Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Planting date of pearl millet in relation to yield and yield components
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066120/00001
 Material Information
Title: Planting date of pearl millet in relation to yield and yield components
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 14 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pudelko, J. A
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Pearl millet   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical reference (leaves 6-7).
Statement of Responsibility: J.A. Pudelko, D.L. Wright, and I.D. Teare.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71174219

Full Text




PLANTING DATE OF PEARL MILLET IN RELATION tOn Science
* ^ \ Mtrston Science
S/ YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS Library

SEP 2 6 199

J.A. Pudelko, D.L. Wright, and I.D. TeajerSy Fl


ABSTRACT

Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.)] is a potentially-

productive, high-quality grain or silage crop with a panicle grain

head whose head length is highly correlated with grain yield. Our

objective was to relate pearl millet head length with three induced

stressors: 1. date of planting/soil water stress, 2. herbicide

stress, and 3. plant density stress (row width/seeding rate).

This research was conducted on a Norfolk sandy loam located on the

North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy FL with HGM-100 (W.W.

Hanna, Tifton, GA) pearl millet hybrid. Head lengths for 5 May, 15

May, and 15 June plantings accurately predicted grain head yields,

but 15 July planting produced less seed and smaller seeds

(weight/1000 seeds) with moderately long heads. Tillage systems

(no-till and till) had no significant effect on head length.

Preplant applications of Dual with 2,4-D or Atrazine, Ramrod alone

or with Atrazine significantly (P = 0.05) increased head length in

till and no-till treatment. Prowl and Atrazine increased head


J.A. Pudelko; Agric. Univ. Inst.of Soil Cult. and Plant
Prod.,Mazowiecka 45/46, 60-623 Poznan', Poland:
D.L. Wright, I.D. Teare; North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr. Quincy,
FL 32351 (Dept of Agronomy, Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ. of
Florida, FL 32611) Florida Agric Exp. Stn. NF9_4_-4.
*Corresponding author.








length in till treatment only. The mean head length across row

widths for the 6 lb/A seeding rate was significantly shorter than

the 2 and 4 lb/A seeding rate. The mean head length across seeding

rates for the 5 inch row width was significantly greater than the

15 and 30 inch row width.

INTRODUCTION

Pearl millet is a potentially-productive high-quality grain or

silage crop (Burton et al.,1986 and Kumar et al., 1983). It is

grown under low-input management conditions (noncrusting sandy

soils) with little fertilizer and limited water (Payne et al.,

1990).

Hattendorf et al. (1988) report that pearl millet had the

greatest daily water use rate of all the crops studied. This and

the knowledge that pearl millet also had the greatest leaf area

index for the same crops suggest that pearl millet has the capacity

for deep rootedness, a greater number of roots and/or the attribute

for increased rooting density (Davis-Carter, 1989). Timing,

intensity and duration of water stress accounted for 70 to 85 % of

the variation in pearl millet grain yields within and across years

(Mahalakshmi et al., 1985, 1987, and 1988). Critical growth stages

receiving water stress were flowering and grain filling.

Two preplant herbicides, Pursuit and Accent, were reported to

reduce grain yield of pearl millet (HGM-100) 60 and 100 percent of

the handweeded check (Wright et al., 1993), but the effect of

herbicide stress has not been reported in relation to head length

measurements.








The objective of this study was to relate pearl millet induced
* stress by date of planting/soil water stress, herbicide stress, and

plant density stress (row width/seedling rate) to head length which

has been used for predicting pearl millet head yields (Pudelko et

al., 1993).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

These studies were conducted in 1993 on a Norfolk sandy loam

(fine, loamy siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudult) located on the

North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. The

soil has a compacted layer located 8 to 14 inches below the

surface.

The pearl millet hybrid used in this series of experiments was

HGM-100, developed as a grain pearl millet by W.W. Hanna (1991),

S Tifton, Georgia. Pearl millet seed was no-till planted in a weed

fallow field with a Brown Ro-Til implement with KMC planters.


Date of Planting/Soil Water Differences

The pearl millet date of planting study was a split plot

design with planting dates as whole plots and components of yield

selected within each whole plot as sub-plots (six replications).

Planting dates, stages of development, and date of irrigation are

shown in Table 1. Plots were eight rows wide (rows were 36 inches

apart) and 30 feet long. Seed of pearl millet were planted 3/4"

deep at 4 lbs/A (302 667 seeds/A). This resulted in approximately

166 467 plants/A, or 55 % emergence.

Fertilizer (5-10-15 at 500 lbs/A) was applied three days








before planting. Nitrogen was sidedressed to the side of the row

at 120 lbs/Arat boot stage. Prowl @ 1 qt/A + Atrazine @ 2 qt/A was

used for weed control (Wright et al.,1993). Prowl and Atrazine

were applied between stage 1 and 2 (10 to 15 days after planting

when pearl millet was 3 to 5 inches tall).

Twenty pearl millet heads were carefully selected at random

for each replication after black layer formation with concomitant

measurements of grain yields, head lengths, and counts of heads per

length of row harvested. Pearl millet heads were dried in a

greenhouse, and threshed with a clover threshing machine that

required 20 pearl millet heads per sample for the threshing

operation. Pearl millet heads were measured from top to bottom of

panicle (Pedulko et al., 1993).

Little rainfall occurred throughout the early growing season

for this experiment. One half inch applications of irrigation were

scheduled in response to paucity of rainfall. Rainfall events and

amounts are shown in Fig. 1.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Four pearl millet planting dates are shown in Fig. 1 in

relation to maturity dates and rainfall/irrigation events in

relation to time. Note the lack of rainfall throughout the season.

Total water available from planting to maturity for each planting

date (PD) was: PD1 = 16.4 inches, PD2 = 19.1 inches, PD3 = 18.7

inches, and PD4 = 18.2 inches (Table 1). Physiological stage of

development for each planting date is shown in relation to calendar

date and day of year.








Pearl millet head lengths are shown for each planting date
* (Fig. 2) (columns topped with the same letter are not significant

at the 5 % level of significance). Head lengths for 5 May, 17 May,

and 15 June plantings accurately predicted grain head yields P <

0.001) by the equation: Y = 6.98 + 191.22 X (Pedulko et al., 1993).

However, the 15 July planting date produced very little seed. The

average number of seeds per 20 non-bird damaged heads was only 105.

This may have been related to environmental changes, i.e. reduced

length of day, or paucity of pollinators. Bumble bees which were

the primary pollinators for the first three planting dates were

essentially absent during flowering of PD4. It probably wasn't

lack of available water (18.2 inches) compared to 16.4 inches for

PD1. Contrary to Mahalakshmi et al. (1988), we found differences

S in seed size (weight/1000 seed) (Fig. 3). Seed size in relation to

planting date gives an indication that environment had something to

do with grain yield. One would expect that the 15 July planting

date with only 105 seeds per 20 heads should have large seeds like

PD2 or at least seeds the same size as PD1 and PD3. Figures 1 and

2 indicate that grain yield (predicted by head length) and seed

size (seed weight/1000 seed) are increased by increased water (19.1

inches for PD2, Table 1) (Mahalakshmi et al., 1987 and 1988).

Thus, PD2 (17 May) may be the optimum planting time during the

pearl millet growing season.

CONCLUSIONS
1. Head lengths for 5 May, 17 May, 15 May, and 15 June plantings

accurately predicted pearl millet grain head yields (P = 0.05)









with equation Y = 6.98 + 191.22 X.

S 2. Fifteen July planting date produced very little seed and the

seed was small although head lengths averaged over 30 cm long.







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our thanks to E. Brown Agricultural Technician IV; North Fla.

Res. and Educ. Ctr. Univ. of Fla., Quincy, FL; for plot

preparation and management, data collection, computer processing,

and data illustration.



REFERENCES
S Burton, G.W., A.T.Primo, and R.S. Lowrey. 1986. Effect of

clipping frequency and maturity on the yield and quality of

four pearl millets. Crop Sci. 26:79-81.

Davis-Carter, J.G. 1989. Influence of spatial variability of soil

physical and chemical properties on the rooting patterns of

pearl millet and sorghum. Ph.D. diss. Texas A&M University,

College Station.

Hattendorf, M.J., M.S. Dedelfs, B. Amos, L.R. Stone, and R.E.

Given, Jr. 1988. Comparative water use characteristics of

six row crops. Agron. J. 80:80-85.

Hanna, W.W. 1991. Pearl millet-a potentially new crop for the

U.S. In Abstracts of Technical Papers, No. 18, Southern

Branch ASA, 2-6 Feb 1991, Ft. Worth, TX.









Kumar, K.A., S.C. Gupta, and D.J. Andrews. 1983. Relationship

between nutritional quality characters and grain yield in

pearl millet. Crop Sci. 23:232-234.

Mahalakshmi, V., and F.R. Bidinger. 1985. Water stress and time of

floral initiation in pearl millet. J. Agric. Sci.105:437-445.



Mahalakshmi, V., and F., and D.S. Raju. 1987. Effect of timing of

water deficit on pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum). Field

Crop Res. 15:327-339.

Mahalakshmi, V., F.R. Bidinger, and G.D.P. Rao. 1988. Timing and

intensity of water deficits during flowering and grain-filling

in pearl millet. Agron. J. 80:130-135.

Payne, W.A., C.W. Wendt, and R. J. Lascano. 1990. Root zone water

balance of three low-input millet fields in Niger, West

Africa. Agron. J. 82:813-819.

Pudelko, J.A., D.L. Wright, and I.D. Teare. 1993. A method for

salvaging bird damaged pearl millet research. Fla.

Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. No. NF 93-12:1-11.

Wright, D.L., I.D. Teare, F.M. Rhoads, and R.K. Sprenkel. 1993.

Pearl millet production in a no-tillage system. p. 152-159.

In P. Bollich (Ed.) 1993 Southern Conservation Tillage

Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. June 15-17, Monroe,

LA. SB 93-1.











Figure 1.





Figure 2.





Figure 3.







Figure 4.


LEGEND

Rainfall during the 1993 pearl millet growing season for

four planting dates in relation to rainfall amounts and

dates of events.

Pearl millet head lengths in relation to date of

planting. Columns topped by the same letter are not

different at the 5 % level of significance.

Pearl millet seed size (weight of 1000 seeds) in

relation to date of planting. Columns topped by the

same letter are not significantly different at the 5 %

level of significance.

Herbicide stress indicated by number of heads/A in

relation to herbicide treatment and length (inches) of

till and no-till systems.





gs e









a.
44 4 E. ; I













s .
000 30
I ; 5-?
o -. -T25'

o. ? g g*

o









m a
-o e
0 3 s 0

~" 5 S -



0. o



?* S o

O xi


s ^?
CC

I-C
o 00_


'-C
-V
4k


0 \0 0


N0 0


0 C) C0
C r r


- 0 -j -J tA J, I 0 0
<< *-< *^<-

80| w 0, a,. %A 0 L A ;. w w hw o
w IOO O Cs 0 L 4 Q 0- L 0


- 0 00 0 Ln





> >




Co 10I" I _I


\0 I
^~~~ ~~ | 4 U L


N5.3 N5 t 5 3 i3 t5





- a. -i t.>N- o Q S-


+


.8, w 0 j 0 v

gCg g gC 'o -


-z -4 0z 0% 0% Z 4^ 4:r t7 z;

w to O L % -0 -4 -I


3 N i3 N s N 3


0 cs_ 0 L^

0 QJ C000<00


00 INJ N N N-
% .LA 0, D N 0004
-. 0%'0-4 IA A U


~I I


000 0. < -




O 00%-."" t- '-W N "



- 1- | C



16


-q %D 00 -^0% J w tf -V -V






)P: 00 o m 0 0000
. .,0 C) -C-o3 3 o < d -="o &'5 2
- C* *. . 'C 0



- ^2~~ 1 .
00 00 0
t3 00 m:3 ;
00

2: C)
-- ;50 aIV
G; ~ .n


u*'



S O
o

?*?
r, s


ul<

'-'C
-5



o00
r-


Cl



,<











0
=g
Ro













CO



- .
-S



5.



i'0
? u
*^s


o,
I~ efl
--















ct CE tt
L L- L- L-
C --







1,~t ~t.~~ 1 11,11,11, t1 111,111sn


136 151 166 181 196 211

Day of Year


Figure 1.


226 241 256


Rainfall during the 1993 pearl millet growing season for

four planting dates in relation to rainfall amounts and

dates of events.


4



3



02
Cr


r-1
rr-











40


E
Co
30

4-

-020



S10


0


Figure 2.


May 5 May 17 June 15 July 15
Date of Planting

Pearl millet head lengths in relation to date of

planting. Columns topped by the same letter are not

different at the 5 % level of significance.




























13



















6 ---


3 ---


May 5
May 5


Figure 3.


May 17 June 15 July 15
Date of Planting


Pearl millet seed size (weight of 1000 seeds) in

relation to date of planting. Columns topped by the

same letter are not significantly different at the 5 %

level of significance.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs