• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Agronomy facts: Results of 1983...
 Increasing wheat yields through...
 Florida 302 wheat - A new high...
 Florida 502 oats - A new crown...
 Florida 401 rye - An early forage...
 Plant protection pointers
 The Hessian fly as a pest of wheat...
 Weed control in small grain
 Triticale grain in swine diets
 Feeding wheat to swine
 Wheat management
 Agronomy facts: Wheat for grazing...














Group Title: Research report - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; no. 85-12
Title: Small grain field day
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066060/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small grain field day
Series Title: Research report (North Florida Research and Educatioin Center (Quincy, Fla.))
Physical Description: 40 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Grain -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Small Grain Field Day", Thursday, April 25, 1985.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066060
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71282084

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Agronomy facts: Results of 1983 wheat trials in North Florida and recommendations for 1984 season
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Increasing wheat yields through intensive management
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Florida 302 wheat - A new high yielding soft red winter wheat adapted to the southern United States
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Florida 502 oats - A new crown rust resistant early maturing oat for North Florida
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Florida 401 rye - An early forage type adapted to minimum tillage - Multiple cropping systems
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Plant protection pointers
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The Hessian fly as a pest of wheat in Florida
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Weed control in small grain
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Triticale grain in swine diets
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Feeding wheat to swine
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Wheat management
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Agronomy facts: Wheat for grazing and grain
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text
AY 85-12


**


SMALL


FIELD


GRAIN


DAY


THURSDAY,APRIL 25, 1985


1:30P.M.


NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH EDUCATION CENTER
QUINCY, FLORIDA


Sponsored by
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida


I






PR 0GRAM

Small Grain Field Day
April 25, 1985
1:30 p.m. (Eastern Time)
NFREC, Quincy

Presiding: Dr. Don Herzog, Center Director NFREC Quincy


PROGRAM


Dr. Ron Barnett


Dr. David Wright



Dr. Fred Shokes


Dr. Bob Mfyer


HIGHLIG H TS


Small Grain Breeder, NFREC Quincy.
Selection new varieties.


Variety


Extension Agronomist, NFREC Quincy.
Management consideration for high yields of
wheat.


Plant Pathologist, NFREC, Quincy.
control in small grains.

Animal Scientist, AREC Marianna.
small grains as livestock feed.


Disease


Use of


Dr. Fred Rhoads



Dr. Richard Sprenkel


Soil Scientist, NFREC
fertility management for
yields.


- Quincy.
optimum small


IPM Specialist, NFREC Quincy.
insect control in small grains.


Weed and


Soil
grain








Florida Cooperative Extension Service


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES



AGRONOMY FACTS
September 22, 1983 Number 148

RESULTS OF 1983 WHEAT TRIALS IN NORTH FLORIDA
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 1984 SEASON


Data on grain yield, test weight, heading date, plant height, percent
lodging, and disease reaction of 40 varieties of wheat grown in 4 tests
across North Florida in 1983 are presented in Tables 1 and 2. A summary
of wheat grain yields over a four year period on North Florida is presented
in Table 3. For a variety to be on the recommended list it must be in
variety trials for at least three years. The performance of a variety
over the three years along with it's disease resistance forms the information
on which decisions are made to recommend a variety. A variety is not put on
the recommended list unless seed are commercially available in Florida.
Wheat is a risky crop in Florida and is especially risky if an unadapted
disease susceptible variety is planted. If seed of "recommended" varieties
cannot be found, serious consideration should be given to not planting wheat
that year. A list of the recommended varieties is presented below with a
brief description of each one. Descriptions of the other varieties are also
included for your information.

Disease continues to be one of the major factors limiting wheat yields
in Florida. Disease resistance is one of the major factors in deciding
whether to recommend a new variety in. Florida. Many of the states farther
north do not have high levels of plant diseases, therefore, they can success-
fully grow varieties that do not have much resistance. Most varieties have
good resistance to disease when they are first released but become susceptible
to new races of diseases developed. It is important in Florida to abandon
older disease susceptible varieties and adopt new disease resistance varieties
as soon as seed become available in order to minimize losses caused by disease
organisms. Evaluation of disease resistance on wheat varieties changes each
year. It is important to study this data each year in order to select the
varieties holding up best.

It is important to plant more than one variety to reduce potential losses
to diseases.. When growing as many as three hundred acres of wheat, at least
3 and preferably 4 recommended varieties should be plant. Growing more than
one variety will







EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS. UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOPERATING











also help in harvesting since different varieties mature at
slightly different times. Late maturing varieties should be
planted first. The recommended varieties should be planted in
this order: Coker 916, Coker 762, Hunter, Coker 797, and then
Florida 301. Florida 301 has been noted to do better than the
other varieties on infertile sandy soils and would be the best
choice of the recommended varieties under those conditions.

Hessian fly has the potential of becoming a serious pest in
wheat in Florida. Over the last several years we have noticed
increasing incidents of damage by Hessian fly. The three most
important methods of Hessian fly control include planting
resistant varieties, delayed planting to escape fall infestation,
and clean cultivation or proper management of volunteer wheat.
Unfortunately, all varieties that are currently recommended are
susceptible to this pest. Therefore, delayed planting and clean
cultivation are even more important. Plant breeders are working
to make resistant varieties available as soon as possible.


Production Practices

1. On soils with traffic pans,plowing or other deep tillage
should be done prior to planting. No-till plantings may be done
where no traffic pan exists or into bermudagrass fields or after
soybeans that have been subsoiled.

2. Apply lime and fertilizer according to soil tests.

3. On sandy soils without a clay subsoil within the top 6
inches, apply 1/2 of the potash at planting and the other half
with the top-dress application of nitrogen in late January.

4. Apply 15 to 20 lbs/A of sulfur on sandy soils, of which
1/3 to 1/2 should be applied at planting 'and the remainder with
the sidedress nitrogen.

5. Levels of soil test manganese and zinc.should be checked
closely. Many. manganese deficiencies of wheat have been noted on
sandy and flatwood soils, especially where the pH is above 6.2.
These micronutrients should be applied at planting.

6. Select varieties from the recommended list and use more
than one variety.

7. Use 1 to 1 1/2 bushels of high quality weed free seed
per acre.

8. Plant late varieties earliest and early varieties last
between November 15 and December 15 when moisture is adequate for
germinaation.

9. Apply approximately 40 lbs N/A at planting followed by a
sidedress application of 40 to 50 lbs/A in late January to aid
tiller formation.










10. Higher rates of nitrogen up to 90 lbs/A may be applied
sidedress where growth regulators are used in growth stage 6 (1st
node of stem detectable).

11. Use a good fungicide program, especially on late matur-
ing varieties. Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200 fungiide should be
used as listed in "Plant Protection Pointers No. 27."

12. Harvest grain when moisture content drops to 12% or
less.


Description of Wheat Varieties Recommended
for Grain Production in Florida 1983-84

RECOMMENDED VARIETIES

Hunter* A new variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed
Company but being marketed by North American Plant Breeders under
their Agripro brand. This early variety has a very high yield
record in Florida for the past 3 years and produces grain with a
high test weight. Some leaf rust was seen on it in Florida last
year so it may be necessary to protect it with a fungicide if
leaf rust develops,

Coker 762* A variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Co. of
Hartsville, South 'Carolina. It is a short,disease resistant,
high yielding variety. It is about 8-12 days later in heading
than Florida 301 and normally produces seed that has a lower test
weight than some of the other recommended varieties.

Coker 797* A variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed
Company. It is very early maturing, short, has good disease
resistance and is high yielding. It is an excellent variety for
North Florida. It has a low vernalization requirement so do not
plant it early. Ideal planting date for this variety would be
.November 20 December 5 in North Florida.

Florida 301 A variety developed at the Agricultural Research
and Education Center at Quincy and released in the fall of 1980.
This variety has excellent disease resistance, is very early
maturing, and seems to do better when planted a little later than
the full season varieties.

Coker 916* A new variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed
Company. It is short, very disease resistant and has a good
yield record in Florida. It is medium in maturity, similar to
Coker 762. It should be planted relatively early in Florida
because it has a relatively high vernalization requirement.
Ideal planting date for this variety would be November 10 -
November 25 in North Florida.

The above five varieties are the only varieties that we recommend









to farmers to plant in Florida in 1983 for harvest in 1984. This
recommendation list is revised annually.


Description of Other Wheat Varieties that are
NOT Recommended for Grain Production in Florida 1983-84

OTHER VARIETIES

Florida 302 This is a new wheat variety developed at the Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center at Quincy and scheduled
for release to certified seed growers in 1984. No seed are
available of this variety for planting in the Fall of 1983. It
will be added to the recommended list next year. This variety is
not related to Florida 301 and is quite different. It is 10-12
days later in heading and has a slightly lower test weight than
Florida 301. It is a bearded variety that has high yield
potential and produces grain with excellent soft wheat quality.
It has produced good yields in preliminary tests outside of
Florida and will probably be well adapted over a relatively large
portion of the southern U.S. It is an excellent grazing wheat
and is well suited to dual purpose use. It has good disease
resistance especially to powdery mildew. Although we have seen
some leaf rust develop on it as it nears maturity it's grain
yield has not been reduced and we believe it has good leaf rust
resistance.

Coker 983* A new variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed
Company. It is a short, early, disease resistant variety that
has looked very good and if it continues to look good it will be
added to the recommended list. Only a limited amount of regi-
stered seed is available this year. Certified seed will be
available for planting in the fall of 1984.

McNair 1813* Released by McNair Seed Co. of Laurinburg, North
Carolina but now owned and being marketed by Northrup King Seed
Co. It is an early maturing, short, bronze chaffed variety that
has been recommended in the past but it is no longer disease
resistant enough to be grown successfully consistently in
Florida.

McNair 1003* Released by McNair Seed Co. but now owned and
being marketed by Northrup King Seed Co. It has very high yield
potential but is very susceptible to leaf rust and has a tendency
to have a low test weight.

Delta Oueen* and Southern Belle* both of these varieties were
developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company but are being
marketed by North American Plant Breeders under their Agripro
brand. Both are now moderately susceptible to diseases and
shouldi-not be grown in Florida.

Massey, Wheeler, and Tyler These varieties were developed by
the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. They have high









yield potential but do not have the disease resistance required
for successful production in Florida. Wheeler and Tyler are very
late maturing when grown in Florida.

Severn A new variety developed at the University of Maryland.
It is an early maturing variety but does not have enough disease
resistance to be recommended in Florida.

Stacy a new variety recently developed at the Georgia Experi-
ment Station at Experiment, Georgia. It is a medium maturity
variety and is very susceptible to leaf rust.

Holley Released by the Georgia Experiment Station in 1971. It
is an early maturing wheat with average grain yield potential.
It has good resistance to powdery mildew but is susceptible to
leaf rust and glume blotch.

Rosen, Nelson, and Doublecrop Released by the Arkansas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. They do not have a good yield
record in Florida.

Omega 78 Developed at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station at
Tifton, Georgia and released in 1978. It is a short, early
variety with fairly good resistance to leaf rust and powdery
mildew. It is quite susceptible to Septoria glume blotch and
does not seem to yield as well as the currently recommended
varieties.

Coker 747* and Coker 68-15* older varieties released by Coker's
Pedigreed Seed Co. They are short, good yielding but are quite
disease susceptible and are too late in maturity to fit well in
double cropping systems being used in Florida.

Arthur 71* and Oasis* Released by Purdue University in Indiana.
They are too late in maturity and too disease susceptible to be
grown in Florida.

-Caldwell*, Auburn* and Fillmore* New varieties developed by
Purdue University with better disease resistance than the Arthur
types but also late in maturity and unadapted to Florida growing
conditions. Caldwell has become the most outstanding variety in
the North Central area of the U.S. but does not yield well in
Florida.

Roy* and Blueboy II Released by the North Carolina Experiment
Station. They both have low test weights and do not have enough
disease resistance to be grown in Florida.

Pike* and Hart Released by Missouri Agricultural Experiment
Station. Not adapted to Florida.

Scotty* A new variety developed by the Illinois Experiment
Station. This variety does better in Florida than any other
variety developed in the North Central area of the U.S. but it









doesn't do well enough to be recommended.


Roland* Another variety developed by the Illinois Experiment
Station but not adapted to Florida.

Magnum* A new variety developed by North American Plant
Breeders. It is too late in maturity to do well under our
growing conditions.

Pioneer 2550* A new variety being marketed by Pioneer Seed
Company but unadapted to Florida.

HW 3006* and H 3007* They are hybrid wheats developed by Rohm
and Haas Seeds, Inc. utilizing a chemical male sterilant. They
are not adapted to Florida.


*Unauthorized Propagation Prohibited. U.S. Protected Variety to
be sold by variety name only as a class of certified seed.




D. L. Wright R. D. Barnett
Extension Agronomist Small Grain Breeder






Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
specific information. It Is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and
does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $233.96, or 15 cents per
copy to inform interested persons about wheat.









Grain Yield and Test Weight of Wheat Varieties Grown at Quincy, Marianna, and Jay in 1983.


Brand or Grain Yield Bu/A Test Weight Lbs/Bu
Originating 1 2 1 2
State Variety Quincy Quincy Marianna Jay Avg. Quincy Quincy Marianna Avg.


NAPB
Florida
Coker
Coker
Florida

NAPB
Coker
NK-McNair
Virginia
Georgia

Illinois
NK-McNair
Texas
NAPB
Coker

Georgia
Georgia
NAPB
Arkansas
Virginia

Arkansas
Arkansas
Coker
Indiana
Rohm & Haas


Hunter
Florida 302
797
762
Florida 301

Delta Queen
916
1813
Massey
Stacy

Scotty
1003
Tex. 73-93
Southern Belle
747


Holley
Omega 78
Magnum
Doublecrop
Wheeler

Rosen
Nelson
65-20
Auburn
HW3006


61.6
60.3
58.7
59.2
65.0

55.8
59.5
55.8
53.7
52.7

53.9
52.0
55.7
40.8
44.7

50.3
48.9
46.5
44.2
42.7

43.7
44.6
45.8
38.5
31.6


83.3
81.8
77.6
69.5
71.4

65.1
62.0
60.0
70.8
53.9

47.9
51.3
60.7
50.9
56,0

49.6
45.2
45.3
44.0
40.9

45.4
38.2
36.1
47.3
41.9


47.9
52.4
56.0
58.8
49.9

38.5
50.0
43.1
25.0
40.8

41.6
35.5
25.2
37.6
29.7

31.4
34.6
35.0
39.2
30.9

28.4
32.5
23.0
30.4
25.0


35.2
32.3
30.3
34.8
25.8

33.6
21.2
22.0
26.3
21.8

24.8
22.1
17.4
27.6
26.1

21.3
23.2
23.6
20.3
24.3

20.3
22.3
25.4
13.2
22.9


57.0
56.7
55.7
55.6
53.0

48.3
48.2
45.2
44.0
42.3

42.1
40.2
39.8
39.2
39.1

38.2
38.0
37.6
36.9
34.7

34.5
34.4
32.6
32.4
30.4


61.5
57.0
60.5
56.0
60.3

57.0
57.8
59.0
57.5
58.5

57.0
53.0
58.0
59.5
58.0

57.5
57.5
58.0
60.5
57.5

55.5
57.5
57.5
54.5
57.0


59.5
54.5
57.0
53.3
57.5

57.0
56.5
55.5
56.0
56.0

53.5
51.0
55.0
58.0
56.0

55.5
55.0
55.0
57.0
54.0

54.0
54.0
52.5
54.5
55.5


54.8
51.0
53.0
50.5
52.3

50.0
51.0
49.5
50.0
52.0

51.5
411.5
50.3
55.0
51.0

52.5
48.5
52.3
50.0
51.5

49.0
51.5
50.0
49.0
51.0


58.6
54.2
56.8
53.3
56.7

54.7
55.1
54.7
54.5
55.5

5411.0
49.5
54.4
57.5
55.0


55.2
53.7
55.1
55.8
54.3

52.8
54.3
53.3
52.7
54.5


Table 1 .











Table 1. Grain Yield and Test Weight of Wheat Varieties Grown at Quincy, Marianna, and Jay in 1983.

Brand or
Brand or iGrain Yield Bu/A Test Weight Lbs/Bu
Originating 1 2 1
State Variety Quincy Quincy Marianna Jay Avg. Quincy Quincy Marianna Avq.

Rohm & Haas HW 3007 43.0 39.7 18.1 20.5 30.3 53.5 50.5 46.5 50.2
North Carolina Roy 33.8 37.7 21.9 25.8 29.8 53.5 52.5 47.0 51.0
Missouri Pike 40.4 39.9 17.6 18.9 29.2 55.0 53.9 49.0 52.6
Indiana Fillmore 41.5 32.7 24.1 18.0 29.1 52.5 51.5 49.0 51.0
Coker 68-15 35.4 35.5 25.1 19.3 28.8 60.0 57.0 54.0 57.0

North Carolina Blueboy II 32.6 40.1 17.9 19.6 27.6 53.5 53.0 48.5 51.7
Maryland Severn 26.1 38.8 21.5 18.9 26.3 57.0 56.0 51.5 515.8
Indiana Caldwell 40.8 25.9 19.3 14.2 25.1 49.5 50.0 47.0 118.8
Indiana Arthur 71 28.4 36.1 20.4 15.2 25.0 56.5 55.5 51.5 511.5
Indiana Oasis 30.2 31.6 21.8 16.0 24.9. 56.0 53.5 51.0 53.5

Pioneer 2550 36.5 24.9 20.4 12.2 23.5 52.5 51.5 48.5 50.8
Illinois Roland 28.0 17.4 19.6 14.3 19.8 48.5 50.0 46.5 118.3
Virginia Tyler 22.1 14.7 16.7 17.8 17.8 47.8 47.8 48.8 18.1
Missouri Hart 21.1 14.9 3.6 8.2 12.0 54.0 50.0 43.5 119.2
Coker 983 64.0 75.2 47.0 -- ---- 60.0 57.5 55.0 57.5

12
Cultural Data for 1983 Wheat Trials Quincy Quincy2 Marianna Jay

Planting Date 12-10-82 12-23-82 11-30-82 12-14-82 .
No. of Replications 3 3 4 4
Plot size 16 ft2 40 ft2 40 ft2 50 ft2
Fertilizer Preplant 500 Ibs 7-8-24 500 Ibs 7-8-24 600 Ibs 5-10-15 250 Ibs 8-24-24
Fertilizer Topdressing 40 Ibs N 40 Ibs N 50 Ibs N 50 Ibs N







Table 2. Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Grown in 1983.


Brand or Plant Powdery Leaf Septoria
Originating Heading Height Percent Mildew Rust Glume Blotch
State Variety Date (inches) Lodging Reaction- Reaction- Reaction1/


NAPB
Florida
Coker
Coker
Florida

NAPB
Coker
NK-McNair
Virginia
Georgia

Illinois
NK-McNair
Texas
NAPB
Coker

Georgia
Georgia
NAPB
Arkansas
Virginia

Arkansas
Arkansas
Coker
Indiana
Rohm & Haas


Hunter
Florida 302
797
762
Florida 301

Delta Queen
916
1813
Massey
Stacy

Scotty
1003
Tex. 73-93
Southern Belle
747

Holley
Omega 78
Magnum
Doublecrop
Wheeler

Rosen
Nelson
65-20
Auburn
HW 3006


4-12
4-22
4-9
4-22
4-10

4-19
4-23
4-14
4-20
4-20

4-29
4-19
4-21
4-25
4-28

4-14
4-14
4-25
4-27
4-30

4-18
4-26
4-24
4-31
4-26


VS
S
S
S
S
















Table 2. Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Grown in 1983 (Continued)


Brand or Plant Powdery Leaf Septoria
Originating Heading Height Percent Mildew 1/ Rust 1/ Glume Blotch
State Variety Date (inches) Lodging Reaction- Reaction- Reactionl/


Rohm & Haas
N. Carolina
Missouri
Indiana
Coker

N. Carolina
Maryland
Indiana
Indiana
Indiana

Pioneer
Illinois
Virginia
Missouri
Coker

II
- VS = very
resistant.


HW 3007
Roy
Pike
Fillmore
68-15

Blueboy II
Severn
Caldwell
Arthur 71
Oasis

2550
Roland
Tyler
Hart
983


4-25
4-23
4-25
5-3
5-2

4-26
4-17
5-5
4-26
4-28

5-7
5-8
5-8
4-27
4-17


MS
S
S
VS
.R


susceptible, S = susceptible, MS = moderately susceptible, MR = moderately resistant, R =








Table 3. Summary of Wheat Grain Yields over a Four Year Period in North Florida.

Grain Yield in Bushels Per Acre
Brand or 4 Years 3 Years 2 Years
Originating 1979 1981 1982 1983 15 Test 11 Test 7 Test
~State Variety 01 02 M J 01 02 M J 01 Q2 J Q1 02 M J Avg. Avg. Avg.


Coker 762
Coker 797
Plorida Florida 301
JK-McNair 1813
NK-McNair 1003

NAPB Delta Queen
Virginia Massey
NAPB Southern Belle
Virginia Wheeler
Maryland Severn

Georgia Holley
Arkansas Rosen
Arkansas Doublecrop
Georgia Omega 78
Arkansas Nelson


70 59
78 56
71 '50
60 43
51 36


Gorg i a
Virginia
Ind iana
NAP13
Florida

NK
Coker
Tex as
Coker
Ind iana

Indiana
NAPB
Mi sour i


Stacy
Tyler
Arthur 71
Hunter
Florida 302

NK79W810
916
Tex. 73-93
747
Auburn


Caldwell
Magnum
Pike


01 = Early planted test at Quincy, 02 = Late planted test at Quincy, M = Marianna,


37
37
33
--


59 65
60 62
56 61
45 56
39 47

41 26
47 45
40 40


"""
" -' -' "


J = Jay.







Increasing Wheat Yields Through


Intensive Management

D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist



New adapted wheat varieties have resulted in plantings of
more than 2 million acres in Florida, Georgia and Alabama in
recent years. The climate is such that most of these acres can
be double cropped with soybeans or grain sorghum which aids
farmers with cash flow. Wheat is grown during the period of the
year when rainfall is adequate to meet crop demands and yield
reductions are usually the result of improper fertilizer manage-
ment, weeds, disease, and insect control, cold weather, and late
planting. Most of these factors can be controlled by thorough
planning and have been incorporated into intensive management
studies currently in progress. Factors to consider for intensive
management of small grains are given below.


Variety Selection

Special attention needs to be given to varieties used under
intensive management. Most of the currently recommended
varieties have yield potential to respond to inputs that older
varieties would not respond to. Other factors such as maturity
date (important in double cropping), winter hardiness, disease
and insect resistance, and plant height in relation to lodging
are very important considerations. Increased seeding and
nitrogen rates should be tried with short strawed varieties that
are not prone to lodging.


Soil Preparation and Seeding

Seedbed preparation, seeding rate, seed placement and row
width are important factors that have an influence on rate of
growth, tiller number, how quickly the soil is covered and
ultimately influences yield. Most soils in the Southeast have a
tillage pan which restricts root growth and in dry springs may
have a substantial influence on wheat yields. Table 1 shows a
three year average of seedbed preparation methods influence on
wheat yields planted after soybeans.








Table 1. Wheat Yields As Influence by Tillage After Soybeans (3
Yr. Avg. Quincy).

Tillage
Trt. 1982 1983 1984 Avg.

Bottom Plow 60.8a 62.8ab --- 61.8
Chisel Plow 53.4a 57.2b 70.0a 60.2
Harrow 48.5ab 56.4b 61.7b 55.5
No-Till 36.3b 68.4a 53.7c 52.8



In general, deep tillage averaged 5 or 6 bu/A more grain than
using a harrow to prepare a seebed. No-tilling small grain into
soybean stubble gave better yields than deep tillage but only in
the year that rainfall was abundant in the spring. Chisel plow-
ing has the advantage of deep tillage while leaving previous crop
residue on the soil surface to slow erosion processes. A smooth,
well prepared seedbed should be the objective to provide an
environment for uniform crop growth.

Planting should be accomplished with certified, plump ker-
nels. The exception is hybrid wheat which may appear shriveled.
However, there are no currently wheat hybrids recommended in
Florida. Plantings should be made at the recommended date (Nov.
15 Dec. 15). Earlier plantings may have more Hessian fly
damage and are subjected to frosts in the spring after heading.
Later plantings may not permit vernalization, especially on the
later maturing varieties. Seeding rates and row spacing vary
according to seeding date, available moisture and fertility.
Since wheat seed number can vary from 12,000 to 20,000 seeds per
pound, it is better to plant by the number of seed per foot of
row than on a volume basis. Data from Virginia where wheat
yields were over 100 bu/A would suggest that 15 seeds per foot of
row be used in 4 inch rows and 20 seeds ,in 8 inch rows. Data
from Florida would suggest that narrow rows may result in a yield
increase where seeded at the same rate as wide rows (Table 2).

Table 2. Florida 302 wheat yields and test weight as influenced
by row spacing (1984).

Row Yield Test Wt.
Spacing (in.) bu/A lb/bu

5 76.6 56.05
10 73.3 56.45


Additional research is being conducted with a narrow row
drill. Using seeding rates below the 15-20 per foot of row may
result in excessive tillering, delayed maturity and increased
weed competition. Seed rates above this level may result in
increased costs, excessive lodging and disease problems. The








increased competition may lead to fewer kernels per head and a
lower test weight. Plantings should be done to obtain the
optimum plant population and uniform distribution.

Seed placement is critical for uniform germinating stands.
Drilling into a prepared seedbed to a depth of 1/2 to 3/4 inch is
usually best and may result in 15% higher yields than broad-
casting and disking which results in about 20% of the seed being
placed too shallow or too deep. Deep seed placement often leads
to poor stands.


Irrigation and Moisture Requirements

Wheat is basically a dryland crop and generally gets enough
rain during the winter and spring period to produce high yields
if other management factors are favorable.


Table 3. Wheat yield (Fla. 302) and test weight as influenced by
irrigation (1984).

Yield Test Wt.
Treatment bu/A lbs/bu

Irrigated 77.8 56.6
Non-irrigated 72.2 55.9



Like other crops the grain fill period is critical for
adequate moisture and if the plants begin to wilt during the
kernel fill period, yields will be reduced.


Fertilization

To obtain high yields with any crop, a sound fertility pro-
gram is essential. Native fertility, soil type and the cropping
history of the field influence how, when and how much fertilizer
should be applied. A soil test is the first step in determining
the fertility status and needs of the crop prior to planting.
All of the minor elements and phosphorus should be applied prior
to planting, along with 20 to 30 Ibs/A of N and part or all of
the potassium depending upon the texture of the soil. In the
early spring at growth stage 3.0 on the Feekes-Large scale
(usually late January or early February) the remainder of the
nitrogen and potassium and a minimum of 10 lbs/A of sulfur should
be applied. Data shown in table 4 shows that at yield levels
around 75 bu/A from 50 to 100 lbs/A of nitrogen applied in late
January is adequate.







Table 4. Influence of method of planting method nitrogen timing
and rate on wheat yield (1984).

N rate (Ibs/A) Conventional No-Till
Late Jan. Late Feb. Yield (bu/A) Yield (bu/A)

0 0 42.5 49.3
50 0 55.3 69.0
100 0 67.1 74.7
150 0 70.1 64.6
50 50 68.9 68.0
100 50 66.2 77.0
50 100 73.1 66.9


Because the growing season for wheat is so short in Florida,
it is difficult to apply many applications of nitrogen or other
nutrients before maturity. Grain protein is usually increased as
nitrogen rates are increased above 100 Ibs/A but yields may not
be improved.

Adequate phosporus results in increased tillering as compared
to deficient soils. Other advantages offered by phosphorus
fertilization include: (1) better root development, (2) earlier
maturity, (3) increased winter survival, (4) less disease damage,
and (5) improved test weight. About 68% of the nitrogen, 65% of
the phosphorus and 90% of the potassium is taken up by the boot
stage. Therefore, an adequate supply of nutrients should be made
to wheat in early growth periods.


Weed, Insect, and Disease Control and Use
of Growth Regulators

Weeds can cause yield losses in small grain by competing for
nutrients, moisture, and sunlight. Many times, thin stands,
contaminated seeds and poorly prepared seedbeds are the main
reasons that weeds get a start. Inexperienced equipment
operators may also leave gaps between drill passes and weeds
become established. Once weeds are present, proper identifi-
cation is necessary so that recommended rates and chemicals can
be used to control weeds. Timeliness and thorough application of
the herbicides are also important for successful control.

Insects are a potential problem but rarely cause serious
problems in small grain production. Sporadic outbreaks of
certain insects such as Hessian fly and aphids may result in
significant yield reductions. No currently recommended wheat
variety in Florida has resistance to the Hessian fly. Crop
rotation, moldboard plowing before planting, using insecticides
at planting and planting in the last half of the planting season
can help reduce damage from the Hessian fly.







Diseases may be one of the most limiting factors to high
yields in the Southeast. All of the recommended varieties in
Florida have some resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew and
septoria. However, yield reductions in studies often range from
5 to 50 percent. Intensive management often creates an environ-
ment that is conducive to disease problems. To effectively
control diseases, attention must be given to four major areas:
crop rotation, resistant varieties, early disease recognition and
identification and fungicide use.

In studies where fungicides and growth regulators were used,
some advantage was noted to both the fungicide and growth regu-
lator and an added advantage where the combination was used
(Table 6).

Table 6. Influence of growth regulator and fungicide on yield
and test weight (1984).

Yield Test Wt.
Treatment bu/A (Ibs/bu)

Control 51.8 54.3
Cerone 58.1 57.2
Tilt 54.3 55.4
Cerone + Tilt 62.3 57.5


Many of these intensive management parts are still under
study to determine the optimum rates, dates of application and
threshold values. Work is continuing to increase the overall
production of the small grain crop.









Florida 302 Wheat A New High Yielding Soft Red Winter Wheat
Adapted to the Southern United States

R. D. Barnett, H. H. Luke, and P. L. Pfahlerl/

Florida 302 wheat has been approved for release to seed growers for
fall planting in 1984. This new variety has high yield potential, excel-
lent milling qualities, strong straw, and good grazing potential. Data
from regional trials indicate that this variety is adapted to a wide area
of the southern soft red winter wheat growing region and should prove to be
a popular variety.

Florida 302 was developed by the University of Florida at the North
Florida Research and Education Center in Quincy in cooperation with the
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. It was
tested experimentally as FL72185A-A1 and was selected from a cross made in
1972 between a Coker breeding line and a Georgia breeding line. Florida
302 has the following pedigree: Coker 65-20//Purdue 4946A4-18-2-10-1/Had-
den/3/Vogel 5/Anderson//Purdue 4946A4-18-2-10-1/Hadden. Florida 302 is not
related to Florida 301.

Florida 302 is an awned type that has large, attractive heads and
broad, dark green leaves. Usually it has at least 4 and sometimes 5
kernels per spikelet and most of the heads will have several double spike-
lets. No other variety grown in the Southeast has the double spikelet
characteristic so this is a good distinguishing feature of this variety.
It is medium in maturity and normally heads out about 10 days later than
Florida 301 in Florida. It is several inches shorter than Florida 301 and
has better lodging resistance. It has excellent resistance to powdery
mildew, good resistance to leaf rust, but is susceptible to soil-borne
mosaic virus, stem rust, and hessian fly.

This variety has a higher vernalization requirement than Florida 301
but will still head out and produce well even when planted late in Florida.
It is much more winter hardy and is less likely to be damaged by a late
spring freeze. Florida 302 has large seed but the seed have a rather deep
crease which causes it to have a test weight about 2 lbs. lighter than
Florida 301. The high yield, excellent soft wheat quality, strong straw,
and disease resistance of Florida 302 will make it valuable since
relatively few well adapted varieties are available to Florida farmers.

Florida 302 is being distributed by the Florida Foundation Seed
Producers, Inc., P. O. Box 309, Greenwood, FL 32443 (Telephone 904-
594-4721). Application for plant variety protection has been filed with
the USDA Plant Variety Protection Office specifying that seed of Florida
302 is to be sold by variety name only as a class of certified seed.


1/
/Dr. Barnett is Professor of Agronomy at the University of Florida, North
Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. Dr. Luke is
Professor of Plant Pathology, ARS, USDA, Plant Pathology Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Pfahler is Professor of
Agronomy, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.







Florida 502 Oats A New Crown Rust Resistant
Early Maturing Oat for North Florida

R. D. Barnett, H. H. Luke, and P. L. Pfahler1

The Florida 501 cultivar, which was released in 1968, has been a good
variety that was widely grown all across the South. It is now susceptible
to crown rust. This is a brief description of a new variety of oats that is
resistant to the prevalent races of crown rust, is early maturing, and has
strong straw. This new variety named Florida 502 is well adapted for both
grain production and forage utilization.

Florida 502, tested experimentally as FL7611-G8, was developed from a
three-way cross between a Florida breeding line, a Coker Pedigreed Seed
Co, breeding line, and a Texas A & M University breeding line. Twenty
bushels were turned over to the Florida Foundation Seed Producers in the
Fall of 1981 for further increase. A limited amount of seed was distributed
to a few certified seed growers in the Fall of 1982 and the variety was
approved for general release during the Spring of 1983.

Florida 502 has larger, plumper kernels than Florida 501. The kernels
are not bright yellow as Florida 501 but are darkish tan. Florida 502 has
upright, short, broad leaves that are blue-green in color. Florida 501 has
long narrow, drooping leaves that are yellow-green in color. Florida 502
matures early and normally produces grain with high test weights. It is
medium in height and has much strong straw than Florida 501. It is re-
sistant to the prevalent races of crown rust and seems to have some re-
sistance to Helminthosporium leaf spot. It appears from data outside of
Florida that Florida 502 may not be as winter hardy as Florida 501 and this
made limit its spread outside of Florida but it has a good yield record in
Florida.

Florida 502, is being increased by the Florida Foundation Seed Pro-
ducers, Inc. P. 0. Box 309, Greenwood, FL 32443 (Telephone 904-594-4721).
There will be a good supply of foundation seed available to be distributed
to certified seed growers during 1983. Also a limited amount of registered
seed will be available'in 1983.


1Dr. Barnett is Associate Professor of Agronomy at the University of: Florida,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. Dr. -luke is
Professor of Plant Pathology, SEA, AR, USDA, Plant Patholocy Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. -Dr. Pfahler is Professor of Agron-
omy, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.








Florida 401 Rye An Early Forage Type Adapted to Minimum
Tillage Multiple Cropping Systems

P. L. Pfahler, R. D. Barnett, and H. H. Luke

Florida 401 rye has been approved for release to seed growers for fall
planting in 1984. It is an outstanding early forage producer and compared
to other varieties produces more forage early in the winter grazing season.
It should work well in blends with ryegrass, clovers, and other later
maturing winter cereals to provide long season grazing. It is better
adapted than presently available varieites to minimum-tillage multiple
cropping systems because of its earlier maturity. It is a good seed pro-
ducer and has ample disease resistance. Florida 401 also should be a
better choice for windbreaks and as a cover crop because of its excellent
early upright growth.

Florida 401 was developed by the University of Florida, Agronomy
Department in cooperation with the Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture. It was tested experimentally as FBLSRR and is
the result of five selection cycles in a phenotypic recurrent selection
program using Florida Black as the original base population. In each
cycle, selection was based on early seedling vigor, regrowth after
mechanical clipping, resistance to leaf rust, grain yield, and large seed
size.

Florida 401 has an upright early growth habit and is a semi-spring
type. Its leaves are larger and lighter in color than other varieties. It
is very early in maturity and normally heads out one to two weeks earlier
than other varieties. The seed are not uniform for seed color but it does
not have as many dark seed as Florida Black. Florida 401 is slightly
taller than most other varieties but it has satisfactory lodging resistance
under most field conditions. Because of its rapid, upright growth habit,
Florida 401 is not as winterhardy as varieties developed further North, but
it has adequate winter hardiness for dependable forage production in
Florida. Florida 401 is an excellent early season forage producer but
will not produce forage over an extended season.-

For seed production Florida 401 should be planted in mid December to
avoid possible damage from late spring freezes at pollinating time and
seeded at the rate of 1 bushel per acre. However, if seed is limited, good
seed yields can be obtained from a seeding rate as low as 1/2 bushel per
acre. Florida 401 grown for certification should not be grazed to avoid a
genetic shift in the population. Also remember that rye fields producing
certified seed must be isolated-by at least 40 rods from any other variety
or fields of the same variety that do not meet the variety purity require-
ments for certification.

Florida 401 is being distributed by the Florida Foundation Seed
Producers, Inc. P. 0. Box 309, Greenwood, FL 32443. Variety protection is
not contemplated.

Dr. Pfahler is Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Dept., University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Barnett is Professor of Agronomy at the
North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida. Dr. Luke is
Professor of Plant Pathology, ARS, USDA, Plant Pathology Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.





C Z .I"I INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
r__',Q-.t AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
r UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE
IFAS






Extension Plant Pathology


University of Florida (REVISION )
Gainesville, Florida 32611

CONTROL OF GLUME BLOTCH, HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOT AND
LEAF RUST OF WHEAT USING FUNGICIDES APPLIED BY AIRCRAFT

Tom Kucharek
Extension Plant Pathologist

Introduction
Glume blotch, Helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust and powdery mildew are fungal
diseases that reduce wheat yields and quality. Ideally the use of resistant varieties would
be the best methods of controlling these plant diseases but such is not always available.
Currently, a grower can purchase varieties with disease resistance to both leaf rust and
powdery mildew and it is strongly advised he do so. Resistance to glume blotch and
Helminthosporium leaf spot is lacking. To maximize wheat yields the grower can use
varieties with resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust and couple this- with aerial
complications of mancozeb (Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200) fungicide to counter the
devastating effects of glume blotch and Helminthosporium leaf spot. Should the grower
plant a leaf rust susceptible variety, aerial applications with mancozeb will reduce this
problem also. Under no circumstances is the spray program with mancozeb designed to
control powdery mildew.
Glume Blotch is caused by the fungus Septoria nodorum. It has been epidemic on
wheat in many Florida fields in most of the last 13 years. The reason for this disease
being somewhat inconsistent in occurrence is due to three major factors. I) This fungus
can be seedborne but apparently not all seed lots are infected. No seed certification
program for diseases is available to eliminate the guess work for the grower. 2) This
fungus can live on old wheat stubble from one year to the next mand even to some degree
for two years. Crop rotation with wheat not being planted on the same piece of land for
at least three years would be adequate to reduce glume blotch inoculum below levels
necessary for epidemic development provided that seed were-not infected at planting
time. 3) Because temperatures favorable for foliar diseases of wheat exist each season,
rainfall amounts influence the severity of glume blotch.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $fr 35 e gror 2) cents
per copy to inform county and state extension personnel, ranchers and growers of
research results in Plant Pathology.
necessary for epidemic development provided that seed werewnot infected at planting









The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING




&- ,


Spores are produced abundantly between 64 and 770F but are produced to some
degree above and below this range. Spore germination and infection occurs between
500F and 860F. Symptoms occur between 8-14 days after infection when temperatures
are 64 to 860F. These temperatures occur commonly during spring months in Florida
where wheat is grown and thus temperature does not appear to be a limiting factor for
disease development. Also, such temperature are common in October and November, a
period of time when some growers plant wheat. "Warm winters" (December, January,
February and March) are conducive for epidemic development as conditions will be
suitable for earlier disease development which in turn will result in more damage.

Glume blotch is dependent on rain and leaf wetness for spread, infection and
symptom development. Thus wet seasons are conducive for glume blotch epidemics.
Warm and wet winters will allow for an earlier development of glume blotch in the
spring. Planting wheat after November 15 will reduce inoculum buildup of glume blotch
in the fall thereby delaying the epidemic in the spring and such later plantings will not be
detrimental to yield.

Glume blotch begins on lower leaves before stem elongation occurs. As the plant
matures glume blotch progresses upward on successive leaves formed during stem
elongation. Should glume blotch or other disease progress onto the flag leaf (last leaf
formed which is immediately below the spike) significant yield loss will occur because
the flag leaf is a major contributor of food products for seed development.

Use of mancozeb fungicide to control glume blotch on the flag leaf and spike is
profitable for the grower if the spray program begins prior to full emergence of the flag
leaf. When the spray program is initiated at growth stage 7 or 8 glume blotch is reduced
on the lower part of the plant thereby reducing inoculum (spore) supply that could be a
source of infection for the flag leaf when it is formed. Repeat applications at 10-14 day
intervals are for the purpose of replenishing a declining fungicide residue on previously
sprayed leaves and depositing a residue on newly formed leaf tissue, especially the flag
leaf. Because a limit of 3 applications of mancozeb are legal for use on wheat and
because residues of this fungicide decline with time, the grower should not begin the
spray program prior to growth stage 7. To do so would reduce effective residues later in
the season if three applications are made on 10-14 day intervals. To begin the spray
program prior to growth stage 7 and lengthen intervals are equally counter productive.

The best compromise for spray scheduling at this time is to aerially applicate
mancozeb at growth stage 7 regardless of moisture-conditions and apply the next two
applications at 10-14 day intervals if wet weather begins or persists. Use the 10-14 day
interval to your advantage by applying the fungicide just prior to weather frontal passage
should one be forcasted during the 10-14 day period. Should frontal passage not occur
during this period but glume blotch has been observed in the planting and wet conditions
are anticipated extend the spray interval to 14 days. If extremely dry weather persists
at this time the grower should consider terminating the spray program.

The above mentioned options may sound too "iffy". But, when this approach is used
over a period of years, the full season spray programs by the grower during severe
"disease years" is expected to offset the minimal cost incurred in those years when the
grower applys only the first critical spray but does not need to second two applications.
In other words, scheduled sprays 2 and 3 will not return a profit if scheduled spray I is
not applied at the right time.








Leaf symptoms of glume blotch begin as tiny dark specks which expand in size up to
1/4" or more and being shaped like a football or somewhat elongate. The spot may be tan
or brown to black in color with or without a yellow halo. Small black pimple-like
structures may be seen in the spots especially on the undersides of the leaf. On the
heads, glume blotch produces an off color (grey to brown) usually on the upper half of the
individual glume (outer most cover of flower or seed). The black pimple-like structures
(pycnidia) form abundantly on glumes. This fungus can oversummer on or in seed and
wheat debris in the soil, thus providing inoculum (spores) for the following season. Spores
are produced within a black, somewhat round vesicle (pycnidium) that is partially
submerged in the wheat debris or living plant tissue.

Helminthosporium leaf spot is caused by the fungus Helminthosporium sativum. It
is similar to glume blotch in appearance but does not produce pycnidia. Rather, it
produces masses of green to brown spores near the center of the spot which will have an
olive color when viewed with a hand lens. Like Septoria nodorum, this fungus can be
carried on or in the seed or it may survive in the field or organic debris. Warm and wet
weather is conducive for this disease. The spores of H. sativum are distributed primarily
by wind.

Control of Helminthosporium leaf spot should be done in the same manner as
previously described for glume blotch. Helminthosporium leaf spot can occur on the
same leaf with glume blotch or by itself throughout the field.

Leaf Rust is primarily a leaf disease that occurs during the spring months on wheat
in Florida. It is caused by the fungus Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici. Spore germination
can occur from 36 to 900F with optimum temperatures being 50 to 810F. Optimum
temperatures for infection are 65 to 770F. Time from infection to symptom expression
may be as long as 21 days with temperatures of 460F or as short as 8 days with
temperatures of 740F. Optimum temperatures for epidemic development occurs
commonly in the spring months in North Florida.

Leaf rust appears as orange to brown pustules up to 1/16 inch across. Leaf rust
pustules are found on leaf blades first and later on leaf sheaths, peduncles and
occasionally on the heads. Rubbing a white cloth across a leaf will result in an orange to
brown dust deposit on the cloth.

Leaf rust is best controlled with resistant varieties. At this time ample resistance
is available in the agronomically acceptable varieties, Florida 301, Coker 762 and Coker
797. Should you plant a leaf rust susceptible variety, the spray program will reduce leaf
rust if the same spray scheduling for glume blotch is used.

Powdery mildew caused by the fungus Erysiphe graminis tritici forms a white
powdery growth on leaves. This disease must be controlled with resistant varieties such
as Florida 301, Coker 762 and Coker 797. Use of a fungicide spray program for powdery
mildew in Florida lacks supporting data.

Stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis tritici is found occasionally
when susceptible varieties such as McNair 701 are planted. Stem rust appears on leaves
and stems as orange to red pustules. They are generally more elongate than pustules of
leaf rust and are common on stem tissue as long pustules up to 3/8 inch. Stem rust
pustules are a darker red than leaf rust pustules. Stem rust pustules often have
remanants of ruptured leaf tissue (epidermis) around the pustule whereas leaf rust does
not.












Resistant varieties are the only means by which stem rust should be controlled in
Florida.


Funqicide Control Summary


Use of fungicides to control foliar diseases of wheat in Florida is directed at I)
Glume blotch 2) Spot blotch and 3) Leaf rust. The leaf phase of stem rust will also be
reduced if stem rust should occur. The key to using fungicides profitably on wheat is to
begin spray applications early (growth stages 7 to 8). Beginning spray applications later
will not return a profit.


KEY POINTS ARE:


I. USE DITHANE M-45 OR MANZATE 200 FUNGICIDE.
2. USE EITHER FUNGICIDE AT 2 LBS/APPLICATION/ACRE
3. AERIAL APPLICATOR SHOULD USE 5 GALLONS OF WATER PER
ACRE AS A FUNGICIDE CARRIER.
**4. AERIAL APPLICATOR SHOULD ADD A SPREADER-STICKER TO THE
TANK MIX.
5. USE THREE APPLICATIONS PER SEASON PER FIELDI
IMPORTANT. APPLY FIRST APPLICATION WHEN WHEAT IS IN GROWTH STAGE 7
OR 8 (SEE FIG. 4). BEGINNING LATER REDUCES BENEFITS. THE
SECOND AND THIRD APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE MADE 10 TO 14
DAYS AFTER THE PRIOR APPLICATION. IF THE WEATHER
FORECAST SHOWS A FRONT WITH RAINS ON ITS WAY AND IT WILL
INTERFERE WITH 10-14 DAY INTERVAL, SPRAY JUST BEFORE THE
FRONT MOVES IN.

IGlume blotch, Helminthosporium leaf spot, and leaf rust will be more severe in "wet"
Years. Because of limited weather forecasting capabilities, and because this spray
program is not expected to return a profit in "dry" years, the grower is advised to apply
the first spray at growth stage 7 or 8. Should dry weather ensue, further spraying may
not be necessary. Should rains occur then continue the spray program. Remember,
sprays 2 and 3 are not of value without spray I applied at growth stages 7 or 8.









GROWTH STAGES
IN CEREALS


TILLERING -


cTA(


STAGE
.1
one
shoot


STAGE
2
tillerlng
begins


STAGE
3
tillers
formed


STAGE
4
leaf-
sheaths
lengthen


STAGE
5
leaf-
sheaths
strongly
erected


----- STEM EXTENSION-


STAGE
6
first
node
of stem
visible


STAGE
7
second
node
visible


STAGE
8
last leaf
just
visible


STAGE
9
ligule of
last leaf
just
visible


STAGE
O0
In"boot"


+--HEADING -
.STAGE
10.5
STAGE 10.5
10.1 flowering(


(see
notes)


RIPENING-
STAGE
II "


From Large (1954) : by courtesy of I.M4. Stationery Of/ice, London
FIG. 4 .-Grpwth stages in cereals.


ICL






INSTITUTE= UL I- F-LJuLJUU A4 rMu FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


PLANT PROTECTION

POINTER



EXTENSION ENTOMOLOGY REPORT # 70

February 1984
WHEAT INSECT CONTROL*


The release of several adapted varieties has led to a renewed interest
in planting wheat in Florida. Generally, wheat has fewer insect problems
than other agronomic crops. However, a number of insects can reduce yields
and growers need to be able to identify the major pests and respond with
appropriate management practices to avoid unnecessary losses.

The following are probably the most commonly encountered insect pests
of wheat in Florida, although others may occasionally cause yield reductions:



Aphids & Greenbugs
Aphids, including the corn leaf aphid,
the English grain aphid, and greenbugs,
feed by sucking plant juices from leaves,
stems, and wheat heads. Greenbugs (pictured)
111I pose more of a threat to wheat because while
J feeding, they inject toxic juices which
cause the plant to discolor and, in severe
cases, the death of the plant. A greenbug
has a pale green body with a dark green
stripe down the center. Aphids vary from
pale green to nearly black, depending on
I the species. Aphids and greenbugs are small
insects (1/8 of an inch or less in length)
and are capable of reproducing rapidly. As
a result, they may build up quickly in the spring when the plants begin to
joint. In most situations, predators such as lady beetles, syrphid fly
maggots and others keep the aphid population in check. Generally, aphids
and greenbugs are not able to reduce yields after wheat has reached the
soft dough stage.

*Prepared by R. K. Sprenkel, Assistant Professor-Extension Entomologist,
IPM Specialist, AREC, Quincy; and F. A. Johnson, Associate Professor-Extension
Entomologist, Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Gainesville.



The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING










Armyworms
True armyworms tend to be more com-
mon in wheat that has rank growth due to
over seeding, excessive fertilization,
wet growing conditions or a combination
i I of these factors. Female armyworm moths
lay their eggs in masses of up to 300 on lower leaves. Armyworms feed on
leaves and are capable of stripping the plant. Large worms may also feed on
stems causing the seed heads to fall to the ground. Armyworms are nearly
1 1/2 inches long when fully grown and are greenish-brown with two orange to
cream-colored stripes on both sides of their bodies. They feed for approxi-
mately three weeks before entering the soil where they change into the pupal
stage. In addition of the true armyworm, the fall armyworm (pictured) will
occasionally cause damage to wheat. The damage of the fall armyworm is
similar to that described above for the true armyworm. : -;.



Chinch Bugs
Chinch bugs occasionally cause yield losses in wheat.
They are common in dry years and prefer thin stands of wheat.
SGenerally, the newer varieties that are adapted to Florida con-
ditions produce thick stands of plants that are unfavorable
for chinch bug development. As a consequence, the chinch bug
is a less severe problem on wheat than it was several years ago.
The adult chinch bug is 1/5 inch long with a black body. It
has white wing covers, each with a black triangle at the middle
of its outer margin. Newly hatched chinch bugs are reddish with a white
band across their backs. As the nymphs mature, their reddish color becomes
darker. Chinch bug feeding causes wheat fields to have areas of dead and
dying plants early in the spring. Generally these areas are limited to
those spots where plant growth is poorest.



Grasshoppers
Grasshoppers feed on a wide variety of plants.
Generally, they begin feeding in fence rows, ditch
banks, and roadsides around wheat fields. As they
outstrip their food supply in these areas or as the
wheat becomes more attractive as a food source, grass-
-I hoppers may move into grain fields. Usually the dam-
age is confined to field borders, however, occasionally grasshoppers may in-
fest entire fields. Grasshoppers damage wheat by stripping leaves, feeding
on developing grain, and cutting off seed heads.







Hessian Fly
Before the use of resistant varieties and later
planting dates, the Hessian fly was capable of causing
serious yield losses in wheat. Fall infestations of
the Hessian fly cause stand reductions, and spring
feeding causes lodging. The Hessian fly passes winter
as a full-grown maggot in a brown puparium which is
S commonly called flaxseed. These flaxseed are located
between the leaf sheaths and stems. The adults emerge
in the spring about the time the plants begin to grow
actively. The adults are small (1/8 inch in length)
two-winged black flies that resemble mosquitoes. The
female Hessian fly lays its reddish-colored eggs in the grooves on the upper
leaf surface. The eggs hatch in about seven days and the maggots feed be-
hind the leaf sheath. Infested stems usually break over when the heads
begin to fill. Late planting and use of resistant varieties have been shown
to be the best management practice for the control of the Hessian fly in
Florida. Chemical control is seldom practical.



Stink Bugs
At least two species of stink bugs are capable of causing
yield losses to wheat in Florida. The rice stink bug is a tan
Sto straw-colored bug that is approximately 3/8 inch long. It
has distinct points on its "shoulders" that are directed near-
ly straight forward. The southern green stink bug (pictured)
can be very common in wheat in early spring. They have a wide
host range including many wild plants and cultivated crops.
.They are approximately 1/2 inch long and have the characteristic shield shape
of stink bugs. Both the rice stink bug and the southern green stink bug feed
on the developing wheat kernals leaving an empty seed coat. Although stink
bugs may be found in wheat fields before heading, they apparently do very
little damage to the plant.



SCOUTING WHEAT FOR INSECTS


Although wheat grown in Florida generally does not have many insect
pest problems, scouting on a regular interval is strongly recommended. Scout-
ing on a weekly interval permits a grower to identify pest infestations early
and avoid yield loss through timely application of control measures.


Samples should be selected at random and be representative of the field
scouted. Approximately 20% of the samples should be taken on the edge of
the field and the remainder in the interior of the field. From late tiller-
ing through dough stage wheat should be checked weekly for insect pests. One
sample should be taken for each five acres of field size with a minimum of







five samples per field. Each sample consists of examining the ground,
foliage, and seed heads for insect pests and damage within a 2 X 4 foot area.
Since wheat is commonly planted with a grain drill with rows spaced on seven
inch centers, three rows four feet long would be sampled.

Estimate the total number of aphids, greenbugs, and chinch bugs on the
wheat plants contained in the sample area. Determine the number of aphids,
greenbugs, and chinch bugs per linear foot of row from the estimates.

Count the number of armyworms in the area to be sampled. Also, check
for armyworm damage (stripped leaves or clipped heads). Armyworms commonly
feed during late afternoon, night, or early morning hours and remain hidden
on the soil at the base of the plant during the remainder of the day. This
behavior can make them difficult to detect. When checking for armyworms, pay
particular attention to any areas of the field that may have rank growth.
These areas are preferred by the armyworm moths and are usually the first to
become infested.

Grasshoppers tend to be more common on edges of fields. If grasshoppers
are found in the field, check for damage or cut heads and note the area
involved in the infestation.

Stink bugs have the potential for causing the greatest yield loss during
the grain filling and soft dough stages. Check heads carefully during this
period for either the rice stink bug or the Southern green stink bug. Record&
the total number of stink bugs found in each sample and calculate the number
per linear foot of row. At the same time aphid and greenbug populations are
estimated, note the presence of predators feeding on the pests. Pay special
attention to the foliage at the base of plants in thin stands of wheat.
Chinch bugs prefer these sites and may usually be found there first.

Action Thresholds for Insect Pests of Wheat Detailed studies on the
action thresholds of the common insect pests of wheat under Florida condi-
tions have not been conducted. Those thresholds given below are suggested as
guidelines to assist you in making pest control decisions.

Aphids and greenbugs are usually controlled by predators in the spring
in Florida. However, when few predators are present, and aphid and greenbug
populations exceed 100 per linear foot of row, chemical treatment is usually
justified.

An average of 16 or more armyworms 1/2 inch or more in length per 2 X 4
foot sample usually justifies treatment. If large worms are present and not
clipping heads, and if the wheat is nearly mature (hard dough stage), then
chemical control is not recommended.

Chemical control of chinchbugs is rarely justified. Chinch bugs normally
prefer thin stands of wheat that has only limited yield potential. However,
controls may be justified if chinch bug damage (areas of dead and wilted
plants in early spring) is evident and chinch bugs are numerous (50 or more
per linear foot of row).








Spot treatment of wheat is usually all that is required for control of
grasshoppers in Florida. Chemical control is usually recommended if head
damage or clipping is common and if grasshoppers are numerous.

Stink bug control is usually recommended only during the period of
early to mid-grain development. Chemical control in wheat before heading or
when the grain is mature is not advised. During the grain fill period,
chemical control may be justified if there are one or more stink bugs per
two linear feet of row.











The use of trade names is solely for the purpose of providing specific
information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of product names and does not
signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable
composition.' : -. .. .


This public document was promulgated at an.
annual cost of 4.n50 49 or,. 15 cents
per copy to inform county extension directors
and agents, growers, and agencies of plant
pests.







6

Wheat Insect Control


INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

alfalfa caterpillar Bacillus thuringiensis See individual labels.
(Bactospeine, Bactur,
Dipel, Sok, Stan-Guard,
Thuricide)


aphids demeton (Systox) 2 EC 1/2-1 pt. 45 (do not
graze)

dimethoate (Cygon 400) 4 EC 1/2-3/4 pt. 60 grain
14 grazing-

disulfoton (Di-Syston) 15 G 6.7 lbs. 30

ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/3 pt. 15

malathion (English grain aphid) 5 EC 1 1/2 pts. 7

methomyl (Lannate) 1.8 L 1-2 pts. 7 grain
10 grazing

methyl parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 1/2 pts. 15

phorate (Thimet) 20 G 4.9 lbs. 60 do not
graze

armyworms carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP 1 1/4-1 7/8 lbs. 8 forage


endosulfan (Thiodan)


3 EC


1 1/3 pts.


21 grain

do not apply
after heads
form.












INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

armyworms (cont.) ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/3 pt. 15

malathion 5 EC 2 pts. 7

methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) 1.8 L 1-2 pts. 7 grain
10 graze

methyl parathion 4 EC 3/4-1 1/2 pts. 15


parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 pt. 15

toxaphene 8 EC 2 1/4-3 pts. No restriction
on grain; do
not feed to
dairy animals
or animals
being finished
for slaughter.

trichlorfon (Dylox) 5 B 20 lbs. 21

80 SP 5/8-1 1/4 lbs. 21




beet webworm trichlorfon (Dylox) 80 SP 5/8-1 1/4 Ibs. 21


Black grass bug parathion 8 EC > 1/2-3/4 pt. 15




T QI A1u h


INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR .
OTHER REMARKS

cereal leaf beetle azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2 EC 1 1/2-2 pts. 7

carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP 1 1/4 lbs. 8 forage
S21 grain

carbofuran (Furadan) 4 F 1/2 pt. Apply before
heads emerge
from boot

malathion 5 EC 1-1 1/2 pts. 7

methomyl (Lannate) 1.8 L 1-2 pts. 7 grain
10 graze

chinch bugs and false
chinch bugs ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1 pt. 15

malathion 5 EC 1 1/2-2 pts. 7

methyl parathion 4 EC 1 1/2 pts.\ 15

parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 pt. 15

.- -. toxaphene (chinch-bugs only) 8 EC 3 pts. No restrictions
on grain; do
not feed to
dairy animals
or animals
:> being finished
for slaughter.

cutworms endrin (army cutworm) 1.6 EC 1-1 1/4 pts. 45 do not


. graze


ethyl parathionrmethyl parathion
(climbing cutworms) .,.


6-3 EC 1/2-3/4 pt.
""" '" "' '` ."


i


~~~~~~"'~' ~~ ''""


..


1 *









INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

cutworms (cont.) methyl parathion (climbing cutworm) 4 EC 3/4-1 pt. 15

parathion 25 WP 1 lb.. 15

toxaphene (climbing & surface 8 EC 2 1/4-3 pts. No restrictions
feeding) on grain; do
not feed to
dairy animals
or animals
being finished
for slaughter.

trichlorfon (Dylox) 5 B 20 lbs. 21 do not
(surface feeding cutworms) graze.


diamond back moth trichlorfon (Dylox) 80 SP 1 1/4 lbs. 21


fall armyworm carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP 1 1/4-1 7/8 lbs. 8 forage
21 grain

ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/3 pt. 15

methyl parathion 4 EC 1 1/2 pts. 15

grasshoppers carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP 2/3-1 7/8 lbs. 8 forage
21 grain

carbofuran (Furadan) 4 F 1/4-1/2 pt. Do not feed
treated
foliage

dimethoate (Cygon) 4 EC 3/4 pt. 14 grazing
60 grain








INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

grasshoppers (cont.) ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/2 pt. 15

malathion 5 EC 1-1 1/2 pts. 7

methyl parathion 4 EC 1 pt. 15

parathion 8 EC 1/2 pt. 15

phorate (Thimet) 20 G 1.2 oz/1000 ft. row Apply at
planting time;
do not graze
within 45 days.

toxaphene 8 EC 2 1/4-3 pts. No restrictions
on grain; do
not feed to
dairy animals
or animals
being finished
for slaughter.

greenbugs dimethoate (Cygon) 4 EC 1/2-3/4 pt. 14 grazing
60 grain

disulfoton (Di-Syston) 15 G 6.7 Ibs. 30

ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/3 pt. 15

malathion 5 EC 1 1/2 pts. 7

methyl parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 1/2 pts. 15

parathion 25 WP 1 lb. 15










INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

Hessian fly disulfoton (Di-Syston) 8 EC 1 pt. at planting

15 G 6.7 lbs. at planting

phorate (Thimet) 20 G 1.2 oz./1000 ft. row Apply at
planting time;
do not graze
within 45 days.

leafhoppers methyl parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 pt. 15

parathion 25 WP 1 lb. 15

parathion 6-3 EC 1/2-3/4 pt. 15


loopers Bacillus thuringiensis See individual labels.
(Bactospeine, Bactur,
Dipel, Sok, Stan-Guard,
Thuricide)


dimethoate (Cygon)
(brown wheat mite)

disulfoton (Di-Syston)

ethyl parathion-methyl parathion
(brown wheat mite)

malathion (winter grain mite)

methyl parathion (black mite)
(brown wheat mite)

methyl parathion (Systox)


4 EC


1/3-1/2 pt.


15 G

6-3 EC


5 EC

4 EC
4 EC

2 EC


6.7 lbs.

1/2 pt.


2 pts.

1/2-1 1/2 pts.
1/2-1 pt.

1 pt.


14 grazing
60 grain

30

15


7

15
15

45


mites











INSECT INSECTICIDE FORMULATION RATE/A INTERVAL OR
OTHER REMARKS

mites (cont.) parathion (banks grass mite) 4 EC 1 1/2-2 pts. 15

(Petrobia mite) 8 EC 1/2-3/4 pt. 15

(spider mite) 4 EC 1 1/2-2 pts. 15

(winter grain mite) 4 EC 1 1/2-2 pts. 15


stinkbugs methyl parathion 4 EC 1/2-1 1/2 pts. 15

parathion 8 EC 1/2-3/4 pt. 15

toxaphene (Rice stink bug) 8 EC 3 pts. No restrictions
on grain; do
not feed to
dairy animals
or animals
being finished
for slaughter.


thrips ethyl parathion-methyl parathion 6-3 EC 1/3 pt. 15

methyl parathion (Barley thrip) 4 EC 1/2-2/3 pt. 15

parathion 25 WP 1 lb. 15









THE HESSIAN FLY AS A PEST OF WHEAT IN FLORIDA


R. K. Sprenkel
IPM Specialist, NFREC, Quincy

The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) has been known to
occur in the United States since 1779. It's status as an impor-
tant pest of wheat was first recognized and documented in the
early part of this century in the major wheat-producing states of
the midwest. However, recently it's southern-most range has been
expanding. For example, it was reported for the first time in
Texas in 1978 and occurred only rarely in Florida before 1980.

Although the Hessian fly has not been studied under Florida
conditions the following gives the biology of the insect based on
reports from Texas, South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia. The
cultivated host plants of the Hessian fly include barley and rye
but by far the most preferred is wheat. In addition, it has been
reported on quackgrass, ryegrass, foxtail and triticale. Un-
doubtedly, the wild hosts contribute very little to supporting a
large population of the Hessian fly but may be important in
maintaining a population in the absence of a preferred host.
Oats are not damaged by this pest.

Life History

The Hessian fly spends the summer as a pupa or resting stage
(1/8 inch in length) which resembles a flaxseed. In Texas, the
adult flies emerge from the flaxseed stage in late August or
early September. The emergence appears to be triggered by rain-
fall followed by cool to moderate temperatures. The adult Hes-
sian fly resembles a small (1/8 inch in length) mosquito. They
have dark-gray to black bodies with a reddish-dark abdomen and
transparent wings. The females are weak fliers and lay up to 300
eggs during their 1 to 3 day lifespan. The eggs are deposited in
grooves on the upper surface of the wheat leaf and hatch in 3 to
10 days depending on temperature. The reddish eggs hatch into
similarly-colored legless maggots which crawl behind the leaf-
sheath. The maggots turn white and feed by sucking plant juices
from the wheat plant. Under favorable conditions the maggot will
become full grown, (3/16 inch long) and develop into the flaxseed
stage in as little as two weeks but may remain in the maggot
stage for several months if unfavorable weather occurs. In the
south, there can be two or more generations in the fall. Adult
emergence ceases when mean temperatures drop below 45-50F and
all development stops below 40 F. Emergence resumes in the
spring when the mean temperature exceeds 50 F. There can be two
to three spring generations before the period of estivation
through the summer begins.

Damage

Damage caused by the Hessian fly varies depending on the
stage at which the wheat is attacked. In the fall, plants in-









fested by the Hessian fly are weakened, and may fail to tiller.
In some cases, plants or tillers may be killed by feeding of the
Hessian fly maggot and stands may be seriously reduced.

In the spring, feeding by the maggots causes stunting and
weakens the stems of the wheat. Feeding damage may interfere
with filling of the grain head and infested stems may break and
fall to the ground as they mature. This lodging may be more
severe in taller varieties of wheat or when adverse weather
occurs at harvest.

Management of the Hessian fly in Florida

In infested wheat-growing areas of the upper mid-west, de-
laying planting until after the "fly free" date has been an
effective practice to reduce fly damage. However, under Florida
conditions this will probably be considerably less effective
because of the warm periods (mean temperature above 45-50F)
which can occur throughout the winter. However, there are re-
ports from the south later-planted fields have generally. been-
less-heavily infested than those fields planted earlier.

Although delaying planting may be of some benefit, growers
should select planting locations carefully and avoid those sites
in the vincinity of wheat or rye that was planted early for
grazing. If site selection is not taken into consideration, the
advantage gained by late-planting may be lost.

Destroying wheat stubble and volunteer wheat will help reduce
damage. Burning wheat stubble will kill the pupae higher up on
the stems but will not kill those at or below soil level. Bury-
ing stubble in old wheat fields to a depth of 6 inches will
prevent adult emergence from the flaxseed. Crop rotation will
also help but adults can migrate a mile or more to locate a
preferred host.

Phorate (Thimet) and disulfoton (Di-Syston) are registered
for use as at-planting treatments. These-chemicals will not
eliminate the Hessian fly problem because residual activity-
(normally 3 to 6 weeks) is not sufficient to provide control for
the full season. No method has been developed or chemical re-
gistered to control the Hessian fly by direct application of an
insecticide during the growing season.

Although currently none of the varieties agronomically adapt-
ed to Florida conditions have resistance to the Hessian fly, a
cultivar with yield and growth characteristics similar to F1301
is under development and should be available in approximately two
years.









WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAIN


Trade Name and Rate of
Commercial Product per
Acre
2,4-D
Several brands
(1/2 to 2 pts of
4 Ib/gal amine
formulation)

Banvel (1/4 pt)
or
Banvel II (1/2 pt)


Banvel (1/4 pt)
+
2,4-D (1/2 pt)




ME4 Brominal
(3/4 to 1 pt)
or
Buctril 2EC
(1.5 to 2 pt)


3 + 3 Brominal
(2/3 to 1-1/3 pt)
or
Bronate 4EC
(1 to 2 pt)


Common Name and Rate
of Active Ingredient
per Acre
2,4-D
(0.25 1.0)


dicamba
(0.125)


dicamba (0.125)
+
2,4-D (0.25)




bromoxynil
(0.375 to 0.5)






bromoxynil
(.25 to .5)
+
MCPA
(.25 to .5)


Hoelon (2 pt) diclofop-methyl For postemergence control of annual ryegrass
(0.75) in wheat. For best results apply when ryegrass
is in the 1-3 leaf stage and before wheat
begins to joint. Thorough uniform spray cover-
age of ryegrass is essential. May be mixed
with Brominal or Buctril for broadleaf control.
Do not graze or harvest for forage.
Use of trade names does not constitute aguaranteeor warranty of products named and does not
signify approval to the exclusion of similar products.

READ and FOLLOW all label instructions and precautions when applying any pesticide.

PREPARED BY: B. J. Brecke, Weed Scientist, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Jay, FL 32565-9524.


For control of winter annual broadleaf weeds.
Apply after small grain is 5-8" tall or has
fully tillered but before jointing. Do not
graze treated areas or harvest for dairy
cattle feed within 2 weeks after treatment.

Controls many annual broadleaf weeds. Apply
after winter dormancy but before small grain
begins to joint. Do not graze treated areas
or harvest for dairy cattle feed prior to
crop maturity.

Combination controls a broader spectrum of
weeds than dicamba or 2,4-D alone. Apply after
winter dormancy but before grain begins to
joint. This combination may cause some crop
injury. Do not graze treated areas or harvest
for dairy feed prior to crop maturity.

For control of wild radish and many other
broadleaf weeds. Apply after small grain
emerges but before weeds are past the 3-4
leaf stage. Do not apply to small grain
during or after boot stage. Do not graze
treated fields for 30 days after applicatiLa~

For control of wild radish and many other --
broadleaf weeds. Apply after small grain has
3-4 leaves or is tillering and before weeds
are past the 3-4 leaf stage. Do not apply to
small grains during or after boot stage. Do
not graze treated fields for 30 days after
application.


.







Animal Science Fact Sheet


Triticale Grain in Swine Diets


R. O. Myer and R. D. Barnett*


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricul

Triticale is a grain cereal obtained by crossing
durum wheat with rye in an attempt to combine the
grain quality, productivity and disease resistance of
wheat with the vigor, hardiness and high lysine con-
tent of rye.
Triticale is higher in protein and the essential
amino acids than is corn, having nearly double the
amount of lysine (Table 1). Lysine content is impor-
tant because swine, like most simple-stomached
animals, do not require protein per se, but instead
require specific levels of certain compounds that
make up protein. These compounds are called amino
acids. Some of these amino acids, termed "essential
amino acids," must be present in the diet for pigs
to grow and perform well. A few essential amino
acids tend to be limiting in typical swine diets. One-
essential amino acid, lysine, is usually the most-
limiting, or first-limiting, amino acid. This means that
if a diet is formulated to supply the correct amount
of lysine, then generally the levels.of the other essen-
tial acids will be adequate. Therefore, lysine content
is an important consideration when comparing cereal
grains.
Even though triticale may appear to be high in
crude fiber content, its fiber content is very similar
to that in wheat or corn. The content of phosphorus,
crude fat, and energy is similar to that in wheat.
Triticale kernels are usually larger than wheat
kernels, but are not as dense. The test weight of
triticale is 48 lb/bu as compared to 60 lb/bu for
wheat.


Sciences / University of Florida / J. T. Woeste, Dean


At present, only one triticale grain variety is
available that is adapted to growing conditions in the
deep southeast. This variety, 'Beagle 82', was releas-
ed in 1982 jointly by the University of Georgia and
the University of Florida. Feeding experiments, con-
ducted by the Marianna, Florida and Tifton, Georgia,
experiment stations with swine fed starting and
growing-finishing diets containing 'Beagle 82'
triticale have been very encouraging. Results of these
experiments (Table 2) indicate that pigs fed 'Beagle
82' triticale diets had rates of gain and feed efficien-
cies similar to those of pigs fed corn-based diets. This
research also indicates that 'Beagle 82' triticale can
satisfactorily replace part of the soybean meal (up
to 100 lbs of 44% soybean meal/ton of mixed diet),
as well as all the corn, in adequately-fortified, corn-
soybean meal diets for starting and growing-finishing
swine. In the future, more varieties should be
available in the Southeast.
Use of Triticale in Swine Diets
Even though triticale contains more protein than
corn, diets should be formulated to meet essential
amino acids (especially lysine) requirements of the
pig, rather than crude protein requirements. If diets
containing triticale were formulated on the basis of
crude protein alone, lysine levels would be inade-
quate and swine performance would suffer.
Because of the higher lysine content of triticale,
producers who mix their own diets using a soybean
meal-premix program can save 100 lbs. of soybean


Table 1. Comparative composition of triticale, corn and wheat (as-fed basis).
Item Triticalea Corn Wheatb
Crude protein, % 12.0 8.5 10.0
Lysine, % .40 .24 .31
Crude fiber, % 2.8 2.2 2.4
Crude fat, % 1.8 3.8 1.8
Calcium, % .05 .02 .05
Phosphorus, % .35 .28 .31
Metabolizable energy, kcal/Ib 14800 1500 1500

a 'Beagle 82'.
b Soft red winter.
c Estimate.


* R. 0. Myer is Assistant Professor of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Center, Marianna; and R. D. Barnett is Professor of
Agronomy, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy; IFAS, University of Florida.


AS 37









Table 2. Evaluations of 'Beagle 82' triticale in diets for starting and growing-finishing swine.
Initial and Avg. daily gain, Ib. Feed/Gain
Exp.a final weight, Ib. Corn Trit.b Trit.c Corn Trit.b Trit.c
1 MA 13-44 .88 .90 1.87 1.74 -
2 MA 22-64 1.30 1.39 1.34 1.95 1.87 1.87
3 MA 46-165 1.74 1.89 2.71 2.62 -
4 MA 42-218 1.85 1.98 3.09 3.10
5 MA 66-196 1.85 1.80 3.03 3.18
6 MA 53-209 1.88 1.77 3.00 3.10
7 TF 46-211 1.83 1.80 1.80 3.10 3.28 3.16

a 1) 2 pens/trt, 6 pigs/pen; 2) 4 pens/trt, 4 pigs/pen; 3) 2 pens/trt, 4 pigs/pen; 4) 2 pens/trt, 5 pigs/pen; 5 and 6) 3 pens/trt, 6 pigs/pen;
7) 8 pens/trt, 1 pig/pen. MA = Marianna, FL; TF = Tifton, GA. (Tifton data courtesy of Dr. O. M. Hale)
b Same amount of supplemental protein (soybean meal) as in the corn diet.
c Equal to corn diet in lysine content (triticale contained .4% lysine).


Table 3. Example swine diets using triticale.
Starter Grower Finisher
Ingredient (20 to 40 Ib) (40 to 120 Ib) (120 Ib to market)
---------------------Ib/ton---------------------
Ground triticale 1485 1655 1800
Soybean meal (44%)a 450 300 160
Base mixb:
Dicalcium phosphatec 25 15 12.5
Limestone, ground 20. 20 17.5
Salt 10 5 5
Vitamin-trace mineral premixd 10 5 5
2000 2000 2000
Calculated composition (as-fed basis):
Crude protein, % 18.8 16.5 14.4
Lysine, % .96 .77 .60
Calcium, % .75 .62 .55
Phosphorus, % .64 .53 .48
Metabolizable energy (ME), kcal/lb 1420 1435 1450

a Can replace 10 Ib of 44% soybean meal with 9 Ib of 48% soybean meal and 1 Ib of triticale.
b A complete mineral-vitamin premix or a complete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix may be used instead of the suggested
base mix. Follow manufacturer's guidelines.
c Defluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate, if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate. However, if a substitu-
tion is made, the diets need to be reformulated since these products contain different calcium and phosphorus levels than does
dicalcium phosphate.
d Amounts shown are typical for many commercial products. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines.


meal (44%) per ton of diet over comparable corn-
based diets. Examples of diets formulated with
triticale are given in Table 3. The crude protein con-
tent of triticale-based diets are usually higher than
that of comparable corn-based diets when both diets
contain equal levels of lysine. The example diets are
also formulated to take advantage of the higher level
of phosphorus of triticale, resulting in a savings of
5 lbs. of dicalcium phosphate per ton of diet over
comparable corn-based diets. This gives an advan-
tage to producers who mix their own diets from
"scratch."


Producers using a commercially-available, com-
plete protein-vitamin-mineral supplement should
consider triticale equal to corn, and substitute
triticale for corn on an equal weight basis when mix-
ing swine diets. To decrease the amount of these
complete supplements to take advantage of the
higher lysine and protein content of triticale would
reduce the essential minerals and vitamins that these
supplements provide in the diet. This reduction could
lead to inadequate mineral and vitamin levels in the
diet, resulting in poor swine performance.









Triticale should be ground or rolled for use in swine
diets. A medium grind is preferred. Finely ground
triticale is not desirable because it easily absorbs
moisture from the atmosphere and the pig's own
saliva, which can result in feed spoilage and reduce
feed intake.

Relative Value of Triticale
Triticale is worth about 5 to 7% more than the pur-
chase price of corn on an equal weight basis since
triticale replaces some of the soybean meal (or other
protein supplement) as well as the corn in a typical
swine diet. However, for producers who mix their
own diets using a complete protein-vitamin-mineral
supplement, triticale would only be worth the same
price as corn on an equal weight basis since triticale
should only replace corn on a pound for pound basis
when complete supplements are used.

Special Considerations
Care must be exercised in storing triticale. Since
it is very nutritious, stored grain insects multiply
rapidly in it, and steps should be taken to protect the
grain if stored over a long period. Self-feeders con-
taining triticale-based diets may "gum-up" a little,
so proper adjustment and frequent checking may be


required. This problem can be minimized by mixing
triticale with corn or grain sorghum, but not wheat.



Summary
1. Triticale may be used as a partial or sole grain
source in diets for all classes of swine.
2. Diets containing triticale should be balanced for
lysine instead of crude protein. Triticale-soybean
meal diets will be higher in crude protein content
than comparable corn-soybean meal diets.
3. Triticale contains more lysine than corn, thus
those producers who mix their own diets using a soy-
bean meal-premix program can save 100 lb. of soy-
bean meal (44%) per ton of mixed diet.
4. Those producers who mix their own diets using
a complete protein-vitamin-mineral supplement
should think of triticale as a corn replacement only
and not a partial complete protein supplement
replacement as well.
5. Triticale should be ground (medium to coarse)
or rolled for use in swine diets.
6. Triticale is worth 5 to 7% more than the price
of corn on an equal weight basis for those who can
take advantage of triticale's higher lysine content.
Otherwise, triticale is only worth as much as corn.



































































This publication was produced at a cost of $256.97, or 21.4 cents per copy, to inform swine feeders about triticale
grain in swine diets. 3-1.2M-85





COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertiller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
matlon to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa- FAB
tonal Information and other services only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. HInton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.







Comparative Nutrient Composition of Cereal Grains (as-fed basis).



Item Wheat, Triticale
soft red ('Beagle 82') Corn

Energy
MEa (swine), kcal/lb 1490 1475 1500
ME (poultry), kcal/lb 1475 1400 1560
NEgb (cattle), mcal/lb 0.60 0.55 0.61

Crude protein, % 11.0 12.0 8.8
Lysine, % 0.32 0.42 0.24
Crude fiber, % 2.4 2.8 2.2
Crude fat, % 1.8 1.8 3.8
Phosphorus, % 0.32 0.35 0.28

Test weight, Ib/bu 58-60 48-50 56

Maximum amount that can be fed
in the grain portion of the
diet, %:
Swine 100 100 100
Poultry 100 50-100c 100
Cattle 50d 50d 100

aME = metabolizable energy.

bNEg = net energy for weight gain.

c50% for young chickens and turkeys and up to 100% for other classes of poultry.

dCan go higher if the cattle are first adjusted to diets contain wheat and if
Rumensin is included in the diet.




Prepared by: R. 0. Myer, Assistant Professor of Animal Science, University of
Florida, AREC, Marianna.






RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF TRITICALE FOR USE IN SWINE DIETS COMPARED
TO CORN AT VARIOUS CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL PRICESa,'


Price of Price of 44% soybean meal ($/ton)
corn ($/bu.) 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425

2.50 104 106 108 110 112 114 115 117 119 121 123
2.75 103 105 106 108 110 111 113 115 117 118 120
3.00 102 104 105 107 108 110 111 113 114 116 117
3.25 101 103 104 106 107 108 110 111 113 114 115
3.50 101 102 103 105 106 107 109 110 111 112 114
3.75 100 101 102 104 105 106 107 109 110 111 112
4.00 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 109 110 111
4.25 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 107 108 109 110
4.50 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109


Price of Price of 48% soybean meal ($/ton)
corn ($/bu.) 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425

2.50 104 106 107 109 111 112 114 116 117 119 121
2.75 103 104 106 107 109 111 112 114 115 117 118
3.00 102 103 105 106 108 109 110 112 113 115 116
3.25 101 102 104 105 106 108 109 110 112 113 114
3.50 100 102 103 104 105 106 108 109 110 111 113
3.75 100 101 102 103 104 105 107 108 109 110 111
4.00 99 100 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110
4.25 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109
4.50 99 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Corn = 100; numbers in table are based on weight for weight comparison (i.e., lb. for lb.)
not bushel for bushel; bushel weight of triticale is 48 to 50 Ib.; to put on bushel for
bushel comparison, multiply the table value by 0.875 (0.875 is 49 divided by 56).
Based on lysine compositions of: triticale = .42%, corn = .24%, 44% soybean meal = 2.93%,
and 48% soybean meal = 3.15%.







RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF WHEAT (SOFT RED WINTER) FOR USE IN SWINE DIETS
COMPARED TO CORN AT VARIOUS CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL PRICESa,b


Price of Price of 44% soybean meal ($/ton)
corn ($/bu.) 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425

2.50 102 102 103 104 105 105 106 107 107 108 109
2.75 101 102 102 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107
3.00 101 101 102 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107
3.25 100 101 101 102 103 103 104 104 105 105 106
3.50 100 101 101 102 102 102 103 104 104 105 105
3.75 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 104
4.00 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104
4.25 100 100 100 101 101- 101 102 102 103 103 104
4.50 99 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 102 103 103

Price of Price of 48% soybean meal ($/ton)
corn ($/bu.) 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425

2.50 101 102 103 103 104 105 105 106 107 107 108
2.75 101 101 102 103 103 104 104 105' 106 106 107
3.00 100 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 105 106
3.25 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 105
3.50 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105
3.75 100 100 101 101 102 102 102 103 103 104 104
4.00 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 102 103 103 104
4.25 99 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 103
4.50 99 99 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 102 103

aCorn = 100; numbers in table are based on weight for weight comparison (i.e., lb. for
lb.) not bushel for bushel; bushel weight of wheat is 58 to 60 lb.; to put on bushel for
bushel comparison, multiply the table value by 1.054 (1.054 is 59 divided by 56).

bBased on lysine compositions of: wheat = .31%, corn = .24%, 44% soybean meal = 2.93%,
and 48% soybean meal = 3.15%.






Table Grain yield and test weight of wheat varieties grown at Quincy, Live Oak, and Jay in 1984.


Brand or
Originating
state


Grain yield Bu/A


Variety


1 2
Quincy Quincy


Live Oak Jay


Test wt. Lbs/bu
Av. uincy Quin 2 Live ak A
Avg. Quincy Quincy Live Oak Avg.


NK-McNair
Agripro (NAPB)
Northrup King
Coker
Florida

Coker
Florida
Terral-Norris
Agripro (NAPB)
Terral-Norris

Coker
NK-lcNair
Coker
Georgia
Texas

Agripro (NAPB)
Georgia
Agripro (NAPB)
Missouri
Ill inois


I id i ana
Coker
Virginia
Indiana
Pioneer

Indiana
Ind Lana


1003
Hunter
79W8'10
983
Florida 302

916
Florida 301
Terral 812
Delta Queen
Terral 817

797
1813
762
Omega 78
Bradford

Southern Belle
Stacy
Magnum
Pike
Scotty


Arthur 71
747
Saluda
Compton
2550

Caldwell
Fillmore


(Table Continued)


74.7
70.8
70.6
66.9
65.7

65.3
57.4
71.0
62.3
64.7

65.1
58.3
57.9
54.4
58.3

62.9
64.1
68.3
54.8
69.1

53.0
61.4
53.2
52.4
44.6

46.7
44.5


52.3
43.9
45.4
40.5
42.8

42.7
49.3
45.6
40.2
36.2

40.7
43.9
36.7
37.3
35.9

30.8
29.0
28.0
33.5
18.5

16.5
0
0
0
0

0
0


27.8
27.7
28.5
31.6
21.9

21.4
27.1
20.1
28.7
25.0

25.7
24.0
20.9
25.7
18.6

16.3
23.8
17.5
19.3
12.8

13.2
15.7
14.3
12.6
11.8

9.1
9.9


43.5
42.6
42.4
39.8
39.6

39.6
39.2
38.9
38.3
37.5

37.4
36.8
35.6
35.1
34.5

34.0
33.7
33.5
33.2
30.9

26.4
24.8
23.1
21.3
18.9

18.7
17.6


52.5
57.0
55.0
57.0
54.0

53.5
54.5
56.0
55.0
55.5

54.5
54.0
55.0
53.0
55.5

58.5
56.0
56.5
54.5
55.5

57.5
56.5
55.5
56.0
55.5

53.0
53.5


53.0
57.5
56.5
57.5
55.0

55.0
55.0
57.5
55.0
55.0

55.0
54.5
52.0
53.0
56.0

56.5
55.0
55.5
54.5
51.0

54.0

m--


52.0
55.0
56.0
54.5
51.0

51.5
54.0
55.0
55.0
54.0

54.5
54.5
49.0
54.5
51.5

53.0
54.0
50.0
50.0
49.0

50.0
50.0
51.5
51.0
50.0

47.5
49.0


52.5
56.5
55.8
56.3
53.3

53.3
54.5
56.2
55.0
54.8

54.7
54.3
52.0
53.5
54.3

56.0
55.0
54.0
53.0
51.8

53.8
53.3
53.5
53.5
52.8

50.3
51.3










Cultural Data for 1984 Wheat Trials


Quincy


Quincy


Live Oak


Jay


Planting Date 12-3-83 1-5-84 12-1-83 11-24-83
No. of Replications 4 3 4 4
Plot size 16 ft 66 ft 66 ft 60 ft
Fertilizer Preplant 300 lbs 11-0-33 300 lbs 11-0-33 500 lbs 5-10-15 250 Ibs 8-24-24
Fertilizer Topdressing 50 Ibs N 50 lbs N 50 lbs N 50 lbs N






Table Characteristics of wheat varieties grown at Quincy in 1984.


Brand or
Originating
State

NK-McNair
Agripro (NAPB)
Northrup King
Coker
Florida

Coker
Florida
Terral-Norris
Agripro (NAPB)
Terral-Norris

Coker
NK-McNair
Coker
Georgia
Texas

Agripro (NAPB)
Georgia
Agripro (NAPB)
Missouri
Illinois


Indiana
Coker
Virginia
Indiana
Pioneer

Indiana
Indiana


Variety


1003
Hunter
79W810
983
Florida 302

916
Florida 301
Terral 812
Delta Queen
Terral 817

797
1813
762
Omega 78
Bradford

Southern Belle
Stacy
Magnum
Pike
Scotty


Arthur 77
747
Saluda
Compton
2250

Caldwell
Fillmore


Heading Plant
Date Height
(inches)


Percent
Lodging


Powdery Leaf Septoria
mildew Rust Glume Bltch
Reaction- Reaction- Reaction-


4-7
4-4
4-5
4-10
4-17

4-17
4-6
4-10
4-11
4-8

4-7
4-6
4-13
4-6
4-12

4-14
4-13
4-12
4-14
4-18

4-14
4-16
4-19
4-20
4-28

4-23
4-27


VS = very susceptible, S = susceptible,
resistant.


MS = moderately susceptible, MR = moderately resistant, R








Table Summary of wheat grain yields over a four year period in North Florida.


Brand or
Originating
State


j Variety


Grain Yield in Bushels Per Acre
1981 1982 1983 1984 4 years
Q1 Q2 M J Q1 Q2 J Q1 Q2 M J Q1 Q2 LO J 15 test
Avg.


Agripro (NAPB) Hunter
Northrup King 79W810
Florida Florida 301
Florida Florida 302
Coker 762

Coker 797
Coker 916
NK-McNair 1813
NK-McNair 1003
Agripro (NAPB) Delta Queen


73 52 61 40 66 39 53 62 83
71 59 60 37 57 33 31 59 65
64 53 50 43 60 38 41 65 71
56 40 53 36 55 44 37 60 82
74 54 49 22 47 45 52 59 70

68 54 47 33 59 41 33 59 78
64 55 53 40 42 30 43 60 62
65 58 59 56 47 21 28 56 60
81 46 56 36 52 30 22 52 51
72 48 52 25 31 27 33 56 65


Texas Bradford 64 53 52 34 51 28 42 56 61
Agripro (NAPB) Southern Belle 75 48 45 24 43 21 43 41 51
Georgia Omega 64 43 43 35 43 28 30 49 45
Georgia Stacy 54 37 45 28 28 11 22 53 54
Coker 747 66 41 51 33 42 7 27 45 56


Indiana Arthur 71
Indiana Caldwell
Agripro (NAPB) Magnum
Missouri Pike
Coker 983


68 41 44 31 33 10 26 28 36
62 35 40 32 15 5 24 41 26
-- -- -- 43 23 49 47 45
26 13 15 40 40
64 75


48 35 71
42 -- 71
50 26 57
52 32 66
59 35 58

56 30 65
50 21 65
43 22 58
36 22 75
39 34 62

25 17 58
38 28 63
35 23 54
41 22 64
30 26 61

20 15 53
19 14 47
35 24 68
18 19 55
47 -- 67


44 28 28
45 29 25
49 27 23
43 22 28
37 21 27

41 26 18
43 21 29
44 24 21
52 28 19
40 29 22

36 19 25
31 16 26
37 26 23
29 24 18
0 16 22

17 13 23
0 9 19
28 18 20
34 19 25
41 32 20


t I,


Q1 = Early planted Quincy, Q2 = Late planted Quincy, M = Marianna, J Jay, LO = Live Oak.
* 3 years 11 test avg. **2 years 7 test avg.


31
26
36 *
28 *
49 **





Tible Grain yield and other characteristics of oat varieties grown at Quincy and Live Oak in
1984.


Brand or
Originating
State


Variety


Grain
Yield
Bu/A


Test
Wt.
Lbs/bu


Quincy
Plant
Heading Height
Date Inches


Crown
Percent Rust
Lodging Reaction-


Live Oak
Grain Test
Yield Wt.
Bu/A Lbs/Bu


FLorida
Arka ns is
Flori da
North Carolina
Terral-Norris

Harpool
Coker
Harpool
Coker


Florida 501
Bob
Florida 502
Brooks
Citation

833
227
422
820


-/R = Resistant, MR = Moderately resistant, MS = Moderately susceptible, S = Susceptible, VS = Very
susceptible.

Planting date at Quincy 1-5-84 (after December 25-26, 1983 freeze), and 12-1-83 at Live Oak. 4
replications each location.


Table Summary of oat grain yields over a three-year period in North Florida.

Brand or Grain Yield Bushels Per Acre
Originating 1982 1983 1984 3 Year
State Variety Quincy Jay Gainesville Quincy Quincy Live Oak 6 Test Avg.

Harpool 833 83 73 96 109 95 -- 91*
Terral Norris Citation 72 90 73 136 99 44 86
Florida Florida 502 91 82 76 107 101 35 82
Florida Florida 501 96 76 70 98 111 24 79
Coker 820 68 79 85 112 -- 50 79*
Coker 227 83 61 66 91 94 38 72


*5 Test Average.


111.3
109.1
101.2
99.9
99.3

95.4
93.5
91.6


34.5
34.0
37.0
29.0
28.5

28.5
30.0
31.5


4-10
4-17
4-9
4-17
4-18

4-19
4-19
4-18


24.0

35.2

43.9


37.9

50.4


30.0

34.0

31.5


30.0

33.5







Animal Science Fact Sheet


Feeding Wheat to Swine


R. O. Myer, M. F. Cain, and R. D. Barnett* F

Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences I University of Florida / J. T. Woeste, Dean


The primary sources of energy in swine diets are
cereal grains. Traditionally, corn has been the
mainstay of most swine feeding programs.
However, under conditions of fluctuating corn
prices and yields, and recent increases in wheat pro-
duction in the Southeast, wheat can be an attractive
alternative to corn for swine rations. Research in-
dicates that wheat can be efficiently utilized by
swine of all ages; however, when using wheat to
replace corn or other cereal grains in swine rations,
considerations must be given to the nutrient com-
position, method of processing, quality and relative
value compared to the price of other cereal grains.

Nutrient Composition
There are several types of wheat grown in the
United States including soft white, and hard and
soft red. The only type of wheat grown in the
Southeast is soft red winter.
The comparative composition of soft red winter
wheat and corn, as well as other feed ingredients, is
shown in Table 1. Wheat is higher than corn in crude
protein but more importantly, is higher in lysine.
Lysine is an important essential amino acid which
are the building blocks of protein. The protein of
corn, wheat or other cereal grains is deficient in cer-
tain of these essential amino acids and must be for-
tified with a protein supplement such as soybean
meal. Lysine is especially important because it is the
first limiting amino acid in a grain-soybean meal ra-
tion. This means that if a diet is formulated to sup-
ply the correct amount of lysine, then generally, the
levels of the other essential amino acids will be
adequate. Therefore, lysine content is an important
consideration when comparing cereal grains. Wheat
contains less fat than corn but is equivalent to corn
in metabolizable energy. Phosphorus content of
wheat is slightly higher than that usually found in
corn, and research has suggested that the
phosphorus in wheat may be more available (digesti-
ble) to the pig.

*R. O. Myer is an Assistant Professor of Animal Science, ARC,
Marianna; M. F. Cain is an Assistant Professor, Area Livestock
Specialist, AREC, Quincy; and R. D. Barnett is an Associate
Professor of Agronomy, AREC, Quincy; IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville 32611.


Results of Feeding Trials
Research designed to evaluate soft red winter
wheat in swine rations has been conducted in
Kentucky and Florida. A summary of this research
indicates that a wheat-soybean meal ration is essen-
tially equal in feeding value to a corn-soybean meal
ration as measured by average daily gain or feed
conversion of growing-finishing swine.

Use of Wheat in Swine Rations
Even though wheat contains more protein than
corn, rations should be formulated to meet essential
amino acid (especially lysine) requirements of the
pig rather than crude protein requirement. The
analyzed crude protein content of wheat-based ra-
tions will usually be higher than corn-based rations
when both rations contain equal levels of lysine. If
the rations containing wheat were formulated to
meet the crude protein requirement, lysine levels
would be inadequate to support maximum perfor-
mance in swine.
Producers who mix their own rations using a soy-
bean meal-premix program may want to use the sug-
gested rations in Tables 2 and 3. These suggested
rations were formulated to take advantage of the
higher lysine level of wheat, resulting in a savings of
50 lb of soybean meal (44 %)per ton of ration over
comparable corn-based rations.
Producers using a commercially available com-
plete protein-vitamin-mineral supplement should
consider wheat equal to corn and substitute wheat
for corn on an equal weight basis when mixing swine
rations. To decrease the amount of these complete
supplements to take advantage of the higher lysine
(protein) content of wheat would dilute out the
essential minerals and vitamins that these sup-
plements also provide in the ration. This dilution
could lead to inadequate mineral and vitamin levels
in the ration, resulting in poor swine performance.
Many problems associated with feeding wheat can
be the result of improper protein supplementation.

Processing of Wheat
Processing wheat for efficient use in swine rations
is very important. Best results in university feeding


AS 25










Table 1. Typical analyses of wheat and other feedstuffsa.
Metabolizableb Crude Protein Lysine Calcium Phosphorus
Energy, kcal/lb % % % %
Wheat 1500 10.0 .30 .05 .30
Corn 1500 8.5 .22 .02 .25
Grain sorghum 1425 9.5 .22 .03 .25
Oats 1200 11.0 .40 .05 .30
Soybean meal (44%) 1400 44.0 2.90 .30 .65
Soybean meal (48%) 1520 48.5 3.15 .30 .60
Dicalcium phosphate 22.00 18.50
Defluorinated phosphate 32.00 18.00
Mono-dicalcium phosphate 18.00 21.00
Limestone, ground
(calcium carbonate) 38.00 .04
aValues given are typical for feedstuffs used in the Southeastern U.S. (expressed on an as-fed basis).
bRelative energy (feeding) value compared with corn = 100: wheat = 100; grain sorghum = 95; oats = 80.


Table 2. Suggested starter, grower, finisher and combination grower-finisher rations using wheat as the major or sole
grain.
Combination
Starter Grower Finisher Grower-Finisher
(15 to 40 lb) (40 to 125 lb) (125 lb to market weight) (40 lb to market weight)
Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat
Ingredient and corn and corn and corn and corn


Wheat
Corn
Soybean meal (44%)b

Base mix:c
Dicalcium phosphated
Limestone, ground
Salt
Vitamin-trace
mineral premixe


Calculated Composition
(air dry basis):
Crude protein, %
Lysine, %
Calcium, %
Phosphorus, %


-------------------------------
1460 735 1600 800
700 -- 775
475 500 350 375


5 5 3 3
2000 2000 2000 2000


17.8
.91
.82
.65


17.6
.91
.82
.65


15.7
.75
.69
.54


15.5
.75
.69
.53


lb/ton--------------------------------
1725 850 1650 825
850 -- 800
225 250 300 325


3 3
2000 2000


13.6
.59
.67
.52


13.3
.58
.67
.50


3 3
2000 2000


14.8
.68
.68
.53


14.6
.68
.68
.52


aThis ration is formulated to be fed to growing-finishing swine from 40-60 lb to market weight for those who prefer to use a
single ration for these pigs. If feeding this ration, do not switch to the suggested finisher ration given in this table when
the pigs reach 120 lb.
bCan replace 10 lb of 44% soybean meal with 9 lb of 48% soybean meal and 1 lb of grain.
CA complete mineral-vitamin premix or a complete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix may be used instead of
the suggested base mix. Follow manufacturer's guidelines. If needed, increase or decrease the grain portion of the ration
so that the total would equal 2000 lb.
dDefluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate, if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate. How-
ever, if a substitution is made, the rations need to be reformulated since these products contain different calcium and
phosphorus levels than does dicalcium phosphate (see Table 1).
eSee Table 4.









Table 3. Suggested gestation (and boar) and lactation
rations using wheat as the major or sole grain.
Gestationa Lactationb
Ingredient Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat
& Corn & Corn
---------- lb/ton ---------
Wheat 1700 850 1660 835
Corn -- 825 -- 800
Soybean meal (44%)c 225 250 275 300

Base mix:d
Dicalcium phosphate 40 40 30 30
Limestone, ground 20 20 20 20
Salt 10 10 10 10
Vitamin-trace
mineral premix' 5 5 5 5
2000 2000 2000 2000

Calculated Composition
(air dry basis):
Crude protein, % 13.4 13.2 14.4 14.2
Lysine, % .58 .58 .65 .65
Calcium, % .89 .89 .78 .78
Phosphorus, % .70 68 .62 .60
aIt is suggested that this ration be fed at a level of 31/2 to 6
lb per head per day. The exact level to feed during gesta-
tion depends on weight, age and condition of the animal
and climatic conditions. Sows should gain about 30 to 60
lb and gilts should gain about 70 to 100 Ib during gesta-
tion. For bred sows and gilts on good quality pasture, 2
to 4 lb per head per day should suffice. For feeding bred
sows that are maintained in confinement in individual.
pens or are tethered, an additional 100 lb of soybean meal
and 15 lb of dicalcium phosphate should be added to the
gestation ration at the expense of grain since these sows
usually receive /2 to 1 lb less feed per day.
'The suggested lactation ration could also be fed during
gestation for those who want to use a single gestation-
lactation ration. During lactation, the ration should be
limit fed during the first few days following farrowing.
Increase the daily feed gradually up to full feed or
slightly less by 7 to 10 days after farrowing. If constipa-
tion is a problem around farrowing time, substitute ap-
proximately 20% wheat bran, 40% oats or 10% ground
good quality hay or alfalfa meal for grain in the lactation
ration starting 3 to 4 days before farrowing and continu-
ing 3 to 7 days following farrowing. Constipation may
also be treated by adding 15 to 20 lb potassium chloride
or magnesium sulfate per ton of lactation ration.
cCan replace 10 lb of 44% soybean meal with 9 lb of 48%
soybean meal and 1 lb of grain.
dA complete commercial mineral-vitamin premix or a com-
plete mineral premix and separate vitamin premix may
be used instead of the suggested base mix. Follow
manufacturer's guidelines. If needed, increase or
decrease the grain portion of the ration so that the total
would equal 2000 lb.
eDefluorinated phosphate or mono-dicalcium phosphate,
if available, may be substituted for dicalcium phosphate.


However, if a substitution is made, the rations need to be
reformulated since these products contain different
calcium and phosphorus levels than does dicalcium
phosphate (see Table 1).
fSee Table 4.

Table 4. Suggested guidelines for a vitamin-trace mineral
premixa.
Amounts supplied per
lb of mixed feed when
Ingredient Amount per added at:
lb premix 5 lb/ton 3 lb/ton

Vitamin A 800,000 I.U. 2,000 I.U. 1,200 I.U.
Vitamin D 80,000 I.U. 200 I.U. 120 I.U.
Vitamin E 3,400 I.U. 8.5 I.U. 5.1 I.U.
Vitamin K
(Menadione) 660 mg 1.6 mg 1.0 mg
Riboflavin 800 mg 2.0 mg 1.2 mg
Pantothenic acid 4,000 mg 10.0 mg 6.0 mg
Niacin 5,400 mg 13.5 mg 8.1 mg
Vitamin B12 4 mg 10.0 ug 6.0 ug
Choline Chloride 50,000 mg 125 mg 75 mg
Copper .4% 10 ppm 6 ppm
Iodine .008% .2 ppm .12 ppm
Iron 3.0% 75 ppm 45 ppm
Manganese .8% 20 ppm 12 ppm
Zinc 4.0% 100 ppm 60 ppm
Selenium .004% .1 ppm .06 ppm
aVitamin and trace mineral mixes may be purchased
separately. This is advisable if a combination vitamin-
trace mineral premix is to be stored longer than 3 to 4
months. Vitamins may lose their potency in the presence
of trace minerals if stored for prolonged periods. Com-
mercial vitamin-trace mineral premixes are formulated to
be used in corn-based rations. These premixes are ade-
quate for wheat-based rations. Follow manufacturer's
guidelines in their use.

trials were obtained when wheat was coarsely
ground or lightly crushed (lightly rolled). Hammer
mill screen size of 5/16 to 1/4 inch and perhaps
reduced hammer mill rpms should provide an ac-
ceptable grind. The presence of a few whole kernels
in the coarsely ground wheat does not reduce its
feeding value. In fact,'whole wheat can be utilized
by swine; however, coarse grinding is recommended
to insure a good mix of wheat with the other ration
ingredients. Finely ground wheat is not desirable
because it easily absorbs moisture from the at-
mosphere and the pig's own saliva which can result
in feed spoilage and reduce feed intake. This absorp-
tion of moisture and subsequent feed spoilage is a
particular problem in hot humid areas such as
Florida. Additionally, rations with finely ground
wheat could bridge and and not flow well in self-
feeders. These problems may still occur even with
coarsely ground wheat in the ration. Under these
conditions, mixing wheat with ground corn is ad-
visable. Examples of rations using both wheat and







corn are given in Tables 2 and 3. Corn is a better
grain to mix with wheat than grain sorghum. Mix-
tures of wheat and grain sorghum act similar to
wheat alone when used in the ration.

Low Test Weight, Sprout Damaged and
Contaminated Wheat
Wheat of low test weight (low weight per bushel)
is usually discounted or "docked" when sold for
human consumption and, if the test weight is too
low, it cannot be sold for human consumption at any
price. This low test weight is usually due to
shrunken and shriveled kernels or sprouting damage
in the kernels. In most instances, this wheat can be
included in swine rations without affecting perform-
ance. In fact, wheat kernels that are shrunken and
shriveled are usually higher in crude protein and
lysine than normal wheat kernels. However, unless
it can be analyzed for lysine content, it is suggested
that this wheat be used in swine rations much like
wheat of higher test weight. Wheat of low test
weight should be purchased and used in the ration
on a weight basis rather than on a volume basis.
Sprout damaged wheat is wheat that has sprouted
in the head before harvest and usually has a de-
creased test weight. Feeding tests conducted in
Idaho and Washington have shown that sprout
damage had essentially no effect on the feeding
value of soft white winter wheat for growing-
finishing swine. Therefore, sprout damaged wheat
can be effectively used in swine rations the same as
undamaged wheat provided that the grain is dry
and mold free. If in doubt about the acceptability of
sprout damaged wheat, it should be test fed to a
small group of pigs before purchasing large quan-
tities. Sprout damaged wheat should be mixed with
undamaged wheat or corn if there are acceptability
problems.
Wheat contaminated with various foreign
materials such as rye, mustard seed, wild garlic
and/or wild onion can be fed to swine with few
problems. Wheat with extreme contamination,
especially with wild garlic and/or onion, may be un-
palatable to the pig and may reduce feed intake.


Again, if in doubt about the acceptability of this
wheat, it should be test fed to a small group of pigs
before purchasing large quantities. Contaminated
wheat should be mixed with "clear" (uncon-
taminated) wheat or corn if there are acceptability
problems.

Relative Value of Wheat
Wheat is worth about 5 to 6% more than the pur-
chase price of corn on an equal weight basis since
wheat replaces some of the soybean meal as well as
the corn in a typical swine ration. On a bushel basis,
wheat could be worth even more than corn, since a
bushel of wheat is heavier than a bushel of corn (60
vs 56 lb). However, for producers who mix their own
rations using a complete protein-vitamin-mineral
supplement, wheat would only be worth the same
price as corn on an equal weight basis since wheat
should only replace corn on a pound for pound basis
when complete supplements are used.

Summary
1. Wheat may be used as a partial or sole grain
source in rations for all classes of swine.
2. Rations containing wheat should be balanced
for lysine instead of crude protein. Wheat-soybean
meal rations will be higher in crude protein content
than comparable corn-soybean meal rations.
3. Wheat contains more lysine than corn, thus
those producers who mix their own rations using a
soybean meal-premix program can save 50 lb of soy-
bean meal (44%) per ton of mixed ration.
4. Those producers who mix their own rations us-
ing a complete protein-vitamin-mineral supplement
should think of wheat as a corn replacement only
and not a partial protein supplement replacement as
well.
5. Wheat should be coarsely ground or rolled for
use in swine rations.
6. Wheat is worth 5 to 6% more than the price of
corn on an equal weight basis for those who can take
advantage of wheat's higher lysine content. Other-
wise, wheat is only worth as much as corn.


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $30.15, or 3 cents per copy, to provide information about feeding
wheat to swine. 4-1M-84

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hlnton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.





WHEAT MANAGEMENT

D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist


Wheat acreage is rapidly expanding due to improved varieties

and better knowledge of management necessary to grow wheat.

Listed below are steps to follow in a fertilization program

for wheat:

1. Adjust the pH to between 5.8 to 6.5.

2. Requirements for phosphorus and potash are relatively

small for wheat as compared to other crops. Potash is

important for good stalk strength and phosphorus and

potash are important for good test weight of the wheat.

A. Follow soil test recommendations for phosphorus re-

quirements. The phosphorus may all be applied at

planting.

B. Potash on wheat grown on sandy soils may be split into

two applications with one-half applied preplant and the

other half with sidedress nitrogen in late January or

early February.

3. Sulfur should be applied to the crop at a rate of 15 to 20

Ibs/A with half at planting and the other half with side-

dress nitrogen. Sulfur may be supplied from sulfate of

potash-magnesia, gypsum, or nitrogen solutions with sulfur

from ammonium sulfate or ammonium thiosulfate.

4. Zinc and manganese should be broadcast at rates of 2 to 4

Ibs/A each with 1/2 lb copper and 1/2 lb/A of boron/A.

These rates should adequately meet plant needs.






5. From 1/3 to 1/2 of the nitrogen may be applied at planting

with the remainder in late January or early February. A

total of 80 to 100 lbs/A of nitrogen is adequate to pro-

duce high yields. Excessive rates or late applications of

nitrogen should not be used on wheat because it raises the

protein content of the grain above the acceptable level

(11%) and may cause lodging. Urea or other forms of ni-

trogen high in the ammonium ion seem to be better for

sidedressing during periods of high rainfall because of

less leaching.

6. Apply 15 to 30 lbs/A of nitrogen at planting (Nov. 15 to

Dec. 15) followed by another 40 to 80 Ibs/A in late

January or early February.

Table 1. Recommended Fertilization for Wheat Without Benefit of
Soil Test Results.


Soil Basic Fertilizer Recommendations
Texture N P205 K20


Sand 40* 64 96

Loamy Sand or Sandy Loam 40* 96 96


*Apply 40 to 80 lbs/A of nitrogen in late January or early
February.

Nitrogen is the key nutrient in small grains. The sidedress

application can increase the number of tillers on the wheat and,

therefore, the number of heads. Excessive high rates of nitrogen

(150 lbs or more/A) may cause problems of lodging, reduced grain

quality, disease buildup due to dense plant cover, and delayed

maturity.







There are several growth regulators on the market, Cerone

from Union Carbide has an experimental use permit but others are

not labeled for cereal crops in the U.S. Cycocel from American

Cyanamid Company, Terpal from BASF Company, and several other

trade products composed of chlormequat are the main growth regu-

lators for wheat. The function of growth regulators is to de-

crease lodging by making shorter plants with resulting stronger

straw. This allows the grower to use higher rates of nitrogen

fertilizer on more fertile land to get higher yields without as

great a chance of lodging.

Early top dressing of nitrogen to wheat tends to increase

number of tillers (shoots from which heads emerge) while later

applications enhance the number of tillers that survive.

Chlormequat increases tiller production when applied at growth

stage 6 (1st node of stem detectable) and retards the more ad-

vanced tillers reducing the growth difference between the early

and late formed tillers. Plant growth regulators have given

variable responses in yield which may be due to varietal inter-

actions and varied level of management. Plant growth regulators

do not increase yields but increase harvestable yields by re-

ducing lodging and would probably pay for its use only under high

management systems. This includes use of fungicides and high N

rates. Approximately 70% of the acreage in Germany is treated

and 50% in the UK. Yields as high as 150 to 200 bushels per acre

have been reported. Don't expect that in Florida.

Much research is needed to determine the right material to

apply at the proper growth stage and with different varieties






before growth regulators can be used with satisfactory results.
Little or no benefit could be expected from infertile fields
using unadapted varieties.
Below is a sample label of the growth regulator Cerone which
strengthens the top nodes of the stem and reduces head lodging
and shortens the distance between the flag leaf and head.







K \^^y


CERONE
~---rellim lima


DESCRIPTION OF GROWTH STAGES
Growth Stage 6: First node of stem visible at base of shoot
Growth Stage 7: Second node of stem formed, next-to-last leaf just visible.
Growth Stage 8: Last leaf (flag leaf) visible, but still rolled up, boot beginning to sweIL
Growth Stage 9: Ugule (a small flap) at the base of last leaf visible.
Growth Stage 10: Sheath of last leaf completely grown out, boot swollen but not yet emerged.

Apply CERONE to vigorously growing crops that are likely to lodge in sufficient spray volume to obtain
thorough and uniform coverage. CERONE takes 7 to 10 days to become effective.
Do not apply to crops already lodged, heavily diseased, insect damaged or under moisture stress.
Do not apply If rain Is expected within 5 to 6 hours.
Since CERONE provides greater resistance to lodging, cultural practices for optimizng yields may be
utilized. Consult your local extension service for variety and fertilizer recommendations.
Fertilizer programs aimed at Improving grain yields may produce conditions conducive t disease de-
velopment. Follow recommended disease control practices.
Do not graze or feed livestock on treated barley and wheat forage'and hay.






Florida Cooperative Extension Service


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES



AGRONOMY FACTS


October 7, 1983 Number 150


WHEAT FOR GRAZING AND GRAIN



It has been widely accepted that wheat could not be used for both grazing
and grain without making a large sacrifice in grain yields. However, recent
field trials with Florida 301 wheat show that it may be grazed for up to six
weeks during late December and January without greatly reducing grain yields.
This will also ensure some use of the wheat crop in case of severe grain loss
from disease or drought, or a low market price. Wheat forage is more palat-
able to cattle than rye, and cattle make better gains from it. There are some
important practices that must be followed to use wheat for forage without re-
ducing final grain yields. The following practices are the best information
available for use as grazing and grain.

Wheat should be planted between November 15 and December 15 for grain
production while wheat grown for grazing must be planted earlier (October 15
to November 15) to begin grazing by late December. If Florida 301, Coker 797,
or Hunter are planted in October with the intention of grazing and for some
reason they are not grazed, the grain crop may be lost to a late season freeze.
These varieties all have a relatively low vernalization (chilling) requirement and
may head out too early in the spring unless their growth and development is re-
tarded by grazing. Do not plant early if wheat is not to be grazed. Wait un-
til at least mid-November to plant these three varieties for grain. A seeding
rate of 1 1/2 bushels should be used if drilled in rows and up to 2 bushels per
acre if broadcast and disked in.

Wheat planted for grazing and grain should have 60 Ibs/A of nitrogen at
planting. If the above practices are followed, and if rainfall and temperature
are favorable, grazing can begin during late December, Large animals tend to
pull instead of cut the wheat leaves. Well developed roots are needed to prevent
young plants from being pulled up when larger animals are grazing. The wheat
crop should be well established before grazing begins.

The number of animals that can be grazed on an acre varies with soil and
environmental conditions. However, no more than 1,000 pounds of animal weight
per acre should be allowed on a pasture. It is important to use caution when
grazing wheat. Rye is normally grazed very close for long periods of time.
Grazing pressure on wheat should never be high enough to result in less than
a 3-inch canopy height at any one time. Higher grazing pressure will result in
serious losses in wheat grain yields. If plant growth is slow due to cold tem-
peratures, lack of fertilizer or dry weather, reduce the number of animals to
less than 1,000 pounds animal weight per acre. Graze for no more than six
weeks. Grazing should not be continued beyond the time when stem elongation




-2-


begins and just before jointing (Fig. 1). This will be at different calendar
dates for different varieties and will depend on seasonal temperatures as well.
Cattle will have to be removed from the early maturing varieties earlier than
from later maturing varieties.

The second application of 60 Ibs/A nitrogen along with sulfur and potash
on sandy soils should be made as soon as the cattle are removed to stimulate
tiller growth and seed production. This would make a total of 120-150 Ibs
nitrogen/A for grazing and grain as compared to a total of 80 needed for grain.
After cattle are removed management practices used in grain production should
be followed.

Where grazing is desired for the entire season, wheat may be substituted
for rye though production through the coldest winter months may be less with
wheat. Reasons to consider planting wheat for grazing over rye include,
higher rye seed prices, plentiful wheat supply, and a rather short rye seed
supply. Results of the wheat clipping trial conducted at Quincy in 1983 are
presented in Table 1. It is apparent from this data that there are consider-
able differences among varieties in forage production and season of production.
Usually the best forage producers are the later maturing varieties since they
produce their forage over a longer period and are less affected by cold periods
during the winter. Florida 301 is an excellent early season forage producer
but does not produce forage over an extended period while Coker 916, a later
maturing variety, produces little early season forage but does well in the late
portion of the grazing season.

Where wheat is to be grazed without regard for seed production, seeding
an early season wheat with ryegrass will extend the grazing period and produce
more total forage than either species alone.



D. L. Wright E. C. French
R. D. Barnett M. Swisher




Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and
does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.



This public document was promulgated at a cost of $130.81 or .07 cents
per copy to inform interested persons of wheat for grazing and grain.









Table 1. Wheat Forage Trial at Quincy in 1983.


Brand or Forage Yield Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter
Originating 1st Clip 2nd Clip Total Through 3rd Clip 4th Clip Season
State Variety 1-12-83 2-21-83 2-21-83 3-22-83 4-29-83 Total

Texas Tex. 73-93 130 d-h 560 e-g 690 fg 1746 a-c 2711 b 5147 a
Coker 747 47 gh 227 fg 274 g 1317 ef 3527 a 5118 a
Coker 916 175 c-g 613 e 788 ef 1510 c-e 2720 b 5018 a
Florida Florida 302 306 a-c 1032 bc 1338 bc 1733 a-d 1697 ef 4769 ab
Rohm & Haas HW 3007 131 d-h 565 e-g 696 fg 1518 c-e 2501 b-d 4716 ab

Rohm & Haas HW 3006 428 a 780 c-e 1209 b-e 1143 ef 2288 b-d 4640 ab
Georgia Stacy 235 cd 697 c-e 932 c-f 1542 c-e 2145 c-e 4619 ab
NAPB Southern Belle 147 d-h 539 e-g 685 fg 1305 ef 2549 bc 4539 ab
Florida FL737-G3-12-2-B2 148 d-h 683 c-e 831 d-e 2022 ab 1257 f-g 4110 bc
NAPB Hunter 291 bc 975 b-d 1266 b-d 1883 a-c 659 hi 3808 cd

Coker 762 54 f-h 805 c-e 859 d-f 2135 a 801 g-i 3795 cd
Florida Florida 301 393 ab 1694 a 2087 a 1239 ef 420 i 3746 cd
North Carolina Blueboy II 201 c-e 583 e 784 ef 1150 ef 1715 ef 3649 cd
Georgia Omega 78 102 d-h 805 c-e 907 c-f 1863 a-c 857 g-i 3628 cd
NK-McNair 1003 65 e-h 576 e-f 641 fg 1793 a-c 1179 f-h 3613 cd

NK-McNair 1813 187 c-f 755 c-e 941 c-f 1795 a-c 845 g-i 3581 cd
Indiana Arthur 71 49 gh 210 g 260 g 1337 d-f 1964 de 3561 cd
Florida FL74265-10-A2-B2 51 f-h 620 de 671 fg 1884 a-c 811 g-i 3366 d
Coker 797 408 ab 1196 b 1604 b 970 f 651 hi 3225 d
Arkansas Doublecrop 32 h 504 e-g 536 fg 1728 b-d 867 g-i 3131 d


Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
Planting date 11-12-82. 5 replications in a randomized complete
Applied 700 Ibs/A 7-8-8 preplant. Topdressed with 50 Ibs N/A


at the 5% level according to Tukey's test.
block design. Plot size = 10' x 4', harvested 26.7 ft2.
twice during the season.












Stage
I One shoot (number of leaves can be added)
= "brairding"
2 Beginning of tillering
3 Tillers formed, leaves often twisted spirally. In
some varieties of winter wheats, plants may
be "creeping" or prostrate
4 Beginning of the erection of the pseudo-stem,
leaf sheaths beginning to lengthen
5 Pseudo-stem (formed by sheaths of leaves)
strongly erected
6 First node of stem visible at base of shoot
7 Second node of stem formed, next-to-last leaf
just visible
8 Last leaf visible, but still rolled up, spike
beginning to swell
9 Ligule of last leaf just visible
10 Sheath of last leaf completely grown out,
spike swollen but not yet visible
10.1 First spikes just visible awnss just showing in
barley, spike escaping through split of
sheath in wheat or oats)
10.2 Quarter of heading process completed
10.3 Half of heading process completed
10.4 Three-quarters of heading process completed
10.5 All spikes out of sheath
10.5.1 Beginning of flowering (wheat)
10.5.2 Flowering complete to top of spike
10.5.3 Flowering over at base of spike
10.5.4 Flowering over, kernel watery ripe
11.1 Milky ripe
11.2 Mealy ripe, contents of kernel soft but dry
11.3 Kernel hard (difficult to divide by thumb-nail)
11.4 Ripe for cutting. Straw dead

(After E. C. Large. 1954. Plant Pathol. 3:128-129)


GROWTH STAGES
IN CEREALS
-T ILLERING


STAGE

one
shoot


STAGE
2
tillrring
bgns


STAGE
3
tllirs
formed


STAGE
4
ltea
sheolhs
Ingthcn


STAGE
5
leaf
shoaths
strongly
erected

L--N


Remove cattle
at this stage
(stage 5).


-i /


Growth stages of wheat.


Figure 1.




OATS

Florida 501

Growers Name

L. E. McMullian


Pitnic Place, Inc.


Florida 502

Growers Name

Richard Barber


John W. Bottoms



Circle Bar M Farm


Charles W. Collins


Dasher Farms


Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc.

Larry Ford


H. C. Hodge


D. A. Lewis, Jr.


L. E. McMullian, Jr.


John H. Markham


Juddy Perry


Pitnic Place, Inc.


Growers Address

Rt. 1, Box 217,
Bascom, Fla. 32423

P. O. Box 117,
Jay, Fla. 32565



Growers Address

2940 W. Bdwy.,
Ocala, Fla.

Rt. 2, Box 1088,
DeFuniak Spgs.,.Fla.
32433

312 Angela Dr.,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 1, Box 280,
Live Oak, Fla. 32060

Rt. 1, Box 236,
McAlpin, Fla. 32062

P. O. Box 309,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

P. O. Box 56
Malone, Fla. 32445

Rt. 5, Box 393,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

P. O. Box 128,
Lowell, Fla. 32663

Rt, 1, Box 217,
Bascom, Fla. 32423

Rt. 5, Box 314,
Dunnellon, Fla. 32630

7547 S.E. 110th St.,
Belleview, Fla.

P. O. Box 117,
Jay, Fla. 32565


County Acreage

Jackson 35


Santa Rosa 24




County Acreage

Marion 46


Walton 7


Jackson


Suwannee


Suwannee


Jackson


Jackson


Jackson


Marion


Jackson


Marion


Marion


Santa Rosa


Class

R


R




Class

C


R



R


R


R


F


C
R

R


C


R


C


C


R
C





Oats Cont'd.

Florida 502

Growers Name

Thomas Stadsklev


Taylor Farming
Enterprises

Steve Yoder


Growers Address

Rt. 6, Box 308,
Marianna, Fla. 32446.

P. O. Box 315,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Bluebird Farm,
Grand Ridge, Fla.'


Acreage

64


County

Jackson



Jackson

Calhoun


Class

C


20

20


IrICL 5-0A




RYE

Florida 401

Growers Name

John W. Bottoms



Charles W. Collins


Circle Bar M Farm


Dasher Farms


Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc.

Larry Ford


Wade Howell


L. E. McMulian, Jr.


Ray Bros. Farm


James W. Sapp


William D. Schneider


Bill Sommers


Taylor Farming
Enterprises

Clyde M. Williams


Steve Yoder


RYE

Wrens Abruzzi

Growers Name

Pitnic Place, Inc.


Growers Address

Rt. 2, Box 1088,
DeFuniak Spgs., Fla.
32433

Rt. 1, Box 280,
Live Oak, Fla. 32060

312 Angela Dr.,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 1, Box 236,
McAlpin, Fla. 32062

P. O. Box 309,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

P. O. Box 56,
Malone, Fla. 32445

Rt. 1, Box 116,
Jennings, Fla.

Rt. 1, Box 217,
Bascom, Fla. 32423

Rt. 1, Box 200,
Baker, Fla. 32531

Rt. 2, Box 164C,
Bonifay, Fla. 32425

Rt. 1, Box 260,
Walnut Hill, Fla. 32568

Rt. 3, Box 588,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

P. O. Box 315,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443.

Rt. 2, Box 345,
Graceville, Fla. 32440

Bluebird Farm,
Grand Ridge, Fla.





Growers Address'

P. O. Box 117,
Jay, Fla. .32565


County

Walton



Suwannee


Jackson


Suwannee


Jackson


Jackson


Hamilton


Jackson


Okaloosa


Holmes


Escambia


Jackson


Jackson


Holmes


Calhoun






County

Santa Rosa


Acreage

2


28


20


20


4o


40


30


20


30


14


17


9


20


20


25


335"



Acreage

25


Class

R


R


R


R


F


R


R


R


R


R


R


R


R


R


R






Class

C





TRITICALE

Beagle 82

Growers Name

Clyde C. Roberts


Donald D. Steele


Growers Address

P. 0. Box 68,
Bell, Fla. 32619

Rt. 2, Box 297,
Baker, Fla. 32619


County

Gilchrist


Okaloosa


Class


Acreage

10


T&IA~Ek~jl~




WHEAT

Florida 301

Growers Name

Brown & Brown


Hugh Colson


Dasher Farms


J. Davis


Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc.

Wade Howell


Sydney J. Pate


Pitnic Place, Inc.


Thomas D. Stadsklev


Florida 302

Growers Name

Paul Anderson


Larry Baggett


Glen Barber


Richard Barber


R. D. Bennett


John W. Bottoms


Growers Address

Rt. 1, Box 89A,
Oxford, Fla.

Rt. 2, Box 110
Alachua, Fla.

Rt. 1, Box 236,
McAlpin, Fla. 32062

Rt. 3, Box 96,
Milton, Fla. 32570

Box 309,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Rt. 1, Box 116,
Jennings, Fla. 32053

Rt. 3, Box 191,
Chipley, Fla.

P. 0. Box 117,
Jay, Fla. 32565

Rt. 6, Box 308,
Marianna, Fla. 32446



Growers Address

810 Davis St.,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 1, Box 85,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

515 N. Wynn St.,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

2940 S.W. Bdwy.,
Ocala, Fla.

Box 8,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Rt. 2, Box 1088,
DeFuniak Spgs., Fla.
32443


County

Marion


Alachua


Suwannee


Santa Rosa


Jackson


Hamilton


Washington


Santa Rosa


Jackson


76s< 3o/

County

Jackson


Jackson


Jackson


Marion


Jackson


Walton


Acreage

40


100


80


60


34


113


13


51
30

36




Acreage

30


120


60


100


150


14


Class

C


C


R


R


F


R


C


C
R

C


Class

R


R


R


R


R


R




Wheat Cont'd.

Florida 302

Growers Name

Bill Cannon


Circle Bar M Farm


Charles W. Collins


Jeff Crawford, Jr.


Dasher Farms


J. Davis


Jimmy Ditty


Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc.

Larry Ford,


Joe Franklin


Ham Seed Cleaners


Henderson Farm
Supply

Melvin Hiebert


H. C. Hodge


J. G. Hollister


Wade Howell


Mark Johnson


Growers Address

Rt. 3, Box 963B,
Jay, Fla. 32565

312 Angela Dr.,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 1, Box 280,
Live Oak, Fla. 32060

Rt. 1, Box 50,
Greenwood, Fla.' 32443

Rt. 1, Box 236,
McAlpin, Fla. 32062

Rt. 3, Box 96,
Milton, Fla. 32570

Rt. 1, Box 44,
Bascom, Fla.

Box 309.
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

P. O. Box 56,
Malone, Fla. 32445

Rt. 1, Box 27,
Graceville, Fla. 32440

Rt. 1, Box 12A,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Rt. 1, Lee, Fla. 32059


Rt. 1, Box 165,
Walnut Hill, Fla. 32568

Rt. 5, Box 393,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 5, Box 267,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 1, Box 116,
Jennings, Fla. 32053

Rt. 1, Box 178,
Walnut Hill, Fla. 32568


County

Santa Rosa


Jackson


Suwannee


Jackson


Suwannee


Santa Rosa


Jackson


Jackson


Jackson


Holmes


Jackson


Madison


Escambia


Jackson


Jackson


Hamilton


Escambia


Acreage

12


120


55


115


160


220


120


104


125


30


100


80


120


40


10


90


75


Class

R


R


R


R


R


R


R


F


R


R


R


R


R


R


R


R


R






Wheat Cont'd.

Florida 302

Growers Name

Kelly Farms


L. E. McMullian, Jr.


Marion Mann


Piedmont Farms



Pitnic Place, Inc.


Ray Bros. Farm


Kale Schneider


Royce Schneider


William D. Schneider


Scurlock Farms


Bill Sommers


Thomas D. Stadsklev


Donald D. Steele


Taylor Farming
Enterprises

Billy Williams


Clyde M. Williams


. Growers Address

Rt. 3, Box 419,
Hartford, Ala. 36344

Rt. 1, Box 217,
Bascom, Fla. 32423

Rt. 2, Box 348,
Lake City, Fla. 32055

569 Edgewood Ave., S.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
32205

P..O. Box 117,
Jay, Fla. 32565

Rt. 1, Box 200,
Baker, Fla. 32531.

Rt. 2, Box 16,
Century, Fla. 32535

Star Rt. B, Box 360-A,
Walnut Hill, Fla. 32568

Rt. 1, Box 260,
Walnut Hill, Fla. 32568

Rt. 3, Cottondale, Fla.
32431

Rt. 3, Box 588,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 6, Box 308,
Marianna, Fla. 32446

Rt. 2, Box 297,
Baker, Fla. 32531

P. O. Box 315,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Rt. 4, Box 133,
Graceville, Fla. 32440

Rt. 2, Box 345,
Graceville, Fla. 32440


County

Holmes


Jackson


Columbia


Gilchrist



Santa Rosa


Okaloosa


Escambia

Escambia



Escambia


Jackson


Jackson


Jackson


Okaloosa


Jackson


Jackson


Holmes


Acreage

75


70


50


85


Class

R


R


R


R



R


R


R

R


54


110


58

78


90


78


22


104


180


32


29


55


'** -* 1 "s




Wheat Cont'd.

Florida 302


Growers Name
James 0. Williams

W. F. Williams, Jr.


Steve Yoder


Growers Address

Rt. 2, Box 77,
Greenwood, Fla. 32443

Rt. h, Box 127,
Graceville, Fla. 32440


Blue Bird Farm,
Grand Ridge, Fla.


F&.s/ P
F14.obL 5


Lw-a. Al0 l J C 51P

Fxa. 3o1 kiM t r.57
3. w/A 3130


Acreage


County
Jackson

Jackson

Calhoun


Class
R


7br~f;L 3 1/34


PA614-r-A.


Cp:r.j1IZe'I4k--1I


C

~,oab A~6", kc~


-1- 6
7'&4 OV.-







1985 Fall Planting Schedule for Florida


Bushel Wt.
Recommended Seeding Optimum Planting Dates for each
Crop Variety Rate Grain Grazing crop


Wheat


Oats


Triticale


Florida 301
Florida 302
Coker 797
Coker 762
Coker 916
Hunter
Coker 983

Florida 502
Florida 501
Coker 820
Coker 227
Citation

Beagle 82


Grain
1-1 1/2 Bu

Grazing
2-2 1/2 Bu


Grain
3 bu
Grazing
4 bu


Grain
2 bu


Nov. 15-Dec. 15


Nov. 15-Dec. 15


Nov. 20-Dec. 15


Oct. 15-Nov. 15


Sept. 15-Nov. 15


(not recommended
for grazing)


Florida 401
Wrens Abruzzi
Florida Black
Athens Abruzzi
Weser
Wintergrazer 70
Vita Graze
Forger
Gator
Gurley Grazer 2000


Grain
1-1 1/4 Bu
Grazing
2-2 1/2 Bu


Nov. 20-Dec. 15


Oct. 15-Nov. 15


Rye


60 lbs.


32 lbs.


48 lbs.


56 lbs.







Summary of wheat grain yields over a four year period in North Florida.

Brand or Grain Yield in Bushels Per Acre
Originating 1981 1982 1983 1984 4 years
State Variety Q1 Q2 M J Q2 J 1 2 M J Q1 Q2 LO J 15 test
Avg.

Agripro (NAPB) Hunter 73 52 61 40 66 39 53 62 83 48 35 71 44 28 28 52
Northrup King 79W810 71 59 60 37 57 33 31 59 65 42 -- 71 45 29 25 49
Florida Florida 301 64 53 50 43 60 38 41 65 71 50 26 57 49 27 23 48
Florida Florida 302 56 40 53 36 55 44 37 60 82 52 32 66 43 22 28 47
Coker 762 74 54 49 22 47 45 52 59 70 59 35 58 37 21 27 47

Coker 797 68 54 47 33 59 41 33 59 78 56 30 65 41 26 18 47
Coker 916 64 55 53 40 42 30 43 60 62 50 21 65 43 21 29 45
NK-McNair 1813 65 58 59 56 47 21 28 56 60 43 22 58 44 24 21 44
NK-McNair 1003 81 46 56 36 52 30 22 52 51 36 22 75 52 28 19 44
Agripro (NAPB) Delta Queen 72 48 52 25 31 27 33 56 65 39 34 62 40 29 22 42

Texas Bradford 64 53 52 34 51 28 42 56 61 25 17 58 36 19 25 41
Agripro (NAPB) Southern Belle 75 48 45 24 43 21 43 41 51 38 28 63 31 16 26 40
Georgia Omega 64 43 43 35 43 28 30 49 45 35 23 54 37 26 23 39
Georgia Stacy 54 37 45 28 28 11 22 53 54 41 22 64 29 24 18 35
Coker 747 66 41 51 33 42 7 27 45 56 30 26 61 0 16 22 35

Indiana Arthur 71 68 41 44 31 33 10 26 28 36 20 15 53 17 13 23 31
Indiana Caldwell 62 35 40 32 15 5 24 41 26 19 14 47 0 9 19 26
Agripro (NAPB) Magnum -- -- -- -- 43 23 49 47 45 35 24 68 28 18 20 36 *
Missouri Pike -- -- -- 26 13 15 40 40 18 19 55 34 19 25 28 *
Coker 983 -- -- -- -- -- 64 75 47 -- 67 41 32 20 49**

Q1 = Early planted Quincy, Q2 = Late planted Quincy, M = Marianna, J = Jay, LO = Live Oak.
* 3 years 11 test avg. **2 years 7 test avg.


C.


.:. r~7




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