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Comparison of some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons.
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Title: Comparison of some characteristics of commercial frozen orange juice concentrates processed during the ... citrus seasons.
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Creation Date: 1957
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Citrus Station Mimeo Series 61-7
September 21, 1960

Comparison of Some Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates
Processed during the 1957-58, 1958-59 and 1959-60 Citrus Seasons

M. D. Maraulja and R. W. Barron

During the 1959-60 citrus season, samples of frozen orange concentrate were
collected semi-monthly from 23 Florida plants. The 187 samples obtained from
December 15, 1959, to June 1, 1960, inclusively, were used to determine (1)
flavor, (2) stability and (3) color of these products. Other characteristics
of these concentrates were not determined, as in previous years, since a
sufficient amount of data was believed to be available on such characteristics
as a result of analyses conducted over a previous five year period. Results
have been summarized and are presented in the 8 tables that are included in this
report. Tables 3, 4, 5 and 6 contain data obtained during the last two seasons.
In Tables 1, 2, 7 and 8 data are also given, since they were available, for the
1957-58 season; it should be recalled that during this season fruit and trees
were severely damaged because of the occurrence of general freezes throughout
the citrus area in Florida.

The characteristics of the frozen orange concentrates processed during the
midseason and late season periods are shown in all of the tables, so that
differences, if any, resulting from the date of packing will be evident. The
periods were separated on the basis of the marked change in the color of the
concentrate samples when Valencia oranges in quantity became available for pro-
cessing. This change in color is evident in the Hunter "a" values shown in
Table 7 and occurred after February 15, March 15 and March 1 during the 1957-58,
1958-59 and 1959-60 seasons, respectively. The color of the midseason pack for
1959-60 was better than that for the two previous seasons. The color of the
late season packs during 1958-59 and 1959-60 was very good, based on the Hunter
"a" values, and was definitely better than that during the 1957-58 season when
the freezes occurred in Florida.

Comparison of the data presented in Table 1 shows that the flavor of the
midseason pack for 1959-60 was better than that for the 1958-59 season; however,
the flavor quality of the late season pack for 1959-60 was not as good as that
for the previous season. The total packs for both 1958-59 and 1959-60 were
better in flavor than that for the 1957-58 season when freezes occurred.

Deterioration of flavor of the frozen concentrates after abuse for 96 hr.
at 400F. (Table 2) was markedly less in the total pa,-k for 1959-60 than that in
the total pal-fks for the two previous seasons. Also, it is evident that a greater
amount of fiavir deterioration was found in the midseason packs for 1957-58 and
1958-59 than that which occurred in the late season packs.

Almost all of the samples collected during the 1958-59 and 1959-60 seasons
were very stable as is shown by the clarification and gelation data presented
in Table 3.



Florida Citri. 2.'periment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 h 9/21/60 MrM









-2-


Acknowledgments


The cooperation of the 23 companies, which supplied the 577 samples of
frozen orange concentrate examined for this study, was appreciated.

Thanks are extended to personnel of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Marketing
Service, Winter Haven, Florida, for their time, efforts and assistance in
obtaining samples from the concentrate plants.

The help and opinions of the taste panel made possible the evaluation of
the flavor of the frozen orange concentrates and their assistance is hereby
acknowledged. The members of the taste panel were M. D. Maraulja, R. W. Olsen,
Roger Patrick, R. W. Wolford, Anna Mae Swander, E. C. Hill, M. H. Dougherty,
R. W. Barron, S. V. Ting, R. R. McNary, S. K. Long, Louise Cherry and F. W.
Wenzel.
































Florida Citrus EThperiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 i 9/21/60 MDM












Table 1. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants

1957-58 1958-59 1959W-60
r-I
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs 1
Good 1 1 9 8 21 21
Fair 88 89 102 86 77 79
Poor 10 10 7 6 0 0
Totals 99 100 118 100 98 100

Late season packs 1
Good 22 23 57 72 44 49
Fair 68 73 22 28 45 51
Poor 4 4 0 0 0 0
Totals 94 100 79 100 89 100

Total packs for entire season
Good 23 12 66 33 65 35
Fair 156 81 124 63 122 65
Poor 14 7 7 4 0 0

Totals 193 100 197 100 187 100

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1
to February 15, inclusively, for the 1957-58 season; from December 1 to March
15, inclusively, for the 1958-59 season; and from December 15 to March 1,
inclusively for the 1959-60 season.
2
Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 193 samples for the 1957-58 season,
197 samples for the 1958-59 season, and 187 samples for the 1959-60 season.
The taste panel followed instructions as given on the following page. Each of
the reconstituted juices from the concentrates was tasted at 3 different times.
The data for the 1957-58 season are based on 3377 individual flavor grades;
for 1958-59 season on 3402 grades; and for the 1959-60 season on 4080 grades.


Florida Citrus Erperiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 9/21/60 FWW












INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices

Samples: Reconstituted commercial frozen 420 Brix orange
concentrates.


Directions:


(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do
not consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor 4-3
Very Poor 2
Unpalatable 1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.

(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indica-
ting that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.

Indicate flavor defects using only the following descrip-
tive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor
defect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then
indicate that it is nondescript.


Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor Oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


* Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
809 9/26/57 FWW









Table 2. Frequency distribution of flavor grades after storage for 96 hr.
at 40oF. for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected
from Florida processing plants

Flavor grade 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60
after 96 hr. Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
at 400F.2 samples samples samples samples samples samples

Midseason packs1
Good 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fair 59 60 68 58 90 92
Poor 40 40 50 42 8 8
Totals 99 100 118 100 98 100

Late season packs1
Good 1 1 2 3 0 0
Fair 80 85 73 92 77 86
Poor 13 14 4 5 12 14
Totals 94 100 79 100 89 100

Total packs for entire season
Good 1 1 2 1 0 0
Fair 139 71 141 72 167 89
Poor 53 28 54 27 20 11
Totals 193 100 197 100 187 100

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1 to
February 15, inclusively, for the 1957-58 season; from December 1 to March 15,
inclusively, for the 1958-59 season; and from December 15 to March 1, inclusively,
for the 1959-60 season.
2 Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 193 samples for the 1957-58 season,
197 samples for the 1958-59 season and 187 samples for the 1959-60 season.
The reconstituted juices from the concentrates were tasted by M. D. Maraulja,
F. W. Wenzel and R. W. Olsen.









Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 f 9/21/60 MDM










Table 3.
of samples at
orange juices


Comparison of frequency distribution tables for degree of clarification and gelation,after storage
400F. and 80oF., in samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
collected semi-monthly during the 1958-59 and 1959-60 citrus seasons


Degree of
clarification1


Season
Samples


None
Slight
Definite
Extreme


After 96 hr. at 400F.


Midseason
samples %


58-59
118


59-60
98


59-60
187


After 21: hr. at 800F.


T- Y


Late season
samples %


58-59
79


59-60
89


Total
eamj'les %


58-59
197


Midseason
samples %


58-59 59-60
118 98


Late season
samples %


58-59
79


59-60
89


- t --1f 4 1-


94.1
1.7
1.7
2.5


90.8
6.1
2.1
1.0


98.7
0.0
1.3
0.0


96.6
2.3
0.0
1.1


96.0
1.0
1.5
1.5


93.6
4.2
1.1
1.1


74.6
7.6
5.9
11.9


80.7
6.1
6.1
7.1


91.2
2.5
2.5
3.8


87.7
3.4
2.2
6.7


Degree of
gelation
0-None 80.5 57.2 74.7 60.7 78.2 58.8 61.9 59.2 68.3 71.9 64.5 65.2
1-Very slight 17.8 36.7 25.3 33.7 20.8 35.3 28.0 34.7 24.1 20.2 26.4 27.8
2-Slight 1.7 6.1 0.0 4.5 1.0 5.4 7.6 6.1 7.6 7.9 7.6 7.0
3-Semi-gel 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0
4-Solid gel 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmittance of centrifuged reconstituted jmice using Lumetron
402-E with 730 filter and 14 ml. cell. None = 0-59%; Slight = 60-69%; Definite = 7u-34%; and Extreme = 85-100%.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 g 9/21/60 MDM


________14


Total
samples %


58-59
197


81.2
5.6
4.6
8.6


59-60
187


84.0
4.8
4.3
6.9


1

















6


Table 4. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1958-59 and .1959-60 citrus seasons
Concentrates ____
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % samples %
Rd Season 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60
Samples 118 98 79 89 197 187


18.0-18.9 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 1.5 0.0
19.0-19.9 0.0 0.0 12.7 5.6 5.1 2.7
20.0-20.9 0.9 0.0 17.7 6.7 7.6 3.2
21.0-21.9 5.9 1.0 22.7 16,9 12.7 8.6
22.0-22.9 5.9 11.2 15.2 20.3 9.7 15.5
23.0-23.9 10.2 9.2 13.9 14.6 11.7 11.8
24.0-24.9 26.2 16.4 5.1 13.5 17.7 15.0
25.0-25.9 14.4 15.3 8.9 13.5 12.2 14.4
26.0-26.9 17.0 21.4 0.0 5.6 10.2 14.0
27.0-27.9 9.3 14.3 0.0 1.1 5.6 8.0
28.0-28.9 4.2 5.2 0.0 1.1 2.5 3.2
29.0-29.9 2.5 2.0 0.0 1.1 1.5 1.6
30.0-30.9 1.7 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.5
31.0-31.9 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5
32.0-32.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0
33.0-33.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
34.0-34.9 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5
35.0-35.9 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5

Reconstituted juices

19.0-19.9 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 1.5 0.0
20.0-20.9 0.8 0.0 11.4 3.4 5.1 1.6
21.0-21.9 2.5 0.0 21.5 15.8 10.2 7.5
22.0-22.9 10.2 6.1 41.7 18.0 22.8 11.7
23.0-23.9 25.5 17.4 8.9 22.5 18.8 19.8
24.0-24.9 28.9 20.4 11.4 24.7 21.8 22.5
25.0-25.9 20.3 24.5 1.3 11.2 12.7 18.2
26.0-26.9 11.0 21.4 0.0 2.2 6.6 12.3
27.0-27.9 0.8 10.2 0.0 1.1 0.5 5.9
28.0-28.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.5









Florida Citrus Eyoeriment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 a 9/21/60 MDM












Table 5. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "a" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1958-59 and 1959-60 citrus seasons
Concentrates _
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % samples %
a Season 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60
Samples 118 98 79 89 197 187
10.1-11.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 3.4 0.5 1.6
9.1-10.0 0.0 0.0 10.1 18.0 4.1 8.6
8.1- 9.0 0.9 0.0 29.1 39.3 12.2 18 7
7.1- 8.0 0.9 4.1 36.7 27.0 15.2 15.0
6.1- 7.0 1.7 12.2 19.0 10.1 8.6 11.2
5.1- 6.0 5.1 28.6 3.8 1.1 4.6 15,6
4.1- 5.0 18.7 34.7 0.0 1.1 11.2 18.7
3.1- 4.0 38.0 18.4 0.0 0.0 22.8 9.6
2.1- 3.0 32.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 19.3 0.5
1.1- 2.0 2.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.5


Reconstituted juices

0.0 to -0.9 0.0 0.0 6.3 0.0 2.5 0.0
-1.0 to -1.9 0.0 0.0 22.8 16.9 9.1 8.0
-2.0 to -2.9 0.8 0.0 38.0 42.7 15.7 20.3
-3.0 to -3.9 1.7 6.1 21.5 32.6 9.6 18.7
-4.0 to -4.9 10.2 38.8 10.1 6.7 10.2 23.5
-5.0 to -5.9 48.3 50.0 1.3 1.1 29.5 26.8
-6.0 to -6.9 37.3 5.1 0.0 0.0 22.4 2.7
Less than -6.9 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 b 9/21/60 MDM













Table 6. Comparison of frequency distribution tables of Hunter "b" values
for samples from midseason and late season packs of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected semi-monthly during the 1958-59 and 1959-60 citrus seasons
Concentrates
Hunter Color Midseason Late season Total
Difference Meter samples % samples % samples %
b Season 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60
Samples 118 98 79 89 197 187
More than 35.9 0.0 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 2
35.0-35.9 3.4 5.1 1.3 1.1 2.5 3z2
34.0-34.9 14.4 21.4 12.7 12.4 13.7 17 J
33.0-33.9 27.1 28.6 22.8 37.0 25,4 32,16
32.0-32.9 39.0 33.7 37.9 27.0 38.6 30n5
31.0-31.9 12.7 5.1 25.3 19.1 17.8 11 3
30.0-30.9 3.4 0.0 0.0 3.4 2.0 1.6

Reconstituted juices

32.0-32.9 0.0 2.0 1.3 0.,0 0.5 1,1
31.0-31.9 0.0 7.1 20.3 28.1 8.1 17,1
30.0-30.9 5.9 20.4 46.8 39,3 22.3 29.4-
29.0-29.9 29.7 45.0 25.3 27.0 28.0 36,4
28.0-28.9 49.1 23.5 6.3 5.6 32.0 14.9
27.0-27.9 13.6 2.0 0.0 0..0 8.1 1 1
26.0-26.9 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Ocmmission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 c 9/21/60 MDM









Table 7. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants

Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates

1957-58 season 193 samples 1958-59 season 197 samples 1959-60 coason 187 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 4 25.7 2.5 32.1 2 24.1 3.3 31.3 -
12/15 15 25.8 3.5 32.8 13 24.7 3.7 32.4 12 26.4 5.5 35.6
1/1 17 25.0 2.9 32.6 17 25.6 3.1 32.7 17 25.8 4.7 33.5
1/15 22 23.9 3.4 32.2 22 25.8 3.3 33.0 23 25.6 4.7 33.3
2/1 22 24.2 3.7 32.2 23 25.9 3.2 33.0 22 25.8 4.5 33.1
2/15 19 24.2 3.3 32.4 21 24.6 3.8 32.5 16 25.6 5.3 33.1
3/1 8 23.2 4.6 31.7 15 25.2 4.6 33.4 8 25.9 6.0 32.9
3/15 11 23.1 4.8 32.3 5 24.4 4.9 33.6 3 25.0 7.5 32.9
4/1 14 22.8 5.7 32.2 6 22.2 7.8 33.3 7 23.7 8.0 32.8
4/15 17 22.5 5.8 32.0 15 21.8 6.8 32.5 19 24.0 7.7 32.9
5/1 19 21.8 7.0 31.6 22 21.7 7.9 32.8 23 22.7 8.5 32.4
5/15 16 21.1 6.8 31.1 22 21.8 8.0 32.5 21 23.0 8.3 33.2
6/1 9 21.0 6.4 31.2 14 22.1 8.5 32.8 16 22.9 8.6 33.2

1
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 d 9/21/60 MDM







Table 8. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1


Hunter Color Difference Meter average


values for reconstituted juices


1957-58 season 193 samples 1958-59 season 197 samples 1959-60 season 187 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples

12/1 4 24.3 -5.9 27.8 2 24.2 -5.5 28.0 .
12/15 15 23.9 -5.7 28.2 13 23.7 -5.5 28.1 12 25.3 -4.5 31.2
1/1 17 23.6 -6.0 28.2 17 24.8 -5.8 28.7 17 25.2 -5.1 29.5
1/15 22 23.3 -5.9 28.3 22 24.5 -6.0 28.7 23 25.0 -5.2 29.4
2/1 22 23.6 -5.7 28.4 23 24.6 -6.0 28.6 22 25.1 -5.2 29.1
2/15 19 23.8 -5.9 28.8 21 23.8 -5.6 28.5 16 24.8 -5.0 29.4
3/1 8 23.3 -5.5 29.0 15 24.4 -5.3 29.3 8 25.6 -4,.6 29.5
3/15 11 23.2 -4.5 29.4 5 24.5 -4.8 30.1 3 25.0 -3.7 30.0
4/1 14 23.1 -3.9 29.8 6 22.9 -2.6 31.0 7 23.8 -2.7 30.4
4/15 17 22.5 -4.0 29.4 15 21.5 -4.0 29.7 19 24.1 -2.9 30.5
5/1 19 21.4 -2.8 29.0 22 22.3 -1.5 30.6 23 23.1 -2.5 30.2
5/15 16 21.2 -3.0 28.7 22 22.5 -2.6 30.4 21 23.2 -2.9 30.6
6/1 9 21.1 -3.4 28.4 14 22.0 -2.5 29.9 16 23.1 -2.7 30.4

1
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
990 e 9/21/60 MDM


_ ___._