Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Peanut production guide for Barbuda, West Indies
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066106/00001
 Material Information
Title: Peanut production guide for Barbuda, West Indies
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 34 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rich, J. R ( Jimmy Ray ), 1950-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
Shokes, Frederick M ( Frederick Milton ), 1943-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1993
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Barbuda   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Jimmy R. Rich, Daniel W. Gorbet, and Frederick M. Shokes.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066106
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71172647

Full Text



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PEANUT


PRODUCTION GUIDE


v2


FOR BARBUDA, WEST INDIES
Marston Scienrc


APR 1 5 1993


Compiled by: University of Florida

Jimmy R. Rich, Daniel W. Gorbet and Frederick M. Shokes

University of Florida

North Florida Research and Education Center

Route 3 Box 4370

Quincy, Florida 32351


NFREC Quincy Research Report 93-3






.- UNIVERSITY OF

t FLORIDA

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
University of Florida. Gainesville


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville

42


PEANUT

PRODUCTION GUIDE

FOR BARBUDA, WEST INDIES



Compiled by:
Jimmy R. Rich, Daniel W. Gorbet and Frederick M. Shokes
University of Florida
North Florida Research and Education Center
Route 3 Box 4370
Quincy, Florida 32351

IFAS NFREC Quincy Research Report 93-3


I

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PEANUT


Production Guide


for Barbuda, West Indies1'2


Compiled by:

Jimmy R. Rich, Daniel W. Gorbet and Frederick M. Shokes3

University of Florida

North Florida Research and Education Center

Route 3 Box 4370

Quincy, Florida 32351


IFAS NFREC Quincy Research Report 93-3


With Reference to Publications of:
E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
Brian Cooper, Agronomist (CARDI)
F.A. Johnson, Extension Entomologist
T.A. Kucharek, Extension Plant Pathologists
D.L. Colvin, Extension Weed Scientist
B.J. Brecke, Research Weed Scientist
R.A. Dunn, Extension Nematologist



'This guide should be generally applicable for other Islands in the West
Indies as well.

2The publication was written as part of an agricultural enhancement program
sponsored by the Barbuda Council and the Florida Association of Voluntary
Agencies for Caribbean Action.

3Professors, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida.











Table of Contents


SUMMARY GUIDE TO PEANUT PRODUCTION (

TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY IN PEANUT PR(


SOILS AND ROTATIONS .

FERTILIZATION . .

SEEDBED PREPARATION .

VARIETIES . .

SEED . . .

PLANTING . .

WEED CONTROL . .

NEMATODE CONTROL .

APPLICATION OF GYPSUM .

IRRIGATION . .

DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAM

INSECT CONTROL .

HARVESTING . .

DRYING . .

STORAGE . .


CHEMICAL CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS .

GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR A]


CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . .

COMMON DISEASES OF PEANUT AND CHEMICAL DISEASE CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS

PEANUT INSECTICIDES AND USE RATES . . . . .


N BARBUDA . .

DUCTION . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. .

. . .

. .

. .

. . *.

* *

. . .

APPLYING PESTICIDES .


Page

1

2

3

3

5

5

5

5

6

6

7

7

7

8

8

9

10

10

11

12

19


.........










SUMMARY GUIDE TO PEANUT PRODUCTION ON BARBUDA

This guide is an abbreviated form of the attached that takes in account

soil types on Barbuda, general chemical availability and rainfall distribution.

It is intended only as guide/checklist for the beginning commercial peanut

farmer. The reader is further encouraged to read the Peanut Production Guide and

Pest Control Recommendations attached.

ACTIVITIES

June: Disc and turn land as soil moisture allows. Leave for 5-7 weeks to allow

vegetation to decompose.

September 1 October 15

1. Apply 100 lbs/acre of triple-superphosphate fertilizer (46% P205).

2. Apply one quart of Diazinon 4EC and one quart Prowl in 15-25 gallons

of water per acre for insect and weed control, when there is

adequate soil moisture.

3. Immediately disc field to mix the fertilizer and chemicals to 3-5

inches deep in soil.

4. Plant fungicide-treated peanut seed as soon as soil moisture levels

are adequate. For seed treatment, use Captan or Thiram at 1

teaspoon/5 lbs. seed.

5. Space the peanut seed 3-4 inches apart in 36-inch wide rows and

cover with soil to 1% to 2 inches deep.

20-30 Days After Plantine

Apply a 2,4-DB herbicide at 0.125 active ingredient/acre or Basagran at 1

pt/acre plus Gramoxone at 1 pint/acre for weed control. Add a non-ionic

surfactant at the rate of 1 pint/100 gallons of water. DO NOT make the

application on drought-stressed peanut since leaf burn will occur. Always apply

herbicides when weeds are less than 3-4 inches tall. Do not apply Gramoxone any

later than 40 days after planting and only apply the 2,4-DB herbicide

formulation.









40-50 Days After Plantinq

Observe peanuts throughout the growing season for insect and disease

problems. Experience, however, has shown the need to apply materials to control

both of these problems about 40 days after planting. Apply 1 Ib/acre of Dipel4,

1 quart/acre Diazinon 4EC, 1% lb/acre Manzate 200 (if available use Bravo instead

of Manzate at labeled rates), plus a micronutrient packet containing iron at this

time. These can all be mixed for a single application.

50-120 Days After Plantinq

Observe peanuts for broadleaf weed and grass emergence. For broadleaf

weeds apply a 2,4-DB herbicide at 0.125 lbs. active ingredient/acre or Basagran

at 1 pt./acre. For grass problems, apply Poast or Fusilade at 2-3 pts./acre.

Use a surfactant for either as above. These materials can be mixed.

60 Days After Plantinq

Repeat treatments for insects using Dipel only, add a micronutrient package

and, if needed for diseases, use Manzate or Bravo.

80-120 Days After Plantinq

Observe for insect and disease problems and spray as needed.

110 Days After Plantinq

Begin observing peanuts for maturity by pulling several plants from

different parts of the field. Remove nuts, break open and determine the

percentage with deep pink seed coats. If 65-70% have deep pink seed coats, begin

harvesting. DO NOT wait to see dying plants before checking peanuts. The nuts

on these plants are overmature and many peanuts will be left in the ground.

TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY IN PEANUT PRODUCTION

1. Grow peanuts in rotation with other well-fertilized field crops,

preferably grass crops such as corn, sorghum or pastures.

2. Have soil tested and apply necessary fertilizer.

3. Turn land so that all crop residues and weeds are buried, allow 5-7 weeks

before planting.




4Biological insecticide, safe for the environment.









4. Use high quality fungicide-treated seed of a recommended variety and use

proper spacing for the variety.

5. Control weeds with herbicides, cultivation and management practices.

6. Control leafspot disease, rust and insect pests.

7. Dig at the proper time.

8. Harvest, cure and store nuts by methods that will minimize seed damage.

SOILS AND ROTATIONS

Peanut is best grown on well-drained light-textured soil in a 2, 3, or 4-

year rotation with other crops that have been well fertilized. Other crops in

the rotation should be resistant to nematodes and soilborne diseases. Crops

recommended for rotation with peanut include corn, sorghum and other grasses.

If these cannot be grown, a weed fallow program is the next best alternative.

Since peas and beans and many vegetable crops increase nematode populations and

soil-borne diseases, these crops should be avoided in the peanut rotation,

especially as immediately preceding crops. Volunteer peanut plants should be

destroyed when rotational crops are grown since they allow disease and nematode

build-up for the next peanut crop.

FERTILIZATION

Soil fertility levels of fields to be planted to peanut should be high and

based on soil tests. Liming is usually not needed in Barbuda except in very

sandy soils. Soils actually tend to be high in pH (above 7.5), which contribute

to iron chlorsis problems on peanuts. On Barbuda, a limiting nutrient may to be

phosphorus (P205), and this can be supplied with applications of super-phosphate

(20% P,05) or triple-superphosphate (46% P05,). Preplant broadcast applications

with subsequent discing or turning is generally the best method of application.

Peanut often responds as well or better to residual soil fertility than to

direct fertilization. For this reason, emphasis is placed on proper

fertilization of the preceding crop. For example, if manuring for fertilization

is considered, manure should be applied 6-12 months before planting peanut.









Peanut is a legume and bacteria on the roots produce nitrogen. There are

no indications that inoculation of the seed is needed on soils that have grown

peanut or other legumes in the cowpea inoculation group within the preceding five

years. However, peanut grown on land that has never been inoculated require

addition of inoculants. Inoculants are applied by lightly moisturizing seed with

water and mixing inoculant on the seed. A tablespoon of corn syrup or other

syrups/gallon of water will assist in sticking the inoculant to the seed.

Inoculated seed should be kept in the shade, and planted as soon after

inoculation as possible. When inoculated with the proper strain of nitrogen-

fixing bacteria, peanut does not need fertilizer containing nitrogen. A soil

implant form of inoculant can be used at planting with a granular application for

in-furrow treatment.

If phosphorus (P205) and/or potash (K20) levels are low or if maintenance

of high fertility is desired, use these recommendations:

Recommended Fertilization
Soil-Test Results (Ibs/acre of P05 or K.0)


Low 96

Medium 64

High 48

Foliar applications of soluble iron (Fe) (e.g. micronutrient packets) will

be necessary in most of the soils in Barbuda. The relatively high pH of these

soils decreases the availability of iron. Plants may become chlorotic (yellow)

and not grow well, indicating iron deficiency. Apply a soluble iron-containing

product with the first three applications of fungicide on peanut.

Boron applications may be necessary to produce high quality and high yields

of peanut, especially on the sandy soil. It is generally not needed in Barbuda

as long as kernels fill out properly. The element can be applied by adding

soluble boron at a rate of 1% pounds of BO03 (% pound of B) in the first fungicide

application.









SEEDBED PREPARATION

In early summer or at least 5-7 weeks before planting, have soil tested,

shred crop residues, and turn land to incorporate crop residues into the soil.

Three to four weeks before planting, disc land so that all litter will be covered

with at least four inches of soil. Disc land prior to planting to level land and

destroy emerging weeds. If possible, prepare raised beds approximately 4-6"

high.

VARIETIES

Four types of peanut are available for planting Spanish, Runner, Valencia

and Virginia. Spanish varieties possess small seed, Runner and Valencia seed are

intermediate in size and Virginia varieties have large seed. Select adapted

varieties that produce the seed size desired by the market.

SEED

Peanut seed store better in the shell, and shelling should be delayed until

just prior to planting. Plant sound, well-matured, disease-free seed of known

pedigree, purity and performance. Certified peanut seed, which are grown and

processed under strict regulations and close supervision, are true to variety and

high quality. If seed is saved from a previous crop, it should be treated with

recommended fungicides before planting (see pages 1 & 21).

PLANTING

Planting is best accomplished during September to mid-October to take

advantage of the rainy season. Space seed of Spanish varieties two to three

inches apart in 24 to 30 inch wide rows. Seed of Runner, Valencia and Virginia

varieties should be spaced three to four inches apart in 30 to 36 inch rows.

Generally, these seeding rates will be less than 100 Ibs/acre with Spanish,

Runner and Valencia varieties, but more than 100 Ibs/acre for the Virginia

varieties. Plant seed when soil moisture is good and cover the seed two to three

inches in sandy-type soils and 1% to 2 inches in heavier soils. Spanish type

peanuts will mature in 90-100 days while the other types will generally mature

in 120-130 days.









WEED CONTROL

A successful weed control program depends on all factors of peanut

production being optimum. Crop rotation, use of weed-free seed, optimum plant

populations, cultivation and keeping weeds from going to seed are directly

related to low weed populations and high peanut yields. If weeds are controlled

in the previous crop, the weed problem will be reduced. Herbicides will

supplement these sound farm management principles to provide good weed control

at the least cost to the peanut producer.

Weed competition reduces peanut yield mostly during the first 4-5 weeks

after planting. However, late-season populations may also reduce yields and

interfere with harvesting efficiency.

All herbicide label instructions and precautions should be followed

carefully, since rates higher than needed may injure the crop and lower rates may

not provide acceptable weed control (see pages 12-18 for recommendations). If

in doubt on rates, mix a small quantity, spray two rows and observe weed kill and

leaf burn on peanut plants over several days. Be sure that application is

properly timed in relation to the stage of growth of the crop and the weeds are

sprayed before reaching 3-4 inches high.

For application of herbicides the sprayer should be clean, in good working

order and properly calibrated to deliver the required rate of chemicals in 15 to

25 gallons of water per acre. Spray early in the morning or on still days to

prevent spray drift to nearby sensitive crops.

NEMATODE CONTROL

The major nematode pests of peanut are the peanut root-knot, root lesion

and ring nematodes. The peanut root-knot nematode causes large galls or knots

on pegs, pods and roots. On the roots nematode galls can be distinguished from

rhizobium nodules very easily. Rhizolium nodules are easily detached and

generally pink in the center. Nematode galls are part of the root and are not

readily detached. When present in high numbers it causes severe losses in peanut

yields. Damage incited by the root-lesion nematode is generally limited to

causing brown spots on the peanut hulls. The root-lesion and ring nematode










affect the peanut quality without causing marked reductions in yield. However,

nematode damage to seed may provide infection sites for pod rot fungi. At

present, nematodes do not appear to be a general problem in Barbuda but could

become one unless good rotations are followed.

APPLICATION OF GYPSUM

If the calcium level in the soil is found by soil tests to be inadequate

and lime was not applied, apply agricultural gypsum (landplaster Ca SO4) over

the entire potential pegging zone after the plants begin to bloom freely. Rate

of application of the gypsum should be 800 pounds or more per acre for Virginia

type peanut and at least 400 pounds per acre for other types. Due to high

calcium levels, it is believed that gypsum is not necessary in Barbuda except in

very sandy soils.

IRRIGATION

Irrigation of peanut has given favorable results where good weed control

and cultural practices were followed. Yield increases have been experienced with

the use of irrigation. One-half to % inch of water per acre applied just before

or just after planting has proven to be helpful in producing good stands.

Herbicides are more effective when used in combination with a well-timed

irrigation program. Where limited water supplies or facilities are not available

for full-season irrigation, growers should time irrigation for the main fruiting

period which is from 40-80 days after planting. This will usually require

application every 5-6 days on light sandy soils, and every 8-12 days on heavier

soils. One inch per application should be sufficient for light sandy soils

whereas 1% inches per acre may be necessary for heavy soils (wet to depth of 8-9

inches).

DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAM

To reduce seed decay and seedling blight: (1) use a crop rotation plan that

excludes peanut, soybean and other non-grass crops in the previous 2 to 3 years;

(2) deep plow crop residues at least 6 inches; (3) avoid deep planting if soil

moisture near the surface is adequate; and (4) use a fungicide seed treatment.










Fungicide usage may be interpreted by many to be the only control measure

for leafspot and rust fungi but actually all controls for seedling blights also

aid in control of these diseases. Probably three to four foliar fungicide

applications will be needed to control leafspot and/or rust in Barbuda.

INSECT CONTROL

Peanut is attacked by a wide variety of insect and mite pests. Important

insects on peanut are cutworms, wireworms, foliage caterpillars armywormss, corn

earworms) and lesser cornstalk borers. Other pests that have been problems are

white grub, leafhoppers, thrips and spider mites. Since infestations vary

seasonally from one location to another, it is very important to check fields and

apply control measures only when they are actually needed. Also, when possible,

use biological materials (i.e. non-chemical) such as Dipel for insect control.

Fields should be checked at least twice weekly for insect problems.

Sprays should be applied in 15 to 25 gallons/acre water to obtain thorough,

uniform coverage. Nozzles, booms, hoses, strainers and tanks should receive

frequent attention to insure proper operation. Calibrate and recheck sprayers

regularly since calibration can change with equipment wear. Always read the

label and follow precautions and limitations related to the pesticide in use.

If herbicides have been in the spray tank, rinse thoroughly, fill tank, add

household ammonia, soak overnight and rinse with clean water.

HARVESTING

Using the average days to maturity for the peanut variety as a guide (see

page 5), inspect each field to determine the stage of development of the pods and

seed. Pull several plants from different parts of the field, pick off all pods,

break pods open and determine the percentage of hull insides turning dark for

Spanish, Valencia and Runner varieties and the percentage with a deep pink

seedcoats for the Virginia varieties. Delay digging until 75-80 percent (4 out

of 5) of the Spanish or 75% of the Runner hulls are turning dark on the inside

and until 66% (2 out of 3) of the kernels of the Virginia varieties are a deep

pink color. For Virginia varieties, check the condition of the pod stems

frequently as maturity approaches; if examination shows a weakening of pod stems,










dig soon regardless of the percentage of kernels showing pink color. Also, if

plants are losing their leaves due to leafspot or rust disease, the crop may have

to be harvested early to prevent major losses. Do not wait for signs of top

death on any of the varieties to check for seed maturity. Also, do not wait

until seed sprouting occurs on Spanish or Valencia types.

Vine Clippinq: If excessive top vine growth has occurred, use a rotary or flail

type cutter with sharp blades to clip foliage, preferably 3 to 4 days before

digging. Do not clip excessively, cut only the top % of Spanish and top % of the

other types.

Digging: Sharp, rigid blades with a very slight pitch provide optimum cutting

action when set to cut the taproot just below the pods. Travel at sufficient

speed to produce a "flow" of soil and vines over the digger blades.

Shaking: An aggressive shaking action is desirable for separating soil from pods

and roots. Inverting plants has little effect on drying rate during ideal

weather conditions but definitely aids drying during poor drying conditions.

Prolonged exposure during hot, dry periods may result in overdrying of pods in

contact with hot, dry soil in full sunlight.

DRYING

Peanuts must be properly cured if desirable flavor, texture, germination

and overall quality are to be maintained. Moisture reduction is the major

consideration in peanut curing and may be accomplished by natural window drying

or by artificially drying in a mechanically controlled environment. In general,

the prevailing humidity of Barbuda is low and natural window drying will usually

be sufficient. Sufficient drying should occur in 5-7 days under good conditions.

Managing the Drying System: Quality control is dependent upon frequent moisture

checks as peanut kernels approach the 12 percent level. Do not allow.average

moisture content to get below 8.5 percent for any lot with no portion of the lot

containing less than 7 percent moisture nor more than 10 percent moisture.

Alternate Drvingq Peanuts may be cured and stored on stack poles while awaiting

removal of nuts. By this method, peanuts that have wilted (3-6 hours after

digging) are placed around poles (6-8 ft. tall) that are approximately 18" in the










soil surface. The pole will have two 3' long boards at a 90 degree angle to each

other and nailed to the pole approximately 12-18" above the soil. Plants are

placed on the boards around the pole, pods facing toward the pole, with a space

for air movement up the stack. Successive layers of vines are placed around the

stack pole. As the stack nears completion, it is gradually drawn to a point and

a few vines pressed down over the top to complete the stack. It may be topped

with some dry grass or other material to help shed water. Curing takes 4-6 weeks

in the stack.

STORAGE

Storage facilities for peanuts should be weatherproof and free from insect

and disease bearing litter. Buildings should have provisions for good

ventilation to prevent condensation of water. Adequate air space should be

provided between the surface of stored peanuts and the floor using pallets or

similar materials. Avoid storage of seed peanuts in buildings where temperature

may become too high. Buildings having exposed sheet iron roofs or side walls may

reach excessive temperatures where no aeration is provided. Proper storage is

important to maintain peanut quality and prevent aflatoxin contamination.

Aflatoxins are very potent cancer-causing chemicals that are produced by various

fungi. Thus, under no conditions should moldy peanuts be eaten or sold.

For insect control in peanuts in storage, lightly spray with a mixture of

1 part malathion (25% active ingredient) to nine parts water. Application should

be repeated at two month intervals.

CHEMICAL CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS

The application of chemicals is a necessary component of peanut production

in Barbuda to reduce losses caused by weeds, insects, diseases and nematodes.

These materials, however, should only be used to supplement other sound cultural

practices such as crop rotation and residue management.

Attached are listings of available materials and directions for safe and

effective use of the chemicals. Chemicals listed in this section have been

extensively tested in the U.S.A. and registered with the Environmental Protection

Agency as of 1992. Rates and uses of these materials can change including










outright cancellation of the products. ALWAYS check label directions to make

sure uses and use rates of these materials are appropriate for and legal in

Barbuda. Also, many of these materials are not readily available on Barbuda so

choices may be limited to the more common products.

GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR APPLYING PESTICIDES

1. Always note the safety precautions on the label and apply accordingly.

2. Always wear proper equipment; spray suit, gloves, mask, etc.

3. Always wash thoroughly any area of the skin that might have been exposed

to pesticide spray.

4. Treat every pesticide, regardless of its toxicity, as if it is poison.

5. Application should only be made by individuals who have been trained in

the safe use and handling of pesticides.










CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS
D.L. Colvin and B.J. Brecke 1992


Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


PREPLANT


Balan
(3.0 4.0 qts)

or

Prowl
(0.75 1.0 qts)


Sonalan
(1.5 2.5 pts)



Vernam 7E
(2.3 2.9 pts)












Dual
(2.0 3.0 pts)


benefit
(1.13 1.5 Ibs)

.or

pendimethalin
(0.75 1.0 lbs)


ethalfluralin
(0.56 0.94 lbs)



vernolate
(2.0 2.5 Ibs)












metolachlor
(2.0 3.0 Ibs)


Annual grasses and also
hard-to-control grasses
such as sandbur and
Texas panicum. Good
control of Florida
pusley and pigweed.
Refer to the label for
proper incorporation
procedures.



Controls same spectrum
of weeds as above. May
be tank mixed with Dual
or Vernam.

Suppresses nutsedge.
Controls certain annual
grasses, Florida pusley,
and pigweed. Apply
within 10 days of
planting. Incorporate
into the soil to a depth
of 3 inches immediately
after application. If
possible, combine
application and
incorporation in the
same operation.

Dual may be applied
preplant incorporated
and will give good
control of yellow
nutsedge. If yellow
nutsedge is anticipated
as a problem and cool
wet soil conditions
exist, Dual has shown
less injury to peanuts
than has Vernam. Keep
in mind Dual will only
control yellow nutsedge.
(Continued)


Remarks










Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Dual (Continued)


CRACKING STAGE


Starfire
(11 oz)


paraquat
(0.125 lbs)


If Dual is applied
preplant incorporated
(PPI) do not exceed 6
lbs/ai total in
additive cracking stage
applications. Dual
applications PPI on
loamy sand and sand
soils closely followed
by rainfall may cause
severe peanut injury.



Apply from ground
cracking of the seed up
to 28 days after ground
cracking. Starfire will
provide good to
excellent control of
seedling broadleaf leaf
and grass weeds.
Starfire kills weeds
through contact burn
activity and
applications made when
weeds are not present
are useless. Starfire
will burn peanut foliage
and the degree of burn
appears to be related to
humidity and time of day
that application is
made. Do not apply to
foliage that is wet with
dew or peanuts that are
stressed excessively due
to drought, insects or
other parameters. A
second application may
be made if needed but
should not be applied
until peanuts have
recovered from initial
burn. Do not apply more
than 22 oz. of Starfire
per growing season.
Always use a non-ionic
surfactant with Starfire
at 1 pint/100 gallons of
water. Starfire may be
made safer to minimize
peanut leaf burn by
tank-mixing with
Basagran.


Remarks










Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Butyrac/Butoxone
(8.0 16.0 oz)


Basagran
(1 pt)


Pursuit
(4 oz)


2,4-DB
(0.125 Ibs)


bentazon
(0.5 lbs)











imazethapyr
(.063 Ibs)


Tank mixed with Starfire
will improve control of
cocklebur and small-
flower morningglory.
2,4-DB may intensify
burn on peanut foliage
somewhat.



Basagran tank mixed with
Starfire will aid in the
control of Bristly
Starbur, Prickly Sida,
Cocklebur, Smallflower
morningglory and
Ragweed. As well as
weed control enhance-
ment, addition of
Basagran to Starfire
reduces peanut foliar
burn.

Apply Pursuit when weeds
are small (2-4").
Pursuit is labelled for
several broadleaf and
grass weeds, its main
use will be for the
control of yellow and
purple nutsedge as well
as wild poinsettia.
Weed control with
Pursuit will be somewhat
slow due to its mode of
action, and complete
control may not be
achieved until 4 to 5
weeks after application.
Be sure to check the
Pursuit label for
rotational crop
restrictions and always
add a non-ionic
surfactant to Pursuit
treatment at 3 qts./100
gal/water.


Remarks










Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Blazer
(1% 2.0 pts)










Dual
(2.0 3.0 pts)


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient

acifluorfen
(0.38 0.50 Ibs)










metolachlor
(2.0 3.0 lbs)


POSTEMERGENCE


Butyrac
(1.0 pt)
Butoxone
(1.2 pts)


Classic
(% oz)


2,4-DB
(0.25 lbs)


chlorimaron
(0.008 lbs)


Remarks


Minimal crop injury and
best control will be
attained when Blazer is
applied at true ground
cracking of peanuts when
weeds are present.
Blazer is most active on
morningglories, pigweed,
cocklebur and other
seedling broadleaf
weeds.

Dual gives good grass
and small seeded
broadleaf control.
However, Dual will not
be active on existing
weeds which have already
germinated. Best
results will be attained
when Dual is mixed with
an approved contact
herbicide (e.g.
Starfire).



Controls morningglory
and cocklebur. Poor
control of Florida
beggarweed. Apply 2 to
12 weeks after planting.
A second application may
be made 3 weeks later.
Do not apply to drought
stressed peanuts.

Apply Classic 60 days
after peanuts emerge to
45 days before harvest
for postemergence
Florida beggarweed
control. Under good
conditions, other
broadleaf weeds may be
suppressed. Classic
should be applied to
Florida beggarweed 10
inches in height or
smaller for good
control. Spray should
include 2 pints of non-
ionic surfactant per 100
gallons of spray.
(Continued)










Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Classic (Continued)


Basagran
(0.75 1.5 qts)











Blazer
(1.5 2.0 pts)



















Storm
(1.5 pts)


bentazon
(0.75 1.5 Ibs)











acifluorfen
(0.375 0.5 lbs)



















bentazon +
acifluorfen
(0.5 + 0.25 Ibs)


Classic may be tank
mixed with Bravo, and
surfactant should still
be used. Classic
application may cause
temporary yellowing of
peanuts and reduced
canopy growth. Check
label for peanut variety
restrictions.

Good control of
cocklebur, bristly
starbur and yellow
nutsedge. Rate depends
on weed.species and
size; therefore, refer
to the label. Good
spray coverage is
essential for control.
Do not apply to peanuts
which have been
subjected to stress.

Good control of many
broadleaf weed species
including hairy indigo,
crotalaria and citron.
Rate depends on size of
weeds and species,
therefore, refer to the
label. Good spray
coverage is essential
for control. Add a
surfactant as suggested
on the label. Do not
apply when weeds or
peanuts are stressed.
Do not apply within 75
days of harvest.
Sprayed leaves and stems
may be crinkled or
burned but new leaves
will appear normal.

Prepackage mix of
bentazon + acifluorfen.
Apply when weeds are
small and actively
growing. Add 1 pint per
acre of crop oil
concentrate. See label
and previous comments on
Blazer + Basagran for
weed size to treat and
expected control
spectrum.


Remarks










Trade Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Commercial Product


Common Name and
Broadcast Rate/Acre
of Active Ingredient


Dual (Layby)
(1.5 2.0 pts)








Poast
(1.0 2.5 pts)
+
Crop Oil Cone.
(2 pts)


Whip
(13 26 ozs)


metolachlor
(1.5 2.0 Ibs)








sethoxydim
(0.19 0.47 Ibs)


fenoxaprop
(0.06 0.12 Ibs)


Use only when late
germinating weeds are
expected to be a
problem. Applications
must be made before
weeds are present for
best results. Do not
exceed 6 lbs/acre per
season.

Good control of many
grass weed species
crabgrass, goosegrass,
Texas panicum, and
bermudagrasss. split
applications may be
required for certain
hard to control grasses
but not more than 2.5
pints may be applied per
acre/growing season.
Best results will be
obtained when applied in
15-20 GPA water volume.
All applications should
include a crop oil
concentrate at 2 pints
per acre.



Whip is similar in grass
control to Poast and
should be mixed with a
crop oil concentrate or
a non-ionic surfactant.
Repeat applications may
be necessary for
complete control.


Use of trade names
named and does not


does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of products
signify approval to the exclusion of similar products.


Prepared by: C.L. Colvin, Extension Weed Specialist, University of Florida,
Gainesville, and B.J. Brecke, Weed Scientist, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Jay, Florida.


Remarks













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SEED TREATMENT

Most of the seed peanuts that you buy are treated with a fungicide seed

treatment. This control measure increases the original stand by reducing seed

and seedling decay caused by fungi. We have measured beneficial effects of

seed treatments up to 14 days after planting using seed treatment chemicals.

Do not offset benefits from seed treatment by planting execessibely deep.

This is particularly important with seed of the Southern Runner variety or

other small-seeded varieties.

The following seed treatment fungicides are effective:

Apron FL

Captan DCNA

Captan (various formulations)

Thiram

PCNB (Terraclor)

Vitavax 303 (use in combination with Thiram, Captan, Evershield II,

Evershield C, or Botran)

CAUTION: DO NOT FEED TREATED SEED TO MAN OR BEAST UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE.

FOLIAR FUNGICIDES

Foliar fungicides are most effective if applied in 20-25 gallons of

water per acre at 40 PSI or greater. Use up to three nozzles per row and try

to achieve a thorough, uniform coverage of the foliage. The major two disease

problems in Barbuda are leafspot and rust.




























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