Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 68-8
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass chracteristics of brahman- European crossbred and angus calves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066046/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass chracteristics of brahman- European crossbred and angus calves
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Palmer, A. Z
Carpenter, J. W ( James Woodford )
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Carcasses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feedlots -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr., A.Z. Palmer, and J.W. Carpenter.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066046
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69931699

Full Text


NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
t'. 7t, 0 \ Quincy, Florida
June 3, 1968 I f'"

NFES Mimeo Report 68-8
JUL 2i 19 8
FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS JL 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAHMAN-EUROPEAN
CROSSBRED AND ANGUS CALVES F.A.S. Uni. Fl orida
:-j^$--------------4"-
F. S. Baker, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, and J. W. Carpenter-/


SUMMARY

During the 173-day feedlot finishing period, five groups of calves made an average
daily gain of 2.68 pounds with 936 pounds of feed consumed per 100 pounds gain (all groups
adjusted to a dressing percentage of 60). Overall feed cost per 100 pounds gain was $20.04,
and total cost per 100 pounds gain (including an assumed charge of $0.10 per head daily)
was $23.76.

Calves of 1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus breeding made the largest gain (2.93 pounds
per head daily), and the most efficient gain (920 pounds feed per 100 pounds gain) of all
groups except the Angus (918 pounds feed per 100 pounds gain).

Carcasses of 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford and 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-
1/4 Angus calves had the highest estimated yield of closely trimmed, boneless cuts but
graded the lowest from a quality (marbling) standpoint.

With a favorable market for finished cattle and efficient gains, all groups had
positive returns above costs of feeder cattle and feed.

INTRODUCTION

In seven previous trials, heavy steer calves of various Brahman-European crosses and
comparable weight British calves, approximately 10 to 11 months of age and weighing 500 to
650 pounds when started on feed, made very satisfactory feedlot gains for periods ranging
from 157 to 207 days-'. Although the calf gains have been somewhat more efficient than
those made by older cattle normally fed in North Florida feedlots, the longer feeding
period required to finish the calves partially offsets their advantage of greater feed
efficiency. Generally, margins of $2 to $3 per 100 pounds live weight between cost of the
calves going on feed and the selling price of the fat cattle would have been necessary to
realize modest profits.

Brahman crossbred carcasses have generally graded as high quality wise as those of the
British cattle; however, Charolais-Brahman-Hereford and Brahman-Hereford carcasses have
averaged grading slightly lower. In a four trial average involving Charolais-Brahman-
Hereford, Hereford-Brahman-Angus, Shorthorn-Brahman, and British calves, the Charolais-
Brahman-Herefords had the highest estimated percentage of lean cuts but the lowest carcass
quality grade. Lack of marbling prevented higher carcass quality grades in all groups.



/jAnimal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy; Meat Scientist and Associate
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville,
respectively.

/NFES Mimeo Repts. 61-5, 1961; 62-10, 1962; 63-8, 1963; 64-6, 1964; 65-4, 1965; 66-6, 1966;
and 68-2, 1967.





-2-


PROCEDURE

On October 26, groups of 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford, 1/2 Hereford-
1/4 Brahman-l/4 Angus, and 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus calves were trucked to
Quincy from Clewiston, Florida. On November 3, 7/8 Angus-1/8 Brahman and Angus groups
were trucked to Quincy from Raiford, Florida. As in the 1966-1967 trial, there was an
interval of about 6 to 8 weeks between weaning and shipment to Quincy. In years prior to
1966, the interval was much shorter from weaning to shipment. After arrival at the North
Florida Station, limited grain (5 pounds per head daily) and self-fed grass hay were given
to all calves until November 15, at which time they weighed about 3 percent more than when
they left the ranch.

As in previous trials, initial feedlot weights were only slightly heavier than ranch
delivery weights, and these initial weights were not shrunk. Final weights, taken in
early morning after trucking 3 miles to Quincy, were shrunk 3 percent to put them on a
market weight basis. Thus experimental live weights were on a ranch delivery to shrunk
sale weight basis. The same final live weight was used in calculating both feedlot gain
and dressing percentage. Carcass weights were hot weights less 2 1/2 percent shrink.

When the trial began, feed was increased gradually for approximately three weeks after
which each group received all the concentrates it would clean-up between once-a-day
feedings. Hay was self-fed at the beginning of the feeding period but restricted
thereafter. Salt and steamed bonemeal were supplied free-choice throughout the trial.
Each calf was ear implanted with 24 mg stilbestrol at the beginning of the trial. Vitamin
A was mixed with the protein concentrate to furnish 25,000 I. U. vitamin A per head daily.
The following ration was fed:

Ground snapped corn -- full-fed according to appetite
Citrus molasses -- 2.5 pounds per head daily
Oil meal -- 2.4 pounds per head daily
Argentine Bahia hay -- fed as previously noted
Salt and steamed bonemeal -- free-choice
Vitamin A -- 25,000 I. U. per head daily

The ground snapped corn and oil meal were mixed each morning, and citrus molasses was
poured on top of the mixture in the trough. In the first half of the feeding period, 41%
cottonseed meal was fed, while in the last half 44% soybean oil meal was the protein
concentrate. As shown in Table 1, ratios of concentrates to roughage ranged from 73:27
to 75:25, depending on hay consumption by the various groups during the first part of the
feeding period. Cob and shuck in the snapped corn were included in the roughage. Average
daily feed consumption for each lot is also shown in Table 1. Prices of feed are given
for individual ingredients as well as complete rations for each group. Feed costs were
based on local prices (Quincy, Florida) at the time cattle were in the feedlot, with no
mixing or handling charges included. Other costs (labor, pen rent, interest, and other
expenses) are included in the assumed charge of $0.10 per head daily.

The calves were confined to dry lot in a well-bedded steer feeding barn with 60 square
feet of pen space and 2 feet of trough space per head.

After a 48-hour chill, carcasses were ribbed and graded to the nearest third of a grade
by a USDA grader and IFAS personnel. Sale prices were actual prices paid by the packer
for the carcasses (Table 2), with prices shown on both a hot and chilled (hot weight less
2 1/2 percent) basis.

Carcass maturity, conformation, degree of marbling, and other USDA grade data were
recorded for each carcass. Fat thickness over ribeye at the twelfth rib, percent kidney








and pelvic fat, area of ribeye, and carcass weight data were used in estimating percentage
of closely trimmed boneless cuts from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chuck according to
the following formula:

Estimated cutout = 51.34 (5.78 x fat cover) (0.462 x % kidney and
pelvic fat) + (0.74 x area ribeye) (0.0093 x carcass weight)

The measurements are in inches and square inches, and weight is in pounds.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the 173-day feedlot period, the five groups of calves made an average daily gain
of 2.68 pounds with 936 pounds feed consumed per 100 pounds gain (all groups adjusted to a
dressing percentage of 60 as shown in Table 4). Overall feed cost per 100 pounds gain was
$20.04, and total cost per 100 pounds gain (including assumed charge of $0.10 per day) was
$23.76. Rate of gain was higher than in any trial except the 1966-1967 test; interval from
weaning to starting on feed was longer in these two latest trials, which resulted in the
calves losing their milk fat and starting on feed without the flesh or condition of calves
in the preceding five years.

As shown in Tables 3 and 4, calves of 1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus breeding
(Lot 12) made the largest gain (2.93 pounds daily), and the most efficient gain (920 pounds
feed per 100 pounds gain) of all groups except the Angus (Lot 15) (918 pounds feed per 100
pounds gain). Differences in gain and feed efficiency among the various lots were not as
great as in some of the preceding trials. Gains reported in Table 3 were based on actual
shrunk market weights with differing dressing percentages varying from 60.79 to 62.64. In
Table 4, final live weights were adjusted so that each lot dressed 60 percent, which placed
both live and dressed weights of each group on the same relative basis. It will be noted
that carcass weights are the same in Tables 3 and 4; only final live weight, gain, feed per
100 pounds gain, and feed cost per 100 pounds gain were affected by the adjustment (Table
4) -- no other data were adjusted.

Carcasses of Lots 11 and 13 steers sired by Charolais bulls had less fat cover and a
higher estimated yield of closely trimmed cuts, but less marbling and a lower quality grade
than those of the other groups (Table 5). Lot 12 (Hereford-Brahman-Angus) carcasses had
the heaviest fat cover and lowest estimated cutout, while Angus (Lot 15) and high grade
Angus (Lot 14) carcasses scored higher on marbling and carcass quality grade.

Assuming that the closely trimmed boneless rump, round, loin, rib, and chuck
represented 80 percent of the value of the entire carcass, following were costs per 100
pounds of estimated trimmed cuts for the five groups:
Est. lbs. Cost per 100
Carcass Sale Price Est. % trimmed lb. trimmed
weight price x 0.80 cutout cuts cuts
Lot 11
Char.-Bra.-Her. 709 $304.89 $243.91 51.33 364 $67.01
Lot 12
Her.-Bra.-Ang. 704 307.10 245.68 48.74 343 71.63
Lot 13
Char.-Bra.-Ang. 675 293.59 234.87 51.77 349 67.30
Lot 14
Ang.-Bra. 618 273.51 218.81 50.00 309 70.81
Lot 1
Angus 615 273.57 218.86 49.57 305 71.76






-4-


Based on carcass prices paid by the packer, carcasses of Lots 11 and 13 (Char. x Bra. x
Her. or Ang.) had estimated yields of closely trimmed lean cuts costing approximately $4
to $5 per 100 pounds less than with the other groups. Although carcasses of cattle in
Lots 11 and 13 graded lower from a quality (marbling) standpoint, their meatiness, because
of large ribeyes and thin fat covers apparently resulted in yields of desirable cuts at a
lower cost per pound.

Efficient gains and favorable market prices for finished cattle resulted in positive
returns above feed costs for all groups, raging from $15.33 per head for Lot 11 (Charolais-
Brahman-Hereford) to $29.78 for Lot 15 (Angus). As shown in Table 3, the cattle feeder
could have paid from $26.72 to $29.18 per hundredweight for the various groups and
recovered the cost of feed plus $0.10 per head daily* No margin between buying cost and
sale price per hundredweight was needed for a modest profit. Lower carcass grades by Lot 11
and Lot 13 cattle (Char. x Bra. x Her. or Ang.) resulted in lower carcass prices and lower
net returns for these groups.

Although the cattle in Lots 11, 12, and 13 originated in a liver fluke area, there
iTre no liver condemnations because of live flukes at slaughter. In contrast to results in
five previous trials, this is the second consecutive year that all livers have passed post
mortem veterinary inspection, indicating that current fluke treatments are very effective.
No evidence of any infectious disease was observed in any of the calves; however, one
steer in Lot 15 (Angus) died two weeks prior to the end of the trial, apparently as a
result of having swallowed a foreign object ("hardware disease").

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to the United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, and to
the Florida State Prison, Raiford, for furnishing the calves for the trial.

Frosty Morn Meats, Quincy, cooperated in slaughtering the cattle and assisting in
collecting carcass data.

Mr. Dee Murphy, USDA Meat Grader, Quincy, graded the carcasses.

Mr. Clifford Dance, Meats Laboratory, Animal Science Department, Gainesville, assisted
in collecting carcass data.









Table 1.-Average daily feed consumption and feed prices.

Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her. 1/2 Char.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Angus

Ground snapped corn 19.79 20.02 17.41 16.61 17.42
Citrus molasses 2.43 2.43 2.43 2.43 2.43
Protein supplement 2.34 2.34 2.34 2.34 2.34
Argentine Bahia hay 1.96 2.03 2.11 2.05 1.73
Mineral 0.24 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.11
Total 26.76 26.94 24.40 23.53 24.03


Individual feeds
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
Protein supplement + vitamin A
Argentine Bahia hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
24 mg stilbestrol implant


Entire Ration
Percent
Lot concentrates*
11 73.3
12 73.5
13 73.0
14 73.2
15 74.2


Percent
roughage*
25.8
26.1
26.5
26.4
25.3


Price per ton
$ 40.00
27.00
95.00
22.50
39.00
100.00
0.25 each


Percent
mineral
0.9
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5


Cost ton
of feed
$42.76
42.52
42.77
42.85
43.08


*Cob and shuck in ground snapped corn included in roughage.






Table 2.-Prices received for carcasses.


Grade
U. S. Choice
U. S. Good
U. S. Standard


Price/cwt. chilled basis
$45.00
43.00
41.00


Price/cwt. hot basis
$43.88
41.93
39.98







-6-


Table 3.-Results calf finishing trial, 1967-1968.

Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her. 1/2 Char.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Angus

Number head 10 10 10 10 9*
Number days 173 173 173 173 173
Av. initial weight** 706 660 671 601 572
Av. final weight** 1132 1159 1083 1000 989
Av. gain 426 491 412 399 417
Av. daily gain 2.46 2.84 2.38 2.31 2.41
Av. daily feed intake 26.76 26.94 24.40 23.53 24.03
Feed per 100 pounds gain 1086 949 1024 1020 996
Feed cost/100 pounds gain $23.23 $20.17 $21.90 $21.86 $21.44
Carcass and Economic Data:
Av. slaughter weight 1132 1159 1083 1000 989
Av. carcass weight*** 709 704 675 618 615
Av. dressing percentage 62.64 60.79 62.36 61.84 62.16
Av. carcass grade**** 10.2 11.0 10.0 11.7 11.9
Av. sale price cwt./carcass $43.00 $43.50 $43.47 $44.24 $44.51
Av. sale price cwt./on foot 26.93 26.50 27.11 27.36 27.66
Av. cost cwt./feeders 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00
Av. cost head/feeders 190.59 180.23 181.12 162.16 154.28
Av. feed cost 98.97 99.07 90.27 07.21 89.51
Av. cost cattle and feed 289.56 279.30 271.39 249.37 243.79
Sale price per head 304.89 307.10 293.59 273.51 273.57
Net return above costs
cattle and feed 15.33 27.80 22.20 24.14 29.78
Other costs ($0.10 day) 17.30 17.30 17.30 17.30 17.30
Total cost/head 306.86 296.60 288.69 266.67 261.09
Initial value (sale price
less costs) 188.62 190.73 186.02 169.00 166.76
Initial value/cwt. 26.72 28.57 27.73 28.14 29.18


*1 steer died (hardware disease); steer removed from initial weight; average feed deducted.
**Initial weights at feedlot not shrunk (3.2 percent above ranch weights); final weights
at Quincy packing plant shrunk 3 percent.
***Hot weight less 2 1/2 percent.
****10, average good; 11, high good; 12, low choice.








Table 4.-Results with final weights adjusted to same dressing percentage.

Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her. 1/2 Char.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Angus

Carcass weight (not adjusted) 709 704 675 618 615
Adjusted dressing percentage 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Adjusted final weight 1182 1174 1126 1030 1024
Adjusted average gain 476 507 455 430 453
Adjusted av. daily gain 2.75 2.93 2.63 2.48 2.62
Adjusted feed/100 pounds gain 973 920 928 947 918
Feed cost/100 pounds gain $20.00 $19.56 $19.84 $20.30 $19.76







Table 5.-Detailed carcass study.

Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her. 1/2 Char.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Angus

Carcass weight (hot wt.- 2 1/2%) 709 704 675 618 615
Maturity A A A A A
Conformation* 14.7 15.7 14.9 16.9 16,6
Marbling** 9,0 10.8 9.0 12.1 12.1
USDA grade* 14.2 15,0 14.0 15.7 15.9
Ribeye area (sq. in.) 13.60 11.61 12.68 11.29 11.27
Ribeye area/cwt. carcass (sq. in.) 1.92 1.65 1.88 1,83 1.03
Fat cover ribeye (in.) 0.35 0.56 0.26 0.46 0.48
Est. kidney fat (percent) 3.2 3.1 2.6 2.8 3.0
Est. kidney fat (pounds) 22.7 21.8 17.6 17.3 18M5
Est. yield closely trimmed
boneless rib, chuck, loin,
rump, and round (percent) 51.33 48.74 51.77 50.00 49.57
Color lean*** 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.8


*Conformation and USDA grade; average good,
choice, 17.
**Marbling: slight+, 9; small-, 10; small,
***Color lean: very light cherry red, 2; li


14; high good, 15; low choice, 16; average


small+, 12.
cherry red, 3;


cherry red, 4.


FSB
6/12/68
350 CC




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