Group Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Title: Canola - Triticale rotation and response to nitrogen phosphorus, and potassium
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066100/00001
 Material Information
Title: Canola - Triticale rotation and response to nitrogen phosphorus, and potassium
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 23 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhoads, Fred ( Frederick Milton )
Barnett, Ronald David, 1943-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Canola -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops -- Fertilization   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.M. Rhoads and R.D. Barnett.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066100
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71172307

Full Text

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NFREC Res. Rpt. 92-7


Canola Triticale Rotation and


Response to Nitrogen Phosphorus, and Potassium


F. M. Rhoads and R. D. Barn t Central sJce


/ 11ersity of Fl

North Forida Research and Education Center
North Florida Research and Educationz Center


Quincy








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


I TUCKNG RESEACH E"PAIj~~


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Canola is a possible alternative crop that grows during the

cool season in North Florida. Since it is a new crop to the area

no data are available to describe the response of canola to

fertilization in North Florida. A rotation program that includes

canola once every four years is recommended in order to minimize

yield loss from diseases. This study was started in 1989 to test

canola response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)

and a two-year rotation between triticale and canola with soybean

as a summer crop.

Two canola varieties, and two triticale varieties have been

grown each year. Delta canola has been grown every year while the

second variety was Ceres in 1989-90, Hyola-40 in 1990-91 and

Printol in 1991-92. The two triticale varieties used each year

were Florida 201 and Sunland.

Ceres has a high cold requirement and is not suited to the

North Florida climate. Hyola-40 flowers in January and has a high

potential for yield loss due to frozen flower buds and embryos.

Delta produced higher yields than Ceres and Hyola-40 but lower

yields than Printol.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two canola varieties (Delta and Printol) were planted 1 Nov

1991 in NFREC fertility plots where triticale was grown in 1990-91.

Delta is a product of Allelix Crop Technologies and Printol (CC

310) is marketed by Cargill Seed Co. Row width was 8 inches and

seeding rate was 10 seed per foot of row. Soil type was Norfolk

loamy fine sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Typic Kandiudult).

Irrigation was applied as needed to reduce plant-water stress.









Harvest dates were 14 May 1992 for Delta and 20 May 1992 for

Printol.

Triticale (Florida 201 and Sunland) was planted 6 Dec 1991 in

plots adjacent to the canola where canola was grown in 1990-91.

Harvest date for both varieties was 12 June 1992. Seeding rate was

16 seed per foot of row with 8-inch row width.

Fertilizer treatments for triticale are shown in Table 1 and

those for canola in Table 2. Preplant fertilizer consisted of 46%

triple superphosphate and sulfate of potash applied broadcast to

supply P and K rates shown\for each treatment. Two applications of

K were made to the canola 1/2 preplant and 1/2 21 Jan. All N

applications were broadcast as topdressing.

Ten 1-inch by 6-inch soil cores were composite from each plot

of triticale and canola on 8 Jan 1992. Soil samples were air-dried

and ground before extracting with Mehlich-1 (double acid)

extractant. Soil analyses were carried out according to University

of Florida Extension Soil-testing Laboratory procedures (Hanlon and

Devore, 1989).

Plant samples of canola were collected on 2 Mar 1992 which was

near the beginning of flowering of both varieties. Whole plants

(above ground portion) from a three foot section of row in the

center of each plot were cut at ground level and dried at 700C. Dry

plant samples were ground to pass a 20-mesh screen and nitrogen was

determined by micro-kjeldahl procedures. Samples were dry ashed at

500C and dissolved in dilute HCl for P and K determination.

Phosphorus was determined by the molybdenum blue method and K was

determined with a flame emission spectrophotometer. Nutrient


















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uptake was calculated from concentration of each nutrient and dry

weight of samples from 3 ft of row.

The experimental design was a split-plot incorporated into a

randomized complete block with four replications. Whole plots were

fertilizer treatments and sub-plots were cultivars. Analysis of

variance was used to calculate least significant differences (Isd

0.05) between varieties and between fertilizer treatments (Freed,

1988).

RESULTS

Yield of Fla 201 triticale was 48.4 bu/acre and of Sunland was

42.1. These are overall averages and the difference between

cultivars is significant at P < 0.01. Response of triticale to N

rates between 0 and 120 lb/acre was dramatic, averaging as much as

0.45 bu of grain per pound of N. However, the response between 120

and 180 was only 0.11 bu/lb of N for Fla-201 and was not

significant (P > 0.05) for Sunland (Table 1, Fig. 1). There was no

difference in yield of either cultivar between two and three N

applications (Fig. 2).

Response to P was significant (P < 0.05) for both cultivars,

however, the response for Fla-201 occurred between 0 and 75 lb

P205/acre and between 75 and 150 for Sunland (Fig. 3). There was no

response to K for Fla-201 but Sunland yield increased 7.4 bu/acre

between 0 and 150 lb K20/acre (Fig. 4).



Canola yield was not increased by N rates above 120 lb/acre

(Table 2, Fig. 5). Yield was higher for both cultivars with two N

applications rather than four (Fig. 6). Tissue N concentration of














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canola did not vary as much in proportion as yield in response to

N rate (Fig. 7, Table 3 and 4).

Both canola cultivars produced a dramatic yield increase

between 0 and 75 lb P2O5/acre but only Printol produced a yield

increase between 75 and 150 lb/acre (Fig. 8). Tissue P

concentration gave a response to P rates similar to the yield

response (Fig. 9). Yield response of canola to K rates was not

significant but 150 lb K20/acre increased tissue K concentration

from less than 2% to more than 4% (Fig. 10 and 11).

DISCUSSION

Both canola and triticale produced 90% or more of maximum

yield with 120 lb of N/acre. Triticale produced the same yield

with three applications of N as with two applications, the N rate

was 120 lb/acre in each case. However, two applications of N

produced 19 and 36% more yield of Printol and Delta canola with 120

lb N/acre than four applications with the same N rate. The

critical N concentration of each canola cultivar appears to be

about 2.5% when plants start to flower.

Yield response to P was much more dramatic for canola than for

triticale. Yield increase for triticale ranged from 24 to 40%

while canola responded with a maximum increase of over 300%. The

critical P concentration of each canola cultivar appears to be

about 0.25% when plants start to flower.

The minimal response of triticale and canola to K fertilizer

is attributed to translocation of K from lower soil horizons to the

surface by the deep root system of canola. The basis of this

assumption is shown in soil analysis data. Triticale was grown









where canola was growing the year before. Soil samples taken from

1991-92 triticale plots had medium K levels in zero K fertilizer

plots whereas the same plots had very low K levels (Hanlon et al.,

1990) before canola was grown in 1990-91. The 1991-92 canola plots

were growing canola in 1989-90 and there was some carry over

influence on K response of canola. However, K fertilizer more than

doubled the K concentration of canola compared to unfertilized

plots. It appears that the critical K concentration of each canola

cultivar is about 2.0% when plants start to flower.

This was the first year canola was grown on the same plots

where it was grown once two years before. The yield of Delta was

near what it was in the first and second years of the test.

Maximum yields of Delta were as follows: first year 32 bu/acre,

second year 31 bu/acre, and third year 28 bu/acre. There were no

disease outbreaks observed.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural

Experiment Station and the Potash and Phosphate Institute.








REFERENCES

1 Freed, R. D. 1988. MSTAT-C: A microcomputer program for the

design, management, and analysis of agronomic research

experiments. Michigan State University.

2 Hanlon, E. A. and J. M. Devore. 1989. IFAS extension soil

testing laboratory chemical procedures and training manual.

Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. IFAS. Univ. of Fla. Cir. 812.

3 Hanlon, E. A., G. Kidder, and B. L. McNeal. 1990. Soil,

container media, and water testing interpretations. Fla.

Coop. Ext. Serv. IFAS. Univ. of Fla. Cir. 817.















APPENDIX
























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