1 31.0 1 22.2 7.2 32.6

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM






Table 8. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants-P
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reconstituted juices
1960-61 season 195 samples 1961-62 season 198 samples 1962-63 season 165 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 23.7 -5.1 30.0 1 23.6 -3.5 30.0
12/15 4 23.9 -5.5 29.6 11 24.1 -5.2 28.9 14 26.1 -5.8 30.1
1/1 18 23.7 -5.2 29.6 17 24.4 -6.0 29.1 18 27.0 -5.4 30.6
1/15 22 24.3 -5.8 29.9 21 24.9 -6.4 28.0 18 27.0 -4.7 31.0
2/1 22 23.8 -5.3 29.8 18 24.9 -6.3 31.2 18 26.4 -5.3 30.2
2/15 23 23.8 -5.2 29.2 20 24.4 -6.2 29.4 9 26.6 -4.7 31.0
3/1 17 23.3 -5.0 29.4 10 24.4 -6.8 28.8 9 25.4 -4.4 30.2
3/15 4 23.6 -5.1 30.1 3 22.7 -7.0 27.3 12 25.3 -4.0 32.1
4/1 3 21.7 -3.2 30.7 4 24.0 -5.4 29.6 17 24.6 -3.7 32.4
/15 15 22.3 -3.1 31.0 15 22.3 -5.2 28.1 16 25.0 -3.3 33.3
5/1 20 22.3 -3.3 30.6 21 22.4 -4.8 28.3 19 24.7 -3.7 30.8
5/15 19 21.7 -2.8 30.3 20 21.9 -4.5 28.3 11 24.8 -3.4 30.9
6/1 17 21.8 -3.0 30.1 21 21.8 -4.2 28.0 2 23.0 -3.2 30.5
6/15 11 22.0 -2.8 30.2 16 22.0 -4.2 28.5 1 24.0 -3.5 30.8


1Samples


collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
500 10/8/63 MDM




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