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Group Title: Research report - North Florida Research and Education Center ; 88-9
Title: Planting date influence on yield, height, and harvest date of selected soybean cultivars
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Planting date influence on yield, height, and harvest date of selected soybean cultivars
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Herzog, D. C ( Donald C )
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subject: Soybean -- Planting -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by D. C. Herzog, ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066071
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71144584

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OES







Planting Date Influence on Yield, Height, and Harvest Date

of Selected Soybean Cultivars








D. C. Herzog, D. L. Wright, F. M. Shokes, and I. D. Teare


~1


D. C. Herzog, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology; D. L. Wright, Dept. of

Agronomy; F. M. Shokes, Dept. of Plant Pathology; and I. D. Teare, Dept. of

Agronomy; North Florida Res. and Educ. Center, Quincy, FL 32351, Institute of

Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Research Report NF-88-9.


- */









INTRODUCTION

Soybean are adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions which

makes them suitable to many farming operations in the S.E. Soybean can be

planted in double cropping programs and make high yields especially if grown

after small grain (wheat, rye, oats). Double cropping soybean after soybean

is usually accomplished by planting a group III cultivar that generally has

little resistance to nematodes or diseases common to the southeast. These

group III Midwestern soybean cultivars are usually planted in mid-March,

harvested in mid-July, and then the second crop of soybean, usually a group

VIII cultivar, is planted immediately after harvest of the first crop. The

second crop will usually mature in the first part of November. While some

producers have achieved excellent results, performance is often erratic, and

recommendation of this practice on large scale would be premature.

It is important to know the yield potential of soybean cultivars when

planted at different dates whether grown as the only crop in a season or after

small grain or corn, or attempting to produce two soybean crops. Many times

growers are flexible as to planting date and could plant anytime from April to

July but need to know the optimum date of planting for different cultivars.

Soybean are photoperiod sensitive; that is they flower in response to

increased hours of darkness or shorter days. Planting in early April when

days are relatively short, shortens the days from emergence to bloom. Also,

plant heights are shorter when planted in either April or July than May or

June plantings. Plant heights and yields of all cultivars ranging from group

III to group IX soybean were taller and yielded more when planted in May or

June than any other time. The same cultivar of soybean planted in early April

may mature within two to three weeks of the cultivar planted in early August.

Therefore, early planting of the adapted cultivar does not free land much

sooner than planting at the optimum date and yields may be sacrificed.










or late planted soybean seeded into stubble may have harvest problems.

Pods are set so low to the ground that the combine has to cut through straw

stubble or corn stalks or whatever residue is there. In conventionally

prepared fields, soil may splash on the lower pods from shorter soybean during

rains or irrigation resulting in soil borne pathogens infecting the soybean

and lowering the seed quality.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted at the North Florida Research and Education

Center at Quincy, Florida on an Orangeburg loamy sand clayeyy, Kaolinitic,

thermic, Typic Paleudult). The experimental site was pre-plant treated with 1

1/2 pint of Treflan per acre and incorporated by cross disking with a gang

disk. Forty-three lines of soybean were planted in 1978 and sixty-seven lines

were planted in 1979. Planting dates in 1978 were 4/3, 4/17, 5/1, 5/30, 6/12,

6/26, 7/10, 7/24, 8/7, and 4/11, 4/24, 5/16, 5/29, 6/8, 6/21, 7/5, 7/31, 8/10

in 1979. Soybean seed was planted in excess at one-inch depth with a John

Deere 71 flex planter and then the plants were thinned to 10 plants per foot

of row two weeks after emergence. Spacing between rows was 36 inches and

harvested plot area was from 2 center rows 5 feet in length. The cultivars

were selected from Maturity Groups ranging from 3 to 9 (see Table 1). Soybean

were grown with standard cultural practices described by Hinson (1967) and

Whitty (1974 and 1975).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Yield, plant height and date of harvest data are presented for soybean

cultivars in the following tables. Optimum planting dates for highest yields

and tallest plants may be obtained from May 10 to June 15. Data from 1978

does show that dry fall weather results in higher yields for early May

plantings while years with an ample supply of fall rains results in best

yields from May 15 to June 15.









Planting rates of soybean should range from 35 to 50 pounds per acre. Row

widths can be varied with early or late planting to insure full canopy closure

by the beans to help control weeds. Plantings made before May 10 to after

June 15 should be in thirty-inch rows or less. Little yield advantage has

resulted from the use of narrow row widths when planted from May 15 to June

15. Plant spacing in the row should range from 4 to 7 plants in a 30 or 36

inch row. This would result from planting about 45 pounds of seed per acre

with 15 to 20% seedling mortality resulting from poor seed quality and insect

damage.

Soybean planted later than June 15 may have lower yields than early

planted (before May 15) soybean due to dry weather that often occurs in

September, October and November. Generally, insect, disease and weed

pressures are more severe in late plantings than in early plantings which

requires more labor and chemicals to control these pests and makes late

soybean more expensive to grow.

Cultivars that are most adapted to North Florida conditions and give

highest yields are in 6, 7, and 8 maturity group.




Table 1. Yields of Selected Soybean Cultivars Planted over a Four Month Period at Quincy,
Florida, 1979.

Year 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79
Maturity Month &
Group Cultivar Day 4/11 4/24 5/16 5/29 6/8 6/21 7/5 7/31 8/10
bu/A

3 Williams 5.7 0.1 10.3 19.6 14.7 18.9 18.7 13.5 6.8
4 SRF 400 6.4 7.9 0.3 20.5 16.2 14.6 18.8 10.1 7.7
4 SRF 450 3.3 0.6 5.9 15.0 20.3 23.9 26.6 11.5 13.7
4 Mitchell 5.5 9.8 7.0 8.1 15.3 17.7 21.8 13.1 11.7
4 Clark 63 5.5 3.9 11.3 15.9 20.1 11.6 16.6 8.2 4.8
5 Hill 7.0 23.1 13.8 14.8 18.6 16.8 24.2 7.5 7.7
5 Essex 15.1 20.9 12.3 16.2 22.2 20.5 23.6 9.7 11.9
5 Mack 15.7 7.1 14.0 19.9 6.6 21.4 28.9 10.3 10.3
5 Forrest 11.5 8.5 18.7 19.9 27.6 16.1 27.4 7.5 9.5
5 Dare 16.9 26.6 22.5 26.2 30.1 24.4 31.5 11.8 10.7
5 Coker 136 5.7 22.9 34.1 31.9 38.8 30.2 31.3 11.3 10.4
5 McNair 500 13.9 15.0 27.7 19.7 33.9 28.8 22.7 13.4 8.7
5 Bedford 5.7 11.8 17.0 24.4 23.0 28.7 26.6 9.2 8.8
5 Bay 14.8 12.7 16.9 24.9 30.1 27.7 31.0 15.1 13.3
5 Celeste 28.5 46.2 40.4 33.1 33.7 30.2 30.7 12.4 10.8
5 Dorman 20.1 28.9 18.5 20.8 30.2 20.4 30.9 16.4 16.0
5 FFR 556 17.3 26.5 25.0 32.4 36.6 41.7 34.6 16.1 13.5
5 Shore 2.3 12.1 16.6 23.2 28.4 24.2 21.9 11.2 8.1
5 York 8.3 15.7 16.4 15.9 14.6 20.5 24.4 9.5 9.0
6 Hood 9.9 13.9 23.3 27.7 30.5 19.8 15.9 7.2 8.1
6 Hood 75 11.7 27.4 14.4 36.1 22.6 38.4 24.7 10.0 9.9
6 FFR 666 7.5 6.6 22.2 17.0 32.0 21.5 11.7 6.0
6 McNair 600 14.7 11.6 30.7 29.1 32.7 7.7 6.0 9.7
6 Lee 68 2.3 13.7 18.8 29.5 30.6 29.2 26.2 10.1 6.9
6 Lee 74 1.1 8.9 20.4 27.9 32.7 21.9 24.8 8.1 4.0
6 Hale 3 29.3 33.1 30.5 30.3 23.9 23.4 33.3 14.4 9.9
6 Coker 156 6.3 24.2 17.1 25.9 36.0 32.8 28.1 8.5 5.3
6 Centennial 5.4 20.7 28.8 34.7 36.2 35.5 35.3 11.5 7.0
6 Lancer 16.4 27.2 19.5 30.4 37.3 34.6 32.8 15.9 5.2
6 La 76-8632 23.7 31.9 38.0 36.1 32.1 36.6 10.6 5.2
6 Pickett 71 12.1 19.6 20.3 29.5 39.5 33.5 32.9 10.8 8.6
6 Tracy 9.9 18.6 34.2 37.9 39.5 28.6 29.7 8.5 6.6
6 Davis 26.1 29.3 41.1 35.7 47.4 31.4 36.2 10.5 7.0
6 RA 601 9.2 16.4 14.9 24.8 26.4 25.3 35.5 15.2 6.6
7 Hale 3 29.3 33.1 30.5 30.3 23.9 23.4 33.3 14.4 9.9
7 Brysoy 9 17.4 13.3 22.8 25.6 36.5 34.5 33.4 11.3 7.9
7 Hale 7 26.4 18.8 30.8 36.6 37.3 28.8 29.5 11.2 6.4
7 FFR 777 15.7 29.4 38.9 38.9 41.0 33.2 37.2 10.9 9.9
7 Ransom 7.4 25.4 42.1 39.6 45.4 36.1 38.9 16.6 10.9
7 Braxton 11.5 20.8 34.2 37.9 41.1 30.5 33.3 11.6 7.5
7 Coker 237 5.5. 9.0 28.5 31.4 40.5 30.2 33.0 7.9 6.3
7 Bragg 12.4 30.5 30.9 36.9 36.4 39.7 34.0 12.8 11.3
7 GaSoy 17 9.9 27.5 35.5 35.3 46.4 36.6 35.9 11.3 11.9
7 Govan 11.1 23.8 36.1 33.9 32.5 30.2 27.3 8.5 7.5
7 Bossier 20.2 21.9 24.6 27.0 36.4 26.0 24.8 7.7 2.4
7 AP 70 16.6 19.7 32.7 32.4 43.3 30.7 18.4 8.8 4.1
7 McNair 800 20.3 24.9 29.6 29.9 47.4 33.2 28.0 7.7 7.7
8 Hutton 15.2 31.5 39.8 42.6 44.8 32.6 33.6 10.6 9.2
8 Coker 338 3.0 17.4 42.0 39.9 51.5 31.3 39.6 5.1 9.0
8 Hardee 11.7 33.1 33.9 34.8 42.7 30.0 39.3 8.3 2.8
8 Coker 488 13.5 31.0 44.0 42.2 46.4 46.2 43.3 15.0 8.1
8 Coker 102 15.5 27.9 35.0 33.1 35.9 29.4 36.4 9.4 5.7
8 Cobb 17.7 32.2 45.5 44.4 60.5 44.6 41.8 12.3 6.6
8 Mineira 24.4 30.6 36.8 35.1 29.5 40.2 33.5 7.1 0.6
8 Terra Vig 708 9.2 13.2 37.0 37.0 39.7 32.3 31.7 11.8 8.4
8 Brooks 18.1 24.8 41.3 36.0 48.3 34.8 37.7 9.8 8.9
8 Dowling 19.1 43.9 42.3 40.0 59.8 44.4 40.2 14.4 9.2
8 RA 700 18.1 26.2 34.4 32.7 36.4 40.6 28.4 12.8 10.6
8 D75 10230 1.2 17.3 26.7 26.9 32.0 23.8 25.9 4.1 4.9
8 Bienville 6.0 22.9 24.2 24.4 30.6 -
9 Vicoja 27.8 36.5 24.8 28.6 35.7 28.1 26.2 9.1 3.1
9 Jupiter 34.0 38.9 33.9 29.0 39.3 38.6 27.3 2.3 0.8
9 Santa Rosa 43.8 45.5 24.0 43.9 50.5 41.5 35.5 11.7 2.3
9 UF V-1 33.4 46.1 32.7 37.4 43.1 44.0 38.1 11.2 1.2
9 F76-6679 27.7 31.1 25.7 36.4 34.5 32.0 28.7 9.0 3.8
9 F76-6558 27.5 37.6 32.9 26.3 33.9 39.5 30.6 8.3 4.1
9 F76-6554 30.8 27.0 40.0 37.3 33.9 25.9 5.5 3.5

(-)Indiates cultivar not planted on that date.






Table 2. Two-Year Yield Average (1978-1979) of Selected
Each Interval Planting Date.


Soybean Cultivars at


April April May May June June July July Aug
Cultivar 3-11 17-24 1-16 29-30 8-12 21-26 5-10 24-31 7-10
_---------------bu-bu/A---------

SRF 400 6.4 12.8 13.1 26.3 21.1 21.8 20.0 10.8 7.4
SRF 450 3.3 9.5 23.8 26.8 26.8 27.7 22.4 12.4 10.7
Mitchell 4.4 10.7 15.1 25.3 24.6 25.6 24.5 10.9 9.2
Hill 5.4 22.1 22.9 24.5 24.7 20.3 18.1 7.6 5.1
Essex 12.5 20.8 29.5 35.5 31.5 22.5 20.9 8.3 7.4
Mack 11.1 19.3 29.0 34.3 21.2 24.5 22.5 10.7 8.2
Forrest 8.2 12.7 32.8 28.3 36.3 23.3 24.7 7.5 10.3
Dare 17.2 32.5 23.0 29.0 38.3 28.9 27.4 11.6 8.9
Coker 136 8.6 29.3 45.2 35.9 43.3 33.1 26.8 12.5 12.2
McNair 500 26.9 27.7 39.8 30.2 38.8 33.1 20.4 17.7 7.7
Bedford 3.1 21.1 34.3 34.2 36.1 27.9 21.2 8.2 9.9
Hood 20.5 25.9 37.5 34.3 41.1 41.1 17.2 7.8 -
FFR 666 8.0 10.0 30.5 27.2 27.2 21.2 10.0 6.0
McNair 600 -- 18.7 35.9 45.7 39.6 33.7 14.7 12.1 8.5
Lee 68 3.2 27.6 36.8 39.9 40.0 33.3 23.3 13.7 8.1
Lee 74 0.8 17.6 34.9 37.2 36.1 27.0 23.0 8.8 4.8
Hale 3 29.0 42.9 36.8 37.3 35.5 30.1 29.0 15.0 7.0
Coker 156 3.9 25.0 41.0 35.1 39.4 35.7 25.0 12.7 5.4
Centennial 15.6 33.6 45.2 39.9 36.4 39.7 30.8 13.3 7.3
Lancer 24.3 44.1 41.3 34.5 45.1 38.0 30.9 18.5 7.1
Picket 71 11.9 30.2 39.1 37.5 42.0 34.6 26.3 11.3 6.3
Tracy 20.6 36.0 45.0 45.2 42.2 27.8 21.8 8.2
Davis 34.1 45.9 51.4 44.2 49.5 18.6 27.5 12.7 8.3
Hale 3 29.0 42.9 36.8 37.3 35.5 30.4 29.0 15.0
Brysoy 9 24.2 30.3 39.0 30.1 41.0 30.4 31.4 13.5 6.6
Hale 7 28.4 31.9 42.8 39.5 38.0 34.4 27.9 12.6 7.3
FFR 777 11.8 20.6 40.6 41.0 43.3 34.3 32.2 10.2 7.2
Ransom 7.6 23.6 36.5 42.5 47.4 37.1 35.5 14.4 6.8
Coker 237 13.7 24.7 40.9 41.5 44.0 50.1 28.3 9.0 5.0
Bragg 18.9 42.3 42.1 41.7 39.2 37.0 32.1 14.9 9.1
GaSoy 17 13.3 38.8 43.1 44.4 47.3 27.2 45.4 12.2 7.5
AP 70 29.3 36.5 44.7 41.4 43.3 29.1 18.7 11.2 4.7
Hutton 27.9 41.5 45.9 44.8 42.6 27.3 24.9 10.7 6.4
Coker 338 19.1 31.8 47.1 43.7 46.8 26.6 28.5 7.9 3.5
Hardee 14.0 25.6 28.0 33.0 33.8 22.9 27.0 9.8 3.5
Coker 488 21.4 35.9 44.8 42.7 46.6 34.4 29.7 12.4 7.4
Coker 102 11.1 20.2 25.1 27.8 32.2 19.2 24.4 10.0 6.9
Cobb 15.2 34.6 35.2 36.4 41.8 27.0 29.0 12.4 8.3
Mineira 12.3 15.7 12.9 19.0 15.9 21.3 31.3 8.9 4.1
Vicoja 14.1 20.0 10.8 18.4 19.7 16.6 13.1 8.6 4.3
Jupiter 17.3 20.3 14.0 17.8 23.9 25.0 18.6 7.4 6.1
Santa Rosa 21.9 23.1 8.7 26.3 27.9 23.2 23.1 10.9 6.3
UF V-1 16.8 23.6 12.1 21.4 25.6 25.2 23.5 11.1 4.1






Table 3. Maturity Dates When Cultivars Were Harvested from Specified Planting
Dates, 1979.


Planting Dates
Cultivar 4/11 4/24 5/16 5/29 6/8 6/21 7/5 7/31 8/10

----Date Harvested -----------------

Williams 8/16 9/19 9/19 9/19 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/30 11/9

Forrest 9/19 9/19 9/19 10/2 10/2 10/24 10/24 11/7 11/9

Centennial 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 11/7 11/23

Bragg 9/19 10/2 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 11/7 11/23

Cobb 11/7 11/7 11/7 11/7 11/7 11/7 11/21 11/21 11/29



Table 4. Height (inches) of Selected Soybean Cultivars at Maturity from
Specified Dates, 1979.


Planting Dates
Cultivar 4/11 4/24 5/16 5/29 6/8 6/21 7/5 7/31 8/10

(height-inches)

Williams 16 22 23 30 33 27 23 18 12

Davis 30 30 32 33 38 26 26 17 13

Ransom 10 12 20 23 32 21 25 17 12

Braxton 11 17 28 31 32 26 24 15 11

Centennial 12 16 25 22 31 27 27 16 13

Bragg 11 22 31 33 33 28 27 15 16

Forrest 11 13 23 23 26 22 25 16 18

Coker 338 11 13 31 36 32 26 25 15 11

Coker 488 10 17 35 39 34 31 30 15 15

Cobb 16 23 38 39 42 33 34 17 15

Hutton 11 17 30 33 32 25 24 13 13

Santa Rosa 46 43 48 47 45 41 35 19 20




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