Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Population dynamics of soybean insect predators vs. soil nutrient levels and insect pests
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 Material Information
Title: Population dynamics of soybean insect predators vs. soil nutrient levels and insect pests
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhoads, Fred ( Frederick Milton )
Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
Funderburk, J. E ( Joseph E. ), 1954-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1992
Subject: Entomology -- Research   ( lcsh )
Soybean -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.M. Rhoads, I.D. Teare and J.E. Funderburk.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066101
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71172322

Full Text

Population Dynamics of Soybean

Insect Predators vs. Soil Nutrient Levels and Insect Pests

F. M. Rhoads, I. D. Teare and J. E. Funderburk



I. D. Teare, Agronomy Dep.; F. M. Rhoads, Dep. of Soils; J. E.

Funderburk, Entomology and Nematology Dep.; North Fla. Res. and

Educ. Ctr. Contribution from the Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Fla. Route 3 Box 4370, Quincy, FL

32351. Research Report NF 92-9.


The vegetation throughout the agroecosystem can be

selectively modified by soil fertility to adversely affect pest

populations (Rhoads and Barnett, 1990) but we have found no

studies where population dynamics of beneficial arthropods in

soybean [Geocoris spp. (bigeyed bugs), Nabis and Reduviolus spp.

(damsel bugs) and Araneae spp.(spiders)] were studied in relation

to soil fertility.

Large populations of bigeyed bugs [Geocoris punctipes (Say)]

occur in soybean fields in the southern U.S. (Shepard et al.,

1974). Bigeyed bugs are predators of Anticarsia gemmatalis

Hubner (Elvin et al., 1983), Nezara viridula (L.) (Crocker &

Whitcomb, 1980), Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Whitcomb & Bell, 1964),

H. virescens, (F.) (McDaniel & Sterling, 1979), and Pseudoplusia

includes (Walker) (Richman et al., 1980).

Reduviolus rosepiennis Reuter is the most common species of

damsel bug comprising over 90% of all individuals occurring in

soybean fields in the Southeast (Dietz et al. 1976). Other

damsel bugs found in soybean are R. alternatus Parshley, R.

americoferus Carayon, Nabidae capsiformis Germar, and N.

deceptivus Harris. Damsel bugs are important predators of A.

gemmatalis Hubner (Buschman et al., 1977), Helicoverpa spp.

(McCarty et al., 1980), and Plathypena scabra (F.) (Sloderbeck

& Yeargan, 1983).

Spiders are one of the more abundant groups of arthropods in

the agroecosystem and often outnumber other predaceous insects in

crops (Whitcomb, 1980). Among the many species identified in


soybean, Oxyopes salticus Hentz and Chiracanthium inclusum Hentz

are thought to rank first and second, respectively, in seasonal

abundance (Dietz et al., 1976). Oxyopidae (green lynx spiders)

are most common in North Florida. These spiders are found

predominately in the upper zone B as described by Whitcomb

(1980). All spiders are obligate carnivores. The mere fact that

spiders are predators does not mean that they are entirely

beneficial. Whitcomb (1980) listed them as being: 1. primary

consumers of immature and adults of many pest species, 2. natural

enemies of predatory insects (lady beetles, lacewings, etc.), 3.

a food source for other predators and beneficial, 4. competitors

with other predators and beneficial when prey become limiting.

As a result, the same spider species may be beneficial in one

field and pestiferous in another.

Most reports in the literature indicate that populations of

bigeyed bug, damsel bug, and spiders in soybean increase along

with pests and reach greatest densities during mid- or

late-season (Raney & Yeargan, 1977; Deitz et al., 1976; Shepard

et al., 1974; and Pitre et al., 1978; Funderburk & Mack, 1987;

Correa et al., 1977; Funderburk & Mack, 1989).

Enhancement and conservation of beneficial predators is a

major priority in soybean integrated pest management programs.

Insecticides used to control crop pests may also kill beneficial

predators, and pests frequently reinvade the field at a faster

rate than beneficial. Pest numbers then build up rapidly

because there are few beneficial predators. Integrated pest

management strategies in soybean are designed to use insecticides


only when pest populations reach economically damaging numbers

and even then to selectively use insecticides in ways that reduce

pest populations, but have the least negative impact on predator


Soil fertilizer operations modify foliage habitats where many

pest and natural enemies reside during at least part of their

life cycle (Rhoads and Barnett, 1990). These modifications can

alter survival or development (Herzog & Funderburk, 1986).

Musick (1985) and Herzog & Funderburk (1986) concluded that

each crop and insect situation must be evaluated individually and

control decisions made for each specific geographical location.

Funderburk et al. (1991) evaluated influences of P,K, Mg levels

on population dynamics of A. gemmatalis and N. viridula in a

subsequent soybean crop following winter wheat. Their

populations were affected by P and K levels and overfertilization

increased the likelihood of pest outbreak. Populations of A.

gemmatalis and N. viridula were either directly affected by P and

K influences on soybean nutrition and growth or indirectly by P

and K influences on natural enemy populations. Densities of

bigeyed bugs, damsel bugs and spiders also were estimated in the

Funderburk et al. (1991) study, and effects of nutrient levels on

populations of these major predators are reported in this paper.

This additional information is needed to develop cultural

strategies to enhance biological control in soybean in the

southeastern U.S. Another objective was to relate predator

densities to pest densities and determine if previously reported

effects on pest populations were the indirect result of P and K


influences on predator populations.


Soybean were grown on a Norfolk loamy sand (fine, loamy,

siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudult) at Quincy, FL. Soil samples

were collected from each plot in Feb of each year. This

experiment was conducted in 1986 and 1987 at the North Fla. Res.

and Educ. Ctr. on land which was previously used for fertility

research. Previous soil treatments [P at 0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha"-

applied annually as triple superphosphate for 6 yr; K at 0, 210,

and 420 kg ha1 applied annually as KCL for 6 yr; N at 0, 67,

and 134 kg ha-1 each year as ammonium nitrate] are described in

Rhoads & Barnett (1985). Ten cores 25 X 150 mm were taken from

each plot in a criss-cross pattern, composite, air-dried, and

ground to pass. a 2 mm sieve for analysis. Melich I soil

extractant was used. Soil-test levels (mg kg-1) in relation to

treatment code are shown in Table 1.

Soybean followed wheat in 1986. No P was applied to wheat or

soybean in 1986 because residual levels of P were adequate as

indicated by soil test (Table 1).

Potassium was applied in 1986 as follows:

to wheat K, = 0, K2 = 94 kg K ha K, = 188 kg K ha-

to soybean K, = 0, K2 = 47 kg K ha1, K, = 94 kg K ha-l.

Magnesium was applied in 1986 to wheat only as follows:

Mg, = 0, Mg = 67 kg Mg ha1, Mg, = 134 kg Mg ha~1.

Soybean followed snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and

cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in 1987. No P or Mg

was applied to snap bean, cabbage or soybean in 1987.


Potassium was applied in 1987 to soybean only as follows:

K = 0, K2 = 47 kg K ha1 K,K3 = 94 kg K ha-i.

A two-row cone planter was used to plant Braxton soybean at a

planting rate 45 kg ha- at 25 mm soil depth on 11 June 1986 and

10 June 1987. Experimental design was a randomized complete

block containing four replications.

In 1986 and 1987, 25 mm water ha~ was applied preplant and

at intervals during the growing season when tensiometers placed

at 0.15 m soil depth reached 0.02 MPa. Insecticides were not

applied at any time during the experiment.

Nymphal and adult population densities were estimated on

eight calendar/Julian dates in 1986 (7-1/182, 7-12/193, 7-23/204,

8-5/217, 8-14/226, 8-26/238, 9-9/252, 9-22/265) and seven

calendar dates/Julian date in 1987 (7-8/189, 7-22/203, 8-7/219,

8-18/230, 9-2/245, 9-14/257, 9-29/272). Sampling was begun at

early vegetative stage (V4) and continued until late seed stage

(R6) (Fehr & Caviness, 1977) in both years.

Insect sampling was carried out as described by Irwin &

Shepard (1980) and Whitcomb (1980). All plots were sampled on

each sampling date by beating the plants on both sides of the row

into a 0.9-m2 ground cloth placed between the rows. Three

samples were taken per plot on each sampling date. Also,

adjacent plants were searched at their base and the soil surface

was examined visually for bigeyed bug, damsel bug and spiders.

The influence of nutrient level on population densities and

population cycles of bigeyed bug and damsel bug nymphs, and

spiders were evaluated by ANOVA. Data from each growing season


were analyzed separately. The design for analyzing insect data

was a split plot over time (Funderburk et al., 1991). The main

effect compared the influence of soil nutritional level on

seasonal population density. Orthogonal comparisons were used to

define nutrient level differences. Data were analyzed with

observed and log transformed values. There were no differences

in probability levels between observed and log transformed

values. Therefore, observed values are reported. The pests

reaching economically important densities were A. gemmatalis and

N. viridula. Results were reported in Funderburk et al. (1991).

Relationships each year between these pests and the predators

were evaluated by simple correlations of the numbers of biggeyed

bugs, damsel bugs, and spiders in each plot on each sample date

with respective numbers of A. gemmatalis and N. virdula.


Insect data for individual treatments are reported in terms

of population densities and cycles which, when combined over

date, describe seasonal population dynamics (Fig. 1, 2, 3, and

4). Population densities are described in terms of daily and

seasonal variation. Population cycles are recognized in figures

in relation to insect numbers and stage, and date or plant

physiological stage.

Population densities of damsel bug nymphs were very low each

year until soybean Growth Stage R4; then, densities increased in

all treatments until R6 in 1986 and R5 in 1987. Population

densities of damsel bug nymphs differed between fertility

treatments in 1986 (F=2.4; df=7,21; P<0.06) but in 1987 was


nonsignificant. Orthogonal comparisons were used to separate the

effecks of P, K, Mg levels on damsel bug nymph population

densities. Estimates were similar for P4 and P3 in 1986, but P3

was greater than P2 and P1 levels (F=13.0; df=1,21; P<0.01) (Fig.


Orthogonal comparisons revealed that density estimates of

damsel bug nymphs were not significantly affected by K or Mg in

1986 or 1987.

The population densities of bigeyed bug nymphs differed

between fertility treatments in 1986 (F=2.3; df=7,21; P<0.07) and

1987 (F=3.3; df=10,30; P<0.01). Orthogonal comparisons were used

to separate the effects of P, K, and Mg levels on bigeyed bug

nymph population densities. Density estimates were significantly

affected by P levels. Population cycles of bigeyed bug nymphs

for treatments at different levels of P, but constant levels of K

and Mg, are shown in Figure 2 to illustrate the effect of P on

density estimates. Mean densities were significantly greater in

treatments at the P4 level compared with densities in treatments

at the P P2, and P, levels in 1986 (F=6.0; df=1,21; P<0.05)and

in 1987 (F=6.5; df=1,30; P<0.05). Mean densities also were

significantly greater in treatments at the P3 level than in

treatments at the Pi and P2 levels in 1986 (F=7.8; df=1,21;

P<0.05), but not significant in 1987.

Density estimates of bigeyed bug nymphs were significantly

affected by Mg in 1987 (Fig. 3), but not in 1986. Population

cycles of bigeyed bug nymphs for treatments at different levels

of Mg, but constant levels of P and K are shown in Figure 3.

Orhtogonal treatment comparisons were used to show that estimates

in 1987 were significantly greater in treatments at Mg2 and Mg3

levels than at the Mg, level (F=6.4; df=1,30; P<0.05), with

estimates significantly different between the Mg2 and Mg3 levels

(F=12.8; df=1,30; P<0.01). Orthogonal comparisons also

revealed that bigeyed bug nymph estimates were not significantly

affected by K levels in 1986 or 1987 (data not shown).

The density estimates of spiders differed between fertility

treatments in 1986 (F=3.3; df=7,21; P<0.05), but not in 1987.

Population cycles of spiders at different levels of P, but

constant levels of K and Mg, are shown in Figure 4. Spider

density estimates were increased by P levels. Mean densities

were significantly greater at the P4 level than at the Pi, P2,

and P3 levels (F=3.1; df=1,21; P<0.10) and at the P3 level than

at the P2 and Pi levels (F=14.9; df=1,21; P<0.01). Orthogonal

comparisons revealed that density estimates of spiders were not

significantly affected by K or Mg in 1986 and 1987 (data not


Population dynamics of damsel bugs, bigeyed bugs, and spiders

in soybean following winter wheat were affected by fertility

levels of P, but not K. Bigeyed bugs were the only predators

affected by Mg level. Influence of fertility on damsel bug and

bigeyed bug population densities in cotton were evaluated by

Adkisson (1958). Treatments consisted of three levels of N-P-K.

Bigeyed bug and damsel bug densities were 3.5X and 1.6X greater,

respectively, in the high N-P-K treatment than in the

unfertilized control treatment; however, these differences were


not significantly (P<0.05) different. No other publication

reporting influences of fertility levels on population dynamics

of damsel bugs, bigeyed bugs and spiders were found.

Economically important pests in this study were A. gemmatalis

and N. viridula. Population densities of these pests and final

soybean yield are contained in Funderburk et al. (1991).

Fertility levels of P greatly affected population dynamics of

both pests. Such effects of soil fertility on pest populations

resulted either (1) directly through influence on plant nutrition

and growth or (2) indirectly by affecting natural enemy

populations (Herzog & Funderburk, 1986).

Population densities of bigeyed bugs and damsel bugs were

significantly (P<0.05) correlated (based on r-values) with A.

gemmatalis and N. viridula population densities in 1986 and 1987

(Table 2). Population densities of spiders were correlated with

A. gemmatalis densities in 1987, but not in 1986. Spider

densities, were not correlated with N. viridula densities in 1986

or 1987. The r-value was positive for each significant

relationship; consequently, predator populations increased

directly as populations of A. gemmatalis and N. viridula


These positive correlations indicate that observed

differences between fertility treatments in predator populations

were in response to the abundance of A. gemmatalis and N.

viridula, which undoubtably were serving as their primary food

source. Therefore it would not be practical, based on our

findings, to alter soil fertility levels to increase biological

control from bigeyed bugs, damsel bugs, and spiders without also

increasing pest injury. Our results also indicate that increased

pest densities from overfertilization (Funderburk et al., 1991)

primarily resulted from direct effect of plant nutrition and

growth on pest populations, not increased natural mortality of

predators. Current recommendations for soil fertility levels

should be followed closely. This reduces the cost of fertilizer

and the likelihood of pest.outbreaks.

Our thanks to E. Brown, Senior Laboratory Technician; A. Brown,
Agricultural Supervisor; A. Manning, Biological Scientist II;
North Fla. Res. and Educ. Ctr., Univ. of Fla. Quincy, FL 32351;
for data anaylsis and illustration, data collection, and plot
preparation and management.
Adkisson, P.L. 1958. The influence of fertilizer applications
on populations of Heliothis zea (Boddie), and certain insect
predators. J. Econ. Entomol. 51,757-759.
Buschman, L.L., Whitcomb, W.H., Hemenway, R.C., Mays, D.L., Ru,
Nguyen, Leppla, N.C., & Smittle, B.J. 1977. Predators of
velvetbean caterpillar eggs in Florida soybean. Environ.
Entomol. 6,403-407.
Correa, B.S., Pannizzi, A.R., Newman, G.G., & Turnipseed, S.G.
1977. Distribuicao geografica e adundancia estacional'dos
principals insectos-pragas da soja e seus predadores. An;:
Soc. Entomol. Brasil 6,40-50.
Crocker, R.L. & Whitcomb, W.H. 1980. Feeding niches of the big-
eyed bugs Geocoris bullatus, G. punctipes, and G. uliginosus
(Hemiptera:Lygaeidae:Geocorinae). Environ. Entomol.
Deitz, L.L., Van Duyn, J.W., Bradley, Jr., J.R., Rabb, R.L.,
Brooks, W.M. & Stinner. R.E. 1976. A guide to the
identification and biology of soybean arthropods in North
Carolina. N.C. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 238. 264 pp.
Elvin, M.K., Stimac, J.L., & Whitcomb, W.H. 1983. Estimating
rates of arthropod predation on velvetbean caterpillar larvae
in soybeans. Fla. Entomol. 66,230-330.
Fehr, W.R. & Caviness, C.E. 1977. Stages of soybean
development. SR80, Iowa State University, pp. 1-11.
Funderburk, J.E. & Mack, T.P. 1987. Abundance and dispersion of
Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae) in Alabama and Florida
soybean fields. Fla. Entomol. 70,432-439.
Funderburk, J.E & Mack, T.P. 1989. Seasonal abundance and
dispersion patterns of damsel bugs (Hemiptera:Nabidae) in
Alabama and Florida soybean fields. J. Entomol. Sci. 24,9-15.
Funderburk, J.E., Teare, I.D., & Rhoads, F. M. 1991. Population
dynamics of soybean insect pests vs. soil nutrient levels.
Crop Sci. 31,1629-1633.
Herzog, D.C. & Funderburk, J.E. 1986. Ecological bases for
habitat management and cultural control, In Ecological theory
and integrated pest management practice. Kogan, M. (ed.)
Wiley Interscience, New York, pp. 217-259.
Irwin, M.E. & Shepard, M. 1980. Sampling predaceous hemiptera
on soybean, In Sampling methods in soybean entomology.
Kogan, M. & Herzog, D.C. (eds.) Springer-Verlag, Inc. New
York, pp. 505-531.
McDaniel, S.G., & Sterling, W.L. 1979. Predator determination
and efficiency on Heliothis virescens eggs in cotton using
32-P. Environ. Entomol. 8,1083-1087.
McCarty, M.T., Shepard, M. & Turnipseed, S.G. 1980.
Identification of predaceous arthropods in soybeans using
autoradiography. Environ. Entomol. 9,199-203.

Musick, G.J. 1985. Management of arthropod pests in con-
servation-tillage systems in the southeastern U.S., In
Proceedings of the 1985 southern region no-till conference,
16-17 July 1985. Hargrove, W.L., Boswell, F.C. & Langdale,
G.W. (eds.) Griffin, GA, pp. 191-204.
Pitre, H.N., Hillhouse, T.L., Donahoe, M.C. & Kinard, H.C.
1978. Beneficial arthropods on soybean and cotton in
different ecosystems in Mississippi. Miss. Agric. For. Exp.
Sta. Tech. Bull. 90,1-9.
Raney, H.G., & Yeargan, K.V. 1977. Seasonal abundance of common
phytophagous and predaceous insects in Kentucky soybeans.
Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci.38,83-87.
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high yield cropping systems in the Southeast. Annual Report,
IFAS, Quincy, FL. Potash and Phosphate Institute, Atlanta,
Rhoads, F.M., and Barnett, R.D. 1990. Soybean yield and
soil-test Phosphorous, Potassium, and Magnesium. Univ. of
Fla. Res. and Educ. Ctr.. Quincy, FL, Res. Rep. NF-90-14.
p. 1-10.
Richman, D.B., Hemenway, R.C. & Whitcomb, W.H. 1980. Field cage
evaluation of predators of the soybean looper, Psuedoplusia
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abundance of predaceous arthropods in soybeans. Environ.
Entomol. 3,985-988.
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americoferus and Nabis roseipennis (Hemiptera:Nabidae) as
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D.C. (Eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 544-558.

Table 1. Soil test results (Mehlich I extractant) fertility plots in
the soybean-fertility-pest experiment in 1986 and 1987 at Quincy, FL.

Year Soil-test levels (mg kg-1) across soil nutrient treatments

1986 P, = 10 P2 = 21 P3 = 35 P = 82
K, = 31 K = 55 K3 = 73
Mg1 = 40 Mg2 = 89 Mg3 = 71

1987 P, = 7 P2 = 15 P = 33 P, = 75
K, = 32 K = 65 K3 = 81
Mg, = 33 Mg2 = 50 Mg3 = 47

Table 2. Correlations in 1986 and 1987 between mean densities per
soil fertility treatment and date of bigeyed bugs, damsel bugs, and
spider and respective mean densities of A. gemmatalis and N. viridu-
la, Quincy FL.
1986 1987
Comparison n r P n r P

Adult + Nymphal Bigeyed Bugs
vs. Larval A. gemmatalis

Adult + Nymphal Damsel Bugs
vs. Larval A. gemmatalis

Adult + Immature Spiders
vs. Larval A. gemmatalis

Total Predators
vs. Larval A. gemmatalis

Adult + Nymphal Bigeyed Bugs
vs. Adult + Nymphal
N. viridula

Adult + Nymphal Damsel Bugs
vs. Adult + Nymphal
N. viridula

Adult + Immature Spiders
vs. Adult + Nymphal
N. viridula

Total Predators
vs. Adult + Nymphal
N. viridula

64 0.34 0.007

64 0.83 0.001

64 0.00 0.98

64 0.39 0.002

64 0.24 0.06

64 0.67 0.001

64 -0.17 0.19

64 0.23 0.07

77 0.30 0.007

77 0.37 0.001

77 0.70 0.001

77 0.31 0.005

77 0.29 0.01

77 0.23 0.04

77 0.10 0.38

77 0.25 0.03

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