Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Population density of pearl millet in relation to yield and yield components
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 Material Information
Title: Population density of pearl millet in relation to yield and yield components
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 16 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wright, D. L ( David L )
Pudelko, J. A
Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Pearl millet -- Density -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: D. L. Wright, J. A. Pudelko, and I. D. Teare.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066119
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71174126

Full Text





S9 POPULATION DENSITY OF PEARL MILLET IN ELATION TO

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS Marston Science
Library
JUL 121994
D.L. Wright, J.A. Pudelko, and I.D. Teare*

University of Florida
ABSTRACT

Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.)] is a potentially-
productive, high-quality grain or silage crop with a panicle grain

head whose head length is highly correlated with grain yield. Our

objective was to relate population density (row width/seeding rate)

to yield and yield components of pearl millet. This research was

conducted on a Norfolk sandy loam located on the North Florida Res.

and Educ. Ctr., Quincy FL with HGM-100 (W.W. Hanna, Tifton, GA)

* pearl millet hybrid. The five inch row spacing produced less
lodging at the 2 lb seeding rate and increased with each increment
of seeding rate. Highest grain yields and number of heads/A were

obtained at the five inch row spacing with four and six lb seeding

rate. Head lengths of only the 15 inch row spacing/6 lb seeding

rate and 30 inch row spacing/6 lb seeding rate were significantly

shorter than the other treatments. The five inch row spacing

produced the greatest tonnage (approx. 23 ton/A) at all planting

rates. Plant height was not related to fresh silage yield.

J.A. Pudelko; Agric. Univ. Inst.of Soil Cult. and Plant
Prod.,Mazowiecka 45/46, 60-623 Poznan', Poland: D.L. Wright, I.D.
Teare; North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr. Quincy, FL 32351 (Dept of
Agronomy, Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ. of Florida, FL
32611) Florida Agric Exp. Stn. NF-94-3. *Corresponding author.









INTRODUCTION

Pearl millet is a potentially-productive high-quality grain or

silage crop (Burton et al.,1986 and Kumar et al., 1983). It is

grown under low-input management conditions (noncrusting sandy

soils) with little fertilizer and limited water (Payne et al.,

1990).

Hattendorf et al. (1988) report that pearl millet had the

greatest leaf area index and daily water use rate of all the crops

studied (corn [Zea mays L.], soybean [Glycine max {Merr.}],

sunflower [Helianthus annus L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor {Moench},

and pearl millet) suggest that pearl millet has the capacity for

deep rootedness, a greater number of roots and/or the attribute for

increased rooting density (Davis-Carter, 1989).

Timing, intensity and duration of water stress accounted for

70 to 85 % of the variation in pearl millet grain yields within and

across years (Mahalakshmi et al., 1985, 1987, and 1988). Critical

growth stages receiving water stress were flowering and grain

filling.

Pearl millet head length, used as a predictor of grain yield

in bird damaged pearl millet, varied significantly in relation to

population (seeding rate and row spacing) (Pudelko et al., 1994).

The mean head length across row widths for the 6 lb/A seeding rate

was significantly shorter than the 2 and 4 lb/A seeding rate. The

mean head length across seeding rates for the 5 inch row width was

significantly greater than the 15 and 30 inch row width.

Estimating grain and forage crop yields has been demonstrated









to be a function of the equation: D = M/V, where D = a measure of

bulk density, M = mass, and V = volume (Teare and Mott, 1965 and

Wilson and Teare, 1972).

The objective of this study was to relate population density

(row width/seeding rate) to yield and yield components of pearl

millet.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in 1993 on a Norfolk sandy loam (fine,

loamy siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudult) located on the -North

Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. The soil

has a compacted layer located 8 to 14 inches below the surface.

The pearl millet hybrid used this experiment was HGM-100,

developed as a grain pearl millet by W.W. Hanna (1991), Tifton,

SGeorgia. Pearl millet seed was no-till planted in a weed fallow

field with a H and N Planter1 set up for five inch rows. Fifteen

and 30 inch rows were accomplished by inserting other down-spouts

into small plastic buckets and catching the seed. Plot size was 5

feet wide X 25 feet long.

The row width-seeding rate study was planted on 28 June. Row

widths and seeding rates used in the study are shown in Table 1.

Cultural practices common across all row widths and seeding

rates were: 1. application of 500 Ib/A of 5-10-15 before planting

on 25 June; 2. three applications of ammonium nitrate banded

beside row at 50 lb N/A at 5th leaf stage (10 July), boot stage (31


'Hege Equip. Co., 13915 West 53rd St., North Colwich, KS 67030.









W July), and milk stage (27 Aug); and application of Prowl + Atrazine

at 1.0 and 1.5 lb/A, respectively on 30 June after planting and

before emergence (3 July).

Plant population density (plants per acre and plants per

linear foot of row) are shown in Table 1 for each seedling rate and

row width. Note the uniform plant population density across row

widths (columns) and the increased number of plants within the row

as row width increased for each seeding rate.

Pearl millet parameters were measured as follow:

1. Grain yield calculated from head length and number of

heads per acre as described in Pedulko (1994).

2. Percentage lodgingwas estimated from 0 % (no lodging) to

100 % (all lodged) for each plot.

* 3. Silage yield was estimated from total fresh yield from

two 30 ft long rows harvested for silage.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Pearl millet population density (plants/A and plants/linear ft

of row) is shown for each combination row width/seeding rate in

Table 1.

Lodging

Figure 1 shows percentage lodging (% lodging) across seeding

rate for each row space studied. Results indicate that the five

inch row width had the least lodging and the 30 inch row spacing

had the most lodging.

Percentage lodging for each row width/seeding rate treatment

is shown in Fig. 2. Within row spacing widths, % lodging increased









S with each increase in seeding rate for all three row widths.

Grain Yield

Figure 3 shows grain yield of HGM-100 pearl millet across

seeding rate for each row spacing. Results indicate that the five

inch row spacing had the greatest grain yield and the 30 inch row

spacing the least grain yield.

Row width/seeding rate treatment results are shown in relation

to grain yield in Fig. 4. Highest grain yields were obtained at a

row width of five inches and a seeding rate of four and six lb

seed/A. This was at a population density of 172 000 and 264 000

plants/A and 1.6 and 2.5 plants/linear ft of row, respectively.

Intermediate yields were obtained at row widths of five inches

at two lb seed/A, and 15 inches at 2 and 4 lb seed/A. This was at

S population densities of 89 000, 88 000, and 176 000 pl/A and 0.8,

2.5, and 5.1 pl/linear ft of row.

Unsatisfactory grain yields were obtained at 265 000 pl/A (6

lb seed/A)(7.6 pl/linear ft of row), 88 000 pl/A (2 lb seed/A) (5.1

pl/linear ft of row), 177 000 pl/A (4 lb seed/A) (10.2 pl/linear ft

of row), and 265 000 (6 lb seed/A) (15.2 pl/linear ft of row) for 15

30, 30, 30 row widths, respectively.

Components of Grain Yield

Number of heads/A across each seeding rate were greatest at

the 5 inch row spacing and least at the 30 inch row spacing (Fig.

5).

Number of heads/A in relation to row width, seeding rate,

population density, and pl/linear ft of row are shown in Fig. 6.









The 5 inch row spacing produced significantly more heads/A when

planted at the 4 and 6 lb seed/A rate than any other treatment.

The 15 inch row spacing, though less than the 5 inch row spacing,

also produced the highest no. of heads at the 4 and 6 Ib seed/A

rate, but differences were not significant at the 5 % level of

probability. The 30 inch row spacing had the greatest no. of

heads/A at the 6 lb/A seeding rate, but the head no./A were not

significantly different within the 30 inch row spacing. The

increased no. of head/A did not result in a greater yield/A

(Fig.4). The 30 inch row spacing produced the highest grain yield

at the 2 lb seed/A rate, but it was not significantly different

from the 4 and 6 lb seed/A rate and all seeding rates at this

spacing were the lowest yielding treatments in the experiment.

Length of pearl millet heads has been used to predict grain

yield (Pudelko, et al., 1994) and is somewhat affected by

population density. The head lengths of the pearl millet at the 15

and 30 inch row spacing across seeding rates were significantly

less than the 5 inch row spacing (Fig. 7). The 6 lb seeding rate

at the 15 and 30 inch row spacings were significantly less than all

the other treatments (Fig. 8).

Fresh silage Yield

Mean fresh silage yields across seeding rates ranged from 17

to 23 ton/A for the 30 and 5 inch row spacing, respectively

(Fig.9).

The 61b/A seeding rate produced lower fresh silage yields than

the 2 lb/A rate for the 30 inch row treatments (Fig. 10). Though









not significant, the 6 lb/A seeding rate at the 15 inch row spacing

produced less fresh silage yield than the 2 and 4 lb/A seeding at

the 15 inch row spacing.

Components of fresh silaqe yield

Pearl millet plant height was not significantly different for

any treatment and was not related to fresh silage yield. (Fig. 11),

indicating that stalk diameter and leaf are index may be better

predictors of fresh silage yield.



CONCLUSIONS
1. The 5 inch row spacing had the least lodging and % lodging

increased with each increment increase in seeding rate for all

row widths.

2. Highest grain yields were obtained at 5 inch row spacing with

4 and 6 Ib seeding rate.

3. No. of heads/A were greater at the 5 inch row spacing with 4

and 6 lb seeding rate.

4. Pearl millet head lengths were only shortened by the 6 lb/A

seeding rate for the 15 and 30 inch row widths.

5. The five inch row spacing produced the greatest tonnage

(approx 23 ton/A) of fresh silage at all planting rates.

6. Plant height was not related to fresh silage yield, indicating

stalk diameter and leaf area index may be better predictors of

fresh silage yield.











ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our thanks to E. Brown Agricultural Technician IV; North Fla.

Res. and Educ. Ctr. Univ. of Fla., Quincy, FL; for plot

preparation and management, data collection, computer processing,

and data illustration.

REFERENCES

Burton, G.W., A.T.Primo, and R.S. Lowrey. 1986. Effect of

clipping frequency and maturity on the yield and quality of

four pearl millets. Crop Sci. 26:79-81.

Davis-Carter, J.G. 1989. Influence of spatial variability of soil

physical and chemical properties on the rooting patterns of

pearl millet and sorghum. Ph.D. diss. Texas A&M University,

College Station.

Hattendorf, M.J., M.S. Dedelfs, B. Amos, L.R. Stone, and R.E.

Given, Jr. 1988. Comparative water use characteristics of

six row crops. Agron. J. 80:80-85.

Hanna, W.W. 1991. Pearl millet-a potentially new crop for the

U.S. In Abstracts of Technical Papers, No. 18, Southern

Branch ASA, 2-6 Feb 1991, Ft. Worth, TX.

Kumar, K.A., S.C. Gupta, and D.J. Andrews. 1983. Relationship

between nutritional quality characters and grain yield in

pearl millet. Crop Sci. 23:232-234.

Mahalakshmi, V., and F.R. Bidinger. 1985. Water stress and time of

floral initiation in pearl millet. J. Agric. Sci.105:437-445.









Mahalakshmi, V., and F., and D.S. Raju. 1987. Effect of timing of

water deficit on pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum). Field

Crop Res. 15:327-339.

Mahalakshmi, V., F.R. Bidinger, and G.D.P. Rao. 1988. Timing and

intensity of water deficits during flowering and grain-filling

in pearl millet. Agron. J. 80:130-135.

Payne, W.A., C.W. Wendt, and R. J. Lascano. 1990. Root zone water

balance of three low-input millet fields in Niger, West

Africa. Agron. J. 82:813-819.

Pudelko, J.A., D.L. Wright, and I.D. Teare. 1993. A method for

salvaging bird damaged pearl millet research. Fla.

Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. No. NF 93-12:1-11.

Pudelko, J.A., I.D. Teare, and D.L. Wright. 1994. Pearl millet

head length in relation to induced stress. p. 210-215.

In P. Bauer (Ed.) 1994 Southern Conservation Tillage

Conference Improving Profitability, Proceedings. June 7-

9, Columbia. SC. SB94-1.

Teare, I.D. and G.O. Mott. 1965. Estimating forage yield in situ.

Crop Sci. 5:311-313.

Wilson, V.E. and I.D. Teare. 1972. Effects of between- and

within- row spacing on components of lentil yield. Crop Sci.

12:507-510.

Wright, D.L., I.D. Teare, F.M. Rhoads, and R.K. Sprenkel. 1993.

Pearl millet production in a no-tillage system. p. 152-159.

In P. Bollich (Ed.) 1993 Southern Conservation Tillage Conf.

for Sustainable Agric. June 15-17, Monroe, LA. SB 93-1.









Table 1. Plant population density (plants/A) and plants/linear
foot of row' are shown for each combination seeding rate and row
width.


Seeding Rate2 (lb/A)

Row width 2 4 6


5 89,000 172,000 264,000
(0.85) (1.65) (2.53)

15 88,000 176,000 266,000
(2.54) (5.06) (7.64)

30 88,000 177,000 265,000
(5.08) (10.16) (15.23)


'Plants/linear foot of row in brackets

2Emergence rate approximately 55% of seeding rate












100


OU a


S60


0
- 40
-
*c


20 -----.



0


Figure 1.


Row Spacing Inches

Percentage lodging across seeding rate for each row
spacing. Columns topped by same letter are not
significant at the 0.05% level of probability.


Pop. Den. (PI/A X 1000)
89 172 264 88 176 266 88 177 266
Pl/linear ft row
0.8 1.6 2.6 2.5 6.1 7.6 6.1 10.2 16.2


CO
C 60

0
J40
a* 40


0 -
Row width (Inches) 5
8eeding rate (Iba/A) 2


5 6 15 15 15 30 30 30
4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6


Figure 2. Percentage lodging in relation to row width, seeding
rate, population density, and plants per linear foot of
row for each row width/seeding rate treatment.


-












100


80 .--..............



60 --..............



40 -............



20 ---.........



0


Row Spacing Inches

Fig. 3. Grain yield (bu/A) of HGM-100 pearl millet
rate for each row spacing.


across seeding


Pop. Den. (PI/A X 1000)
89 172
PI/linear ft. row
0.8 1.6


0 1--
Row width (Inohes) 5
Seeding rate (IbsA) 2


264 88 176 265 88


177 265


2.6 2.5 6.1 7.6 5.1 10.2 15.2


5 6 15 15 15 30 30 30
4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6


Fig. 4. Grain yield in relation to row width,
population density and plants per linear


seeding rate,
ft of row.















S2.0






* 1.0-
0

1 0.6-
d
Z


0.0


Row Spacing Inches

Fig. 5. Number of heads per acre across seeding rate for each row
spacing.


Pop. Den. (p/A X 1000)
88


Pl/linear ft. row


172 284 88 176 285 88 177


0.8 1.8 2.5 2.5 5.1 7.6 5.1 10.2


2.0 A A
0

B B B
1.5 ............-..... 8C...
x C C


o 1.0 ................. ..

"IO

S0.5 .................


0.0
Row width (Inchel) 6 5 5 10 10 10 16 16 15
ending Rate (IbA) 2 4 8 2 4 6 2 4 6


Fig. 6. No. of heads per acre in relation to row width, seeding
rate, population density, and plants per linear ft of
row.


7 K












14

A
- 12 .....................
CO B B

0 10 ........................................
010- 1




6 .............................
0

4 .................... ....................
C
r


S... I ..
0
5 15 30
Row Spacing Inches

Head length of pearl millet across seeding rate for each
row spacing.


Pop. Den. (p/A

PI/lnear ft. of r
14



0)
*5io --- *----

JC
0 --.
0
"1 ......-----.........




t-
2 4 ..............

a)
-I 2 .*--*

0 -i---
Row width (Inchee)
eedlng rfte (Ibe/A)


X 1000)
89
ow
0.8


A


264 88 176 268 88

2.5 2.5 6.1 7.6 5.1


177 265

10.2 15.2


AR AB Am AB


D


6
S2


5 15 1 5 15
4 6 2 4 6


30 30 30
2 4 6


* Fig. 8. Head length in relation to row width, seeding rate,
population density, and plants/linear ft of row.


Fig. 7.


AB r





















o-


S.....................


0

S10 .................................


0 .6 .. ......... I... .....................



5 16 30
Row Spacing Inches

Fig. 9. Fresh silage yield across seeding rate for each row
spacing.


Pop. Dan. (pl/A x 1000)
S9 172
PI/lnear ft. of row
0.8 1.8


264

2.8


88

2.6


178

6.1


88 177 265

6.1 10.2 15.2


A
A A
ABC A B

BC BC C

. .................. ..









0
6 -


Row Width (Inahes) 6 6 6 16 16 15 30 30 80
Sending Rai e lbs/A) 2 4 8 2 4 6 2 4 8


Fig. 10. Fresh silage yield in relation to row width, seeding
rate, population density and plants per linear ft. of
row.


t-






1
C




oa,
B,


03


t3u


.....................










Pop. Den. (p

PI/llnear ft.

70





5 60 .-----................
0 -

03

3: 30 .................


20 ...............- -


10 .-................


0 ------
Row width (Inche)
8asdlng Rate (Ibs/A


I/A X 1000)
88 172
of row
0.8 1.6


A A


284 8B

2.5 2.5


176 255 88

5.1 7.6 5.1


177 206

10.2 15.2


A A A A A


rA .. --


56 6
) 2 4


6 15 15 15 30 30
6 2 4 6 2 4


Fig. 11. Plant height in relation to
population density and plants


row width, seeding rate,
per linear ft. of row.




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