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Group Title: Research report - North Florida Research and Education Center ; 87-7
Title: The interaction of corn hybrids with starter fertilizer in relation to corn yield, lodging and dry down
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066062/00001
 Material Information
Title: The interaction of corn hybrids with starter fertilizer in relation to corn yield, lodging and dry down
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Kidd, B. T ( Brian T )
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Fertilizers   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by I.D. Teare, D.L. Wright, and B.T. Kidd.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066062
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71016501

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S7-7









THE INTERACTION OF CORN HYBRIDS WITH STARTER FERTILIZER

IN RELATION TO CORN YIELD, LODGING AND DRY DOWN'/








I. D. Teare, D. L. Wright, and B. T. Kidd"/















1/Contribution from the Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci. Florida Exp. Stn., Univ.

of Florida, and the North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy, FL 32351.

Research Report NF 87-7.

'/Research Scholar/Scientist of Agronomy, Professor of Agronomy and Biologist

Scientist II, University of Florida, North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr.,

Quincy, FL 32351.









INTRODUCTION

The temperature differential at time of planting undoubtedly contributes

to the differences in N and P uptake by corn. In the lower coastal plains,

optimum corn planting dates range from late February to mid-March (Ball, 1981;

Wright, Teare and Kidd, 1987). During this period, the soil temperature

fluctuates widely and is often low for several consecutive days. As planting

date is moved earlier to take advantage of the increased yield potential one

can expect greater responses from starter fertilizer containing N and P.

Slower than normal growth with low soil temperatures is probably due to a

combination of poor root growth (Knoll, et. al., 1964; Beauchamp and Lathwell,

1967) and low nutrient availability (Ketcheson, 1968; Reyes, et. al., 1977).

Poor seedling growth resulting from low nutrient availability in cold soils

can occur irrespective of residual soil fertility levels (Touchton and

Hargrove, 1983). Placing small amounts of soluble fertilizers in close prox-

imity to the seed at planting, commonly referred to as starter fertilizer

applications, will help alleviate the detrimental effects of cool weather on

early corn growth (Bates, et al., 1966; Ketcheson, 1968).

Nutrients used in starter fertilizer studies have consisted of various

N-P-K combinations, but a strict definable starter fertilizer combination does

not exist. Both N and P are considered to be primary ingredients in starter

fertilizers because of slow mineralization of organic to inorganic N (Cassman

and Munns, 1980) and slow release of solid to solution-phase-P (Arambarri, P.,

and 0. Talibudeen, 1959; Wallingford, W., 1978).

The objectives of this study were to determine if a starter fertilizer

containing N and P would improve growth, yield, dry-down and reduce lodging in

high yield corn in the subtropics and to determine how various hybrids would

interact with starter fertilizer.








MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was planted March 28, 1985 and March 24, 1986 at the North

Florida Research and Education Center at Quincy, Florida, in a conventional

seedbed [Norfolk sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous thermic Typic

Paleudult)] using the plow-layer management system for high yield irrigated

corn (Wright and Rhoads, 1980). The area was fertilized 2-25-85 and 3-3-86

with 1.12 Mg ha~ of 5-10-15. Ammonium polyphosphate (10-34-0) was applied on

the surface of the row at planting at 94 L ha- as the starter fertilizer.

Zinc, Mn, Cu, and B chelates were applied to all plots at 7 L ha-. Dual (1.7

L ha~1) and Aatrex (1.7 L ha~1) were applied on March 29, 1985 and April 14,

1986. Rows were 7 m long and trimmed to 6.1 m for harvest. Corn was irri-

gated whenever tensiometers placed at 0.15 m level indicated 0.02 MPa. A 25%

N solution with 3% S was applied in a band near the row on April 18, 1985 and

April 24, 1986 at 140 kg N ha-. Paraquat was applied as a directed spray for

weed control on May 8 both years at 1.2 L ha- plus X-77. Another 112 kg N

ha1 was injected through the irrigation system with 1.12 kg ha1 of B on May

13 both years. Corn plants were thinned around the first of April each year

to 12150 plants ha-1. Orthene was applied at 1.12 kg ha1 through the irri-

gation system about June 20 for stink bug control each year.

Grain moisture was determined on 2 ears per hybrid per replication at

random twice weekly from July 14 until a grain moisture content below 25% was

recorded. The ears from each plot were placed in plastic bags stored in the

shade until all plots were harvested and then shelled and moisture measured

with a Burrows model 700 digital moisture computer.

Grain yields were harvested from the two center rows (6.1 m long) and

corrected to 15.5% moisture.








Lodging scores were calculated by counting the numbers of leaning or

horizontal stalks and dividing by the number of stalks per row x 100.










REFERENCES

Arambarri, P., and 0. Talibudeen. 1959b. Factors influencing the

isotopically exchangeable phosphate in soils. Part III. The effect of

temperature in some calcareous soils. Plant Soil 11:364-376.

Ball, D. M. 1981. Alabama 1981 production guide for non-irrigated corn for

grain. Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University, Auburn,

Alabama.

Bates, T. E., M. H. Miller, and D. Singh. 1966. Fertilizer placed with corn

seed reexamined. Crops Soils 18:20.

Beauchamp, E. G., and D. J. Lathwell. 1967. Root-zone temperature effects on

the early development of maize. Plant Soil 26:224-234.

Cassman, K. G., and D. N. Munns. 1980. Nitrogen mineralization as affected

by soil moisture, temperature, and depth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

44:1233-1237.

Ketcheson, J. W. 1968. Effect of controlled air and soil temperature and

starter fertilizer on growth and nutrient composition of corn (Zea mays

L.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 32:531-534.

Knoll, H. A., D. J. Lathwell, and N. C. Brady. 1964. The influence of

root-zone temperature on the growth and nutrient composition of corn (Zea

mays L.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:400-403.

Reyes, D. M., L. H. Stolzy, and C. K. Labanauskas. 1977. Temperature and

oxygen effects in soil on nutrient uptake in jojoba seedlings. Agron. J.

69:647-650.

Touchton, J. T., and W. L. Hargrove. 1983. Grain sorghum response to starter

fertilizers. Better Crops Plant Food 67:1-3.

Wallingford, W. 1978. Phosphorus in starter fertilizer. In Phosphorus for

Agriculture, p. 62-79. Potash/Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, GA.










Wright, D. L., I. D. Teare, and B. T. Kidd. 1987. Phenological events of

corn in relation to time of planting. Research Report No. NF 87-3 from

North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy, FL, Univ. of Florida, Agr. Exp.

Stn., IFAS.

Wright, D. L., and F. M. Rhoads. 1980. Management practices for 300 bushel

corn. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser., Agronomy Facts 108:1-7.




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