Group Title: Mimeo report - Quincy, Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; 82-6
Title: Corn production and multicropping
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066059/00001
 Material Information
Title: Corn production and multicropping
Series Title: AREC, Quincy research report
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wright, D. L ( David L )
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Production control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Wright.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066059
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70003021

Full Text
/6& Research Report
Fr && NF-82-6


Corn Production and Multicropping

D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist
University of Florida, Quincy AREC


Florida has had as much as 750,000 acres of corn planted in years when the
price outlook was favorable. Approximately 250,000 acres was planted in 1982.
The smaller acreage has resulted in higher yields per acre because marginal land
has been taken out of corn production and has been planted to soybeans or grain
sorghum.

A high yield club was started in 1979 and is called the "2-60 Corn Soybean
Club". This was intended to recognize corn and soybean producers who had
made high corn and soybean yields and to publicize their production practices.
The high corn yield in 1981 was 280 bu/A produced by Danny Stevens and 1982's
top yield was 235 bu/A produced by Tommy Smith. Several county meetings are
held each winter to discuss management practices with growers. An annual field
day on corn production is usually held at the Quincy AREC or some other location
in North Florida to let growers know new research findings and to ask questions
about other problems or production practices.

The average corn yield in Florida has been around 50 bu/A for a number of
years. Drought periods of 2 weeks or longer on sandy soils at silking and ear
fill is the major reason for low yields. Some of the corn produced is low quality
and in some instances has unacceptable levels of aflatoxin. There are many
management factors that can be altered to increase yields, grain quality and
economics of production. Some of the production practices stressed at grower
meetings are given below.

Irrigation has resulted in the largest and most consistent yield increase of
any management tool. Table 1 shows the benefit of scheduled watering under
relatively high fertility levels. Higher fertility makes the most efficient use of
available water. Low yields with irrigation are often the result of not ring
frequently enough or shutting off the water before maturity


Table 1. Effect of soil-water tension (SWT) on da s between ir i ipn, yie d,
and water-use efficiency of corn (Quincy. Ji0 '-

Tensiometer Days between Yield 9. .Ol T
reading irrigation Bu/A \.F.* In.

20 3 190 8.6

40 5 175 8.5

60 7 160 9.6

not irrigated 115







Hybrid selection is another very important factor. Table 2 illustrates the
importance of hybrid selection. Hybrids that mature in 100 to 115 days are
usually far superior in yield to 85 day corn under irrigation. Best yielding
hybrids should be used in double cropping systems even if they are 2 weeks
later in maturity because of the chance of an early frost and low yields and
because profits are usually higher (Table 3).


Table 2. Yield of
1981).


corn hybrids as influenced by planting dates (Quincy,


Planting Date
Feb. 9 Feb. 27 Mar. 17 Apr. 8 May 1

bu/A
Avg. Yield 209 200 191 152 116

Highest Yield 263 256 243 190 148

Lowest Yield 163 171 145 81 87

Difference 100 85 98 109 61




Table 3. Select high yielding corn hybrids in a double cropping system
(Quincy 1981).

Yield 2nd Crop Total
Bu/A Soybeans bu/A income*

DeKalb XL61 171.4 41.8 (7-13) $ 565.38

DeKalb XL71 223.7 35.3 (7-28) $ 639.21

*Corn @ $2.20/bu., soybeans @ $4.80.

Table 4 shows yield data of 58 hybrids along with lodging score and
aflatoxin content. Yields ranged over 100 bu/A difference with hybrids with
the 100 days corn and above out yielding hybrids that mature in 85 to 95
days. Aflatoxin content was measured at two harvest dates. It is now known
why aflatoxin decreased in most cases on corn left in the field until mid
September. No flatoxin test was run on the corn at harvest in mid-July.
However, it appears that early planted corn is much less subject to aflatoxin
than corn planted later and even though late harvesting causes decreased
grain quality, aflatoxin levels are not increased.






Table 4. Yields, lodging score and aflatoxin ratings of 58 hybrids grown under
intensive management Quincy, 1982).

Aflatoxin ppb
Yield Lodging when harvested on
Hybrid Bu/A % 8-15 9-15

Jacques 247 266.7 14 3 3
Ring Around 1604 263.5 12 20 0
Coker 21 256.4 12 3 0
GK925 252.5 10 13 0
NK PX79 249.1 20 0 0
NK PX87 247.5 20 67 6
DeKalb 19514 245.5 9 56 15
McCurdy 80-62 241.0 12 4 2
Big D 6986 240.5 19 0 3
McCurdy 80-72 236.6 16 0 2
Asgrow RX 909 235.5 27 0 6
Ring Around 1502 234.8 8 0 4
Pioneer 3165 228.0 34 9 0
Asgrow RX777 224.0 31 0 0
Jacques JX227 223.5 4 0 0
Pioneer 3369A 223.5 23 4 0
Coker 22 223.1 15 4 0
NK PX95 222.7 19 30 0
NK PX83 222.5 15 4 0
Funks 4507A 222.2 36 0 0
NK PX74 222.0 42 3 4
DeKalb EX 7979 221.8 6 456 4
Funks G4733 221.7 9 21 0
Paymaster UC8951 219.1 11 4 0
Pioneer 3320 217.6 20 19 0
McCurdy 81-82 217.1 31 3 0
DeKalb XL71 216.6 14 15 4
DeKalb XL82 215.3 19 5 0
Big D4747 215.1 26 12 0
Jacques 8220 212.5 58 34 0
Paymaster UC7251 211.2 74 24 2
Big D 4862 210.8 44 0 53
Paymaster UC9902 210.4 73 11 0
Ring Around 1404 208.5 12 146 0
McCurdy 87-7 207.7 21 0 0
Asgrow RX 114 206.4 29 6 0
McCurdy 8150 206.3 26 42 0
McCurdy 84AA 206.1 24 0 0
Funks G 4606-1 206.1 15 0 0
GK 868 205.2 9 0 0
Coker 13 204.8 31 4 6
Coker 16 204.6 9 0 0
GK 748 201.3 24 0 0
GK 695 196.9 8 0 6
Pioneer 3160 196.2 23 194 0
DeKalb XL73 195.9 45 0 0
Funks G4589 194.4 3 0 25







Table 4. Continued.
Aflatoxin ppb
Yield Lodging when harvested on
Hybrid Bu/A % 8-15 9-15

DeKalb XL61 193.0 29 0 44
DeKalb XL32AA 192.7 26 0 0
McCurdy 81-37 192.0 46 31 0
Funks G4522 188.2 7 0 0
Big D 7220 184.9 27 0 0
Funks G4578 181.5 1 0 0
Trojan TXS115A 176.6 46 2 16
Funks G4323 176.6 25 0 0
Big D 2249 167.5 31 0 0
DeKalb XL53 167.2 10 2 0
Coker 1054 158.8 89 0 0







A 3 year average is shown in Table 5 of corn planted in late February.
Many hybrids under good management can consistently produce corn yields of
200 to 250 bu/A.


Table 5. Three year average of several hybrids planted in late
intensive management (Quincy AREC).


February under


Hybrid


RA1604
RA1502
Asgrow RX777
Funks 4507A
DeKalb XL71
Funks G4606-1
NK PX 79
Pioneer 3369A
Coker 16
Coker 22
DeKalb XL61


1980

267.1
238.1
221.7
232.4
218.0
228.3
225.5
205.5
197.1
212.3
185.8


1981

217.4
256.0
226.3
211.5
218.1
217.7
170.5
207.3
229.4
177.4
170.8


Yield bu/A
1982

263.5
234.8
224.0
222.2
216.6
206.1
249.1
223. 5
204.6
223.1
193.0


Early planting of corn hybrids result in a longer period to maturity (Table
6). The longer growth period allows the hybrid to stay in the growth and de-
velopment stages longer, resulting in a higher yield potential. Most of these
extra days are in the vegetative stage of growth instead of the ear fill period.
Early planting usually results in shorter plant and lower ear heights which
often means less lodging (Table 7).


Table 6. Characteristics of 18
Quincy, 1981).


corn varieties planted over several dates


Planting Date
Feb. 9 Feb. 27 Mar. 17 Apr. 8 May 1

Days to emerg 14 10 13 5 5

Days from emerg
to harvest 134 128 114 108 103

Date of 50% tassel May 5 May 19 May 24 June 2 June 22

Days from emergence
to tassel 72 71 55 50 49

Days from tassel
to harvest 62 57 59 58 54

Avg. bu/A 209.2 199.8 190.8 152.3 116.3


Avg.

249.3
243.0
224.0
222.0
217.6
217.4
215.0
212.1
210.4
204.3
183.2


---







Table 7. Influence of planting date on height of plant and ear at harvest
(Quincy, 1980).

Planting Date
Feb. 27 Mar. 19 April 11

Plant height (ft.) 8.3 9.2 9.9

Ear height (ft.) 3.2 3.7 4.1




Likewise, when using legumes as the nitrogen source, higher yields are
obtained from early plantings (Table 8). Aflatoxin increased and grain
quality declined as plantings were made later into more dense canopies of
legumes. Where cover crops are used over the winter to hold soil, and provide
grazing, legumes make an excellent choice as compared to grasses since nitrogen
rates may be reduced by as much as 100 Ibs/A on the following corn crop.



Table 8. Corn yield and aflatoxin as influenced by planting date in legumes
(Quincy, 1982).

Plant Alfalfa Crimson clover
date Yield bu/A Afla. (ppb) Yield bu/A Afla. (ppb)

Mar. 5 116.9 0 180.0 80

Mar. 30 117.9 0 128.5 36

Apr. 14 80.4 7 87.5 333




Crop rotation is a needed management practice in any cropping system
but is essential where 2 or 3 crops are grown under irrigation in the same
season. Dairy farmers have found that nematodes can become a serious pro-
blem where corn is grown for grain or silage followed by silage sorghum,
followed by rye. Legume crops need to be included in the cropping sequence.
Even where numbers of spiral and stubby rot nematodes are low, yield
responses are noted to recommended nematicides (Table 9).







Table 9. Influence of nematicide
counts (Quincy, 1982).


rates on no-till corn yields and nematode


Treatment Grain yield Nematodes/100 cc soil
Ibs/A bu/A Feb. 5 May 7

Counter @ 14 AP 240.1 14

Furadan @ 24 AP 239.3 34

Counter @ 8 AP 235.0 12

Furadan @ 10 AP, + 14 @ 4 wks 233.9 10

Furadan @ 10 AP 228.7 32

Counter @ 4 AP + 10 @ 4 wks 213.6 10

Control 0 48 30


*Control all plants killed by southern corn root worm



With early planting in cool soils, a "pop-up" fertilizer aids early vegeta-
tive growth and nitrogen uptake. These "pop-up" fertilizers may include
N-P-K or just N-P placed near the seed at planting. A complete fertilizer
placed near the seed furrow may result in highest grain yields (Table 10).
Although initial growth with row banded fertilizers results in taller plants,
the 5 to 7 days earlier tasseling results in mature plants and ear heights
being lower than for corn without row banded fertilizer. This 5 to 7 days
earlier silking results in quicker dry down and maturity (Table 11).


Table 10.


Influence of "pop-up" fertilizer on irrigated corn yield (Quincy,
1981).


Pop-up No
(11-53-0) pop-up

Grain bu/A 219.7 a 205.7 b

Ear ht. ft. 4.1 a 4.5 b

Plant ht. ft. 9.8 a 10.3 b


*Means in rows followed by different letters are significantly different at the
10% level of probability.








Table 11.


Influence of fertilizer application method and rate on corn yield
and grain moisture (Quincy, 1982).


Ibs/A Banded Broadcast
5-10-15 Yield bu/A Moisture % Yield bu/A Moisture %
on 7-1-82 on 7-1-82

250 207.4 33.1 215.1 37.0

500 220.1 33.1 216.4 36.9

750 215.7 36.8 207.9 42.7

1000 223.1 35.7 221.9 37.6




A study with N, P, and K as starter fertilizer nutrients is shown in
Table 12. Using P and K alone resulted in highest yields. However, this
hybrid lodged early in the season and its full yield potential was probably
not realized.


Influence of N, P,
McCurdy 8150 corn


K starter fertilizer combinations on yields of
hybrid (Quincy, 1982).


Treatment Yield
Ibs /A Bu/A

None 183.4 ab
N @ 20 173.0 b
P @ 50 179.6 ab
K @ 50 174.7 ab
N @ 20, P @ 50 188.3 ab
N @ 20, K @ 50 182.1 ab
N @ 20, P @ 50, K @ 50 188.4 ab
P @ 50, K @ 50 192.5 a




Micronutrients such as boron (B), zinc (ZN) and manganese (MN) may
give large yield increases where deficient in the soil. Boron is usually
applied in split applications throughout the growing season because of its
mobility in the soil. Responses to both Zn and Mn have been found on many
of our soils which are typically Zn deficient but show adequate levels of Mn.
Soil applications at planting results in highest yields due to its availability
initially in cool soils (Table 13). Foliar applications of micronutrients have
given little yield increase.


Table 12.







Table 13. Corn grain yields as influenced by micronutrient
(Quincy, 1980).


applications


Treatment Type Grain yield
(Ibs /A) Application (bu/A)

Zn @ 5, Mn @ 5 band at plant (AP) 252 a

Mn @ 5 band AP 248 ab

Zn @ 5 band AP 231 abc

Zn @ 1/2, Mn @ 1/2 4,6,8,10,12 weeks foliar 225 abc

Mn @ 1/2 4,6,8,10,12 weeks foliar 219 abc

Check 214 bc

Zn @ 1/2 4,6,8,10,12 weeks foliar 206 c

A composite sample of the experimental area before planting showed nutrient
levels from 0-6" soil depth, Zn = 13 Ibs/A, Mn = 26 Ibs/A.



Several rates of micronutrients were compared and yields are shown
in Table 14. Although the Zn and Mn combination produced highest yields,
they were not significantly different from the control.


Table 14. Influence of micronutrients on yields of RA1604
(Quincy, 1982).


corn hybrid


Treatment Yield
Ibs/A bu/A*

None 208.2 abc
Zn @ 5 196.9 c
Mn @ 5 205.4 bc
Zn @ 10 217.5 ab
Mn @ 10 213.0 abc
Zn @ 15 206.4 bc
Mn @ 15 222.8-ab
Zn @ 20 214.2 ab
Mn @ 20 216.0 ab
Zn @ 1, Mn @ 1 213.6 abc
Zn @ 5, Mn @ 5 211.4 abc
Zn @ 10, Mn @ 10 224.9 a
Zn @ 15, Mn @ 15 211.6 abc
Zn @ 30, Mn @ 30 218.1 ab
Cu @ 5 220.2 ab
Zn @ 10, Mn @ 10, Cu @ 5 221.5 ab

*Means in a column followed by different letters are significantly differ-
ent at the .1% level of probability.








Sulfur is often deficient in Coastal Plain soils. Yields are often dependent
upon whether the subsoil has any clay and the depth to this layer. Sulfur
deficiencies often occur early in the growing season when plant roots are shallow
or on shallow rooted crops. There was a significant yield difference between the
low and high rate of S (Table 15).


Table 15.


Sulfur
Ibs/A


None


Influence of sulfur on yields of Jacques 247 corn hybrid (Quincy,
1982).


Yield
bu/A


210.5 ab

204.5 b

215.5 ab

218.9 a


*Means in a column followed by different letters are significantly different
at the .1% level of probability.



Approximately 2/3's of the magnesium is taken up after tasseling accord-
ing to our plant analysis data. Therefore, delayed applications were tried.
There was a tendency for higher yields when an application of magnesium
sulfate anhydrous was applied 6 weeks after emergence (Table 16). More
information needs to be obtained on late application of Mg.


Table 16.


Influence of delayed application of magnesium sulfate on yields of
RA1502 corn hybrid (Quincy, 1982).


Magnesium sulfate
100 Ibs/A, weeks AE


Yield
bu/A


None 220.6 a

3 weeks 216.0 a

6 weeks 233.4 a

9 weeks 227. 9 a


AE = after emergence.






Plant population should remain the 28,000 to 30,000 range until hybrids
are bred for higher populations because of the following reasons.

1. High plant populations require more timely management of water
and nutrients than lower populations because less water, fertility,
and light are available to each plant.

2. Plants are stressed more quickly because of smaller root systems
and may result in a disastrous corn yield if irrigation water and
fertilizer cannot be applied at the correct time.

3. Plants growing under high population, high fertility conditions
often grow tall and spindly resulting in severe lodging by harvest
time.

4. Many of the hybrids have been bred under conditions of 28,000
plants and will produce an ear on every stalk. Higher populations
often result in more barren stalks and smaller ears on the stalks
that do produce an ear.

Early planting of the corn results in more time for planting the second
crop. Generally, soybeans nor grain sorghum yields are reduced with irrigation
as long as plantings are made in July (Table 17). Plantings made in August
resulted in lower sorghum and soybean yields than earlier plantings. With later
plantings narrower rows should be used to take advantage of light, water and
nutrients available for plant growth. Planting soybeans in narrow rows generally
encourage taller growth which aids in harvesting.


Table 17. Grain sorghum and soybean yields double cropped behind irrigated
corn (Quincy, 1981).

Planting Grain Sorghum Soybeans
Date corn date No-Till Conv. Bu/A No-Till Conv.
2nd crop 30" 30" Avg. 30" 10" 30" 10" Avg.

2/9 7-13 107.2 94.0 100.6 42.8 41.0 40.4 32.6 39.2

2/27-3/17 7-28 105.1 119.5 112.3 35.3 38.9 31.8 40.0 36.5

3/17-4/12 8-11 74.1 72.4 73.3 22.0 30.6 21.8 24.9 24.8

Avg. 95.5 95.3 33.4 36.8 31.3 32.5


Highest replicated treatment yield of corn planted on February 9 was 274.9 bu/A
with McCurdy 8150 on February 27, RA 1502 was highest at 282.4 bu/A.


Several other factors should be included in producing high corn yields.
Some of these factors are using a good herbicide program, subsoiling where
traffic pans exist, making split applications of nitrogen, sulfur and boron, and
timely harvesting. Most of these factors are well documented from research
data in the Southeast.




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