Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Herbicide effects on pearl millet in relation to weed control and crop damage
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066121/00001
 Material Information
Title: Herbicide effects on pearl millet in relation to weed control and crop damage
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 17 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pudelko, J. A
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Pearl millet -- Research   ( lcsh )
Weeds -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 9-10).
Statement of Responsibility: J. A. Pudelko, D. L. Wright, I. D. Teare.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066121
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71174317

Full Text


I=~3~i~


9Y--5;


HERBICIDE EFFECTS ON PEARL MILLET IN RELATION TO
WEED CONTROL AND CROP DAMAGE


J.A. Pudelko, D.L. Wright, I.D. Teare*









Marston Science
Library
SEP 15 1994

University of Florida


















J.A. Pudelko; Agric. Univ. Inst.of Soil Cult. and Plant
Prod.,Mazowiecka 45/46, 60-623 Poznan', Poland:
D.L. Wright, I.D. Teare; North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr. Quincy,
FL 32351 (Dept of Agronomy, Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ. of
Florida, FL 32611). *Corresponding author.


Quincy NFREC Research Report 94-5









ABSTRACT

Pearl Millet [Pennisetum qlaucum (L.)] is a potentially-

productive, high-quality grain or silage crop. The objective of

the 1993 study was to characterize the effects of various

herbicides on pearl millet injury over time on grain and silage

yield in relation to herbicide concentration, tillage system, and

weed control. This research was conducted on a Norfolk sandy loam

located on the North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy FL with

HGM-100 (W.W. Hanna, Tifton, GA) pearl millet hybrid. Herbicide

control for grass and broadleaf type weeds were similar between no-

till and till systems. Pearl millet injury in relation to

herbicide treatment and three dates after treatment are shown. The

three herbicide combinations that gave the lowest grain yields were

Dual with either 2,4-D or Atrazine. Atrazine (alone) and Prowl

treatments resulted in higher grain yields. The interaction of

number of heads/A and head length with herbicide treatment are

shown. Dual and 2,4-D; Ramrod; Dual and Atrazine; Ramrod and

Atrazine increased head length in till and no-till systems. The

Prowl and Atrazine treatment increased head length in the till

system only. Silage yield was affected by herbicide treatments

more than plant height.

INTRODUCTION

Pearl millet is a potentially-productive high-quality grain or

silage crop (Burton et al.,1986 and Kumar et al., 1983). It is

grown under low-input management conditions (noncrusting sandy

soils) with little fertilizer and limited water (Payne et al.,









1990).

Timing, intensity and duration of water stress accounted for

70 to 85 % of the variation in pearl millet grain yields within and

across years (Mahalakshmi et al., 1988). Critical growth stages

receiving water stress were flowering and grain filling.

Two preplant herbicides, Pursuit and Accent, were reported to

reduce grain yield of pearl millet (HGM-100) 60 and 100 percent,

respectively, compared to the handweeded check (Wright et al.,

1993), but the specific effects of herbicide stress on pearl millet

have only been reported in relation to head length (Pedulko, et

al.,1993).

The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of

various herbicides on pearl millet injury over time and on both

grain and silage yield in relation to concentration, tillage

systems, pearl millet injury, and weed control (grass and

broadleaves).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted in 1993 on a Norfolk sandy loam (fine,

loamy siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudult) located on the North

Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. The soil

has a compacted layer located 8 to 14 inches below the surface.

The pearl millet hybrid used in this series of experiments was

HGM-100, developed as a grain pearl millet by W.W. Hanna (1991),

Tifton, Georgia. Pearl millet seed was no-till planted in a weed

fallow field with a Brown Ro-Til implement with KMC planters.

A herbicide study on pearl millet was conducted on a field









where weeds had not been controlled for a year. The field was very

weedy (crab grass, Texas panicum, purple nutsedge, sicklepod,

morning glory, pigweed, cocklebur). Before it was planted, the

field was mowed and divided into two equal parts. One part for

conventional tillage-planting and the other for no-tillage-

planting. The conventional part was subsoiled at 12 inch depth on

12 May and S-tine harrowed 2 June. The no-till part was sprayed

with Gramoxone on 2 June at the rate of 3.0 pt/A primarily for

nutsedge control.

Cultural practices common to both tillage systems were: 1. the

application of 500 lb/A of 5-10-15 fertilizer 21 June, 2. pearl

millet seed treatment with Concep to "safen" herbicide application

(particularly Dual), 3. planting on 23 June followed by irrigation

with 3/4 inch of water on the day of planting, 4. seeding rate of

4 lb/A in plots 12 feet by 25 feet in 36" rows (plant density of

166,000 plants per acre), 4. band application of 80 lb ammonium

nitrate/A two inches to the side of row on 21 July, 5. spraying

with Lannate for control of corn earworm on 8 July, and 6. all

plots were sprayed with 2,4-D for broadleaf weed control on 16

July.

Pre-emerge herbicide treatments (1-17) were applied on 25 June

in 17 different herbicide combinations (Dual, Ramrod, Prowl,

Atrazine, and 2,4,-D) (Table 1). Two postemergence treatments

(21,22) of prowl were applied on 3 July following pre-emerge

applications of Atrazine, Ramrod and Prowl on 25 June in the no-

till system only. One hand weeded treatment (18) and two









treatments without weed control (19, 20) completed the 22

treatments used in this study (Table 1).

Herbicide injury on pearl millet for treatments 1-20 was

estimated by eye as percent (%) injury on 12, 21 July and 2 Aug.

Percent broadleaf control was estimated on 2 July and percent

grass control was estimated on 21 July. Plant height, head length,

and number of heads per acre were measured in the late dough stage.

Bird damage to pearl millet grain during the soft dough stage

made it necessary to predict grain yield by regression analysis

from head lengths as reported by Pudelko et al., 1993.

and reported in bu/A. Fresh silage yields were harvested with a

tractor pulled silage harvester 12 Sept and reported in tons/A

(weight of fresh silage).

The experiment was a split plot design with tillage systems as

whole plots and herbicide treatments as sub-plots. All treatments

were replicated four times. Results were subjected to analysis of

variance and means were separated using Fishers Least Significant

Difference Test at the 5 % level of probability.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

When herbicide treatments are ordered on the x axis in

relation to a response on the y axis with the highest response to

the right and the lowest response at the left, then severity of

herbicide treatment and interactions can be observed by the reader.

Percent weed control for grass and broadleaf weed types were

not significantly different between no-till and till systems (Fig.

1). LSD's for percent pearl millet injury are shown in subfigures









of Fig. 1 for each weed type and tillage system. There was a 40%

difference in control of weedy grasses and broadleaves between the

checks with no weed control (19 and 20) and the check that was hand

weeded. Treatments 9,8,7,5,6 gave the poorest control of

broadleaves and treatments 2 and 1 gave the poorest control of

grasses. Herbicide treatments and their numerical codes are shown

in Table 1.

Wright et al. (1993) reported herbicide injury to pearl millet

by Dual and Ramrod in 1992. In 1993, herbicide treatments were

expanded to 20 in no-till and 22 in the till systems (Table 1).

Percent injury to pearl millet is shown in Fig. 2. LSD's for

percent pearl millet injury are shown in subfigures of each

date/tillage combination. No-till treatments were not different

from till treatments at the 0.05% level of significance. Percent

injury decreased slowly with time.

Grain yield:

Predicted grain yield is shown in relation to herbicide

treatment in Fig. 3 The three lowest grain yielding treatments

were Dual +2,4-D or Atrazine combinations. Atrazine and Prowl

treatments were in the higher grain yields with the checks. Two

treatments that changed positions radically in the till compared to

the no-till were treatment 9 (Table 1) [Atrazine (1.5 lb) + oil (1

pt)] and treatment 4 (Table 1) [Ramrod (4.5 qt) + 2,4-D (0.5 lb)].

Components of grain yield:

Yield/one head is shown at the top of Fig. 4 for no-till and

till. It appears to be more like head length than like number of









heads/A (note the interaction of treatments 9 and 4. Number of

heads/A appears to be more affected by herbicide treatments than

either yield/one head or head length. The interaction of number of

heads/A and head length with herbicide treatments are shown in Fig.

5.

Length of heads:

In the till system (Fig. 4), seed head lengths were

significantly longer (P = 0.05) with Dual and 2,4-D treatment (trt)

at the two lower rates (trt 6 and 7), Ramrod and 2,4-D (trt 8 and

9), Dual and Atrazine (trt 12 and 13), Ramrod and Atrazine at the

lower rates (trt 13), Prowl and Atrazine (trt 17) than no herbicide

application trt (18, 19, 20). In the no-till system (Fig. 4) seed

head lengths were significantly (P = 0.05) longer for Dual and 2,4-

D at all rates (trt 5, 6, and 7), Ramrod at all rates (trt 8 and

9), Dual and Atrazine (trt 13 and 14), and Ramrod and Atrazine (trt

15) than no herbicide application in the no-till system. With the

exception of trt 14 (Ramrod @ 4 qt/A and Atrazine with oil @ 1

lb/A), Dual and Ramrod increased head lengths and reduced number

of heads/A.

The two post emergence treatments of Ramrod and Atrazine (trt

21) and Prowl and Atrazine (trt 22) had no effect on pearl millet

head length (P = 0.05).Silage Yield:

Silage yield and plant height:

Wright et al. (1994) reported that plant height was not

related to fresh silage yield and suggested that stalk diameter and

leaf area index may be better predictors of fresh silage yield. We









found that herbicides did affect silage yield and to a lesser

extent plant height. Treatments 7,13,6,5, and 12 were always in

the lowest treatments for silage yield and plant height.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Herbicide control for grass and broadleaf types were similar

between no-till and till systems.

2. Percent injury curves in relation to herbicide treatment and

three dates after treatment are shown.

3. The herbicide treatments that gave the lowest grain yields

were Dual with either 2,4-D or Atrazine. The Atrazine and

Prowl treatments resulted in higher grain yields.

4. The interaction of number of heads/A and head length with

herbicide treatment are shown.

5. Tillage systems had no significant effect on head length.

6. Dual and 2,4-D; Ramrod; Dual and Atrazine; Ramrod and Atrazine

increased head length in till and no-till systems. The Prowl

and Atrazine treatment increased head length in the till

system only.

7. Post emergence treatments of Ramrod and Atrazine and Prowl and

Atrazine had no effect on head length (P = 0.05).

8. Silage yield was affected by herbicide treatments more than

plant height.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our thanks to E. Brown Agricultural Technician IV; North Fla.

Res. and Educ. Ctr. Univ. of Fla., Quincy, FL; for plot

preparation and management, data collection, computer processing,









and data illustration.


REFERENCES

Burton, G.W., A.T.Primo, and R.S. Lowrey. 1986. Effect of

clipping frequency and maturity on the yield and quality of

four pearl millet. Crop Sci. 26:79-81.

Hanna, W.W. 1991. Pearl millet-a potentially new crop for the

U.S. In Abstr. of Tech. Papers, No. 18, Southern Branch ASA,

2-6 Feb 1991, Ft. Worth, TX.

Kumar, K.A., S.C. Gupta, and D.J. Andrews. 1983. Relationship

between nutritional quality characters and grain yield in

pearl millet. Crop Sci. 23:232-234.

Mahalakshmi, V., F.R. Bidinger, and G.D.P. Rao. 1988. Timing and

intensity of water deficits during flowering and grain-filling

in pearl millet. Agron. J. 80:130-135.

Payne, W.A., C.W. Wendt, and R. J. Lascano. 1990. Root zone water

balance of three low-input millet fields in Niger, West

Africa. Agron. J. 82:813-819.

Pudelko, J.A., D.L. Wright, and I.D. Teare. 1993. A method for

salvaging bird damaged pearl millet research. Fla.

Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. No. NF 93-12:1-11.

Wright, D.L., I.D. Teare, F.M. Rhoads, and R.K. Sprenkel. 1993.

Pearl millet production in a no-tillage system. p. 152-159.

In P. Bollich (Ed.) 1993 Southern Cons. Tillage Conf. for

Sustainable Agric. June 15-17, Monroe, LA. SB 93-1.









Wright, D.L., J.A. Pudelko, and I.D. Teare. 1994. Population

density of pearl millet in relation to yield and yield

components. Fla. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. No. NF-94-5:1-16.











Table 1. Pearl millet mean head length (inches) in relation to herbicide treatments on Till and No-Till system (1993).


Till System
Head Length'


No-Till System
Head Length'


Atrazine without oil
Atrazine without oil
Atrazine with oil
Atrazine with oil
Dual + 2,4 D
Dual + 2,4 D
Dual + 2,4 D
Ramrod (42%) + 2,4 D
Ramrod (42%) + 2,4 D
Prowl + 2,4 D
Prowl + 2,4 D
Dual + Atrazine with oil
Dual + Atrazine with oil
Ramrod + Atrazine with oil
Ramrod + Atrazine with oil
Prowl + Atrazine with oil
Prowl + Atrazine with oil
Check hand weed control
Check without weed control
Check without weed control


1.5 lbs
2.0 pt
1.0 lb + 1 qt
1.5 lbs + 1 pt
1.0 pt + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
1.5 pts + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
2.0 pts + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
3.0 qt + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
4.5 qt + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
1.0 pt + 0.5 lb (a.i.)
1.5 + 0.5 Ib (a.i.)
1.0 pt + 1.0 lb
1.5 pt + 1.0 lb
3.0 qt + 1.0'lb
4.5 qt + 1.0 lb
1.0 pt+ 1.0lb
1.5 pt + 1.0 Ib


Mean' 0.971 z 0.968 z


21. On till only;postemerge Prowl (1.0 Ib) following
preemerge Ramrod + Atrazine
with oil (4.5 qt + 1.0 Ib) 0.895 GHI


22. On till only;postemerge Prowl (1.0 lb) following
preemerge Prowl + Atrazine
with oil 1.0 pt + 1.0 lb 0.898 GHI



Mean values in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of significance.

2 Mean values in row followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of significance.


Treatment


Rate per A


FGHI
FGH
HI
HI


EFG
CDE
CD


0.918
0.930
0.870
0.870
1.072
1.070
0.948
1.010
1.017
0.910
0.880
1.253
1.058
1.102
0.948
0.918
0.975
0.858
0.900
0.908


0.875
0.900
0.878
0.945
1.100
1.120
1.085
0.990
1.005
0.882
0.938
1.075
1.173
0.888
1.058
0.865
0.900
0.889
0.897
0.905


DE
CDE
FG
EFG
BC

FG
BCD


EFG
FGHI
DEF














a


00
--
a
D i D (')
0 n 0 -

o 9 o S -
0 0. D **-,




(DD
_" a_ a =
E o "" E 0
o- a-

*- O
-- 0 -- -4



0 -,


o C- 0-


o o o -o

L-a -o a



I o




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04J

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o f o Nt 4










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S0 0


















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-












N~Q


0 o) co t. Ce
" (Iz A1nr) IOJilUOo eBJ9 %


0 Oc CO
"'(L Ajnr) IO4uo3 aleelpojg %












I/-re .14


No-Till


100

LSD 7.4




so-
eO"


. . .


20 18 T1 1 2 10 17 3 1 4 14 9 12 6 16 7 6 13


20 19 M M 1 2 11 17 3 4 8 9 14 16 6 12 6 7 U


20 9 1$8 1 14 2 1 17 10 3 4 14 I9 16 6 12 0 7 13


IOU

LSO 7.4
o0 -


60


40


20



20 T 1 11 4 2 17 O1 3 4 14 9 16 6 12 6 13 7
Herbicide Treatment


00

LSO 7.1
so -


60


40 0-



20 -



20 1 1.8 11 1 1 2 3 4 17 8 9 14 1 6 7 123 U
Herbicide Treatment


Figure 2. Percent (%) herbicide (applied preemerge 25 June) injury to pearl millet in
relation to evaluation dates, herbicide and tillage treatments 91993). LSD for
pearl millet injury due to herbicide treatment for date after treatment and
tillage combination.


a

-I


0










100



&0
N
11

60-



40

C
ri 20














No-Till

70

0 60 -

60-

40 -
.E Z -^ LSD 6.2
> 30
20-

10 --

0

7 13 8 9 12 6 14 8 16 18 3 17 1 19 20 18 2 10 4 11
Herbicide Treatment








Till

70

S80-

-0 50 -

S40 -
r LSD 5.4
30

S20-

S10

0
12 7 6 13 4 6 16 20 18 3 19 11 17 14 2 18 1 10 8 9
Herbicide Treatment




















Figure 3. Pearl millet harvested grain yield and predicted grain yield in relation to
herbicide and tillage treatments (1993).




















No-Till


ILU4

e 0.036 -
LSO 0.014
0 ~----


0.026
o
0.02

S0.016

0. 0.01
-2
; 0.0068
>-


S3 1 0 1 1 17 2 20 4 4 11 8 9 6 7 16 12 13
Herbicide Treatment


No-Till


12
U
S


0.04

0.036
LSO 0.0046
0.03 -

0.026 -

0.02---


. 0019


S0.0 1

* 0.006

4 $8 3 11 20 19 10 1 16 2 1 7 17 8 9 12 6 8 13 14









Till


7 13 a 12 9 5 6 8 14 17 1M 20 4 2 0 18 3 1 11 10
Herbicide Treatment


12 8 13 7 6 16 9 17 8 14 4 20 1 18 2 16 3 11 1 10
Herbicide Treatment


No-Till


Herbicide Treatment


16-

14

11





10-



18 3 4 11 1 20 10 1 $1 2 7 1 17 8 9 13 8 6 14 12
Herbicide Treatment


Components of pearl millet grain yield (yield/head, no. heads/A, length of head)
in relation to herbicide and tillage treatments (1993).


-
i
4


Figure 4.


U 0.016




















Till # No. Heads


- *.






0 D

0_ 00 00 0

0 0 00
lO [] [] l i l f i l


12 6 13 7


5 15 9 17 8 14 4 20 19 18 2 16 3 11


1 10


No-Till 4 No. Heads


0 Head Length


- ,. .



4
0



D !
0 0 0

SDO D 0 D D 0 0


I I I I I


7 13 6 12 9 5 15 8 14 17 16 20 4 2 19 18 3 1 11 10


Herbicide Treatment


Non-Stress


Figure 5. Herbicide stress indicated by number of heads/A in relation
treatment and length (inches) of till and no-till systems.


to herbicide


140

120

100

80

60-

40-


- 18


U)
10


8 0
CZ


180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20


20


-18


-16


-14


-12


-10


8
0


Stress


0 Head Length























































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